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Sample records for sarcomere length influences

  1. Sarcomere Length Influences u-calpain Mediated Proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis both influence beef tenderness, but their interacting effects on tenderness are relatively unknown. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for deg...

  2. Human soleus sarcomere lengths measured using in vivo microendoscopy at two ankle flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    The forces generated by the soleus muscle play an important role in standing and locomotion. The lengths of the sarcomeres of the soleus affect its force-generating capacity, yet it is unknown how sarcomere lengths in the soleus change as a function of ankle flexion angle. In this study, we used microendoscopy to measure resting sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion and 20° dorsiflexion in 7 healthy individuals. Mean sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion were 2.84±0.09µm (mean±S.E.M.), near the optimal length for sarcomere force generation. Sarcomere lengths were 3.43±0.09µm at 20° dorsiflexion, indicating that they were longer than optimal length when the ankle was in dorsiflexion and the muscle was inactive. Our results indicate a smaller sarcomere length difference between two ankle flexion angles compared to estimates from musculoskeletal models and suggest why these models frequently underestimate the force-generating capacity of the soleus.

  3. Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)-based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy-based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.

  4. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric tension development in frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleworth, D R; Edman, K A

    1972-12-01

    1. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric contraction of isolated semitendinosus muscle fibres from the frog were studied using laser diffraction techniques. Movements of the first-order diffraction line relative to the zero-order reference were recorded from a screen on continuously moving film. Sarcomere length changes of 50 A could be resolved in this way.2. Following a latent period of approximately 12 msec after the stimulus of a single skeletal muscle fibre at 1-2 degrees C, there appeared to be a simultaneous onset of tension development and sarcomere shortening. Provided that the fibre was uniformly excited along its length, different regions shortened together by approximately the same amount. The extent of the shortening was a function of the total compliance of the tendons and tension measuring device.3. During the plateau of a smooth tetanus no fluctuations of first-order line width or zero- to first-order line spacing were detectable at any point examined along the preparation. This finding provides evidence that, in a functionally intact fibre, no synchronous oscillations of the sarcomeres, at least no length changes exceeding 50 A, occur during a fused tetanus. Furthermore, the fact that the first-order line did not increase in width as the preparation went from rest to full activity indicates that contraction proceeds without appreciable change in distribution of sarcomere lengths.4. The sarcomere movements during relaxation differed along the length of the fibre. As the tension declined smoothly, sarcomeres in some parts of the fibre underwent further shortening, while the end sarcomeres near the tendons and in one or two regions in the middle segment of the fibre were further extended. These data indicate that the duration of the mechanical activity differs in different regions along the length of the fibre. The pattern of relaxation, i.e. the behaviour of the sarcomeres in different fibre segments, is unique to any particular fibre.

  5. Sarcomere length organization as a design for cooperative function amongst all lumbar spine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwambag, Derek P; Ricketts, T Alexander; Brown, Stephen H M

    2014-09-22

    The functional design of spine muscles in part dictates their role in moving, loading, and stabilizing the lumbar spine. There have been numerous studies that have examined the isolated properties of these individual muscles. Understanding how these muscles interact and work together, necessary for the prediction of muscle function, spine loading, and stability, is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure sarcomere lengths of lumbar muscles in a neutral cadaveric position and predict the sarcomere operating ranges of these muscles throughout full ranges of spine movements. Sarcomere lengths of seven lumbar muscles in each of seven cadaveric donors were measured using laser diffraction. Using published anatomical coordinate data, superior muscle attachment sites were rotated about each intervertebral joint and the total change in muscle length was used to predict sarcomere length operating ranges. The extensor muscles had short sarcomere lengths in a neutral spine posture and there were no statistically significant differences between extensor muscles. The quadratus lumborum was the only muscle with sarcomere lengths that were optimal for force production in a neutral spine position, and the psoas muscles had the longest lengths in this position. During modeled flexion the extensor, quadratus lumborum, and intertransversarii muscles lengthened so that all muscles operated in the approximate same location on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. The intrinsic properties of lumbar muscles are designed to complement each other. The extensor muscles are all designed to produce maximum force in a mid-flexed posture, and all muscles are designed to operate at similar locations of the force-length relationship at full spine flexion.

  6. Variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the extent of variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, and collagen content among pork muscles and the association of those factors with tenderness variation among muscles at 1 d postmortem. Twenty-three white composite barrows were slaughtered and carcasses (66 kg) were chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h. At 1 d postmortem, the longissimus lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and triceps brachii, long head were dissected from one side of each carcass and frozen. Trained sensory panelists evaluated tenderness, amount of connective tissue, juiciness, and pork flavor intensity of grilled (70 degrees C) chops on 8-point scales. Raw chops were used for total collagen content, sarcomere length, and the extent of desmin proteolysis. Tenderness ratings were highest (P muscles were .54 (semimembranosus), .34 (semitendinosus), .36 (triceps branchii), and .17 (biceps femorus). Total collagen was highest (P muscle), followed by triceps branchii (6.0 mg/g) and semitendinosus (5.3 mg/g), and lowest for semimembranosus (4.5 mg/g) and longissimus lumborum (4.1 mg/g). Sarcomere length was longest (P variation in tenderness rating among all samples. Piecewise linear regression was used to account for the interaction of sarcomere length with proteolysis and collagen. This analysis accounted for 72% of the variation in tenderness rating. Variation in collagen, proteolysis, and sarcomere length and the degree of their interaction with one another determine the tenderness of individual muscles.

  7. Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models.

  8. Biochemical Activities of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Homology Region 2 Domains of Sarcomere Length Short (SALS) Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Majoros, Andrea Kinga; Vig, Andrea Teréz; Migh, Ede; Nyitrai, Miklós; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster sarcomere length short (SALS) is a recently identified Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain protein involved in skeletal muscle thin filament regulation. SALS was shown to be important for the establishment of the proper length and organization of sarcomeric actin filaments. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of the biochemical activities of the tandem WH2 domains of SALS (SALS-WH2). Our results revealed that SALS-WH2 binds both monomeric and filamentous actin and shifts the monomer-filament equilibrium toward the monomeric actin. In addition, SALS-WH2 can bind to but fails to depolymerize phalloidin- or jasplakinolide-bound actin filaments. These interactions endow SALS-WH2 with the following two major activities in the regulation of actin dynamics: SALS-WH2 sequesters actin monomers into non-polymerizable complexes and enhances actin filament disassembly by severing, which is modulated by tropomyosin. We also show that profilin does not influence the activities of the WH2 domains of SALS in actin dynamics. In conclusion, the tandem WH2 domains of SALS are multifunctional regulators of actin dynamics. Our findings suggest that the activities of the WH2 domains do not reconstitute the presumed biological function of the full-length protein. Consequently, the interactions of the WH2 domains of SALS with actin must be tuned in the cellular context by other modules of the protein and/or sarcomeric components for its proper functioning.

  9. Elastic energy storage and radial forces in the myofilament lattice depend on sarcomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C David Williams

    Full Text Available We most often consider muscle as a motor generating force in the direction of shortening, but less often consider its roles as a spring or a brake. Here we develop a fully three-dimensional spatially explicit model of muscle to isolate the locations of forces and energies that are difficult to separate experimentally. We show the strain energy in the thick and thin filaments is less than one third the strain energy in attached cross-bridges. This result suggests the cross-bridges act as springs, storing energy within muscle in addition to generating the force which powers muscle. Comparing model estimates of energy consumed to elastic energy stored, we show that the ratio of these two properties changes with sarcomere length. The model predicts storage of a greater fraction of energy at short sarcomere lengths, suggesting a mechanism by which muscle function shifts as force production declines, from motor to spring. Additionally, we investigate the force that muscle produces in the radial or transverse direction, orthogonal to the direction of shortening. We confirm prior experimental estimates that place radial forces on the same order of magnitude as axial forces, although we find that radial forces and axial forces vary differently with changes in sarcomere length.

  10. The relationship between shear force, compression, collagen characteristics, desmin degradation and sarcomere length in lamb biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identity the relationships between known variants of tenderness (collagen content (total and soluble), desmin degradation and sarcomere length) and shear force and compression in the biceps femoris aged for 14days from 112 mixed sex lambs. Desmin degradation was related to compression (P<0.05) such that as desmin degradation increased compression decreased. Sarcomere length (SL) was related to shear force (P<0.05), such that as SL increased shear force declined. Shear force was also related to compression (P<0.05), and soluble collagen (P<0.05), with male lambs producing higher shear force values than females (4.4±1.72N: P<0.05) when adjusted for compression, sarcomere length and soluble collagen. The findings from this experiment indicate that the known variants (soluble collagen, sarcomere length and desmin degradation) are related to shear force and compression in ovine biceps femoris.

  11. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

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    MacIntosh Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  12. Computing Average Passive Forces in Sarcomeres in Length-Ramp Simulations.

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    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Passive forces in sarcomeres are mainly related to the giant protein titin. Titin's extensible region consists of spring-like elements acting in series. In skeletal muscles these elements are the PEVK segment, two distinct immunoglobulin (Ig) domain regions (proximal and distal), and a N2A portion. While distal Ig domains are thought to form inextensible end filaments in intact sarcomeres, proximal Ig domains unfold in a force- and time-dependent manner. In length-ramp experiments of single titin strands, sequential unfolding of Ig domains leads to a typical saw-tooth pattern in force-elongation curves which can be simulated by Monte Carlo simulations. In sarcomeres, where more than a thousand titin strands are arranged in parallel, numerous Monte Carlo simulations are required to estimate the resultant force of all titin filaments based on the non-uniform titin elongations. To simplify calculations, the stochastic model of passive forces is often replaced by linear or non-linear deterministic and phenomenological functions. However, new theories of muscle contraction are based on the hypothesized binding of titin to the actin filament upon activation, and thereby on a prominent role of the structural properties of titin. Therefore, these theories necessitate a detailed analysis of titin forces in length-ramp experiments. In our study we present a simple and efficient alternative to Monte Carlo simulations. Based on a structural titin model, we calculate the exact probability distributions of unfolded Ig domains under length-ramp conditions needed for rigorous analysis of expected forces, distribution of unfolding forces, etc. Due to the generality of our model, the approach is applicable to a wide range of stochastic protein unfolding problems.

  13. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, Henk J.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to al

  14. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  15. Minimally Invasive Principles and Technology to Measure Dynamic Skeletal Muscle Sarcomere Length

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Kevin William

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force production results from interaction between actin and myosin protein filaments in repeating units called sarcomeres. Sarcomere force is transmitted through the basement membrane via protein complexes to a network of connective tissue. Connective tissues transmit force to bone. Typically, muscles are characterized in vitro but this may be insufficient because stresses produced in isolated fibers or muscle bundles differ from whole muscle dynamics. Furthermore, comparisons...

  16. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Lee, Ki S; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-05-15

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from an upper motoneuron (UMN)lesion in the developing brain. Secondary to the UMNl esion,which causes spasticity, is a pathological response by muscle - namely, contracture. However, the elements within muscle that increase passive mechanical stiffness, and therefore result in contracture, are unknown. Using hamstring muscle biopsies from pediatric patients with CP (n =33) and control (n =19) patients we investigated passive mechanical properties at the protein, cellular, tissue and architectural levels to identify the elements responsible for contracture. Titin isoform, the major load-bearing protein within muscle cells, was unaltered in CP. Correspondingly, the passive mechanics of individual muscle fibres were not altered. However, CP muscle bundles, which include fibres in their constituent ECM, were stiffer than control bundles. This corresponded to an increase in collagen content of CP muscles measured by hydroxyproline assay and observed using immunohistochemistry. In vivo sarcomere length of CP muscle measured during surgery was significantly longer than that predicted for control muscle. The combination of increased tissue stiffness and increased sarcomere length interact to increase stiffness greatly of the contracture tissue in vivo. These findings provide evidence that contracture formation is not the result of stiffening at the cellular level, but stiffening of the ECM with increased collagen and an increase of in vivo sarcomere length leading to higher passive stresses.

  17. SarcOptiM for ImageJ: high-frequency online sarcomere length computing on stimulated cardiomyocytes.

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    Pasqualin, Côme; Gannier, François; Yu, Angèle; Malécot, Claire O; Bredeloux, Pierre; Maupoil, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Accurate measurement of cardiomyocyte contraction is a critical issue for scientists working on cardiac physiology and physiopathology of diseases implying contraction impairment. Cardiomyocytes contraction can be quantified by measuring sarcomere length, but few tools are available for this, and none is freely distributed. We developed a plug-in (SarcOptiM) for the ImageJ/Fiji image analysis platform developed by the National Institutes of Health. SarcOptiM computes sarcomere length via fast Fourier transform analysis of video frames captured or displayed in ImageJ and thus is not tied to a dedicated video camera. It can work in real time or offline, the latter overcoming rotating motion or displacement-related artifacts. SarcOptiM includes a simulator and video generator of cardiomyocyte contraction. Acquisition parameters, such as pixel size and camera frame rate, were tested with both experimental recordings of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and synthetic videos. It is freely distributed, and its source code is available. It works under Windows, Mac, or Linux operating systems. The camera speed is the limiting factor, since the algorithm can compute online sarcomere shortening at frame rates >10 kHz. In conclusion, SarcOptiM is a free and validated user-friendly tool for studying cardiomyocyte contraction in all species, including human.

  18. Sarcomere lattice geometry influences cooperative myosin binding in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand C W Tanner

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In muscle, force emerges from myosin binding with actin (forming a cross-bridge. This actomyosin binding depends upon myofilament geometry, kinetics of thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and kinetics of cross-bridge cycling. Binding occurs within a compliant network of protein filaments where there is mechanical coupling between myosins along the thick-filament backbone and between actin monomers along the thin filament. Such mechanical coupling precludes using ordinary differential equation models when examining the effects of lattice geometry, kinetics, or compliance on force production. This study uses two stochastically driven, spatially explicit models to predict levels of cross-bridge binding, force, thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and ATP utilization. One model incorporates the 2-to-1 ratio of thin to thick filaments of vertebrate striated muscle (multi-filament model, while the other comprises only one thick and one thin filament (two-filament model. Simulations comparing these models show that the multi-filament predictions of force, fractional cross-bridge binding, and cross-bridge turnover are more consistent with published experimental values. Furthermore, the values predicted by the multi-filament model are greater than those values predicted by the two-filament model. These increases are larger than the relative increase of potential inter-filament interactions in the multi-filament model versus the two-filament model. This amplification of coordinated cross-bridge binding and cycling indicates a mechanism of cooperativity that depends on sarcomere lattice geometry, specifically the ratio and arrangement of myofilaments.

  19. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

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    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ca2+-independent alterations in diastolic sarcomere length and relaxation kinetics in a mouse model of lipotoxic diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, Thomas P; Cazorla, Olivier; Remedi, Maria S; Haim, Todd E; Tones, Michael A; Bahinski, Anthony; Numann, Randal E; Kovacs, Attila; Schaffer, Jean E; Nichols, Colin G; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2009-01-02

    Previous studies demonstrated increased fatty acid uptake and metabolism in MHC-FATP transgenic mice that overexpress fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 in the heart under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter. Doppler tissue imaging and hemodynamic measurements revealed diastolic dysfunction, in the absence of changes in systolic function. The experiments here directly test the hypothesis that the diastolic dysfunction in MHC-FATP mice reflects impaired ventricular myocyte contractile function. In vitro imaging of isolated adult MHC-FATP ventricular myocytes revealed that mean diastolic sarcomere length is significantly (P<0.01) shorter than in wild-type (WT) cells (1.79+/-0.01 versus 1.84+/-0.01 microm). In addition, the relaxation rate (dL/dt) is significantly (P<0.05) slower in MHC-FATP than WT myocytes (1.58+/-0.09 versus 1.92+/-0.13 microm/s), whereas both fractional shortening and contraction rates are not different. Application of 40 mmol/L 2,3-butadionemonoxime (a nonspecific ATPase inhibitor that relaxes actin-myosin interactions) increased diastolic sarcomere length in both WT and MHC-FATP myocytes to the same length, suggesting that MHC-FATP myocytes are partially activated at rest. Direct measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) revealed that diastolic [Ca(2+)](i) is unchanged in MHC-FATP myocytes and the rate of calcium removal is unexpectedly faster in MHC-FATP than WT myocytes. Moreover, diastolic sarcomere length in MHC-FATP and WT myocytes was unaffected by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or by buffering of intracellular Ca(2+) with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (100 micromol/L), indicating that elevated intracellular Ca(2+) does not underlie impaired diastolic function in MHC-FATP ventricular myocytes. Functional assessment of skinned myocytes, however, revealed that myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is markedly increased in MHC-FATP, compared with WT, ventricular cells. In addition, biochemical experiments demonstrated

  1. COMPARISON OF SARCOMERE LENGTH FOR TWO TYPES OF MEAT FROM ANIMAL FAMILY SUIDAE – ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENTS CARRIED OUT BY MICROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE

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    Dominika Guzek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the sarcomere length variation in Psoas major muscle in pork and wild boar tenderloin. Microscopic slides were prepared and muscles were evaluated in Nomarski contrast – there were made measurements with the number of 150. Subsequently, sarcomeres length of three different, representative myofibrils were measured for each kind of meat. Values of sarcomere’s lengths of myofibrils ​​were characterized by a normal distribution. The mean length of sarcomere was 3.28 ± 0.23 µm for pork meat and 2.51 ± 0.14 µm for wild boar meat – difference between animals was statistically significant (p = 0.0000. It was stated that sarcomere length for pork meat was dependent on the myofibril. A lower variation in the sarcomere’s length of wild boar meat in comparison with pork meat has been shown. This difference is reflected in tougher wild boar meat texture.

  2. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

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    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  3. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer.

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    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W; Tomiya, Akihito; Lee, Yu Po; Ghofrani, Hossein; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-12-15

    Controlled laboratory and cross-sectional study designs. To determine psoas major (PM) muscle architectural properties, in vivo sarcomere-length operating range, and passive mechanical properties. PM is an important hip flexor but its role in lumbar spine function is not fully understood. Several investigators have detailed the gross anatomy of PM, but comprehensive architectural data and in vivo length-tension and passive mechanical behaviors have not been documented. PM was isolated in 13 cadaver specimens, permitting architectural measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length (Lf), and Lf:muscle length (Lm) ratio. Sarcomere lengths were measured in vivo from intraoperative biopsies taken with the hip joint in flexed and extended positions. Single-fiber and fiber bundle tensile properties and titin molecular weight were then measured from separate biopsies. Architecturally, average PCSA was 18.45 ± 1.32 cm2, average Lf was 12.70 ± 2 cm, and average Lf: Lm was 0.48 ± 0.06. Intraoperative sarcomere length measurements revealed that the muscle operates from 3.18 ± 0.20 μm with hip flexed at 10.7° ± 13.9° to 3.03 ± 0.22 μm with hip flexed at 55.9° ± 21.4°. Passive mechanical data demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the PM muscle fibers was 37.44 ± 9.11 kPa and of fiber bundles was 55.3 ± 11.8 kPa. Analysis of PM architecture demonstrates that its average Lf and passive biomechanical properties resemble those of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. In addition, PM sarcomere lengths were confined to the descending portion of the length-tension curve allowing the muscle to become stronger as the hip is flexed and the spine assumes a forward leaning posture. These findings suggest that the human PM has architectural and physiologic features that support its role as both a flexor of the hip and a dynamic stabilizer of the lumbar spine.

  4. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

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    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  5. Force produced after stretch in sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres isolated from skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzo, Fábio C.; Baroni, Bruno M.; Correa, José A.; Vaz, Marco A.; Rassier, Dilson E.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate if isolated sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres produce a long-lasting increase in force after a stretch is imposed during activation. Single and half-sarcomeres were isolated from myofibrils using micro-needles, which were also used for force measurements. After full force development, both preparations were stretched by different magnitudes. The sarcomere length (SL) or half-sarcomere length variations (HSL) were extracted by measuring the initial and final distances from the Z-line to the adjacent Z-line or to a region externally adjacent to the M-line of the sarcomere, respectively. Half-sarcomeres generated approximately the same amount of isometric force (29.0 +/- SD 15.5 nN.μm-2) as single sarcomeres (32.1 +/- SD 15.3 nN.μm-2) when activated. In both cases, the steady-state forces after stretch were higher than the forces during isometric contractions at similar conditions. The results suggest that stretch-induced force enhancement is partly caused by proteins within the half-sarcomere.

  6. Sarcomere length influences u-calpain mediated proteolysis of troponin-T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis are well established as mechanisms controlling beef tenderness. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for degradation by calpains. The objective ...

  7. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  8. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure-induced electrical and mechanical alternans and how they are altered by physiological conditions at near-resting heart rates.

  9. Sarcomeric Pattern Formation by Actin Cluster Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells. PMID:22685394

  10. Sarcomeric pattern formation by actin cluster coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Friedrich

    Full Text Available Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells.

  11. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  12. The role of filament length, finite-extensibility and motor force dispersity in stress relaxation and buckling mechanisms in non-sarcomeric active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Andrés; Schieber, Jay D; Indei, Tsutomu

    2015-01-07

    After relaxing some assumptions we apply a single-chain mean-field mathematical model recently introduced [RSC Adv. (2014)] to describe the role of molecular motors in the mechanical properties of active gels. The model allows physics that are not available in models postulated on coarser levels of description. Moreover it proposes a level of description that allows the prediction of observables at time scales too difficult to achieve in multi-chain simulations for realistic filament lengths and densities. We model the semiflexible filaments that compose the active gel as bead-spring chains; molecular motors are accounted for by using a mean-field approach, in which filaments undergo transitions of one motor attachment state depending on the state of the probe filament. The level of description includes the end-to-end distance and attachment state of the filaments, and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The motor-generated forces are drawn from a stationary distribution of motor stall forces. We consider bead-spring chains with multiple beads, explore the effect of finite-extensibility of the strands and incorporate into the model motor force distributions that have been measured experimentally. The model can no longer be solved analytically but is amenable to numerical simulation. This version of the model allows a more quantitative description of buckling dynamics [Lenz et. al. PRL, 2012, 108, 238107] and the dynamic modulus of active gels. The effect of finite extensibility of the filament strands on the dynamic modulus was also found to be in agreement with the microrheology experiments of Mizuno et. al., [Science, 2007, 315, 370-373].

  13. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women an

  14. In Vivo Imaging of Human Sarcomere Twitch Dynamics in Individual Motor Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gabriel N; Sinha, Supriyo; Liske, Holly; Chen, Xuefeng; Nguyen, Viet; Delp, Scott L; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-12-16

    Motor units comprise a pre-synaptic motor neuron and multiple post-synaptic muscle fibers. Many movement disorders disrupt motor unit contractile dynamics and the structure of sarcomeres, skeletal muscle's contractile units. Despite the motor unit's centrality to neuromuscular physiology, no extant technology can image sarcomere twitch dynamics in live humans. We created a wearable microscope equipped with a microendoscope for minimally invasive observation of sarcomere lengths and contractile dynamics in any major skeletal muscle. By electrically stimulating twitches via the microendoscope and visualizing the sarcomere displacements, we monitored single motor unit contractions in soleus and vastus lateralis muscles of healthy individuals. Control experiments verified that these evoked twitches involved neuromuscular transmission and faithfully reported muscle force generation. In post-stroke patients with spasticity of the biceps brachii, we found involuntary microscopic contractions and sarcomere length abnormalities. The wearable microscope facilitates exploration of many basic and disease-related neuromuscular phenomena never visualized before in live humans.

  15. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse;

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... different population samples were used for comparison. In total 138 adult volunteers (68 men and 70 women aged 20-59 years) recruited within the Copenhagen area and 2504 (1153 men and 1351 women aged 20-59 y) randomly selected adults from the Danish Civil Registration System, whom participated...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results...

  16. Sarcomere Dysfunction in Nemaline Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Josine M; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies (incidence 1:50.000). Hallmark features of NM are skeletal muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies in the muscle fiber. The clinical phenotype of NM patients is quite diverse, ranging from neonatal death to normal lifespan with almost normal motor function. As the respiratory muscles are involved as well, severely affected patients are ventilator-dependent. The mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM are currently poorly understood. Therefore, no therapeutic treatment is available yet.Eleven implicated genes have been identified: ten genes encode proteins that are either components of thin filament, or are thought to contribute to stability or turnover of thin filament proteins. The thin filament is a major constituent of the sarcomere, the smallest contractile unit in muscle. It is at this level of contraction - thin-thick filament interaction - where muscle weakness originates in NM patients.This review focusses on how sarcomeric gene mutations directly compromise sarcomere function in NM. Insight into the contribution of sarcomeric dysfunction to muscle weakness in NM, across the genes involved, will direct towards the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

  17. Influence of Slot Defect Length on Magnetic Flux Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songling HUANG; Luming LI; Haiqing YANG; Keren SHI

    2004-01-01

    A key issue, which influences the applications of magnetic flux leakage testing, is defect quantification. There have been many research on the relationship between width, depth and magnetic flux leakage of slot defect. However, the length factor is often ignored. The relationship between characteristics of defect leakage field and defect length was investigated. The magnetic flux leakages of a series of plate specimens with the same width, same depth and different length slot defects were tested under the same magnetizing conditions. Testing results show that defect length is an important parameter needed to consider in quantifying defects.

  18. Sarcomere Imaging by Quantum Dots for the Study of Cardiac Muscle Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyu Kobirumaki-Shimozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review the use of quantum dots (QDs for the imaging of sarcomeric movements in cardiac muscle. QDs are fluorescence substances (CdSe that absorb photons and reemit photons at a different wavelength (depending on the size of the particle; they are efficient in generating long-lasting, narrow symmetric emission profiles, and hence useful in various types of imaging studies. Recently, we developed a novel system in which the length of a particular, single sarcomere in cardiomyocytes can be measured at ~30 nm precision. Moreover, our system enables accurate measurement of sarcomere length in the isolated heart. We propose that QDs are the ideal tool for the study of sarcomere dynamics during excitation-contraction coupling in healthy and diseased cardiac muscle.

  19. Sarcomere lengthening and tension drop in the latent period of isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, P; Sten-Knudsen, O

    1976-09-01

    A laser diffraction technique has been developed for registering small changes in sarcomere length. The technique is capable of resolving changes as small as 0.2 A in isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers. The small sarcomere lengthening that accompanies the drop in tension in the latent period of contraction was investigated. We suggest this lengthening be named latency elongation (LE). The LE is present in a completely slack fiber and must, therefore, be caused by a forcible lengthening process. Furthermore, the LE is dependent on the existence of an overlap between thin and tick filaments. The rate of elongation and the time interval between stimulation and maximum elongation may vary along the fiber. The maximum elongation was 3-5 A per sarcomere. At any instant the drop in tension is a product of the sum of sarcomere lengthenings along the fiber and the slope stiffness of the series elasticity. The latency relaxation (LR) could be registered in the sarcomere length range from 2.2 mum to 3.6-3.7 mum. The amplitude went through a sharp maximum at 3.0-3.1 mum. In the sarcomere length range from 2.2 to 2.8 mum the delay from onset to maximum LR was nearly proportional to the distance from the Z-line to the overlap zone. A working hypothesis is presented. It is suggested that the LE is caused by a lengthening of the thin filaments.

  20. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Perkins

    Full Text Available Animal muscles must maintain their function while bearing substantial mechanical loads. How muscles withstand persistent mechanical strain is presently not well understood. The basic unit of muscle is the sarcomere, which is primarily composed of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that cytoskeletal protein turnover is required to maintain muscle function. Using the flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster, we confirmed that the sarcomeric cytoskeleton undergoes turnover throughout adult life. To uncover which cytoskeletal components are required to maintain adult muscle function, we performed an RNAi-mediated knockdown screen targeting the entire fly cytoskeleton and associated proteins. Gene knockdown was restricted to adult flies and muscle function was analyzed with behavioural assays. Here we analyze the results of that screen and characterize the specific muscle maintenance role for several hits. The screen identified 46 genes required for muscle maintenance: 40 of which had no previously known role in this process. Bioinformatic analysis highlighted the structural sarcomeric proteins as a candidate group for further analysis. Detailed confocal and electron microscopic analysis showed that while muscle architecture was maintained after candidate gene knockdown, sarcomere length was disrupted. Specifically, we found that ongoing synthesis and turnover of the key sarcomere structural components Projectin, Myosin and Actin are required to maintain correct sarcomere length and thin filament length. Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal.

  1. A mathematical model of muscle containing heterogeneous half-sarcomeres exhibits residual force enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart G; Hatfield, P Chris; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2011-09-01

    A skeletal muscle fiber that is stimulated to contract and then stretched from L₁ to L₂ produces more force after the initial transient decays than if it is stimulated at L₂. This behavior has been well studied experimentally, and is known as residual force enhancement. The underlying mechanism remains controversial. We hypothesized that residual force enhancement could reflect mechanical interactions between heterogeneous half-sarcomeres. To test this hypothesis, we subjected a computational model of interacting heterogeneous half-sarcomeres to the same activation and stretch protocols that produce residual force enhancement in real preparations. Following a transient period of elevated force associated with active stretching, the model predicted a slowly decaying force enhancement lasting >30 seconds after stretch. Enhancement was on the order of 13% above isometric tension at the post-stretch muscle length, which agrees well with experimental measurements. Force enhancement in the model was proportional to stretch magnitude but did not depend strongly on the velocity of stretch, also in agreement with experiments. Even small variability in the strength of half-sarcomeres (2.1% standard deviation, normally distributed) was sufficient to produce a 5% force enhancement over isometric tension. Analysis of the model suggests that heterogeneity in half-sarcomeres leads to residual force enhancement by storing strain energy introduced during active stretch in distributions of bound cross-bridges. Complex interactions between the heterogeneous half-sarcomeres then dissipate this stored energy at a rate much slower than isolated cross-bridges would cycle. Given the variations in half-sarcomere length that have been observed in real muscle preparations and the stochastic variability inherent in all biological systems, half-sarcomere heterogeneity cannot be excluded as a contributing source of residual force enhancement.

  2. Influence length and space-time correlation between earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, P; Loreto, V; Pietronero, L; Tosi, Patrizia; Rubeis, Valerio De; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    Short and long range interactions between earthquakes are attracting increasing interest. Scale invariant properties of seismicity in time, space and energy argue for the presence of complex triggering mechanisms where, like a cascade process, each event produces aftershocks. A definitive method to assess any connection between two earthquakes separated in time and distance does not exist. Here we propose a novel method of data analysis that, based on the space-time combined generalization of the correlation integral leads to a self-consistent visualization and analysis of both spatial and temporal correlations. When analyzing global seismicity we discovered a universal relation linking the spatial Influence Length of a given earthquake to the time elapsed from the event itself. Following an event, time correlations (i.e. causality effects) exist in a region that shrinks over time, suggesting a long-range dissipating stress transfer. A different process is acting in the short-range where events are randomly s...

  3. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  4. Automated cardiac sarcomere analysis from second harmonic generation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Crispi, Fatima; Torre, Iratxe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Bijnens, Bart H.; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Automatic quantification of cardiac muscle properties in tissue sections might provide important information related to different types of diseases. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging provides a stain-free microscopy approach to image cardiac fibers that, combined with our methodology of the automated measurement of the ultrastructure of muscle fibers, computes a reliable set of quantitative image features (sarcomere length, A-band length, thick-thin interaction length, and fiber orientation). We evaluated the performance of our methodology in computer-generated muscle fibers modeling some artifacts that are present during the image acquisition. Then, we also evaluated it by comparing it to manual measurements in SHG images from cardiac tissue of fetal and adult rabbits. The results showed a good performance of our methodology at high signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. We conclude that our automated measurements enable reliable characterization of cardiac fiber tissues to systematically study cardiac tissue in a wide range of conditions.

  5. Sallimus and the dynamics of sarcomere assembly in Drosophila flight muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Leonard, Kevin; Elliott, Chris; Katzemich, Anja; Bullard, Belinda; Sparrow, John

    2015-06-19

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) can be used as a model for the study of sarcomere assembly. Here we use a transgenic line with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) exon inserted into the Z-disc-proximal portion of sallimus (Sls), also known as Drosophila titin, to observe sarcomere assembly during IFM development. Firstly, we confirm that Sls-GFP can be used in the heterozygote state without an obvious phenotype in IFM and other muscles. We then use Sls-GFP in the IFM to show that sarcomeres grow individually and uniformly throughout the fibre, growing linearly in length and in diameter. Finally, we show that limiting the amounts of Sls in the IFM using RNAi leads to sarcomeres with smaller Z-discs in their core, whilst the thick/thin filament lattice can form peripherally without a Z-disc. Thick filament preparations from those muscles show that although the Z-disc-containing core has thick filaments of a regular length, filaments from the peripheral lattice are longer and asymmetrical around the bare zone. Therefore, the Z-disc and Sls are required for thick filament length specification but not for the assembly of the thin/thick filament lattice.

  6. Factors influencing hospital high length of stay outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alberto; Silva-Costa, Tiago; Lopes, Fernando; Garcia-Lema, Isabel; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Brazdil, Pavel; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro

    2012-08-20

    The study of length of stay (LOS) outliers is important for the management and financing of hospitals. Our aim was to study variables associated with high LOS outliers and their evolution over time. We used hospital administrative data from inpatient episodes in public acute care hospitals in the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS), with discharges between years 2000 and 2009, together with some hospital characteristics. The dependent variable, LOS outliers, was calculated for each diagnosis related group (DRG) using a trim point defined for each year by the geometric mean plus two standard deviations. Hospitals were classified on the basis of administrative, economic and teaching characteristics. We also studied the influence of comorbidities and readmissions. Logistic regression models, including a multivariable logistic regression, were used in the analysis. All the logistic regressions were fitted using generalized estimating equations (GEE). In near nine million inpatient episodes analysed we found a proportion of 3.9% high LOS outliers, accounting for 19.2% of total inpatient days. The number of hospital patient discharges increased between years 2000 and 2005 and slightly decreased after that. The proportion of outliers ranged between the lowest value of 3.6% (in years 2001 and 2002) and the highest value of 4.3% in 2009. Teaching hospitals with over 1,000 beds have significantly more outliers than other hospitals, even after adjustment to readmissions and several patient characteristics. In the last years both average LOS and high LOS outliers are increasing in Portuguese NHS hospitals. As high LOS outliers represent an important proportion in the total inpatient days, this should be seen as an important alert for the management of hospitals and for national health policies. As expected, age, type of admission, and hospital type were significantly associated with high LOS outliers. The proportion of high outliers does not seem to be related to their

  7. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  8. Breaking sarcomeres by in vitro exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P O; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F M; Hawke, Thomas J; Fürst, Dieter O

    2016-01-25

    Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as "lesions". These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro.

  9. Length of internship influences performance on medical residency exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar de Souza; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório

    2009-01-01

    Medical education encompasses globally diverse context and conditions. The Brazilian scenario seemed a natural environment to study the influence of medical education programs and internship duration on the entrance exam for medical residency. This investigation evaluates some methods used during the entrance exam for medical residency as a means to make a distinction between candidates with longer clerkships. Candidates selected for a residency program performed a multiple-choice (MC), an open question (OQ) and OSCE-like tests, an interview and a curriculum analysis for participation in scientific meetings, papers published and voluntary activities. Groups were compared for gender, year of graduation, tests and OSCE scores. Participants were distributed into two groups based on clerkship duration: 2 years or less than 2 years. There was no difference for the MCT score among groups or any of the activities from interview and curriculum analysis. The 2 years clerkship group showed significantly higher OQ (p=0.009) and OSCE-like affective (p=0.025) and knowledge (p=0.002) scores. The OSCE test identified some aspects related to competence acquisition and assessed basic skills and attitudes essential to the supervised practice of medicine during residency. OSCE discriminated aspects not perceived by the sole use of knowledge tests.

  10. KLHL41 stabilizes skeletal muscle sarcomeres by nonproteolytic ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Martinez, Andres; Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Chen, Beibei; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of muscle function requires assembly of contractile proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Mutations in Kelch-like protein 41 (KLHL41) cause nemaline myopathy, a fatal muscle disorder associated with sarcomere disarray. We generated KLHL41 mutant mice, which display lethal disruption of sarcomeres and aberrant expression of muscle structural and contractile proteins, mimicking the hallmarks of the human disease. We show that KLHL41 is poly-ubiquitinated and acts, at least in part, by preventing aggregation and degradation of Nebulin, an essential component of the sarcomere. Furthermore, inhibition of KLHL41 poly-ubiquitination prevents its stabilization of nebulin, suggesting a unique role for ubiquitination in protein stabilization. These findings provide new insights into the molecular etiology of nemaline myopathy and reveal a mechanism whereby KLHL41 stabilizes sarcomeres and maintains muscle function by acting as a molecular chaperone. Similar mechanisms for protein stabilization likely contribute to the actions of other Kelch proteins. PMID:28826497

  11. On high heels and short muscles: a multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Pok, Jacquelynn M; McWalter, Emily J; Gold, Garry E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-21

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy.

  12. Increased titin compliance reduced length-dependent contractionand slowed cross-bridge kinetics in skinned myocardial strips from Rbm20ΔRRM mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. Pulcastro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Titin is a giant protein spanning from the Z-disk to the M-band of the cardiac sarcomere. In the I-band titin acts as a molecular spring, contributing to passive mechanical characteristics of the myocardium throughout a heartbeat. RNA Binding Motif Protein 20 (RBM20 is required for normal titin splicing, and its absence or altered function leads to greater expression of a very large, more compliant N2BA titin isoform in Rbm20 homozygous mice (Rbm20ΔRRM compared to wild-type mice (WT that almost exclusively express the stiffer N2B titin isoform. Prior studies using Rbm20ΔRRM animals have shown that increased titin compliance compromises muscle ultrastructure and attenuates the Frank-Starling relationship. Although previous computational simulations of muscle contraction suggested that increasing compliance of the sarcomere slows the rate of tension development and prolongs cross-bridge attachment, none of the reported effects of Rbm20ΔRRM on myocardial function have been attributed to changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics. To test the relationship between increased sarcomere compliance and cross-bridge kinetics, we used stochastic length-perturbation analysis in Ca2+-activated, skinned papillary muscle strips from Rbm20ΔRRM and WT mice. We found increasing titin compliance depressed maximal tension, decreased Ca2+-sensitivity of the tension-pCa relationship, and slowed myosin detachment rate in myocardium from Rbm20ΔRRM vs. WT mice. As sarcomere length increased from 1.9 to 2.2 µm, length-dependent activation of contraction was eliminated in the Rbm20ΔRRM myocardium, even though myosin MgADP release rate decreased ~20% to prolong strong cross-bridge binding at longer sarcomere length. These data suggest that increasing N2BA expression may alter cardiac performance in a length-dependent manner, showing greater deficits in tension production and slower cross-bridge kinetics at longer sarcomere length. This study also supports the idea

  13. Sarcomere dynamics in single myocardial cells as revealed by high-resolution light diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A F

    1983-08-01

    A specially designed diffractometer with a high spatial and temporal resolution recorded the diffraction of a laser beam by single enzymatically isolated myocardial cells. The fine structures within the first-order diffraction were resolved and each structure was interpreted as the diffraction from a group of sarcomeres of nearly equal length. During activation of the cell dynamics of each discrete group of sarcomeres was uniform and independent of the other groups. However, a small nonuniform component in the sarcomere dynamics was observed and attributed to the coupling between the shortening tension and the radial stress resulting from the expansion of the myofibrillar cross-section. The time-course of the diffraction fine structures during contractile activity revealed (1) the period of the contraction-relaxation cycle, (2) the latent period, (3) the shortening and relengthening speeds and (4) the variation in the line width and intensity of the fine structure. Measurements showed that the latent period was dependent on the free Ca2+ of the cell's bathing solution while the initial shortening speed was not. The diffraction line width and intensity of the shortening cell were explained by the grating model.

  14. Mechano-chemical Interactions in Cardiac Sarcomere Contraction: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumens, Joost; Arts, Theo; Delhaas, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a model of cardiac sarcomere contraction to study the calcium-tension relationship in cardiac muscle. Calcium mediates cardiac contraction through its interactions with troponin (Tn) and subsequently tropomyosin molecules. Experimental studies have shown that a slight increase in intracellular calcium concentration leads to a rapid increase in sarcomeric tension. Though it is widely accepted that the rapid increase is not possible without the concept of cooperativity, the mechanism is debated. We use the hypothesis that there exists a base level of cooperativity intrinsic to the thin filament that is boosted by mechanical tension, i.e. a high level of mechanical tension in the thin filament impedes the unbinding of calcium from Tn. To test these hypotheses, we developed a computational model in which a set of three parameters and inputs of calcium concentration and sarcomere length result in output tension. Tension as simulated appeared in good agreement with experimentally measured tension. Our results support the hypothesis that high tension in the thin filament impedes Tn deactivation by increasing the energy required to detach calcium from the Tn. Given this hypothesis, the model predicted that the areas with highest tension, i.e. closest to the Z-disk end of the single overlap region, show the largest concentration of active Tn’s. PMID:27716775

  15. Effects of strain on contractile force and number of sarcomeres in series of Xenopus laevis single muscle fibres during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, R T; Feenstra, H M; Verheyen, A K; van der Laarse, W J; Huijing, P A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to test whether mechanical strain uniquely regulates muscle fibre atrophy/hypertrophy and adaptation of the number of sarcomeres in series within mature muscle fibres in vitro . Mature single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis illiofibularis muscle were cultured (4-97 days) while kept at negative strain ( approximately 20% below passive slack length, 'short fibres') or at positive strain ( approximately 5% over passive slack length, 'long fibres'). Before and after culture the number of sarcomeres in series was determined using laser diffraction. During culture, twitch and tetanic force characteristics were measured every day. Survival time of long fibres was substantially less than that of short fibres. Of the long fibres 40% died or became inexcitable within 1 week, whereas this did not occur for short fibres. During culture, twitch and tetanic force of all short fibres increased substantially. Regression analysis showed that the post-culture number of sarcomeres in series was not significantly changed compared to the number before culture. It is concluded that culture at negative strain does not result in atrophy or a reduction of the number of sarcomeres in series, even after 97 days. For the long fibres we did not detect any hypertrophy as tetanic force remained stable or decreased slowly, while twitch force varied. Regression analysis of the change of the number of sarcomeres in series as a function of the culture time showed a positive slope ( P=0.054). Two out of four long fibres that were cultured for at least 2 weeks showed an increase in the number of sarcomeres of 4-5%. Compared with in vivo adaptation to mechanical stimuli this is much less than would be expected. The data suggest that strain may not be the only factor that regulates hypertrophy and the number of sarcomeres in series.

  16. Contractile Dysfunction in Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, David H; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotype of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. The development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension and aortic stenosis is usually described as a compensatory mechanism that normalizes wall stress. We suggest that an important abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reduced contractile stress (the force per unit area) generated by myocardial tissue secondary to abnormalities such as cardiomyocyte disarray. In turn, a progressive deterioration in contractile stress provokes worsening hypertrophy and disarray. A maintained or even exaggerated ejection fraction is explained by the increased end-diastolic wall thickness producing augmented thickening. We propose that the nature of the hemodynamic load in an individual with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could determine its phenotype. Hypertensive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are more likely to develop exaggerated concentric hypertrophy; athletic individuals an asymmetric pattern; and inactive individuals a more apical hypertrophy. The development of a left ventricular outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation may be explained by differential regional strain resulting in mitral annular rotation.

  17. The Design of the Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (VANISH) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; McMurray, John J V; Cirino, Allison L; Colan, Steven D; Day, Sharlene M; Desai, Akshay S; Lipshultz, Steven E; MacRae, Calum A; Shi, Ling; Solomon, Scott D; Orav, E John; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by sarcomere gene mutations, resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and increased risk of sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Studies in mouse models of sarcomeric HCM demonstrated that early treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) reduced development of LVH and fibrosis. In contrast, prior human studies using ARBs for HCM have targeted heterogeneous adult cohorts with well-established disease. The VANISH trial is testing the safety and feasibility of disease-modifying therapy with an ARB in genotyped HCM patients with early disease. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial is being conducted in sarcomere mutation carriers, 8 to 45 years old, with HCM and no/minimal symptoms, or those with early phenotypic manifestations but no LVH. Participants are randomly assigned to receive valsartan 80 to 320 mg daily (depending on age and weight) or placebo. The primary endpoint is a composite of 9 z-scores in domains representing myocardial injury/hemodynamic stress, cardiac morphology, and function. Total z-scores reflecting change from baseline to final visits will be compared between treatment groups. Secondary endpoints will assess the impact of treatment on mutation carriers without LVH, and analyze the influence of age, sex, and genotype. The VANISH trial is testing a new strategy of disease modification for treating sarcomere mutation carriers with early HCM, and those at risk for its development. In addition, further insight into disease mechanisms, response to therapy, and phenotypic evolution will be gained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Disorder profile of nebulin encodes a vernierlike position sensor for the sliding thin and thick filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chya; Forbes, Jeffrey G; Wang, Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Nebulin is an about 1μm long intrinsically disordered scaffold for the thin filaments of skeletal muscle sarcomere. It is a multifunctional elastic protein that wraps around actin filament, stabilizes thin filaments, and regulates Ca-dependent actomyosin interactions. This study investigates whether the disorder profile of nebulin might encode guidelines for thin and thick filament interactions in the sarcomere of the skeletal muscle. The question was addressed computationally by analyzing the predicted disorder profile of human nebulin (6669 residues, ∼200 actin-binding repeats) by pondr and the periodicity of the A-band stripes (reflecting the locations of myosin-associated proteins) in the electron micrographs of the sarcomere. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, a scale factor for the A-band stripe image data with respect to the nebulin disorder profile was determined to make the thin and thick filaments aligned to have maximum correlation. The empirical mode decomposition method was then applied to identify hidden periodicities in both the nebulin disorder profile and the rescaled A-band data. The decomposition reveals three characteristic length scales (45 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm) that are relevant for correlational analysis. The dynamical cross-correlation analyses with moving windows at various sarcomere lengths depict a vernierlike design for both periodicities, thus enabling nebulin to sense position and fine tune sarcomere overlap. This shows that the disorder profile of scaffolding proteins may encode a guideline for cellular architecture.

  19. Disorder profile of nebulin encodes a vernierlike position sensor for the sliding thin and thick filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chya; Forbes, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Nebulin is an about 1 μ m long intrinsically disordered scaffold for the thin filaments of skeletal muscle sarcomere. It is a multifunctional elastic protein that wraps around actin filament, stabilizes thin filaments, and regulates Ca-dependent actomyosin interactions. This study investigates whether the disorder profile of nebulin might encode guidelines for thin and thick filament interactions in the sarcomere of the skeletal muscle. The question was addressed computationally by analyzing the predicted disorder profile of human nebulin (6669 residues, ˜200 actin-binding repeats) by pondr and the periodicity of the A-band stripes (reflecting the locations of myosin-associated proteins) in the electron micrographs of the sarcomere. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, a scale factor for the A-band stripe image data with respect to the nebulin disorder profile was determined to make the thin and thick filaments aligned to have maximum correlation. The empirical mode decomposition method was then applied to identify hidden periodicities in both the nebulin disorder profile and the rescaled A-band data. The decomposition reveals three characteristic length scales (45 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm) that are relevant for correlational analysis. The dynamical cross-correlation analyses with moving windows at various sarcomere lengths depict a vernierlike design for both periodicities, thus enabling nebulin to sense position and fine tune sarcomere overlap. This shows that the disorder profile of scaffolding proteins may encode a guideline for cellular architecture.

  20. The influence of humidity on accuracy length measurement on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madruga, Daniel González; Alexiou, A.; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental study of the influence of humidity on accurate length measurements on ABS parts. Polymer parts absorb water from the ambient until they reach hygroscopic equilibrium. Water content causes an expansion of the polymer part. The relationship between the water...

  1. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  2. Influence of age and length of service on the level of stress and burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanetić, Kosana; Tesanović, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors which are related to workplace. Medicine is one of the professions at the greatest risk of suffering from burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of stress and burnout syndrome in relation with age and length of service in the family medicine physicians in the Republic of Srpska. The study was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire survey among family medicine physicians in seven Primary Health Care Centres in the Republic of Srpska from February 1st to April 30th 2010. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire for self-assessment of stress level and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which were amended with data regarding age, sex, length of service and educational and vocational level. The study included 199 (83.3%) female and 40 (16.7%) male participants. The physicians aged over 46 years and with the length of service over 21 years had statistically significant higher level of stress and emotional exhaustion than younger participants and participants with shorter length of service. Age and length of service have important influence on the level of stress and burnout syndrome: the older the physicians and the higher the length of service the higher the level of stress and the higher the risk of burnout syndrome.

  3. Influence of fracture heterogeneity and wing length on the response of vertically fractured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.; Rosato, N.D.

    1983-04-01

    A finite-conductivity vertical fracture intersecting a well produced at a constant rate or at a constant pressure is considered. The pressure (or rate) response is obtained from a numerical model. Two aspects of this problem are considered: variable fracture conductivity and unequal fracture wing lengths. The first part of this paper examines the influence of fracture conductivity on the well response. In practice, the fracture conductivity is a decreasing function of distance from the wellbore. If the fracture conductivity decreases monotonically with distance from the wellbore, then at late times the variable fracture conductivity solutions behave like a constant-conductivity fracture, with conductivity equal to the arithmetic average of the conductivity. At early times the response is identical to that of a constant-conductivity fracture, corresponding to the highest conductivity of the fracture. For the variable fracture conductivity case, the bilinear flow period characterized by a one-quarter slope line may be obscured. Thus, analysis of short-time data can be difficult. The authors also consider situations where the fracture conductivity does not decrease monotonically with distance. The response for these cases is discussed in detail. The second part of the paper examines the effect of unequal wing lengths on the pressure response. The authors delineate conditions under which the effect of wing length on the response will become dominant. They discuss the influence of wing length on both early- and long-time data.

  4. Differential Sarcomere and Electrophysiological Maturation of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiac Myocytes in Monolayer vs. Aggregation-Based Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jeziorowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D or, more recently, on monolayer culture (2D. We performed a direct comparison of the characteristics of the derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs on day 27 ± 2 of differentiation between 3D and 2D differentiation protocols with two different Wnt-inhibitors were compared: IWR1 (inhibitor of Wnt response or IWP2 (inhibitor of Wnt production. We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2 expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D protocols as compared to the 3D protocol. In the three methods, iPSC-CM show sarcomeric structures. However, iPSC-CM generated in 2D protocols constantly displayed larger sarcomere lengths as compared to the 3D protocol. In addition, mRNA and protein analyses reveal higher cTNi to ssTNi ratios in the 2D protocol using IWP2 as compared to both other protocols, indicating a higher sarcomeric maturation. Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

  5. Arterial baroreflex function does not influence telomere length in kidney of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei ZHANG; Rui-fang YANG; Jin WANG; Lei ZHAO; Ling LI; Fu-ming SHEN; Ding-feng SU

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the relationship between arterial baroreflex (ABR) function and telomere length in kidney of rats.Methods:Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) and sinoaortic denervated rats (SAD) were used as models with depressed arterial baroreflex.In the first experiments,SHR-SP rats were examined at the age of 24 weeks for both sexes and 40 weeks for female rats. In the second experiments,SAD rats were studied 4 and 35 weeks after SAD operation.Blood pressure was continuously recorded for 4 h in a conscious state. After the determination of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS),the terminal restriction fragment (TRF) of rat kidney was analyzed using Southern blot.Results:The TRF length was found shorter in:a) male SHR-SP compared with age-matched female SHR-SP;b) female SHR-SP 40 weeks of age compared with 24 weeks of age; c) in rats 35 weeks after operation compared with rats 4 weeks post operation in both sham-operated and SAD rats.Conclusion:In SHR-SP,the TRF length did not correlate with BRS.In addition.SAD did not affect TRF length at either 4 or 35 weeks post-surgery.It may be concluded that baroreflex function does not influence the terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length in rats.

  6. Influence of length and flexibility of spacers on the binding affinity of divalent ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Liese

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative model for the binding of divalent ligand–receptor systems. We study the influence of length and flexibility of the spacers on the overall binding affinity and derive general rules for the optimal ligand design. To this end, we first compare different polymeric models and determine the probability to simultaneously bind to two neighboring receptor binding pockets. In a second step the binding affinity of divalent ligands in terms of the IC50 value is derived. We find that a divalent ligand has the potential to bind more efficiently than its monovalent counterpart only, if the monovalent dissociation constant is lower than a critical value. This critical monovalent dissociation constant depends on the ligand-spacer length and flexibility as well as on the size of the receptor. Regarding the optimal ligand-spacer length and flexibility, we find that the average spacer length should be equal or slightly smaller than the distance between the receptor binding pockets and that the end-to-end spacer length fluctuations should be in the same range as the size of a receptor binding pocket.

  7. Influence of length and flexibility of spacers on the binding affinity of divalent ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Susanne; Netz, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model for the binding of divalent ligand-receptor systems. We study the influence of length and flexibility of the spacers on the overall binding affinity and derive general rules for the optimal ligand design. To this end, we first compare different polymeric models and determine the probability to simultaneously bind to two neighboring receptor binding pockets. In a second step the binding affinity of divalent ligands in terms of the IC50 value is derived. We find that a divalent ligand has the potential to bind more efficiently than its monovalent counterpart only, if the monovalent dissociation constant is lower than a critical value. This critical monovalent dissociation constant depends on the ligand-spacer length and flexibility as well as on the size of the receptor. Regarding the optimal ligand-spacer length and flexibility, we find that the average spacer length should be equal or slightly smaller than the distance between the receptor binding pockets and that the end-to-end spacer length fluctuations should be in the same range as the size of a receptor binding pocket.

  8. Influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, H; Cervera-Ballester, J; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Bagán, L; Peñarrocha-Diago, M A; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient comfort and stability, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction. A retrospective clinical study was made of patients subjected to rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla with complete maxillary implant-supported fixed prostheses involving a minimum of two zygomatic implants (one on each side) in conjunction with premaxillary implants, and with 12 months of follow-up after implant loading. Subjects used a VAS to score general satisfaction, comfort and stability, speech and functionality, and the results were analyzed in relation to the prosthetic arm length of the zygomatic implants 12 months after prosthetic delivery. Twenty-two patients participated in the study, receiving 22 prostheses anchored on 148 implants (44 were zygomatic and 94 were conventional implants). The mean right and left prosthetic arm length was 5.9±2.4 mm and 6.1±2.7 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.576). The mean scores referred to comfort/retention, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction were high - no correlation being found between prosthetic arm length and patient satisfaction (p=0.815). No relationship could be identified between prosthetic arm length (palatal position) and patient satisfaction.

  9. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  10. Subtle abnormalities in contractile function are an early manifestation of sarcomere mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens J; Colan, Steven D;

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomere mutations cause both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the steps leading from mutation to disease are not well described. By studying mutation carriers before a clinical diagnosis develops, we characterize the early manifestations of sarcomere ...

  11. Influence of corn silage particle length on the performance of lactating dairy cows fed supplemental tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment.

  12. The influence of sedimentation particles’ distribution in depth on the working length of gravity clarifier basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors calculated the settlement probability of suspended particles inflowing to the clarifier. The limit distributions of dangerous sedimentation particles are considered: in a parabola and uniform for all the groups of particles, as well as distribution in trapezia having upper and lower bases with gradual increase of the length of the upper base from zero to the length of the lower base. It was stated that the sedimentation pattern of the particles in depth of the flow at the inlet of the settling basin greatly influences the required length of the basins. It was established that at the 80 % probability of dangerous particles’ sedimentation and at the flow velocity of 0.5 m/s the fluctuations range of the relative basin length S/H is 5 ea, for 94 % probability - 8.5 ea, and the fluctuations range is increasing with the increase of the probability. It is recommended to organize the experimental study of the distribution of suspended particles’ concentration at the inlet of operating clarifier basins and to take a uniform or close to the uniform distribution before obtaining this experimental data.

  13. Influence of muscle length on muscle atrophy in the mouse tibialis anterior and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Naoto; Fujimoto, Taro; Tasaki, Hiromitsu; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Matsubara, Takako; Miki, Akinori

    2009-02-01

    The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were fixed at the stretched or shortened positions to examine the influence of muscle length on muscle atrophy. Mice were divided into control (C), hindlimb suspension (HS), hindlimb suspension with ankle joint fixation at the maximum dorsiflexion (HSD), and hindlimb suspension with ankle joint fixation at the maximum plantarflexion (HSP). During the hindlimb suspension, the length of these muscles in the HS and HSP groups was very similar. Fourteen days after the hindlimb suspension, the atrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle in the HS and HSP groups was evidently milder than that in the HSD group, and that in the HS and HSP groups was very similar, suggesting that atrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle might largely depend on muscle length. Atrophy of the soleus muscle in the HSD group was milder than that in the HS and HSP groups, indicating that atrophy of the soleus muscle might also depend on muscle length. But atrophy of this muscle in the HSP group was milder than that in the HS group. These results demonstrate that some factors induced by the joint immobilization might be effective in preventing atrophy of the soleus muscle.

  14. Diaphragm weakness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: role of sarcomeric dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, E.; Man, F.S. de; Handoko, M.L.; Westerhof, N.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Stienen, G.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that diaphragm muscle weakness is present in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). However, the nature of this diaphragm weakness is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether changes at the sarcomeric level contribute to diaphr

  15. Substrate and target sequence length influence RecTE(Psy recombineering efficiency in Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongmeng Bao

    Full Text Available We are developing a new recombineering system to assist experimental manipulation of the Pseudomonas syringae genome. P. syringae is a globally dispersed plant pathogen and an important model species used to study the molecular biology of bacteria-plant interactions. We previously identified orthologs of the lambda Red bet/exo and Rac recET genes in P. syringae and confirmed that they function in recombineering using ssDNA and dsDNA substrates. Here we investigate the properties of dsDNA substrates more closely to determine how they influence recombineering efficiency. We find that the length of flanking homologies and length of the sequences being inserted or deleted have a large effect on RecTE(Psy mediated recombination efficiency. These results provide information about the design elements that should be considered when using recombineering.

  16. The Influence of Added Mass on Optimal Step Length in Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maas, Maurice T F; de Koning, Jos J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the influence of induced changes in the morphology of the leg by adding mass on the optimal step length (OSL) in experienced runners to get more insight into parameters that influence preferred step length (PSL) and OSL. Thirteen experienced male runners (mean age 26.9 ± 6.1 y, height 183.7 ± 7.1 cm, mass 71.8 ± 5.9 kg) ran on a treadmill in 3 different conditions: unloaded (UL), loaded with 2 kg mass at the ankles (MA), and loaded with 2 kg mass at the hips (MH) at 7 different step lengths (SLs). SL deviations were expressed as deviations in relative leg length (%LL) from the individual PSL: 0%LL, ±5%LL, ±10%LL, and ±15%LL. Trials lasted 8 min, and 8 min of rest was given between trials. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was expressed as a fraction of V̇O2 at PSL + 0%LL in the unloaded condition (%V̇O2). The %SL with the lowest value of %V̇O2 was considered the OSL for this group of participants. OSL at the UL condition was 6% shorter than PSL. The MA condition resulted in a 7%LL larger OSL than at UL and MH (P distribution of the leg is a determinant of the OSL. As a consequence of the added mass to the ankles, OSL was 7%LL longer. Morphological characteristics of the leg might therefore play an important role in determining the runner's individual optimal SL.

  17. The nebulette repeat domain is necessary for proper maintenance of tropomyosin with the cardiac sarcomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzo, Jeremy R; Norris, Andrea A; Esham, Michael; Moncman, Carole L

    2008-11-15

    Nebulette is a cardiac-specific isoform of the giant actin-binding protein nebulin. Nebulette, having a mass of approximately 100 kDa, is only predicted to extend 150 nm from the edge of the Z-lines. Overexpression of the nebulette C-terminal linker and/or SH3 domains in chicken cardiomyocytes results in a loss of endogenous nebulette with a concomitant loss of tropomyosin (TPM) and troponin, as well as a shortening of the thin filaments. These data suggest that nebulette's position in the sarcomere is important for the maintenance of TPM, troponin and thin filament length. To evaluate this hypothesis, N-terminal nested truncations tagged with GFP were expressed in chicken cardiomyocytes and the cells were analyzed for the distribution of myofilament proteins. Minimal effects on the myofilaments were observed with N-terminal deletions of up to 10 modules; however, deletion of 15 modules replicated the phenotype observed with expression of the C-terminal fragments. Expression of internal deletions of nebulette verifies that a site between module 10 and 15 is important for TPM maintenance within the sarcomeric lattice. We have additionally isolated TPM cDNAs from a yeast two hybrid (Y2H) analysis. These data indicate the importance of the nebulette-TPM interactions in the maintenance and stability of the thin filaments.

  18. Influence of millisecond time, charge length and detonation velocity on blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士海; 吴建; 张子华

    2015-01-01

    The law of blasting vibration caused by blasting in rock is very complex. Traditional numerical methods cannot well characterize all the influencing factors in the blasting process. The effects of millisecond time, charge length and detonation velocity on the blasting vibration are discussed by analyzing the characteristics of vibration wave generated by finite length cylindrical charge. It is found that in multi-hole millisecond blasting, blasting vibration superimpositions will occur several times within a certain distance from the explosion source due to the propagation velocity difference of P-wave and S-wave generated by a short column charge. These superimpositions will locally enlarge the peak velocity of blasting vibration particle. The magnitude and scope of the enlargement are closely related to the millisecond time. Meanwhile, the particle vibration displacement characteristics of rock under long cylindrical charge is analyzed. The results show that blasting vibration effect would no longer increase when the charge length increases to a certain extent. This indicates that the traditional simple calculation method using the maximum charge weight per delay interval to predict the effect of blasting vibration is unreasonable. Besides, the effect of detonation velocity on blasting vibration is only limited in a certain velocity range. When detonation velocity is greater than a certain value, the detonation velocity almost makes no impact on blasting vibration.

  19. Electrochemical survey of the chain length influence in phytochelatins competitive binding by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2010-11-01

    Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to voltammetric data obtained in the analysis of the competitive binding of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins [(gammaGlu-Cys)(n)-Gly, PC(n), n=2-5] by Cd(2+). The displacements between ligands and chain length influence on the competitive binding of PC(n) toward Cd(2+) were investigated. The analysis of the resulting pure voltammograms and concentration profiles of the resolved components suggests that ligands containing more thiol groups are able to displace the shortest chain ligands from their metal complexes, whereas the opposite does not happen. However, when the length of the chain surpasses that of PC(3), the binding capacity of the molecule still increases (i.e., it can bind more metal ions), but the position and shape of the voltammetric signals practically rest unchanged. This suggests that at this level, the stability of metal binding could depend more on the nature of the binding sites separately than on the quantity of the sites (i.e., the chain length).

  20. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  1. The sarcomeric protein nebulin: another multifunctional giant in charge of muscle strength optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Granzier, Henk; Labeit, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    The sliding filament model of the sarcomere was developed more than half a century ago. This model, consisting only of thin and thick filaments, has been successful in explaining many, but not all, features of skeletal muscle. Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. Whereas the role of titin rapidly progressed, nebulin's role in muscle structure and function remained long nebulous. An important feature of muscle structure and function that has remained relatively obscure concerns the mechanisms that are involved in regulating thin filament length. Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function as force production is proportional to the amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments. Recent advances, due in part to the generation of nebulin KO models, reveal that nebulin plays an important role in the regulation of thin filament length, most likely by stabilizing F-actin assemblies. Another structural feature of skeletal muscle that has been incompletely understood concerns the mechanisms involved in maintaining Z-disk structure and the regular lateral alignment of adjacent sarcomeres during contraction. Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to these structural roles in support of myofibrillar force generation, nebulin has been also shown to regulate directly muscle contraction at the level of individual crossbridges: cycling kinetics and the calcium sensitivity of force producing crossbridges is enhanced in the presence of nebulin. Thus, these recent data all point to nebulin being important for muscle force optimization. Consequently, muscle weakness as the lead symptom develops in the case of patients with nemaline myopathy that have mutations in the nebulin gene. Here, we discuss these important novel insights into the role of nebulin in skeletal muscle function.

  2. The sarcomeric protein nebulin: another multifunctional giant in charge of muscle strength optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen eOttenheijm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sliding filament model of the sarcomere was developed more than half a century ago. This model, consisting only of thin and thick filaments, has been successful in explaining many, but not all, features of skeletal muscle. Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. Whereas the role of titin rapidly progressed, nebulin’s role in muscle structure and function remained long nebulous. An important feature of muscle structure and function that has remained relatively obscure concerns the mechanisms that are involved in regulating thin filament length. Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function as force production is proportional to the amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments. Recent advances, due in part to the generation of nebulin KO models, reveal that nebulin plays an important role in the regulation of thin filament length, most likely by stabilizing F-actin assemblies. Another structural feature of skeletal muscle that has been incompletely understood concerns the mechanisms involved in maintaining Z-disk structure and the regular lateral alignment of adjacent sarcomeres during contraction. Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to these structural roles in support of myofibrillar force generation, nebulin has been also shown to regulate directly muscle contraction at the level of individual cross bridges: cycling kinetics and the calcium sensitivity of force producing cross-bridges is enhanced in the presence of nebulin. Thus, these recent data all point to nebulin being important for muscle force optimization. Consequently, muscle weakness as the lead symptom develops in the case of patients with nemaline myopathy that have mutations in the nebulin gene. Here, we discuss these important novel insights into the role of nebulin in skeletal muscle

  3. Influence of chain length and double bond on the aqueous behavior of choline carboxylate soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstl, Doris; Diat, Olivier; Klein, Regina; Kunz, Werner

    2013-02-26

    In preceding studies, we demonstrated that choline carboxylates ChC(m) with alkyl chain lengths of m = 12 - 18 are highly water-soluble (for m = 12, soluble up to 93 wt % soap and 0 °C). In addition, choline soaps are featured by an extraordinary lyotropic phase behavior. With decreasing water concentration, the following phases were found: micellar phase (L(1)), discontinuous cubic phase (I(1)' and I(1)"), hexagonal phase (H(1)), bicontinuous cubic phase (V(1)), and lamellar phase (L(α)). The present work is also focused on the lyotropic phase behavior of choline soaps but with shorter alkyl chains or different alkyl chain properties. We have investigated the aqueous phase behavior of choline soaps with C(8) and C(10) chain-lengths (choline octanoate and choline decanoate) and with a C(18) chain-length with a cis-double bond (choline oleate). We found that choline decanoate follows the lyotropic phase behavior of the longer-chain homologues mentioned above. Choline octanoate in water shows no discontinuous cubic phases, but an extended, isotropic micellar solution phase. In addition, choline octanoate is at the limit between a surfactant and a hydrotrope. The double bond in choline oleate leads also to a better solubility in water and a decrease of the solubilization temperature. It also influences the Gaussian curvature of the aggregates which results in a loss of discontinuous cubic phases in the binary phase diagram. The different lyotropic mesophases were identified by the penetration scan technique with polarizing light microscope and visual observations. To clarify the structural behavior small (SAXS) and wide (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering were performed. To further characterize the extended, isotropic micellar solution phase in the binary phase diagram of choline octanoate viscosity and conductivity measurements were also carried out.

  4. Branching influences force-velocity curves and length fluctuations in actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansda, Deepak Kumar; Sen, Shamik; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-12-01

    We investigate collective dynamics of branched actin networks growing against a rigid movable wall constrained by a resistive force. Computing the force velocity relations, we show that the stall force of such networks depends not only on the average number of filaments touching the wall, but also on the amount of fluctuation of the leading edge of the network. These differences arise due to differences in the network architecture, namely, distance between two adjacent branching points and the initial distance of the starting filament from the wall, with their relative magnitudes influencing the nature of the force velocity curves (convex versus concave). We also show that the introduction of branching results in nonmonotonic diffusion constant, a quantity that measures the growth in length fluctuation of the leading edge of the network, as a function of externally applied force. Together our results demonstrate how the collective dynamics of a branched network differs from that of a parallel filament network.

  5. Influence of fracture heterogeneity and wing length on the response of vertically fractured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.; Rosato, N.D.

    1983-04-01

    A finite-conductivity vertical fracture intersecting a well produced at a constant rate or at a constant pressure is considered. The pressure (or rate) response is obtained from a numerical model. Two aspects of this problem are considered: variable fracture conductivity and unequal fracture wing lengths. The first part of this paper examines the influence of fracture conductivity on the well response. In practice, the fracture conductivity is a decreasing function of distance from the wellbore. If the fracture conductivity decreases monotonically with distance from the wellbore, then at late times the variable fracture conductivity solutions behave like a constant-conductivity fracture, with conductivity equal to the arithmetic average of the conductivity. At early times the response is identical to that of a constant-conductivity fracture, corresponding to the highest conductivity of the fracture. For the variable fracture conductivity case, the bilinear flow period characterized by a one-quarter slope line may be obscured. Thus, analysis of short-time data can be difficult. The authors also consider situations where the fracture conductivity does not decrease monotonically with distance. The response for these cases is discussed in detail. The second part of the paper examines the effect of unequal wing lengths on the pressure response.

  6. Contrast in light intensity, rather than day length, influences the behavior and health of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, R A; Archer, G S; Mench, J A

    2012-08-01

    Day length and intensity are commonly manipulated aspects of the light environment in commercial broiler production. Both influence circadian rhythms, but it is unclear if they do this independently or synergistically. The effect of light:dark (20L:4D, 16L:8D) and intensity contrasts (1 lx:0.5 lx, 200 lx:0.5 lx) on broiler behavior and health (n=1,004, 4 replicates/treatment) was evaluated. Activity was measured using passive infrared detection, and feeding activity was measured by the amount of feed consumed/h over one 24-h period each week. Broilers were gait scored and weighed at 6 wk of age. Following euthanasia, eyes were dissected from 30 birds/treatment. Behavior and performance were analyzed using the GLM, gait score using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and eye measures using a MANOVA. The 200 lx birds were more active (P=0.03) and fed more (P=0.001) during the photophase but were less active (P=0.02) and fed less (Plight:dark, with 16:8 having greater back-to-front eye diameters than 20:4 (13.30±0.10 mm vs. 13.00±0.10 mm, P=0.02). There were no interactions. These results indicated that light intensity, not day length, was the major factor affecting broiler behavior and health under these lighting conditions. Low contrast light intensity dampened behavioral rhythms and had possible health effects.

  7. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Cornelis J; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E

    2015-04-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease.

  8. Specific protein regions influence substrate specificity and product length in polyunsaturated fatty acid condensing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinten, Patricia L; Hoffman, Travis; Bauer, Jörg; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-05-11

    We describe a condensing enzyme from Pythium irregulare (PirELO) that shows highest activity on the 18-carbon, Delta-6 desaturated fatty acids, stearidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. However, this enzyme is also capable of elongating a number of other fatty acids including the 20-carbon, Delta-5 desaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Surprisingly, a Phytophthora infestans condensing enzyme (PinELO) with very high homology to PirELO did not show activity with 20-carbon fatty acids. A series of chimeric proteins for these two enzymes were constructed to investigate the influence of different regions on substrate and product length. The substitution of a region from near the center of PirELO into PinELO resulted in an enzyme having EPA-elongating activity similar to that of PirELO. Only eight amino acids differed between the two proteins in this region; however, substitution of the same region from PinELO into PirELO produced a protein which was almost inactive. The addition of a small region from near the N-terminus of PinELO was sufficient to restore activity with GLA, indicating that amino acids from these two regions interact to determine protein structure or function. Predicted topology models for PirELO and PinELO placed the two regions described here near the luminal-proximal ends of the first and fourth/fifth transmembrane helixes, at the opposite end of the condensing enzyme from four conserved regions thought to form a catalytic ring. Thus, protein characteristics determined by specific luminal-proximal regions of fatty acid condensing enzymes have a major influence on substrate specificity and final product length.

  9. Influence of different length of core suture purchase among suture row on the strength of 6-strand tendon repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hirotaka; Kusano, Nozomu; Kinjo, Masaki; Kanaya, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    In multi-strand suture methods consisting of several suture rows, the different length of core suture purchase between each suture row may affect the strength of repairs. We evaluated the influence of the different length of core suture purchase between each suture row on the strength of 6-strand tendon repairs. Rabbit flexor tendons were repaired by using a triple-looped suture technique in which the suture purchase length in each suture row was modified. Group 1, all lengths are 8-mm. Group 2, all lengths are 10-mm. Group 3, two are 10-mm and one is 8-mm. Group 4, one is 10-mm and two are 8-mm. The repaired tendons were subjected to load-to-failure test. The gap strength was significantly greater in Group 1 and Group 2 than in Group 3 and Group 4. This study demonstrates that maintaining equal core suture purchase lengths of each suture row increases the gap resistance.

  10. Factors influencing length of stay in the Emergency Department in a Private Hospital in North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Juss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Length of stay (LOS is a key measure of Emergency Department (ED throughput and a marker of quality objectives. Time studies that assess ED services may help to clarify the causes of prolonged ED service to patients. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing LOS in the ED of Private Hospital X. This study was conducted at the ED of Private Hospital X in North Jakarta. One hundred and seventy one adult patients were admitted via the over a period of three weeks in March 2008. Data recorded included characteristics of patients, service time of nurses, service time of physicians, and overall ED LOS. Anova and independent t-test were performed to determine factors associated with ED LOS. Elderly patients, patients in emergency status, patients with letters of referral, electrocardiogram (ECG training for physicians and advance cardiac life support (ACLS training for nurses were significantly associated with duration of service in the ED. Mean ED LOS was 50 ± 20.7 minutes. Patient category and characteristics of physicians and nurses are important independent variables that influence the ED’s duration of service. Future research is necessary to determine how these and other factors can be incorporated into a model for predicting ED LOS.

  11. Dynamic Alterations to α-Actinin Accompanying Sarcomere Disassembly and Reassembly during Cardiomyocyte Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Hughes, Bryan G; Ali, Mohammad A M; Cho, Woo Jung; Lopez, Waleska; Schulz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although mammals are thought to lose their capacity to regenerate heart muscle shortly after birth, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes in mammals are hyperplastic. During proliferation these cells need to selectively disassemble their myofibrils for successful cytokinesis. The mechanism of sarcomere disassembly is, however, not understood. To study this, we performed a series of immunofluorescence studies of multiple sarcomeric proteins in proliferating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlated these observations with biochemical changes at different cell cycle stages. During myocyte mitosis, α-actinin and titin were disassembled as early as prometaphase. α-actinin (representing the sarcomeric Z-disk) disassembly precedes that of titin (M-line), suggesting that titin disassembly occurs secondary to the collapse of the Z-disk. Sarcomere disassembly was concurrent with the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. Inhibitors of several intracellular proteases could not block the disassembly of α-actinin or titin. There was a dramatic increase in both cytosolic (soluble) and sarcomeric α-actinin during mitosis, and cytosolic α-actinin exhibited decreased phosphorylation compared to sarcomeric α-actinin. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) induced the quick reassembly of the sarcomere. Sarcomere dis- and re-assembly in cardiomyocyte mitosis is CDK1-dependent and features dynamic differential post-translational modifications of sarcomeric and cytosolic α-actinin.

  12. On the influence of the nozzle length on the arc properties in a cutting torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Risso, M; Infante, D [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Las Heras 644, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.a [Instituto de FIsica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    In this work, an experimental study on the influence of the nozzle geometry on the physical properties of a cutting arc is reported. Ion current signals collected by an electrostatic probe sweeping across a 30 A oxygen cutting arc at 3.5 mm from the nozzle exit were registered for different nozzle lengths. The temperature and density radial profiles of the arc plasma were found in each case by an inversion procedure of these signals. A comparison between the obtained results shows that the shorter nozzle (R{sub N} = 0.50 mm, L{sub N} = 4.5 mm operated at 0.7 MPa and 35 Nl/min) produces a thinner and hotter arc than the larger nozzle (R{sub N} = 0.50 mm, L{sub N} = 9.0 mm operated at 1.1 MPa and 20 Nl/min). This behavior is attributed to the marked difference of gas flow rate due to the clogging effect. A smaller gas mass flow reduces the convective cooling at the arc border and decreases the power dissipation of the arc column, resulting in small axis temperatures.

  13. Influence of alkyl chain length on the surface activity of antibacterial polymers derived from ROMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Esra; Yapaöz, Melda Altıkatoğlu; Keskin, Bahadır; Yucesan, Gundoğ; Eren, Tarik

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the antibacterial properties of cationic polymers on solid surfaces by investigating the structure-activity relationships. The polymer synthesis was carried via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of oxanorbornene derivatives. Modulation of molecular weights and alkyl chain lengths of the polymers were studied to investigate the antibacterial properties on the glass surface. Fluorescein (Na salt) staining contact angle measurements were used to characterize the positive charge density and hydrophobicity on the polymer coated surfaces. Positive charge density for the surface coated polymers with molecular weights of 3000 and 10,000 g mol(-1) is observed to be in the range of 2.3-28.5 nmol cm(-2). The ROMP based cationic pyridinium polymer with hexyl unit exhibited the highest bactericidal efficiency against Escherichia coli on solid surface killing 99% of the bacteria in 5 min. However, phenyl and octyl functionalized quaternary pyridinium groups exhibited lower biocidal properties on the solid surfaces compared to their solution phase biocidal properties. Studying the effect of threshold polymer concentrations on the antibacterial properties indicated that changing the concentrations of polymer coatings on the solid surface dramatically influences antibacterial efficiency.

  14. Time constraints in temperate-breeding species: influence of growing season length on reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. E. B.; Clark, Russell G.; Slattery, Stuart; Smith-Downey, N. V.; Walker, Jordan I.; Armstrong, L.M.; Stephens, S.E.; Petrula, Michael J.; Corcoran, R.M.; Martin, K.; Degroot, K.A.; Brook, Rodney W.; Afton, Alan; Cutting, K.; Warren, J.M.; Fournier, M.; Koons, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms that reproduce in temperate regions have limited time to produce offspring successfully, and this constraint is expected to be more pronounced in areas with short growing seasons. Information concerning how reproductive ecology of endotherms might be influenced by growing season length (GSL) is rare, and species that breed over a broad geographic range provide an opportunity to study the effects of time constraints on reproductive strategies. We analyzed data from a temperate-breeding bird, the lesser scaup Aythya affinis; hereafter scaup, collected at eight sites across a broad gradient of GSL to evaluate three hypotheses related to reproductive compensation in response to varying time constraints. Clutch initiation date in scaup was unaffected by GSL and was unrelated to latitude; spring thaw dates had a marginal impact on timing of breeding. Clutch size declined during the nesting season, as is reported frequently in bird species, but was also unaffected by GSL. Scaup do not appear to compensate for shorter growing seasons by more rapidly reducing clutch size. This study demonstrates that this species is remarkably consistent in terms of timing of breeding and clutch size, regardless of growing season characteristics. Such inflexibility could make this species particularly sensitive to environmental changes that affect resource availabilities.

  15. [The influence of camera-to-object distance and focal length on the representation of faces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Witzel, Carsten; Ramsthaler, Frank; Kreutz, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    When one thinks of the so-called barrel or wide-angle distortion, grotesquely warped faces may come to mind. For less extreme cases with primarily inconspicuous facial proportions, the question, however, still arises whether there may be a resulting impact on the identification of faces. In the first experiment, 3 test persons were photographed at a fixed camera-to-object distance of 2 m. In the second experiment, 18 test persons were each photographed at a distance of 0.5 m and 2.0 m. For both experiments photographs were taken from a fixed angle of view in alignment with the Frankfurt Plane. An isolated effect of the focal length on facial proportions could not be demonstrated. On the other hand, changes in the camera-to-object distance clearly influenced facial proportions and shape. A standardized camera-to-object distance for passport photos, as well as reconstruction of the camera-to-object distance from crime scene photos and the use of this same distance in taking photographs for comparison of suspects are called for. A proposal to refer to wide-angle distortion as the nearness effect is put forward.

  16. Influence of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Makoto; Watanabe, Norio; Ishii, Kenyo; Kinoshita, Yoh-ichi; Aihara, Takehiro; Takeiri, Shuji; Otoi, Takeshige

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle bitches. The mean duration of the initial elevation (>2 ng/mL) in progesterone concentrations after the onset of proestrus was shorter (P gestation length in the nulliparous bitches was noted to be similar to that in the multiparous bitches (64.3 d versus 64.2 d). No significant correlation between gestation length and litter size was observed in any of the bitches. Our results indicate that the gestation length in beagle bitches is not affected by parity or litter size.

  17. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  18. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  19. Genetic variants on chromosome 1q41 influence ocular axial length and high myopia.

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    Qiao Fan

    Full Text Available As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL. Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies on AL conducted in 1,860 Chinese adults, 929 Chinese children, and 2,155 Malay adults. We identified a genetic locus on chromosome 1q41 harboring the zinc-finger 11B pseudogene ZC3H11B showing genome-wide significant association with AL variation (rs4373767, β = -0.16 mm per minor allele, P(meta =2.69 × 10(-10. The minor C allele of rs4373767 was also observed to significantly associate with decreased susceptibility to high myopia (per-allele odds ratio (OR =0.75, 95% CI: 0.68-0.84, P(meta =4.38 × 10(-7 in 1,118 highly myopic cases and 5,433 controls. ZC3H11B and two neighboring genes SLC30A10 and LYPLAL1 were expressed in the human neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and sclera. In an experimental myopia mouse model, we observed significant alterations to gene and protein expression in the retina and sclera of the unilateral induced myopic eyes for the murine genes ZC3H11A, SLC30A10, and LYPLAL1. This supports the likely role of genetic variants at chromosome 1q41 in influencing AL variation and high myopia.

  20. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  1. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  2. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.P.; Schoonhoven, L.J.; Keller, B.P.; Ramshorst, B. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of pressure ulcers following cardiothoracic surgery increases the length of hospitalisation. BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that a pressure ulcer extends the length of hospital stay. The impact of

  3. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.P.; Schoonhoven, L.J.; Keller, B.P.; Ramshorst, B. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of pressure ulcers following cardiothoracic surgery increases the length of hospitalisation. BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that a pressure ulcer extends the length of hospital stay. The impact of pressur

  4. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  5. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  6. Influences of Rate, Length, and Complexity on Speech Disfluency in a Single-Speech Sample in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jean; Chon, HeeCheong; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was (1) to determine whether speech rate, utterance length, and grammatical complexity (number of clauses and clausal constituents per utterance) influenced stuttering-like disfluencies as children became more disfluent at the end of a 1200-syllable speech sample [Sawyer, J., & Yairi, E. (2006). "The effect of…

  7. Systematic investigation of zinc aminoalkylphosphonates: influence of the alkyl chain lengths on the structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Corinna; Stock, Norbert

    2012-03-05

    With the high-throughput (HT) methodology, the bifunctional aminoalkylphosphonic acids (AAPA) linker molecules 2-aminoethyl- (AEPA), 3-aminopropyl- (APPA), and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABPA) [HO(3)P-C(n)H(2n)-NH(2) (n = 2-4)] and zinc nitrate were used to synthesize new metal phosphonates in order to investigate the influence of the alkyl chain length on the structure formation. The systematic investigations led to one known (ZnO(3)PC(2)H(4)NH(2)) and six new compounds: one using AEPA, three using APPA, and two using ABPA. The crystal structures of five compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data as well as structure modeling employing force field methods. For compound 1, Zn(O(3)P-C(2)H(4)-NH(3))(NO(3))(H(2)O) (monoclinic, Cc, a = 4.799(1) Å, b = 29.342(6) Å, c = 5.631(1) Å, β = 91.59(3)°, V = 792.7(3) Å(3), Z = 4), and compound 2, Zn(2)(OH)(O(3)P-C(3)H(6)-NH(3))(NO(3)) (monoclinic, P2/c, a = 12.158(2) Å, b = 5.0315(10) Å, c = 13.952(3) Å, β = 113.23(3)°, V = 784.3(3) Å(3), Z = 2), the structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structures of [Zn(O(3)P-C(3)H(6)-NH(2))]·H(2)O (3) (monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 9.094(2) Å, b = 5.0118(7) Å, c = 16.067(4) Å, β = 90.38(2)°, V = 732.3(2) Å(3), Z = 4) and Zn(O(3)P-C(4)H(8)-NH(2)) (5) (monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 8.570(7) Å, b = 8.378(4) Å, c = 9.902(6) Å, β = 90.94(5)°, V = 710.9(8) Å(3), Z = 4) were determined using XRPD data. The structural model for compound 6, Zn(O(3)P-C(4)H(8)-NH(3))(NO(3))(H(2)O), was established using lattice parameters from XRPD data and following crystal structure modeling employing force field methods. The structures depend strongly on the alkyl chain length n. For n = 2 and 4 isoreticular compounds are observed, while n = 3 leads to new structures. Larger amounts of all compounds were obtained employing scale-up syntheses in a conventional oven as well as in a microwave

  8. Intercalating nucleic acids: the influence of linker length and intercalator type on their duplex stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulf B; Wamberg, Michael; El-Essawy, Farag A G; Ismail, Abd El-Hamid; Nielsen, Christina B; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Jessen, Carsten H; Petersen, Michael; Pedersen, Erik B

    2004-01-01

    Six new examples of intercalating nucleic acids were synthesized in order to evaluate the dependence of the length of the linker between oligo and intercalator on the thermal stability of their corresponding duplexes and triplexes.

  9. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p knee extension torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  10. Factors which influence the length of an out-of-hours telephone consultation in primary care: a retrospective database study

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    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing use of telephone consultation it is important to determine the factors which influence the length of a telephone consultation. Method Analysis of 128717 telephone consultations during January to December 2011 to a National Health Service (NHS out-of-hours primary care service provider in Shropshire and Telford and Powys, England, involving 102 General Practitioners (GPs and 36 Nurse Practitioners (NPs. Telephone consultation conclude with one of three outcomes – advice only, the patient is invited to a face-to-face consultation with a GP or NP at a nearby health centre (known as a base visit or the patient is visited at home by a GP or NP (known as home visit. Call length was analysed by these outcomes. Results The overall mean call length was 7.78 minutes (standard deviation (SD 4.77. Calls for advice only were longest (mean 8.11 minutes, SD 5.17, followed by calls which concluded with a base visit (mean 7.36 minutes, SD 4.08 or a home visit (mean 7.16 minutes, SD 4.53. Two primary factors influenced call length. Calls by GPs were shorter (mean 7.15 minutes, SD 4.41 than those by NPs (mean 8.74 minutes, SD 5.31 and calls designated as a mental health call were longer (mean 11.16 minutes, SD 4.75 than all other calls (mean 7.73 minutes, SD 7.7. Conclusions Telephone consultation length in the out-of-hours setting is influenced primarily by whether the clinician is a GP or a NP and whether the call is designated as a mental health call or not. These findings suggest that appropriate attempts to reduce the length of the telephone consultations should focus on these two areas, although the longer consultation length associated with NPs is offset to some extent by their lower employment costs compared to GPs. Nonetheless the extent to which the length of a telephone consultation impacts on subsequent use of the health service and correlates with quality and safety remains unclear.

  11. Ultrasound influence on coleoptile length at Poaceae seedlings as valuable criteria in prebreeding and breeding processes

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    Kratovalieva Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study includes research on the effect of ultrasound on the ability of seed germination and coleoptile development of cereal landraces (fam. Poaceae: oat (Avena sativa L. brodski, rye (Secale cereale L. rakotinska, Triticale svetinikolsko and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. govrlevska. The experiment with ultrasound was carried out at frequency of 30-40 kHz on the thermostatic ultrasonic bath. Seeds were sonicated at a constant temperature (25ºC for 15 min. Ultrasound effect is reflected in the length of the coleoptyl and mesocotyl, although in a good deal is genetically predetermined. Coleoptile length was the longest in Triticale (3.3-5.5 cm and approximately the same lengths are evident in rye (3.0-6.1 cm. Concerning the mesocotyl the longest one (5.525 cm ± 0.697 is recorded at rye, even significantly longer than control of oat and Triticale. Longer coleoptile of sonicated seeds indicates faster seedling development, good water supply and rapid development and emergence of first leaves. Correlation coefficient showed very high (0.821 and high R2 (67,472% dependence among variables both, in length of coleoptiles (as dependent variable and mesocotyl (as independent with low standard error (0.225. With the simple use of ultrasound the germination period could be shorten, water supply more efficient, the sowing periods will be shorten and good yields even under conditions of climate change with increased temperatures could be achieved.

  12. Entropion-ectropion: the influence of axial globe length on lower eyelid malposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, Sreedhar B; Seddon, Jack; Vize, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of axial globe length and other biometry parameters on age-related lower eyelid malposition. Consecutive patients with involutional lower eyelid malposition underwent preoperative biometry with Zeiss IOL Master and Hertel's exophthalmometer prior to surgery. Patients with other causes of eyelid malposition and thyroid eye disease were excluded. GraphPad InStat was used for t test and chi-square statistical analysis. Data on 57 eyelids of 52 Caucasian patients were collected. There were 28 ectropions and 29 entropions. The mean axial globe length in the ectropion group (23.5 mm, standard deviation ± 0.9) was significantly longer than in the entropion group (22.7 mm, standard deviation ± 1.03) (p = 0.008). There was significant sex predilection, with entropion more common in women and ectropion more common in men (p = 0.03). The mean axial globe projection in the ectropion group was 16.6 mm (standard deviation ± 2.4) and in the entropion group was 14.6 mm (standard deviation ± 2.7) (p = 0.002). There was no statistical difference in age, keratometry, amount of astigmatism, and cylinder axis. Involutional eyelid malposition directly correlates with axial globe length with the ectropion group having lengthier eyes compared with the entropion group. Hence, axial globe length could be an influential factor in the onset of involutional eyelid malposition.

  13. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  14. Factors influencing the clinical expression of intermediate CAG repeat length mutations of the Huntington's disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, Peter K; Shu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Huei-Yang; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    Our aim is to elucidate the clinical variables associated with the development of manifest HD in patients with intermediate CAG repeat lengths. 2,167 participants were seen throughout 44 research sites in the United States, Canada or Australia over a five-year natural history observational study (2006-2011) (Trial # NCT00313495). The Chi-square test and a generalised linear model were used to examine the differences in demographics and cognitive tests among three groups of CAG repeat length. The mixed model was then used to examine the time effect on cognitive assessments by CAG groups. No patient with CAG repeat length 27-35 developed manifest HD, whereas three patients with 36-39 did. Total motor score, maximal chorea score and maximal dystonia score were significantly different at baseline (p CAG 36-39; those with an associated university degree or higher education were less frequently diagnosed as manifest HD (OR 0.10, 95 % CI 0.02-0.54, p = 0.007). Age, smoking and lower education achievement were found to be significantly associated with higher odds of manifest HD in patients with intermediate CAG repeat length mutations.

  15. Influence of Point Count Length and Repeated Visits on Habitat Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Dettmers; David A. Buehler; John G. Bartlett; Nathan A. Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used to monitor bird populations, and a substantial amount of research has investigated how conducting counts for different lengths of time affects the accuracy of these counts and the subsequent ability to monitor changes in population trends. However, little work has been done io assess how changes in count duration affect bird-habitat...

  16. Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, JinJun; Weaver, Amanda; Gerrard, David E.; Yao, Gang

    2006-07-01

    Normal biomechanical and physiological functions of striated muscles are facilitated by the repeating sarcomere units. Light scattering technique has been used in studying single extracted muscle fibers. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted to investigate the possibility of using optical detection to examine sarcomere structure changes in whole muscles. We conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate that optical scattering properties measured in whole muscle are related to changes in sarcomere structure. These results suggest that photon migration technique has a potential for characterizing in vivo tissue ultrastructure changes in whole muscle.

  17. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Physical Activity on Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Lidija; Peacock, Sarah D; Massey, Thomas E; King, Will D

    2016-02-01

    Telomeres protect from DNA degradation and maintain chromosomal stability. Short telomeres have been associated with an increased risk of cancer at several sites. However, there is limited knowledge about the lifestyle determinants of telomere length. We aimed to determine the effect of three factors, known to be important in cancer etiology, on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL): alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 477 healthy volunteers ages 20 to 50 years who completed a questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample. Multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to measure rLTL. Regression coefficients were calculated using multiple linear regression while controlling for important covariates. There was no association between alcohol consumption and rLTL. Daily smokers and those in the middle and lower tertile of pack-years smoking had shorter rLTL than never daily smokers (P = 0.02). Data were suggestive of a linear trend with total physical activity (P = 0.06). Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of vigorous physical activity was associated with longer rLTL. A significant linear trend of increasing rLTL with increasing vigorous physical activity was observed (P = 0.02). Cigarette smoking and vigorous physical activity have an impact on telomere length. Smoking was related to shorter telomere length while vigorous physical activity was related to longer telomeres. The findings from this study suggest that lifestyle may play an important role in telomere dynamics and also suggest that engaging in healthy behaviors may mitigate the effect of harmful behaviors on telomere length. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Can visual aides influence rehabilitation and length of stay following knee replacement? A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Abson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthroplasty is increasingly performed within Australia, with a 2.7% rate increase of total knee arthroplasty (TKR over the last year. With an increasing burden on the public health system and increasing waiting lists, all efforts are being made to decrease length of stay and improve the post operative rehabilitation process. There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about visual aids and improved goal attainment post TKR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate one such visual aid clinical photographs of patients knee range of motion (ROM pre- and post-operatively and their effect on length of stay. Photographs of knee range of motion were obtained pre and post-operatively while the patient was anesthetized. In this study, a randomized, single blinded design allocated patients to either be shown or not shown their photographs on day 1 post operatively. Primary outcome measures were the number of days the patient remained in hospital. Secondary measures were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores, Oxford Knee Scores, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score and knee ROM. Thirty-two patients (3 exclusions were randomized to the photo group and 27 patients (4 exclusions were randomized to the no photo group. The median length of stay between groups was not significantly different. Currently there is not enough evidence to conclude that visual aids effect length of stay or rehabilitation pathways. Further assessment with larger cohort groups is needed. Preoperative targeting and rehabilitation for patients with lower functional status may shorten post operative length of patient stay in our institution.

  19. Influence of acyl chain lengths in mono- and diacyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine on gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswoyo, T A; Morita, N

    2001-10-01

    The influence of starch with 1- or 2-monoacyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) having various chain lengths of fatty acids on gelatinization and retrogradation of starch was studied by the measurement of starch-GPC complex formation, complexing index, and differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of GPC to the starch sample slightly increased the blue value and lambda(max) with increasing chain length of GPC but decreased the phosphorus content and complexing index. The gelatinization onset and peak temperatures of starch complexes increased significantly with increasing chain length, but the enthalpies were statistically lower, except for the treatment with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-GPC when compared with that of the control. Among GPC (di and mono), 1- and 2-monomyristoyl-sn-GPC showed the highest complexing ability, whereas the complexing ability of the GPC decreased with the increasing chain length. According to the Avrami equation, the retrogradation rate (k, day(-1)) of starch was slower than that of the control, whereas the retrogradation rates of 1- and 2-monomyristoyl-sn-GPC were slowest among the GPCs. The positive linear relationship between k and the number of acyl groups of GPC suggests that a GPC with a shorter chain length could retard the retrogradation of starch during storage.

  20. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Oliveira Batista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls.METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05 were used.RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups.CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  1. Temperature influence on phases of the tension response to sudden reduction of muscle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, G; Patzak, A

    1989-01-01

    Phasic tension transients following a quick release in muscle length were studied to obtain information about the mechanism of force generation at different temperatures. The isometric tetanic tension increased (Q10 = 1.5) in the temperature range of 1.4 degrees C to 11.4 degrees C. The instantaneous stiffness (tension drop during the applied quick release in relation to the percentage of change of length) is slightly reduced by increasing temperature (Q10 = 0.9). The rate constant of the early tension recovery (phase 2) increased with increasing temperature (Q10 = 1.8). The results indicate that the increase of tetanic tension with increasing temperature is due to an increasing amount of force, generated by each cross bridge and a higher speed of rotation of the myosin head. The number of force generating cross bridges defined by the instantaneous elasticity is nearly independent of temperature range studied.

  2. Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.

  3. INFLUENCE OF THE LENGTH OF FRUIT VINES ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MOLDOVA GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of different lengths of fruit vines with the same load wintering buds of bushes on the yield and quality of Moldova grapes. It was found that the biological indicators of fruiting Moldova grapes improved by lengthening fruit vines, taking into account weather conditions. Shortening the vines increases germination and fruitfulness degree base buds and reserve buds. Productivity is increased by lengthening fruit vines. It is determined by the degree of fruitfulness buds of the vine, the development of floscules of wintering buds, bunch and berries weight, number of berries in bunches. The optimum is pruning vines to 10-12 buds. Harmonious taste, weight of bunches and berries, transportability factor fixed high yield of grapes standard (85,6-86,4% with different length of fruit vines. The highest productivity of leaves makes pruning fruit vines to 10-12 buds. The strength of shoot growth and volume growth of bushes reduced at an elongation of the fruit vines. The more moderate growth of shoots observed at long (10-12 buds pruning vines. There is no significant difference to the degree of maturation of shoots with different length vines. In order to increase the yield of Moldova grapes in the central zone of the Krasnodar region expedient cut fruit vines to 10-12 buds

  4. Influence of alkane chain length on adsorption on an α-alumina surface by MD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, C. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Pandiyan, S. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Mether, L. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Belmahi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Philipp, P., E-mail: philipp@lippmann.lu [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-06-01

    Plasma surface techniques provide both an efficient and ecological tool for the functionalization of surfaces. Hence, a proper understanding of the plasma–surface interactions of precursors and radicals during the deposition process is of great importance. Especially during the initial deposition process, the deposition of molecules and fragments is difficult to investigate by experimental techniques and import insights can be obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, the reactive force field developed by the group of Kieffer at the University of Michigan was used to study the adsorption of single linear alkane chains on an α-alumina surface. The chain length was changed from 6 backbone carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms, the deposition energy from 0.01 to 10 eV and the incidence angle from 0° to 60° with respect to the surface normal. Results show that the adsorption depends a lot on the ratio of deposition energy to alkane chain length and the incidence angle. More grazing incidence reduces the adsorption probability and a low ratio of energy to chain length increases it.

  5. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  6. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.

  7. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milojević Vladimir S; Nikolić Ljubiša B; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder...

  9. Influence of refrigeration length and of sugar addition on ascorbic acid content in some natural juices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Avramiuc; Liviu Fartaies

    2009-01-01

    Following some studies concerning the main factors influencing the concentration of vitamins within food raw materials, especially ascorbic acid, this work tries to evidence the influence of the refrigeration temperature and of the sucrose addition on content of this vitamin in three types of natural juice. The biological material was represented by orange, strawberry and kivi natural juices, obtained from these fruits by means a crushing out process. For each type of juice there ...

  10. The influence of the excitation pulse length on ultrafast magnetization dynamics in nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fognini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced demagnetization of a ferromagnet is caused by the temperature of the electron gas as well as the lattice temperature. For long excitation pulses, the two reservoirs are in thermal equilibrium. In contrast to a picosecond laser pulse, a femtosecond pulse causes a non-equilibrium between the electron gas and the lattice. By pump pulse length dependent optical measurements, we find that the magnetodynamics in Ni caused by a picosecond laser pulse can be reconstructed from the response to a femtosecond pulse. The mechanism responsible for demagnetization on the picosecond time scale is therefore contained in the femtosecond demagnetization experiment.

  11. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  12. On the influence of free-stream turbulence length scales on boundary-layer transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Jens; Shahinfar, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    A measurement campaign on the free-stream turbulence (FST) induced boundary layer transition has been carried out in the Minimum-Turbulence-Level wind tunnel at KTH. Previous numerical investigations where the turbulence intensity (Tu) has been kept constant, while the integral length scale (Λx) has been varied, have shown that the transition location is advanced for increasing Λx. The present measurement campaign has been carried out using hot-wire anemometry and consists of 42 unique FST conditions with thorough measurements throughout the transitional region. Unlike other extensive FST induced transition measurements the free-stream velocity was here kept constant for all cases, implying that the boundary layer scale is locked up to transition onset. Our measurements confirm previous results on the advancement of the transition location with increasing Λx for low to moderate Tu levels, but show the opposite effect for higher levels, i.e. a delay in the transition location for larger Λx, which to the knowledge of the present authors so far is unreported. In addition, the common belief that the FST length scales have a negligible effect on the transition location with regards to the Tu level does not seem to be fully true.

  13. Influence of linker length and composition on enzymatic activity and ribosomal binding of neomycin dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Derrick; Kumar, Sunil; Green, Keith D; Arya, Dev P; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    The human and bacterial A site rRNA binding as well as the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) activity against a series of neomycin B (NEO) dimers is presented. The data indicate that by simple modifications of linker length and composition, substantial differences in rRNA selectivity and AME activity can be obtained. We tested five different AMEs with dimeric NEO dimers that were tethered via triazole, urea, and thiourea linkages. We show that triazole-linked dimers were the worst substrates for most AMEs, with those containing the longer linkers showing the largest decrease in activity. Thiourea-linked dimers that showed a decrease in activity by AMEs also showed increased bacterial A site binding, with one compound (compound 14) even showing substantially reduced human A site binding. The urea-linked dimers showed a substantial decrease in activity by AMEs when a conformationally restrictive phenyl linker was introduced. The information learned herein advances our understanding of the importance of the linker length and composition for the generation of dimeric aminoglycoside antibiotics capable of avoiding the action of AMEs and selective binding to the bacterial rRNA over binding to the human rRNA.

  14. The Influence of Fluid Overload on the Length of Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Congenital Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Tatiana Z A L; O'Hearn, Katie; Reddy, Deepti; Menon, Kusum

    2015-12-01

    Fluid overload and prolonged mechanical ventilation lead to worse outcomes in critically ill children. However, the association between these variables in children following congenital heart surgery is unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the association between fluid overload and duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirement and radiologic findings of pulmonary and chest wall edema. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent congenital heart surgery between June 2010 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate associations between maximum cumulative fluid balance and length of mechanical ventilation and OI were tested using the Spearman correlation test and multiple linear regression models, respectively. There were 85 eligible patients. Maximum cumulative fluid balance was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted analysis beta coefficient = 0.53, CI 0.38-0.66, P Fluid overload is associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and PICU length of stay after congenital heart surgery. Fluid overload was also associated with physiological markers of respiratory restriction. A randomized controlled trial of a restrictive versus liberal fluid replacement strategy is necessary in this patient population, but in the meantime, accumulating observational evidence suggests that cautious use of fluid in the postoperative care may be warranted.

  15. Interaction between two solid surfaces across PDMS : influence of chain length and end group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, G.X.; Stark, R.; Kappl, M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Butt, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Forces between solid surfaces across polymer melts are poorly understood despite their importance for adhesion and composite materials. Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) this force was measured for poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) on silicon oxide. The influence of molecular weight (4.0-40 kDa) w

  16. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128......Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...

  17. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness and Corneal Curvature and Axial Length on the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Minru Li; Zhigang Fan; Ningli Wang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), and axial length (AL) on intraocular pressure (IOP).Methods: Eighty-one clinically normal eyes were included in our study. The IOP, CCT, CC, AL were measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer, optical pachymeter, keratometer and A-scan ultrasound biometer respectively in all subjects.Results: A highly significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CCT. Linear regression analysis suggests that an increase in CCT of 0. 010 mm is associated with a 4. 946 mmHg increment in IOP. No significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CC. P values are 0. 724 and 0.414 respectively for vertical and horizontal readings. A paradoxically reversed correlation was present between IOP and axial length.Conclusion: Corneal thickness is a very important confounding factor in the measurement of intraocular pressure, which warrants further attention in our clinical practice.

  18. Influence of Length of Opposing bi-Au Cone-Tips and Different Environment on Field Enhancement in Feed Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Feng; WU Shi-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Electric field enhancement distributions encountered in feed gap of opposing bi-Au cone-tips is studied using a frequency-domain three-dimensional finite element method to solve Maxwell's equations of electric field distributions. Both the influences of cone-tip length and surrounding medium on electric field enhancement are investigated. The maximal enhancement value is discussed in terms of a simple physical model based on a standing wave on the tip surface associated with the antenna effect and surface plasmon. Simulated results demonstrate the enhancement is sensitive to the tip length. By selecting a suitably matched scale according to the incident wavelength, a large enhancement value can be observed within a small focused spot between the opposing tips permitting a high spatial resolution. The relative position of the opposing tips is also found for the optimum enhancement. All of the results suggest that our configuration is suitable for the site-specific Raman spectroscopic analysis at nanoscale.

  19. Variants in TERT influencing telomere length are associated with paranoid schizophrenia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuquan; Ye, Ning; Hu, Huiling; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders, with a high heritability of up to 80%. Several studies have reported telomere dysfunction in schizophrenia, and common variants in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. TERT is a key component of the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length by addition of telomere repeats to telomere ends, and has repeatedly shown association with mean lymphocyte telomere length (LTL). Thus, we hypothesized that TERT may be a novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Using a Taqman protocol, we genotyped eight tag SNPs from the TERT locus in 1,072 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 1,284 control subjects from a Chinese Han population. We also measured mean LTL in 98 cases and 109 controls using a quantitative PCR-based technique. Chi-square tests showed that two SNPs, rs2075786 (P = 0.0009, OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.65-0.90) and rs4975605 (P = 0.0026, OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.60-0.90), were associated with a protective effect, while rs10069690 was associated with risk of paranoid schizophrenia (P = 0.0044, OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42). Additionally, the rs2736118-rs2075786 haplotype showed significant association with paranoid schizophrenia (P = 0.0013). Moreover, mean LTL correlated with rs2075786 genotypes was significantly shorter in the patient group than the control group. The present results suggest that the TERT gene may be a novel candidate involved in the development of paranoid schizophrenia.

  20. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević Vladimir S.; Nikolić Ljubiša B.; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that signifi...

  1. Influence of lactation length and gonadotrophins administered at weaning on fertility of primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, D M; Friendship, R M; Greiner, L; Manjarin, R; Amezcua, M R; Dominguez, J C; Kirkwood, R N

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lactation length and treatment with gonadotrophins at weaning on reproductive performance of primiparous sows. After 3 wk of lactation, primiparous sows were either weaned (W3; n=273) or received a 7-d-old foster litter for a further 14 d of suckling (W5; n=199). At final weaning (3 wk or 5 wk lactation) sows were randomly assigned to receive an injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (PG600(®); W3 + P; n=108 and W5 + P; n=96) or no injection (W3; n=165 and W5; n=103). Sows were inseminated at first observed estrus after final weaning and 24h later. The proportion of sows showing estrus by 6 d post-weaning was greater (Psows culled before breeding. Total born litter size was smaller (P=0.05) for W3 + P (11.7 ± 0.4) compared to W3 (12.6 ± 0.3). However, sows that lactated for 35 d had larger litters than sows that lactated for 21 d regardless of gonadotrophin treatment (14 ± 0.5 and 14.5 ± 0.4 for W5+P and W5, respectively; Psows, a longer lactation improves total born litter size at their next farrowing. Gonadotrophin treatment is useful in shortening the weaning to estrus interval but subsequent total born litter size may be negatively affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Free-end saddle length influence on stress level in unilateral complex partial denture abutment teeth and retention elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrnogić, Vesna; Todorović, Aleksandar; Sćepanović, Miodrag; Radović, Katarina; Vesnić, Jelena; Grbović, Aleksandar

    2013-11-01

    Different types of dental restorations are used for the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle edentulism. Unilateral complex partial denture is one of the indications for the Kennedy class II partial edentulism. The abscence of major connector and denture plate is an advantage compared to the conventional restorations, because of better comfort and shorter period of adaptation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of free-end saddle length change on the behaviour of unilateral complex partial denture supporting structures. Stress levels of the canine and the first premolar as retentional teeth and the attachments were tested under the influence of physiological forces with the loading point shifting distally in relation to the saddle length change. A virtual real size 3D model of the fixed part of the restoration (the canine and the first premolar with milled crowns) was created using the CATIA computer program. It was connected to the mobile part of partial denture with the SD snap in latch attachment. Mobile part of the restoration was designed in the region of 2, 3 and 4 lateral teeth (second premolar, first, second and third molar). By using the finite element method (FEM) stress levels analysis was performed under the load of physiological forces of 150 N in the free-end saddle teeth zone. The results of analysis show that physiological forces cause a different stress distribution on the abutment teeth and the attachment, depending on the saddle length. The stress level values obtained for the abutment teeth as well as the attachment are far lower than the marginal ones. The behaviour of the system changes under this defined stress, but no plastic deformation occurs.

  3. Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE←fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

  4. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  5. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  6. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.

  7. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called "hinge region" of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  8. Gramicidin channel-induced lipid membrane deformation energy: influence of chain length and boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, A

    1996-01-31

    The influence of boundary conditions on the deformation energy of a lipid membrane containing a gramicidin A channel was evaluated numerically. A liquid crystal model was used to calculate the relative contributions of compression, splay and surface tension. It is proposed that the nearest neighbor lipid molecules are displaced from the channel end in a direction perpendicular to the bilayer and it is concluded that surface tension is the major component of the deformation free energy for monoolein (gmo)/n-alkane membranes. This unexpected result supports the validity of the liquid crystal models of membrane deformation since gramicidin lifetime has been shown to correlate with surface tension for gmo membranes. The theory accurately predicts the experimentally measured relative lifetimes without the use of adjustable parameters. For conditions where splay may be neglected surface tension is always the major component of the deformation energy, irrespective of the magnitude of the compression coefficient. The deformation may extend for hundreds of angstroms from the peptide. The results obtained here are expected to be important for the characterization of protein-membrane interactions in general.

  9. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  10. Influence of length of direct insert on safety of motion of cars on contiguous switches laid according to the second scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Moyseyenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of an experimental research of influence of length of a direct insert between adjacent switches, laid according to the second scheme, on traffic safety of cars (by a criterion of derailment resistance.

  11. Randomized Trial on the Influence of the Length of Two Insulin Pen Needles on Glycemic Control and Patient Preference in Obese Patients with Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreugel, Gillian; Keers, Joost C.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study determined the influence of needle length for insulin administration on metabolic control and patient preference in obese patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: In this multicenter, open-label crossover study, insulin pen needles of two different lengths (5 mm and 8 mm) were

  12. Influence of Intraocular Lens Material and Eye Axial Length on Posterior Capsule Opacification Dynamic Rate and Frequency

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    G. V. Sorokoletov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate posterior capsule opacification (PCO formation dynamic rate and frequency in artificial eyes with myopia in different terms after cataract extraction and it’s relation with IOL material. Patients and methods. An evaluation of PCO formationdynamic rate and frequency was done by using a retrospective analysis of YAG-laser assist posterior capsule dissections in different terms after cataract extraction on 45640 eyes of 43520 patients with emmetropia and myopia without concomitant pathology.The mean patient’s age was 73±7 years and the least follow-up after  hacoemulsification was 5 years. All eyes were divided on two groups. The first group included 25339 eyes where a hydrophilic IOL was implanted; the second group included 20301 eyes where a hydrophobic IOL was implanted. Results. At the first group the YAG-laser assist posterior capsule dissection was done on 2128 (8,4% eyes. It was shown a proportional influence of axial length on PCO frequency but more rapidly the PCO rate increased between 26 to 28 mm and then this parameter had stabilization. The PCO dynamic rate had a normal statistical corresponding in the group with maximum at third postoperative year. At the second group YAG-laser assist posterior capsule dissection was done on 244 (1,2% eyes. It was shown a proportional influence of axial length on PCO frequency too. But increasing of axial length more than 28 mmincreased PCO rate correspondingly that differ the second group from the first. The PCO dynamic rate had an inversely proportional character in the group. Comparing the PCO frequency in both groups showed that hydrophobic material has less PCO rate with any axial length and every time of follow-up. Conclusion. An IOL’s material plays an important role in PCO formation and PCO formation dynamic rate. Hydrophobic material has a statistically significant less PCO frequency through five-year follow-up in eyes with myopia and emmetropia. The PCO dynamic

  13. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components.

  14. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Tehran, Iran

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    Amin Torabipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Length of hospital stay (LOS is a key indicator for hospital management. Reducing hospital stay is a priority for all health systems. We aimed to determine the length of hospital stay following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG based on its clinical and non-clinical factors. A cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Shariati university hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Data was analyzed by using non-parametric univariate tests and multiple linier regression models. Thirty seven independent variables including pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative variables were analyzed. Finally, an appropriate model was constructed based on the associated factors. The results showed that 70.3% of the patients were male, and the mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The Mean (±SD and median of the LOS were 11.7 ± 7.1 and 9 days, respectively. Of 37 investigated variables, 24 qualitative and quantitative variables were significantly associated with length of stay (p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that independent variables including age, medical insurance type, body mass index, and prior myocardial infarction; admission day, admission season, Cross-clamp time, pump usage, admission type, the number of laboratory tests and the number of specialty consultation had more effect on the hospital stay. We concluded that some significant factors influencing hospital stay after CABG were predictable and modifiable by hospital managers and decision makers to manage hospital beds.

  15. Influence of the hydrophilic head size and hydrophobic tail length of surfactants on the ability of micelles to stabilize citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Rac; Park, Sung Joon; Choi, Seung Jun

    2016-07-01

    Surfactant-made micelles can control the rate of chemical degradation of poorly water-soluble food flavors. To evaluate how the molecular structure of surfactant has an influence on the chemical decomposition rate of citral, micelles were prepared with polyoxyethylene alkyl ether-type surfactants that had similar molecular structures but various hydrophilic head sizes and hydrophobic tail lengths. At a critical 20× micelle concentration of surfactant, there was no significant difference in the chemical degradation rate of citral in micelles in neutral pH, regardless of the hydrophilic head size or hydrophobic tail length. In an acidic environment, the degradation rate constant of citral generally increased proportionally with increasing hydrophilic head size of surfactant (0.1563 and 0.2217 for surfactants with 23 and 100 oxyethylene units, respectively) but the length of hydrophobic tail did not affect the citral stability. Also, little difference (0.2217 and 0.2265 for surfactant having 100 oxyethylene units with and without Fe(3+) ) in degradation rate constant of citral between simple micellar solution and micellar solution containing iron suggested that iron ions could not accelerate citral degradation in micelles, regardless of the form of iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ). This work concludes that although the concentration of surfactant could be relevant, if its concentration could be controlled in the same manner as the critical micelle concentration, then a polyethylene alkyl ether-type surfactant with a small hydrophilic head could more efficiently stabilize citral at an acidic pH. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance

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    Omar M. Pecho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB length and polarization resistance (Rpol. Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance. However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and Rpol. The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and Rpol. In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPBactive by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPBactive, effective ionic conductivity are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  17. Cell envelope components influencing filament length in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico; Flores, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of strains with mutations in genes encoding cell envelope components. Previously published peptidoglycan- and outer membrane-related gene mutants and strains with mutations in two genes (all5045 and alr0718) encoding class B penicillin-binding proteins isolated in this work were used. Our results show that filament length is affected in most cell envelope mutants, but the filaments of alr5045 and alr2270 gene mutants were particularly fragmented. All5045 is a dd-transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan elongation during cell growth, and Alr2270 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a key component of lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that both components of the cell envelope, the murein sacculus and the outer membrane, influence filamentation. As deduced from the filament fragmentation phenotypes of their mutants, however, none of these elements is as important for filamentation as the septal protein SepJ.

  18. Influence of intron length on interaction characters between post-spliced intron and its CDS in ribosomal protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqing; Li, Hong; Bao, Tonglaga; Ying, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Many experiment evidences showed that sequence structures of introns and intron loss/gain can influence gene expression, but current mechanisms did not refer to the functions of post-spliced introns directly. We propose that postspliced introns play their functions in gene expression by interacting with their mRNA sequences and the interaction is characterized by the matched segments between introns and their CDS. In this study, we investigated the interaction characters with length series by improved Smith-Waterman local alignment software for the ribosomal protein genes in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. Our results showed that RF values of five intron groups are significantly high in the central non-conserved region and very low in 5'-end and 3'-end splicing region. It is interesting that the number of the optimal matched regions gradually increases with intron length. Distributions of the optimal matched regions are different for five intron groups. Our study revealed that there are more interaction regions between longer introns and their CDS than shorter, and it provides a positive pattern for regulating the gene expression.

  19. Uptake, transport and peroral absorption of fatty glyceride grafted chitosan copolymer-enoxaparin nanocomplexes: influence of glyceride chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Sun, Yujiao; Shi, Chenjun; Li, Liang; Guan, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Rui; Duan, Xiaopin; Li, Yaping; Mao, Shirui

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to elucidate the influence of fatty glyceride chain length in chitosan copolymers on the peroral absorption of enoxaparin. First of all, a series of chitosan copolymers with glyceryl monocaprylate (GM8), glyceryl monolaurate (GM12) and glyceryl monostearate (GM18) as the hydrophobic part were synthesized. The structure of the copolymers was characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated that all the copolymers were non-toxic. Enoxaparin nanocomplexes were prepared by self-assembly. Mucoadhesion of the nanocomplexes was characterized using the mucin particle method. Nanocomplex uptake and transport were quantified in Caco-2 cells and cellular localization was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Enoxaparin uptake was enhanced by nanocomplex formation, and was dependent on incubation time, concentration, temperature and glyceride chain length. The GM8 grafted chitosan-enoxaparin nanocomplex exhibited the strongest bioadhesion and the best uptake and transport in both cell culture and in vivo absorption in rats. The uptake mechanism was assumed to be adsorptive endocytosis via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes. In conclusion, oral absorption of enoxaparin can be further enhanced by using GM8 grafted chitosan copolymer as the carrier to form nanocomplexes.

  20. Contractile activity is required for Z-disc sarcomere maturation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, Timothy J; Hirst, Elizabeth MA; Zimmerman, Lyle B

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomere structure underpins structural integrity, signaling, and force transmission in the muscle. In embryos of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, muscle contraction begins even while sarcomerogenesis is ongoing. To determine whether contractile activity plays a role in sarcomere formation in vivo, chemical tools were used to block acto-myosin contraction in embryos of the frog X. tropicalis, and Z-disc assembly was characterized in the paralyzed dicky ticker mutant. Confocal and ultrastructure analysis of paralyzed embryos showed delayed Z-disc formation and defects in thick filament organization. These results suggest a previously undescribed role for contractility in sarcomere maturation in vivo. genesis 53:299–307, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845369

  1. Contribution of Post-translational Phosphorylation to Sarcomere-linked Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Westfall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary shifts develop in post-translational phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in multi¬ple animal models of inherited cardiomyopathy. These signaling alterations together with the primary mutation are predicted to contribute to the overall cardiac phenotype. As a result, identification and integration of post-translational myofilament signaling responses are identified as priorities for gaining insights into sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. However, significant questions remain about the nature and contribution of post-translational phosphorylation to structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in animal models and human patients. This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. The discussion focuses primarily on pre-clinical analysis of animal models and defines challenges and future directions in this field.

  2. Echocardiographic strain imaging to assess early and late consequences of sarcomere mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Carlsen, Christian; Thune, Jens Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    preclinical (G+/LVH-), 40 overt (G+/LVH+) subjects with HCM, and 38 mutation (-) normal control relatives. All subjects had normal left ventricular ejection fraction. In preclinical HCM, global and regional peak systolic strain (epsilon(sys)) and longitudinal systolic strain rate were not significantly......BACKGROUND: Genetic testing identifies sarcomere mutation carriers (G+) before clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), allowing characterization of initial disease manifestations. Previous studies demonstrated that impaired relaxation develops before left ventricular hypertrophy...... (LVH). The precise impact of sarcomere mutations on systolic function in early and late disease is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comprehensive echocardiography with strain imaging was performed on 146 genotyped individuals with mutations in 5 sarcomere genes. Contractile parameters were compared in 68...

  3. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  4. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2009-11-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  5. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Norio, E-mail: noriof@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Cell Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwata, Shin’ichi, E-mail: ishiwata@waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); WASEDA Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABIOS) (Singapore)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  6. Influence of access to an integrated trauma system on in-hospital mortality and length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuimi, Brice L Batomen; Moore, Lynne; Cissé, Brahim; Gagné, Mathieu; Lavoie, André; Bourgeois, Gilles; Lapointe, Jean

    2015-07-01

    Few data are available on population-based access to specialised trauma care and its influence on patient outcomes in an integrated trauma system. We aimed to evaluate the influence of access to an integrate trauma system on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). All adults admitted to acute care hospitals for major trauma [International Classification of Diseases Injury Severity Score (ICISStrauma system between 2006 and 2011 were included using an administrative hospital discharge database. The influence of access to an integrated trauma system on in-hospital mortality and LOS was assessed globally and for critically injured patients (ICISSinjury [traumatic brain injury (TBI), abdominal/thoracic, spine, orthopaedic] using logistic and linear multivariable regression models. We identified 22,749 injury admissions. In-hospital mortality was 7% and median LOS was 9 days for all injuries. Overall, 92% of patients were treated within the trauma system. Globally, patients who did not have access had similar mortality and LOS compared to patients who had access. However, we observed a 62% reduction in mortality for critical abdominal/thoracic injuries (odds ratio=0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.92) and an 8% increase in LOS for TBI patients (geometric mean ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14) treated within the trauma system. Results provides evidence that in a health system with an integrated mature trauma system, access to specialised trauma care is high and the small proportion of patients treated outside the system, have similar mortality and LOS compared to patients treated within the system. This study suggests that the Québec trauma system performs well in its mandate to offer appropriate treatment to victims of injury that require specialised care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Physician Communication Style on Overweight Patients’ Perceptions of Length of Encounter and Physician Being Rushed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Pål; Østbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; Tulsky, James A.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Pollak, Kathryn I.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about how patients and physicians perceive time and the extent to which they perceive the physician being rushed during encounters. One aim of this paper is to examine whether patient and physician characteristics and physician communication influence patient perception of the duration of the encounter and their perception of physicians being rushed. Another aim is to examine the relationship between patient and physician perceptions of physicians feeling rushed. METHODS We audiorecorded 461 encounters of overweight or obese patients with 40 primary care physicians and included 320 encounters in which weight was discussed. We calculated time spent with physician and coded all communication about weight using the Motivational Interview Treatment Integrity scale (MITI). Patients completed post-visit questionnaires in which they reported the estimated duration of the encounter and how rushed they thought the physician was during the encounter. Physicians reported how rushed they felt. RESULTS Patients estimated encounters to be longer than they actually were by an average of 2.6 minutes (SD=11.0). When physicians used reflective statements when discussing weight, patients estimated the encounter to be shorter than when physicians did not use reflective statements (1.17 versus 4.56 minutes more than actual duration). Whites perceived the encounter as shorter than African Americans (1.45 versus 4.28 minutes more than actual duration). Physicians felt rushed in 66% of visits; however, most patients did not perceive this. Internists were perceived to be more rushed than family physicians. CONCLUSIONS There is wide variation in patients’ ability to estimate the length of time they spend with their physician. Some physician and patient characteristics were related to patient perceptions of the length of the encounter. Reflective statements might lead patients to perceive encounters as shorter. Physicians, especially family

  8. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  9. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J;

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully...

  10. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully ch...

  11. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  12. NMII forms a contractile transcellular sarcomeric network to regulate apical cell junctions and tissue geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Seham; Fujita, Tomoki; Millis, Bryan A; Kozin, Elliott; Ma, Xuefei; Kawamoto, Sachiyo; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Kachar, Bechara

    2013-04-22

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is thought to be the master integrator of force within epithelial apical junctions, mediating epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tensional homeostasis. Mutations in NMII are associated with a number of diseases due to failures in cell-cell adhesion. However, the organization and the precise mechanism by which NMII generates and responds to tension along the intercellular junctional line are still not known. We discovered that periodic assemblies of bipolar NMII filaments interlace with perijunctional actin and α-actinin to form a continuous belt of muscle-like sarcomeric units (∼400-600 nm) around each epithelial cell. Remarkably, the sarcomeres of adjacent cells are precisely paired across the junctional line, forming an integrated, transcellular contractile network. The contraction/relaxation of paired sarcomeres concomitantly impacts changes in apical cell shape and tissue geometry. We show differential distribution of NMII isoforms across heterotypic junctions and evidence for compensation between isoforms. Our results provide a model for how NMII force generation is effected along the junctional perimeter of each cell and communicated across neighboring cells in the epithelial organization. The sarcomeric network also provides a well-defined target to investigate the multiple roles of NMII in junctional homeostasis as well as in development and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Force Responses and Sarcomere Dynamics of Cardiac Myofibrils Induced by Rapid Changes in [Pi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert

    2017-01-24

    The second phase of the biphasic force decay upon release of phosphate from caged phosphate was previously interpreted as a signature of kinetics of the force-generating step in the cross-bridge cycle. To test this hypothesis without using caged compounds, force responses and individual sarcomere dynamics upon rapid increases or decreases in concentration of inorganic phosphate [Pi] were investigated in calcium-activated cardiac myofibrils. Rapid increases in [Pi] induced a biphasic force decay with an initial slow decline (phase 1) and a subsequent 3-5-fold faster major decay (phase 2). Phase 2 started with the distinct elongation of a single sarcomere, the so-called sarcomere "give". "Give" then propagated from sarcomere to sarcomere along the myofibril. Propagation speed and rate constant of phase 2 (k+Pi(2)) had a similar [Pi]-dependence, indicating that the kinetics of the major force decay (phase 2) upon rapid increase in [Pi] is determined by sarcomere dynamics. In contrast, no "give" was observed during phase 1 after rapid [Pi]-increase (rate constant k+Pi(1)) and during the single-exponential force rise (rate constant k-Pi) after rapid [Pi]-decrease. The values of k+Pi(1) and k-Pi were similar to the rate constant of mechanically induced force redevelopment (kTR) and Ca(2+)-induced force development (kACT) measured at same [Pi]. These results indicate that the major phase 2 of force decay upon a Pi-jump does not reflect kinetics of the force-generating step but results from sarcomere "give". The other phases of Pi-induced force kinetics that occur in the absence of "give" yield the same information as mechanically and Ca(2+)-induced force kinetics (k+Pi(1) ∼ k-Pi ∼ kTR ∼ kACT). Model simulations indicate that Pi-induced force kinetics neither enable the separation of Pi-release from the rate-limiting transition f into force states nor differentiate whether the "force-generating step" occurs before, along, or after the Pi-release.

  14. Numerical simulation of weld tab length influence on welding residual stress and distortion of aero-engine disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qiu ZHANG; Jian-guo YANG; Xue-song LIU; Xu-hui CHEN; Hong-yuan FANG; Shen QU

    2009-01-01

    In order to control the welding residual stress and distortion to the greatest extent, based on the MSC. MARC software platform and adopting the impending critical value methods gradually, the welding residual stress and distortion are calculated through varying the weld tab length values. The results show that different weld tab lengths only have a slight effect on welding residual stress but a significant effect on welding distortion. According to the calculation results with different weld tab lengths, the critical length value for the 100 mm-length TC4 alloy weld for electron beam welding of an integral disk should be 50 mm or so.

  15. Palladium Catalysts for Fatty Acid Deoxygenation: Influence of the Support and Fatty Acid Chain Length on Decarboxylation Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, JP; Immer, JG; Lamb, HH

    2012-03-29

    Supported metal catalysts containing 5 wt% Pd on silica, alumina, and activated carbon were evaluated for liquid-phase deoxygenation of stearic (octadecanoic), lauric (dodecanoic), and capric (decanoic) acids under 5 % H-2 at 300 A degrees C and 15 atm. On-line quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was used to measure CO + CO2 yield, CO2 selectivity, H-2 consumption, and initial decarboxylation rate. Post-reaction analysis of liquid products by gas chromatography was used to determine n-alkane yields. The Pd/C catalyst was highly active and selective for stearic acid (SA) decarboxylation under these conditions. In contrast, SA deoxygenation over Pd/SiO2 occurred primarily via decarbonylation and at a much slower rate. Pd/Al2O3 exhibited high initial SA decarboxylation activity but deactivated under the test conditions. Similar CO2 selectivity patterns among the catalysts were observed for deoxygenation of lauric and capric acids; however, the initial decarboxylation rates tended to be lower for these substrates. The influence of alkyl chain length on deoxygenation kinetics was investigated for a homologous series of C-10-C-18 fatty acids using the Pd/C catalyst. As fatty acid carbon number decreases, reaction time and H-2 consumption increase, and CO2 selectivity and initial decarboxylation rate decrease. The increase in initial decarboxylation rates for longer chain fatty acids is attributed to their greater propensity for adsorption on the activated carbon support.

  16. Influence of pH and length of post-treatment incubation on bleomycin-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.W.; Vossler, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the extent of DNA damage by anticancer bleomycin on pH and length of post-treatment incubation was studied in yeast. Bleomycin was always removed from cells after 20-min exposures, and cells were washed prior to incubation in non-nutrient buffer. Following exposures of late stationary-phase cells to the very low dose of only 3 ..mu..g/ml, 1.5 h incubation in non-nutrient buffer, pH 5, had hardly any effect on profiles derived from alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation of nucleic acids released from spheroplasts. In contrast, after incubation of cells for 1.5 h in buffer, pH 7, DNA was all low molecular weight. Thus, even after extensive washing of cells, pH strongly influences the drug's action on DNA. At pH 5, washed cells were increasingly susceptible to DNA damage up to 26 h in non-nutrient buffer.

  17. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  18. Elevation of a patient's trunk and legs does not influence length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Omati

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patient recovery time after anesthesia depends on problem-oriented monitoring and individual assessment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of patient positioning on post-anesthesia recovery time. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. SETTING: Post-anesthesia care unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo. METHODS: Data were obtained from patients recovering from anesthesia in a supine horizontal position or with their trunk and legs elevated at 30 degrees. Data were recorded every 30 minutes. The start time was considered to be the admission to the unit, and the final measurement was taken when the patient reached an Aldrete-Kroulik index of 10. The length of time until discharge was recorded. RESULTS: 442 patients recovering after general (n = 274 or regional anesthesia (n = 168 were assigned to be kept in a supine position or with their trunk and legs elevated. There was no difference in the medians for non-parametric results, between supine position (75 min, n = 229 and trunk and legs elevated (70 min, n = 213; p = 0.729. Patients recovered faster from regional anesthesia with trunk and legs elevated (70 min than in the supine position (84.5 min, although not significantly (p = 0.097. There was no difference between patients recovering from general anesthesia, no matter the positioning (70 min; p = 0.493. DISCUSSION: Elevated legs may supposedly improve venous return and cardiac output since spinal anesthesia blocks sympathetic system and considering leg-raising has been shown to improve cardiac output from hipovolemia. Our findings did not support this hypothesis. Some limitations included a retrospective collection of data that did not allow randomization for recovery position and the unregistered duration of the exposure to the anesthetic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in anesthesia recovery time in relation to positioning patients supinely or with trunk and legs elevated.

  19. On the influence of diameter and length on the properties of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes: A theoretical chemistry approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galano, Annia [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: agalano@imp.mx

    2006-08-21

    Open-ended fragments of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (n, n) with n = 3, 4, 5, and 6, have been modeled, with increasing lengths from 0.6 to 3 nm long. The geometries of all the studied fragments have been fully optimized. The influence of diameter and length on different electronic properties has been analyzed. These properties are electronegativity, ionization potential, electron affinities, and hardness, and all of them have been expressed as functions of the frontier orbitals. The binding energies per C atom have been calculated, using an expression that improves the previously reported ones. Their absolute values were found to steadily increase with tubes length and diameter, which allows extrapolations to obtain BE{sub /Catom} for tubes of infinite length. The extrapolated values are 8.45, 8.65, 8.74, and 8.79 eV for armchair nanotubes with n = 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

  20. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...

  1. Pre-mRNA mis-splicing of sarcomeric genes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is an important biological process that allows production of multiple proteins from a single gene in the genome, and mainly contributes to protein diversity in eukaryotic organisms. Alternative splicing is commonly governed by RNA binding proteins to meet the ever-changing demands of the cell. However, the mis-splicing may lead to human diseases. In the heart of human, mis-regulation of alternative splicing has been associated with heart failure. In this short review, we focus on alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes and review mis-splicing related heart failure with relatively well studied Sarcomeric genes and splicing mechanisms with identified regulatory factors. The perspective of alternative splicing based therapeutic strategies in heart failure has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Discontinuity of sarcoplasmic reticulum in the mid-sarcomere region in flight muscle of dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Eguileor, M; Valvassori, R; Lanzavecchia, G

    1980-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum organization of dragonfly flight muscles is analyzed, with particular reference to the doubling existing at H-band level. This doubling could be explained as a consequence of a regular discontinuity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum covering myofibrils. In each sarcomere, two sleeves of the sarcoplasmic reticulum seem to overlap forming a telescopic system which can slide outside each other during the lengthening and shortening movements of the fiber.

  3. Animal and in silico models for the study of sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; Bakkers, Jeroen; Brundel, Bianca J; Robbins, Jeff; Tardiff, Jil C; Carrier, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of cardiomyopathies has improved dramatically, due to improvements in screening and detection of gene defects in the human genome as well as a variety of novel animal models (mouse, zebrafish, and drosophila) and in silico computational models. These novel experimental tools have created a platform that is highly complementary to the naturally occurring cardiomyopathies in cats and dogs that had been available for some time. A fully integrative approach, which incorporates all these modalities, is likely required for significant steps forward in understanding the molecular underpinnings and pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. Finally, novel technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, which have already been proved to work in zebrafish, are currently being employed to engineer sarcomeric cardiomyopathy in larger animals, including pigs and non-human primates. In the mouse, the increased speed with which these techniques can be employed to engineer precise 'knock-in' models that previously took years to make via multiple rounds of homologous recombination-based gene targeting promises multiple and precise models of human cardiac disease for future study. Such novel genetically engineered animal models recapitulating human sarcomeric protein defects will help bridging the gap to translate therapeutic targets from small animal and in silico models to the human patient with sarcomeric cardiomyopathy.

  4. The Study on the Variation of the Cavity Length's Influence on the Output Pulse Train of the Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-e; TIAN Xiao-jian; GAO Bo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of actively mode-locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser(EDFL) cavity length variation on the noises of an optical pulse train is investigated, in theory and in MATLAB simulation. Using a simple model, the noise characteristics of the output pulse train are studied. The results show that the noises of the output pulse train increase with the increasing of the variation of the cavity length. The theory analysis and the simulation results agree well. This result is very significant for us to improve the reliability and the stability of the actively mode-locked fiber laser.

  5. The influence of length of implant on primary stability: An in vitro study using resonance frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-dakes, Ala M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary stabilityis not sufficientin less contact area between the implant and bone, the healing process because will be disrupted due to micro-motions and fibrous tissue affects osseointegration. Material and Methods We implemented an in vitro experimental study of total 135 XiVE® implants were inserted in 22.5 bovine cow ribs with bone quality similar to a type IV human bone. Each rib end received a group of three different implant lengths, which were 8mm, 13mm and 15mm and had the same diameter 3.8mm. Immediately after the implant placement, its primary stability was measured using Osstell Mentor equipment. ANOVA Tukey’s honest to test the significant difference were performed for data analysis between the resonance measures of the different lengths of implants. Statistical significance was assessed at a level P< 0.05. Results A total of 45 implants were inserted for each length at cortical bone level. A significant difference between the three groups in favor of implant with 15mm length group (P = 0.000). Conclusions Increasing dental implant length is considered to play a fundamental role in increasing dental implant primary stability, even in poor bone quality, through controlling the bone preparation process. Key words:Dental implants, primary stability, resonance frequency analysis. PMID:28149455

  6. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  7. A Familial Factor Independent of CAG Repeat Length Influences Age at Onset of Machado-Joseph Disease

    OpenAIRE

    DeStefano, Anita L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Maciel, Patricia; Gaspar, Claudia; Radvany, Joao; Dawson, David M.; Sudarsky, Lewis; Corwin, Lee; Coutinho, Paula; MacLeod, Patrick; Sequeiros, Jorge; Rouleau, Guy A.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    1996-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a late-onset, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide (CAG) repeat sequence in a novel gene (MJD1) on chromosome 14. Previous studies showed that age at onset is negatively correlated with the number of CAG repeat units, but only part of the variation in onset age is explained by CAG repeat length. Ages at onset and CAG repeat lengths of 136 MJD patients from 23 kindreds of Portuguese descent were analyzed, t...

  8. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  9. Influence of bond length variation on correlated static exchange potential: A case study in e--N2 scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Keya Basu; Pal, Sourav

    1994-03-01

    We discuss in this note how the correlated static exchange potential changes with bond length for N2 molecule where the earlier extensive results at equilibrium exist. We have used many-body coupled cluster technique for this study. Its relevance to e--N2 scattering is also discussed.

  10. The Influence of Different Interstock Lengths of Minneola Tanjelo on Photosynthetic Parameters and Fruit Yield of Star Ruby Grapefruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Minneola Tangelo hybrid, a cross of grapefruit and mandarin (Duncan grapefruit x Dancy mandarin, used as interstock to Star Ruby grapefruit with different lengths. Effects of different interstock lengths on fruit yield and quality, plant development and photosynthetic parameters were investigated. According to the results, different interstock lengths significantly affected fruit yield and size. The highest fruit yield was determined in T-M20-S whereas the lowest was on T-M5-S. The highest fruit size were determined in Star Ruby fruits on T-M5-S and T-M40-S whereas the lowest on T-M20-S and T-S (control. T-M40-S and T-M20-S treatments markedly reduced stem diameter and tree canopy in comparison to other treatments and control. Usage of different interstock lengths did not significantly affected some of fruit quality traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf water usage efficiency and leaf chlorophyll concentration. In regards to seasonal changes, net photosynthetic rate were higher in spring and summer seasons then winter and fall seasons.

  11. Research regarding the influence of driving-wires length change on positioning precision of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper emphasise positioning precision of an elephant's trunk robotic arm which has joints driven by wires with variable length while operating The considered 5 degrees of freedom robotic arm has a particular structure of joint that makes possible inner actuation with wire-driven mechanism. We analyse solely the length change of wires as a consequence due inner winding and unwinding on joints for certain values of rotational angles. Variations in wires length entail joint angular displacements. We analyse positioning precision by taking into consideration equations from inverse kinematics of the elephant's trunk robotic arm. The angular displacements of joints are considered into computational method after partial derivation of positioning equations. We obtain variations of wires length at about tenths of micrometers. These variations employ angular displacements which are about minutes of sexagesimal degree and, thus, define positioning precision of elephant's trunk robotic arms. The analytical method is used for determining aftermath design structure of an elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires on positioning precision. Thus, designers could take suitable decisions on accuracy specifications limits of the robotic arm.

  12. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    , and this was parallel by the largest reduction in number of viable bacteria. CONCLUSION: We found that chain length but not type of cationic amino acid influenced the antibacterial activity of a series of synthetic α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras. The synthetic chimeras exert their killing effect by permeabilization......BACKGROUND: Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells...... acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against Serratia marcescens (MICs above 46 μM). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from Staphylococcus aureus and S. marcescens with similar time...

  13. Influence of polyethylene glycol chain length on compatibility and release characteristics of ternary solid dispersions of itraconazole in polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2910 E5 blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Sandrien; Denivelle, Samgar; Rombaut, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2008-10-02

    The present study aims to elucidate the influence of the polyethylene glycol chain length on the miscibility of PEG/HPMC 2910 E5 polymer blends, the influence of polymer compatibility on the degree of molecular dispersion of itraconazole, and in vitro dissolution. PEG 2000, 6000, 10,000 and 20,000 were included in the study. Solid dispersions were prepared by spray drying and characterized with MDSC, XRPD and in vitro dissolution testing. The polymer miscibility increased with decreasing chain length due to a decrease in the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Recrystallization of itraconazole occurred as soon as a critical temperature of ca. 75 degrees C was reached for the glass transition that represents the ternary amorphous phase. Due to the lower miscibility degree between the longer PEG types and HPMC 2910 E5, the ternary amorphous phase was further separated, leading to a more rapid decrease of the ternary amorphous phase glass transition as a function of PEG and itraconazole weight percentage and hence, itraconazole recrystallization. In terms of release, an advantage of the shorter chain length PEG types (2000, 6000) over the longer chain length PEG types (10,000, 20,000) was observed for the polymer blends with 5% of PEG with respect to the binary itraconazole/HPMC 2910 E5 solid dispersion. Among the formulations with a 15/85 (w/w) PEG/HPMC 2910 E5 ratio on the other hand, there was no difference in the release profile.

  14. Influence of position and length of uterus on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF and embryo transfer treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbase, P E; Al-Sharhan, M; Grudzinskas, J G

    2000-09-01

    In a prospective study of 807 consecutive women shown to have an apparently normal uterus after hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy or pelvic ultrasonography prior to IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer, the position and length of the uterine cavity was measured routinely at a pre-treatment mock transfer procedure. The apparent length of the uterine cavity was 9 cm in 85 women (group 3). The uterus was noted to be retroverted in 38. 2% (308) women. The embryo transfer catheter was advanced to 5 mm from the uterine fundus based on the previously determined cavity length in all the embryo transfer procedures at 48 h after oocyte collection. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different with respect to position of the uterus, difficulties encountered in passage of the catheter, mean age of the women, aetiology or duration of infertility or embryology events. An apparently greater cavity length was seen in older and/or parous women, but the difference was not statistically significant. Although the highest implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were seen in women with a cavity length of 7-9 cm (group 2) the differences were not statistically significant: group 1, 18.9 and 36. 7%; group 2, 21.0 and 46.5%; and group 3, 17.3 and 32.9% respectively. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy per reported clinical pregnancy was highest in group 1 women, being 14.9% (7/47) in comparison with group 2 (1.8%, 5/276) and group 3 (0%, 0/27) (P: size of the uterus is a critical factor in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy in IVF/ICSI-embryo transfer.

  15. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes.Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of

  16. Influence of carbon chain length on the synthesis and yield of fatty amine-coated iron-platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Monson, Todd C.; Gullapalli, Rama R.

    2014-06-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are among the most widely used and characterized magnetic nanoparticles. However, metal alloys such as superparamagnetic iron-platinum particles (SIPPs), which have better magnetic properties, are receiving increased attention. Scalable techniques to routinely synthesize SIPPs in bulk need further study. Here, we focus on the role played by the fatty amine ligand in the formation of the bimetallic FePt nanocrystal. More specifically, we compare the effect of varying lengths of fatty amine ligands on the shape, structure, uniformity, composition, and magnetic properties of the SIPPs. We synthesized SIPPs by employing a `green' thermal decomposition reaction using fatty amine ligands containing 12 to 18 carbons in length. Greater fatty amine chain length increased the polydispersity, particle concentration, iron concentration, and the stability of the SIPPs. Additionally, longer reflux times increased the diameter of the particles, but decreased the iron concentration, suggesting that shorter reaction times are preferable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the SIPPs indicates that the ligands are successfully bound to the FePt cores through the amine group. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry measurements suggest that all of the SIPPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature and that SIPPs synthesized using tetradecylamine had the highest saturation magnetization. Our findings indicate that the octadecylamine ligand, which is currently used for the routine synthesis of SIPPs, may not be optimal. Overall, we found that using tetradecylamine and a 30-min reflux reaction resulted in optimal particles with the highest degree of monodispersity, iron content, stability, and saturation magnetization.

  17. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  18. Influence of the cation alkyl chain length of imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids on the dispersibility of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmar, Alexandra; Gajda, Martyna [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie II (Germany); Gautam, Devendraprakash; Doerfler, Udo; Winterer, Markus [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Nanoparticle Process Technology (Germany); Ulbricht, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.ulbricht@uni-due.de [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie II (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The influence of the length of the cation alkyl chain on the dispersibility by ultrasonic treatment of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders in hydrophilic imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids was studied for the first time by dynamic light scattering and advanced rheology. TiO{sub 2} nanopowders had been synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) under varied conditions leading to two different materials. A commercial nanopowder had been used for comparison. Characterizations had been done using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption with BET analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Primary particle sizes were about 6 and 8 nm for the CVS-based and 26 nm for the commercial materials. The particle size distribution in the dispersion was strongly influenced by the length of the cation alkyl chain for all the investigated powders with different structural characteristics and concentrations in the dispersion. It was found that an increase of the alkyl chain length was beneficial, leading to a narrowing of the particle size distribution and a decrease of the agglomerate size in dispersion. The smallest average nanoparticle sizes in dispersion were around 30 nm. Additionally, the surface functionality of the nanoparticles, the concentration of the solid material in the liquid, and the period of ultrasonic treatment control the dispersion quality, especially in the case of the ionic liquids with the shorter alkyl chain. The influence of the nanopowders characteristics on their dispersibility decreases considerably with increasing cation alkyl chain length. The results indicate that ionic liquids with adapted structure are candidates as absorber media for nanoparticles synthesized in gas phase processes to obtain liquid dispersions directly without redispergation.

  19. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  20. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Prill

    Full Text Available The vertebrate sarcomere is a complex and highly organized contractile structure whose assembly and function requires the coordination of hundreds of proteins. Proteins require proper folding and incorporation into the sarcomere by assembly factors, and they must also be maintained and replaced due to the constant physical stress of muscle contraction. Zebrafish mutants affecting muscle assembly and maintenance have proven to be an ideal tool for identification and analysis of factors necessary for these processes. The still heart mutant was identified due to motility defects and a nonfunctional heart. The cognate gene for the mutant was shown to be smyd1b and the still heart mutation results in an early nonsense codon. SMYD1 mutants show a lack of heart looping and chamber definition due to a lack of expression of heart morphogenesis factors gata4, gata5 and hand2. On a cellular level, fast muscle fibers in homozygous mutants do not form mature sarcomeres due to the lack of fast muscle myosin incorporation by SMYD1b when sarcomeres are first being assembled (19hpf, supporting SMYD1b as an assembly protein during sarcomere formation.

  1. The influence of premature extractions of primary molars on the ultimate root length of their permanent successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Koyoumdijsky-Kaye, E

    1981-06-01

    Final root length of lower premolars which succeed prematurely--extracted primary molars is shortened. The proposed explanation focuses on a possible accelerated movement of the permanent tooth bud and undue environmental stress following the premature extraction of its deciduous predecessor. The degree of shortening is different in both sexes and depends on the age at which the premature extraction is performed. Girls are more affected than boys, especially in cases in which the premature extractions are performed before the age of eight yr.

  2. Evaluation of the flanking nucleotide sequences of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy substitution mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Kathryn M; Mealey, Katrina L

    2008-07-03

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial myocardial disease with a prevalence of 1 in 500. More than 400 causative mutations have been identified in 13 sarcomeric and myofilament related genes, 350 of these are substitution mutations within eight sarcomeric genes. Within a population, examples of recurring identical disease causing mutations that appear to have arisen independently have been noted as well as those that appear to have been inherited from a common ancestor. The large number of novel HCM mutations could suggest a mechanism of increased mutability within the sarcomeric genes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most commonly reported HCM genes, beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7), myosin binding protein C, troponin I, troponin T, cardiac regulatory myosin light chain, cardiac essential myosin light chain, alpha tropomyosin and cardiac alpha-actin for sequence patterns surrounding the substitution mutations that may suggest a mechanism of increased mutability. The mutations as well as the 10 flanking nucleotides were evaluated for frequency of di-, tri- and tetranucleotides containing the mutation as well as for the presence of certain tri- and tetranculeotide motifs. The most common substitutions were guanine (G) to adenine (A) and cytosine (C) to thymidine (T). The CG dinucleotide had a significantly higher relative mutability than any other dinucleotide (pmutation was calculated; none were at a statistically higher frequency than the others. The large number of G to A and C to T mutations as well as the relative mutability of CG may suggest that deamination of methylated CpG is an important mechanism for mutation development in at least some of these cardiac genes.

  3. The role of sarcomere gene mutations in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Daniel Vega; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hedley, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a Danish cohort of 31 unrelated patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), to assess the role that mutations in sarcomere protein genes play in IDC. Patients were genetically screened by capillary electrophoresis single strand conformation polymorphism and subsequently...... by bidirectional DNA sequencing of conformers in the coding regions of MYH7, MYBPC3, TPM1, ACTC, MYL2, MYL3, TNNT2, CSRP3 and TNNI3. Eight probands carried disease-associated genetic variants (26%). In MYH7, three novel mutations were found; in MYBPC3, one novel variant and two known mutations were found...

  4. Photocatalytic Activity and Photocurrent Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Influenced by Calcination Temperature and Tube Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zhang, Min; Yan, Guotian; Yang, Jianjun

    2012-06-01

    In this article, titanium oxide nanotube arrays (TiO2-NTAs) were fabricated by anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte solution containing 0.25 wt.% NH4F. By varying anodized time and annealed temperature, the obtained nanotube arrays behaved different photocatalytic (PC) activities and photocurrent properties. These samples were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). It was indicated in SEM images that TiO2 nanotube manifests highly ordered structure which, however, has been completely destroyed when the temperature comes to 800°C. XRD manifested that TiO2 nanotubes with various kinds of length all possessed anatase crystallite when annealed at 500°C; meanwhile, with certain length, TiO2-NTAs annealed at series calcination temperature range of 300-600°C also presented anatase crystallite, which is gradually enhanced with the increment of temperature. At 700°C, mixed structure was observed which was made up of proportions of overwhelming anatase and toothful rutile. Methyl blue (MB) degradation and photocurrent measurement testified that TiO2-NTAs under 4 h oxidation and 3 h of 600°C calcination manifested the highest activity and photocurrent density.

  5. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    as controls. Paired sample t-testand Pearson´s correlation analysis were used to analyze implant position, dimension of crownand papilla fill.Cohen’s ¿ andSpearman correlation were used to validate the PIS.The implant-supported crown was statistically longer than the contra-lateral tooth......The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one......, and there was significant correlation between the oro-facial position of the implant and the crown length difference (r=.607, p=.001). The distalpapilla was significantly shorter than the mesialpapilla at implant-supported crowns (p

  6. Thermoelectric transport through a zigzag like chain: Influence of the chain length, the interdot tunneling and the intradot Coulomb interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui-Xue, E-mail: li19851025@126.com [School of Science, Henan Institute of Engineering, Zhengzhou 451191 (China); Ni, Yun [Wenhua College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Hai-Dong; Tian, Xing-Ling [School of Science, Henan Institute of Engineering, Zhengzhou 451191 (China); Yao, Kai-Lun; Fu, Hua-Hua [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We have studied the thermoelectric transport through a zigzaglike chain in the linear response regime using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. This model consists of the main zigzaglike chain and the side radicals coupled with the main chain at the next-near-neighbor sites. The finite-scale effect on the thermoelectric properties has been studied, our results show that thermoelectric efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the chain length. The thermopower and the figure of merit can be enhanced by strengthening the interdot tunneling coupling between the main chain and the side radicals. However, increase of the interdot tunneling coupling in the main chain can weaken the thermoelectric efficiency. Moreover, the thermoelectric efficiency is also strongly dependent on the intradot Coulomb interaction. These results can provide a guidance for the synthesis of thermal devices with high thermoelectric efficiency.

  7. Influence of spacer chain lengths and polar terminal groups on the mesomorphic properties of tethered 5-phenylpyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula F. Starkulla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-octylpyrimidine 8, 5-phenylpyrimidine derivatives 3–7, 9 with different spacer chain lengths (C2 up to C6 and different terminal polar groups (Br, Cl, N3, OH, CN were synthesized by etherification and nucleophilic substitution. The mesomorphic behaviour of these compounds was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarizing optical microscopy (POM and X-ray diffraction (WAXS and SAXS and revealed smectic A mesophases for bromides, chlorides and azides 3, 4 and 6. For these compounds a maximum phase width was observed for the C5 spacer regardless of the terminal group, whereas the hydroxy- and cyano-substituted derivatives 5 and 7, respectively, were non mesomorphic and showed only melting transitions.

  8. Binding of 12-s-12 dimeric surfactants to calf thymus DNA: Evaluation of the spacer length influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrión, Beatriz; Bernal, Eva; Martín, Victoria Isabel; López-López, Manuel; López-Cornejo, Pilar; García-Calderón, Margarita; Moyá, María Luisa

    2016-08-01

    Several cationic dimeric surfactants have shown high affinity towards DNA. Bis-quaternary ammonium salts (m-s-m) have been the most common type of dimeric surfactants investigated and it is generally admitted that those that posses a short spacer (s≤3) show better efficiency to bind or compact DNA. However, experimental results in this work show that 12-s-12 surfactants with long spacers make the surfactant/ctDNA complexation more favorable than those with short spacers. A larger contribution of the hydrophobic interactions, which control the binding Gibbs energy, as well as a higher average charge of the surfactant molecules bound to the nucleic acid, which favors the electrostatic attractions, could explain the experimental observations. Dimeric surfactants with intermediate spacer length seem to be the less efficient for DNA binding.

  9. Influence of spacer chain lengths and polar terminal groups on the mesomorphic properties of tethered 5-phenylpyrimidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkulla, Gundula F; Kapatsina, Elisabeth; Baro, Angelika; Giesselmann, Frank; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Kaller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Based on 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-octylpyrimidine 8, 5-phenylpyrimidine derivatives 3–7, 9 with different spacer chain lengths (C2 up to C6) and different terminal polar groups (Br, Cl, N3, OH, CN) were synthesized by etherification and nucleophilic substitution. The mesomorphic behaviour of these compounds was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (WAXS and SAXS) and revealed smectic A mesophases for bromides, chlorides and azides 3, 4 and 6. For these compounds a maximum phase width was observed for the C5 spacer regardless of the terminal group, whereas the hydroxy- and cyano-substituted derivatives 5 and 7, respectively, were non mesomorphic and showed only melting transitions. PMID:20300461

  10. Nanowire-quantum-dot solar cells and the influence of nanowire length on the charge collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschkies, Kurtis S.; Jacobs, Alan G.; Norris, David J.; Aydil, Eray S.

    2009-11-01

    External quantum efficiency in solar cells based on junctions between PbSe quantum dots (QDs) and thin ZnO films is increased by replacing the ZnO films with a vertically oriented array of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires, and infiltrating this array with colloidal QDs. When illuminated with 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar light, QD-nanowire solar cells exhibited power conversion efficiencies approaching 2%, approximately three times higher than that achieved with thin-film ZnO devices constructed with the same amount of QDs. Significant photocurrent and power conversion improvement with increasing nanowire length is consistent with higher exciton and charge collection efficiencies.

  11. Nutritional status influences the length of stay and clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients in internal medicine wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Manuela Ordoñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status (NS and clinical outcome and length of stay (LOS among patients admitted to the internal medicine ward. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study performed with the data of clinical patients collected during a one year period. The NS was assessed using: subjective global assessment (SGA, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TST, muscle arm circumference (MAC and combined tools. Statistical analysis was performed with a confidence interval of 95% (p < 0.05. For categories comparison the chi-square test was used. To examine the association between length of stay and variables related to the NS Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests was used with multiple comparisons. Results: 396 patients were included in the study, 42.2% were over 60 years of age, what was associated with the presence of hypertension (p < 0.001, diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003 and required diet with modifications consistency (p = 0.003. According to combined diagnostic tools, 45.7% of patients were malnourished. Decreased food intake (p = 0.01, malnutrition according to SGA (p = 0.02 and MAC (p = 0.03 were associated with increased mortality. Patients with tertiary level of care (p = 0.01, decreased food intake (p = 0.001, who died (p = 0.004 and diagnosed with malnutrition by SGA (p = 0.001 and by the combined tools (p = 0.001 had a longer LOS. Conclusions: Patients who were malnourished by SGA and who presented decrease food intake at admission had longer LOS and poorer clinical outcomes (highest number of deaths. The diagnosis of malnutrition by MAC was also related to higher mortality.

  12. Influence of fibre length, dissolution and biopersistence on the production of mesothelioma in the rat peritoneal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B G; Searl, A; Davis, J M; Donaldson, K; Cullen, R T; Bolton, R E; Buchanan, D; Soutar, C A

    1999-04-01

    A range of respirable man-made mineral fibres were tested for evidence of carcinogenicity by injection into the peritoneal cavity of male SPF Wistar rats; and differences in carcinogenicity were related to the dimensions and biopersistence of the injected fibres. The fibres tested included an amosite asbestos, a silicon carbide whisker, a special purpose glass microfibre, and a range of other man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) and refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs) from the TIMA fibre repository. The injected dose of each was designed as the estimated mass required to contain 10(9) fibres > 5 microns in length, as determined by optical microscopy. The numbers of long fibres (> 15 microns) contained in these doses ranged across fibres from 0.1 x 10(9) to 0.8 x 10(9) fibres; the number of long fibres thinner than 0.95 micron ranged from 0.015 x 10(9) to 0.4 x 10(9). The treatment groups contained between 18 and 24 animals. Animals were killed when they showed signs of debilitation. At autopsy, the diagnosis of mesothelioma was usually obvious macroscopically. Otherwise, histological examination of peritoneal organs was used to search for early tumour development. Judged by median survival time, four of the fibre types, in the doses administered, presented higher mesothelioma activity than amosite asbestos. The other fibres tested were less carcinogenic than the amosite. Only a ceramic material derived by extreme heating to simulate the effect of furnace or oven conditions, produced no mesotheliomas. Attempts were made, using regression models, to relate these differences to fibre dimensions and to measures of durability from separate experiments. The results pointed principally to a link with the injected numbers of fibres > 20 microns in length and with biopersistence in the rat lung of fibres longer than 5 microns. Improved quantification of the relative importance of fibre dimensions and biopersistence indices requires experimentation with a range of doses.

  13. Influence of Collimation and Detector length on CT exposures measured in a 60cm long body phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Victor J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data fitting approaches to modeling allow for parametric formulae that may not reveal the physical quantities involved and their influence on the function being studied. In this paper the author models the approach to equilibrium function by a method that allows the physical quantities to be defined beforehand, allows their influence to be studied, and can be used to predict how each physical quantity affects approach to equilibrium. Methods: An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is used to model the approach to equilibrium function for the case where collimation is changed at fixed detector size. A parallel model is used to study the approach to equilibrium as a function of detector size for fixed collimation. Both models are validated by experimental measurements in a 60cm body phantom. Influence of detector size is simulated by using leaded sleeves of varying sizes wrapped around a 100mm pencil chamber. This creates sleeve gaps of 10 - 60mm around the chamber. A 100mm detector size is the pen...

  14. The Drosophila formin Fhos is a primary mediator of sarcomeric thin-filament array assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Arkadi; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-01-01

    Actin-based thin filament arrays constitute a fundamental core component of muscle sarcomeres. We have used formation of the Drosophila indirect flight musculature for studying the assembly and maturation of thin-filament arrays in a skeletal muscle model system. Employing GFP-tagged actin monomer incorporation, we identify several distinct phases in the dynamic construction of thin-filament arrays. This sequence includes assembly of nascent arrays after an initial period of intensive microfilament synthesis, followed by array elongation, primarily from filament pointed-ends, radial growth of the arrays via recruitment of peripheral filaments and continuous barbed-end turnover. Using genetic approaches we have identified Fhos, the single Drosophila homolog of the FHOD sub-family of formins, as a primary and versatile mediator of IFM thin-filament organization. Localization of Fhos to the barbed-ends of the arrays, achieved via a novel N-terminal domain, appears to be a critical aspect of its sarcomeric roles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16540.001 PMID:27731794

  15. Retraction notice to: influence of post fit and post length on fracture resistance: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(3):496-500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    It has been notified to the Editorial Board, The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice (JCDP), that considerable script of the aforementioned article has been plagiarized from the article: Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of Post Fit and Post Length on Fracture Resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42(1):47-53. The same was confirmed after thorough evaluation and interpretation. In accordance to observe serious view in case of plagiarism, the Editorial Board, JCDP decided to take appropriate action against the act. Thus, it is herewith decided by the Editorial Board, JCDP to retract the title as addressed from the assigned issue.

  16. Does the length of station record influence the warming trend that is perceived by mongolian herders near the Khangai Mountains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venable, N. B. H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures changes can be difficult to infer from changes in vegetation patterns or other ecological changes, yet warming can be inferred through changes in the habits of people who live in close connection with their natural environment. Herders near the Khangai Mountains of central Mongolia have perceived a warming trend in recent years. Since it is difficult to determine the exact time period over which perceived warming has occurred, we examined the statistical difference in changes based on the length of data and the specific period of record used in the analysis. We used temperature data from five meteorological stations for up to 50 years (1961-2010. We examined varying lengths of record from 15 to 50 years with varying start periods (1961 through 1986, based on the length of record. We found that the most statistically significant changes occurred for the longest time periods and for the annual average minimum temperatures. We also found that one very cold winter, in particular 2009-2010 decreased the warming trend and for shorter periods of record reduced the statistical significance.Los cambios de temperatura pueden ser difíciles de inferir a partir de los cambios en los patrones de vegetación u otros cambios ecológicos. Sin embargo, el calentamiento se puede inferir a través de cambios en los hábitos de las personas que viven en estrecha relación con su entorno natural. Los pastores de las montañas de Mongolia central, cerca deKhangai, perciben una tendencia hacia el calentamiento en los últimos años. Ya que resulta difícil determinar el período de tiempo exacto durante el que se ha producido el calentamiento, se analizó la diferencia estadística de los cambios en función de la longitud de los datos y el período de registros utilizado en el análisis. Hemos utilizado los datos de temperatura de cinco estaciones meteorológicas con 50 años de registros (1961-2010. Se examinaron diferentes longitudes de registro (de 15

  17. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, J. D.; Dodd, R.; Williams, C. J.; Triantos, G.; Dearden, G.; Shenton, A. T.; Watkins, K. G.; Carroll, S. D.; Scarisbrick, A. D.; Keen, S.

    2007-08-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (VarPPP). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  18. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  19. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained.

  20. Influence of reprocessing on fibre length distribution, tensile strength and impact strength of injection moulded cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Graupner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the reprocessing behaviour of recycled injection moulded polylactide (PLA composites. The composites are reinforced with regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell of variable fineness and a fibre mass content of 30%. They were reprocessed up to three times. The influence of reprocessing on the fibre length distribution and the resulting composite mechanical properties (tensile and impact strength was analysed. While the first reprocessing cycle does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the neat PLA matrix, the strength of the composites decreases significantly due to a decreasing fibre aspect ratio. It was shown that fibres having a larger cross-sectional area display a lower aspect ratio than finer fibres, after reprocessing. This phenomenon leads to a larger decrease in tensile strength of composites reinforced with coarser fibres when compared to composites reinforced with finer fibres. A comparison of virgin composites and threefold reprocessed composites with a similar fibre length distribution resulted in a significantly higher tensile strength compared to the virgin sample. This result leads to the conclusion that not only the fibre length is drastically reduced by reprocessing but also that the fibres and the matrix were damaged.

  1. Factors influencing axial length and the predictive value of axial length for myopia%眼轴长度的影响因素及其近视预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪华茂; 莫晓芬

    2013-01-01

    眼轴长度(AL)即眼球前后径的长度,AL延长是导致近视发生发展最主要的因素,对其进行规律探索和机制研究在近视相关研究中具有非常重要的价值.目前已发现多种因素如年龄、性别、身高、父母近视人数、读写时间等可影响AL生长,AL相结合上述因素及其他眼部参数对儿童近视发生具有预测意义.现就AL的影响因素及其近视预测价值作一综述.%Axial length (AL) elongation is the major factor in the development of myopia so it is of great importance to study its growth pattern and mechanism.Factors like age,gender,height,parental myopia,and near work were found to have an influence on AL growth.AL combined with the above factors and other ocular parameters could be of value in predicting the onset of myopia.This article summarizes the risk factors for AL and the predictive value of AL for myopia.

  2. Role of the General Practitioner in the Care of Patients Recently Discharged From the Hospital After a First Psychotic Episode: Influence of Length of Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoiron-Besset, Emmanuelle; David, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle; Prudhomme, Cindy; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Mann, Anthony H.; Ritchie, Karen A.; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear to what extent general practitioners are involved in the postdischarge care of patients hospitalized for a first psychotic episode and whether this involvement is influenced by length of stay in the hospital. The objectives of this study were to describe the role of the general practitioner in providing postdischarge care to patients with first-episode psychosis in terms of frequency and type of consultation and the extent of collaboration with hospital-based specialist services and to determine whether decreasing length of stay was accompanied by a modification in this role. Method: Six months after hospital discharge, a postal questionnaire was sent to the general practitioners of patients recruited to the French STEP cohort (Schizophrenie et son Traitement: une Evaluation de la Prize en charge), a prospective study of the clinical and social determinants of care pathways and prognosis for patients hospitalized for a first psychotic episode (DSM-IV criteria) in 5 services of the La Colombière Psychiatric Hospital, Montpellier, France. Length of stay in the hospital was dichotomized according to the median value of 35 days. Data collection took place from February 2008 to March 2009. Results: Of the 121 STEP patients, 65% (n=79) had a regular general practitioner. The general practitioners had been informed by the hospital of the admission of their patient in only 17.9% (7/39) of cases. Of the general practitioners, 78.3% (47/60) had seen the patient at least once since discharge, with a median number of visits standardized over 6 months of 0.86 (range, 0–8.6). General practitioners were better informed with regard to diagnosis, date of discharge, name of psychiatrist, treatment, and community follow-up at discharge for patients with a short length of stay in the hospital, who were also more likely than those with a long length of stay to be consulting for mental health problems. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a low level of

  3. [Influence of cycle length shortening, atropine and beta-receptor blockage on sinus node recovery time (SRT) in patients with healthy sinus node (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Wohlberg, H; Luckmann, E; Pantlen, H

    1977-01-01

    Sinus node recovery time (SRT) was measured in 30 patients with healthy sinus nodes to examine the influence of the increase in atrial frequency, atropine and beta-receptor blockade. The measurements were performed following pacing with 3 atrial frequencies before and after administration of 1 mg atropine i.v. (13 patients) and 0.4 mg prindolol (Visken) i.v. (17 patients). Total group; Increase of frequency alone caused prolongation of the SRT in 17 patients and shortening in 13 patients. Atropine group: Blockade of the parasympathicus alone induced a highly significant reduction in the SRT. Simultaneous increase in frequency and blockade of the parasympathicus led to greater SRT-shortening during low frequency than with high frequency. This interrelationship of frequency and blockade of the parasympathicus influencing the SRT is statistically significant. Visken-group: Blockade of the sympathicus causes a highly significant prolongation of the SRT. Simultaneous increase in frequency and blockade of the sympathicus led to greater SRT-prolongation during low frequency than with high frequency. This interrelationship of frequency and blockade of the sympathicus influencing the SRT has slight statistical significance. The results are discussed in respect to the electrophysiological influences of atrial cycle length shortening, acetylcholine and catecholamines on the sinus node, the perinodal atrial fibres and the atrial working myocardium.

  4. CAS-1, a C. elegans cyclase-associated protein, is required for sarcomeric actin assembly in striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2012-09-01

    Assembly of contractile apparatuses in striated muscle requires precisely regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeletal proteins into sarcomeric organization. Regulation of actin filament dynamics is one of the essential processes of myofibril assembly, but the mechanism of actin regulation in striated muscle is not clearly understood. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is a key enhancer of actin filament dynamics in striated muscle in both vertebrates and nematodes. Here, we report that CAS-1, a cyclase-associated protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, promotes ADF/cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover in vitro and is required for sarcomeric actin organization in striated muscle. CAS-1 is predominantly expressed in striated muscle from embryos to adults. In vitro, CAS-1 binds to actin monomers and enhances exchange of actin-bound ATP/ADP even in the presence of UNC-60B, a muscle-specific ADF/cofilin that inhibits the nucleotide exchange. As a result, CAS-1 and UNC-60B cooperatively enhance actin filament turnover. The two proteins also cooperate to shorten actin filaments. A cas-1 mutation is homozygous lethal with defects in sarcomeric actin organization. cas-1-mutant embryos and worms have aggregates of actin in muscle cells, and UNC-60B is mislocalized to the aggregates. These results provide genetic and biochemical evidence that cyclase-associated protein is a critical regulator of sarcomeric actin organization in striated muscle.

  5. A low prevalence of sarcomeric gene variants in a Chinese cohort with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Wang, Jizheng; Wang, Hu; Sun, Kai; Wang, Yilu; Jia, Lei; Zou, Yubao; Hui, Rutai; Zhou, Xianliang; Song, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is genetically heterogeneous. It has been previously shown that LVNC is associated with defects in TAZ, DNTA, LDB3, YWHAE, MIB1, PRDM16, and sarcomeric genes. This study was aimed to investigate sarcomeric gene mutations in a Chinese population with LVNC. From 2004 to 2010, 57 unrelated Chinese patients with LVNC were recruited at Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China. Detailed clinical evaluation was performed on the probands and available family members. DNA samples isolated from the peripheral blood of the index cases were screened for 10 sarcomeric genes, including MYH7, MYBPC3, MYL2, MYL3, MYH6, TNNC1, TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, and ACTC1. Seven heterozygous mutations (6 missense and 1 deletion) were identified in 7 (12 %) of the patients. These mutations were distributed among 4 genes, 4 in MYH7, and 1 each in ACTC1, TNNT2, and TPM1. Six of the mutations were novel and another one was reported previously. All mutations affected conserved amino acid residues and were predicted to alter the structure of the proteins by in silico analysis. No significant difference was observed between mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients with respect to clinical characteristics at baseline and mortality during follow-up. In conclusion, our study indicates that sarcomeric gene mutations are uncommon causes of LVNC in Chinese patients and genetic background of the disease may be divergent among the different races.

  6. Diagnostic yield, interpretation, and clinical utility of mutation screening of sarcomere encoding genes in Danish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Havndrup, Ole; Hougs, Lotte;

    2008-01-01

    persons. Index patients were screened for mutations in all coding regions of 10 sarcomere genes (MYH7, MYL3, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, ACTC, CSRP3, TCAP, and TNNC1) and five exons of TTN. Relatives were screened for presence of minor or major diagnostic criteria for HCM and tracking of DNA variants...

  7. Regional variation in myofilament length-dependent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Olivier; Lacampagne, Alain

    2011-07-01

    The Frank-Starling law is an important regulatory mechanism of the heart that links the end-diastolic volume with the systolic ejection fraction. This beat-to-beat regulation of the heart, underlined at the cellular level by higher myofilament calcium sensitivity at longer sarcomere length, is known as length-dependent activation or stretch sensitization of activation. However, the heart is structurally and functionally heterogeneous and asymmetrical. Specifically, contractile properties are not uniform within the left ventricle partly due to transmural differences in action potential waveforms and calcium homeostasis. The present review will focus on the role of the contractile machinery in the transmural contractile heterogeneity and its adaptation to changes in muscle strain. The expression of different myosin isoforms, the level of titin-based passive tension, and thin and thick sarcomeric regulatory proteins are considered to explain the regional cellular contractile properties. Finally, the importance of transmural heterogeneity of length-dependent activation and the consequences of its modification on the heart mechanics are discussed. Despite extensive research since the characterization of the Frank-Starling law, the molecular mechanisms by which strain information is transduced to the contractile machinery have not been fully determined yet.

  8. Remodeling of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton in cardiac ventricular myocytes during heart failure and after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Justin G; Carruth, Eric; Mitchell, Chelsea; Barth, Andreas S; Aiba, Takeshi; Kass, David A; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Bridge, John H; Sachse, Frank B

    2014-07-01

    Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units of cardiac myocytes. Recent studies demonstrated remodeling of sarcomeric proteins in several diseases, including genetic defects and heart failure. Here we investigated remodeling of sarcomeric α-actinin in two models of heart failure, synchronous (SHF) and dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF), as well as a model of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We applied three-dimensional confocal microscopy and quantitative methods of image analysis to study isolated cells from our animal models. 3D Fourier analysis revealed a decrease of the spatial regularity of the α-actinin distribution in both SHF and DHF versus control cells. The spatial regularity of α-actinin in DHF cells was reduced when compared with SHF cells. The spatial regularity of α-actinin was partially restored after CRT. We found longitudinal depositions of α-actinin in SHF, DHF and CRT cells. These depositions spanned adjacent Z-disks and exhibited a lower density of α-actinin than in the Z-disk. Differences in the occurrence of depositions between the SHF, CRT and DHF models versus control were significant. Also, CRT cells exhibited a higher occurrence of depositions versus SHF, but not DHF cells. Other sarcomeric proteins did not accumulate in the depositions to the same extent as α-actinin. We did not find differences in the expression of α-actinin protein and its encoding gene in our animal models. In summary, our studies indicate that HF is associated with two different types of remodeling of α-actinin and only one of those was reversed after CRT. We suggest that these results can guide us to an understanding of remodeling of structures and function associated with sarcomeres.

  9. Expression of sarcomeric tropomyosin in striated muscles in axolotl treated with shz-1, a small cardiogenic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Changlong; Dube, Syamalima; Matoq, Amr; Mikesell, Lauren; Abbott, Lynn; Alshiekh-Nasany, Ruham; Chionuma, Henry; Huang, Xupei; Poiesz, Bernard J; Dube, Dipak K

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of shz-1, a cardiogenic molecule, on the expression of various tropomyosin (TM) isoforms in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hearts. qRT-PCR data show a ~1.5-fold increase in cardiac transcripts of the Nkx2.5 gene, which plays a crucial role in cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Shz-1 augments the expression of transcripts of the total sarcomeric TPM1 (both TPM1α & TPM1κ) and sarcomeric TPM4α. In order to understand the mechanism by which shz-1 augments the expression of sarcomeric TPM transcription in axolotl hearts, we transfected C2C12 cells with pGL3.axolotl. We transfected C2C12 cells with pGL3-axolotl TPM4 promoter constructs containing the firefly luciferase reporter gene. The transfected C2C12 cells were grown in the absence or presence of shz-1 (5 μM). Subsequently, we determined the firefly luciferase activity in the extracts of transfected cells. The results suggest that shz-1 activates the axolotl TPM4 promoter-driven ectopic expression in C2C12 cells. Also, we transfected C2C12 cells with a pGL3.1 vector containing the promoter of the mouse skeletal muscle troponin-I and observed a similar increase in the luciferase activity in shz-1-treated cells. We conclude that shz-1 activates the promoters of a variety of genes including axolotl TPM4. We have quantified the expression of the total sarcomeric TPM1 and observed a 1.5-fold increase in treated cells. Western blot analyses with CH1 monoclonal antibody specific for sarcomeric isoforms show that shz-1 does not increase the expression of TM protein in axolotl hearts, whereas it does in C2C12 cells. These findings support our hypothesis that cardiac TM expression in axolotl undergoes translational control.

  10. Age, breed designation, coat color, and coat pattern influenced the length of stay of cats at a no-kill shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William P; Morgan, Kelsey T

    2015-01-01

    Adoption records from the Tompkins County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, an open-admission, no-kill shelter in New York State, were examined to determine if various physical attributes influenced the length of stay (LOS) of cats and kittens. Similar reports from other no-kill shelters have not been published. LOS averaged 61.2 days for cats and kittens combined and ranged from less than 1 day to 730 days. Based on mixed models that accounted for lack of independence among attributes, younger, lighter-colored cats were generally adopted more quickly than older, more darkly colored cats, but yellow-colored cats had the greatest LOS. Coat color did not influence LOS for kittens. Coat patterning and breed designation influenced LOS in both cats and kittens. Male cats and kittens had a shorter LOS than female cats and kittens, respectively. Studies from traditional shelters also demonstrated the importance of physical characteristics to adopters. Given adopter preferences for companion animals with certain characteristics, methods to reduce the LOS for cats with the longest potential residences at the shelter require continued development.

  11. Role of common sarcomeric gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to left ventricular dysfunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SURENDRA KUMAR; AVSHESH MISHRA; ANSHIKA SRIVASTAVA; MANSI BHATT; N. GARG; S. K. AGARWAL; SHANTANU PANDE; BALRAJ MITTAL

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in sarcomeric genes are common genetic cause of cardiomyopathies. An intronic 25-bp deletion in cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) at 3' region is associated with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies in Southeast Asia. However, the frequency of sarcomeric gene polymorphisms and associated clinical presentation have not been established with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the association of MYBPC3 25-bp deletion, titin (TTN) 18 bp I/D, troponin T type 2 (TNNT2) 5 bp I/D and myospryn K2906N polymorphisms with LVD. This study includes 988 consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD) and 300 healthy controls. Among the 988 CAD patients, 253 with reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF≤45%) were categorized as LVD. MYBPC3 25-bp deletion,TTN 18 bp I/D and TNNT25 bp I/D polymorphisms were determined by direct polymerase chain reaction method, while myospryn K2906N polymorphism by TaqMan assay. Our results showed that MYBPC3 25-bpdeletion polymorphism was significantly associated with elevated risk of LVD (LVEF <45) (healthy controls versus LVD: OR= 3.85,P<0.001; and nonLVD versus LVD: OR=1.65,P=0.035), while TTN 18 bp I/D, TNNT25bpI/Dand myospryn K2906N polymorphisms did not show any significant association with LVD. The results also showed that MYBPC3 25-bp deletion polymorphism was significantly associated with other parameters of LV remodelling, i.e. LV dimensions (LV end diastole dimension, LVEDD: P= 0.037 and LV end systolic dimension, LVESD: P= 0.032).Our data suggests that MYBPC3 25-bp deletion may play significant role in conferring LVD as well as CAD risk in north Indian population

  12. Muscleblind, BSF and TBPH are mislocalized in the muscle sarcomere of a Drosophila myotonic dystrophy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Llamusi

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is a genetic disease caused by the pathological expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. In the DMPK transcripts, the CUG expansions sequester RNA-binding proteins into nuclear foci, including transcription factors and alternative splicing regulators such as MBNL1. MBNL1 sequestration has been associated with key features of DM1. However, the basis behind a number of molecular and histological alterations in DM1 remain unclear. To help identify new pathogenic components of the disease, we carried out a genetic screen using a Drosophila model of DM1 that expresses 480 interrupted CTG repeats, i(CTG480, and a collection of 1215 transgenic RNA interference (RNAi fly lines. Of the 34 modifiers identified, two RNA-binding proteins, TBPH (homolog of human TAR DNA-binding protein 43 or TDP-43 and BSF (Bicoid stability factor; homolog of human LRPPRC, were of particular interest. These factors modified i(CTG480 phenotypes in the fly eye and wing, and TBPH silencing also suppressed CTG-induced defects in the flight muscles. In Drosophila flight muscle, TBPH, BSF and the fly ortholog of MBNL1, Muscleblind (Mbl, were detected in sarcomeric bands. Expression of i(CTG480 resulted in changes in the sarcomeric patterns of these proteins, which could be restored by coexpression with human MBNL1. Epistasis studies showed that Mbl silencing was sufficient to induce a subcellular redistribution of TBPH and BSF proteins in the muscle, which mimicked the effect of i(CTG480 expression. These results provide the first description of TBPH and BSF as targets of Mbl-mediated CTG toxicity, and they suggest an important role of these proteins in DM1 muscle pathology.

  13. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann;

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical......, immunization of mice with the recombinant tuberculosis fusion antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660c (H56) and the physicochemically most optimal formulations (DDA/TDB, DDA/TDS and DDA/TDP) induced comparable T-cell responses. In conclusion, of the investigated TDB analogues, incorporation of 11mol% TDS or TDP into DDA...... liposomes resulted in an adjuvant system with the most favorable physicochemical properties and an immunological profile comparable to that of DDA/TDB....

  14. Influence of different path length computation models and iterative reconstruction algorithms on the quality of transmission reconstruction in Tomographic Gamma Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Guo, Zhirong; Liu, Haifeng; Li, Qinghua

    2017-07-01

    This paper studies the influence of different path length computation models and iterative reconstruction algorithms on the quality of transmission reconstruction in Tomographic Gamma Scanning. The research purpose is to quantify and to localize heterogeneous matrices while investigating the recovery of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) maps in 200 liter drums. Two different path length computation models so called ;point to point (PP); model and ;point to detector (PD); model are coupled with two different transmission reconstruction algorithms - Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) with non-negativity constraint, and Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM), respectively. Thus 4 modes are formed: ART-PP, ART-PD, MLEM-PP, MLEM-PD. The inter-comparison of transmission reconstruction qualities of these 4 modes is taken into account for heterogeneous matrices in the radioactive waste drums. Results illustrate that transmission-reconstructed qualities of MLEM algorithm are better than ART algorithm to get the most accurate LACs maps in good agreement with the reference data simulated by Monte Carlo. Moreover, PD model can be used to assay higher density waste drum and has a greater scope of application than PP model in TGS.

  15. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  16. Visual search for tropical web spiders: the influence of plot length, sampling effort, and phase of the day on species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, C M; Rocha, P L B

    2012-12-01

    Empirical studies using visual search methods to investigate spider communities were conducted with different sampling protocols, including a variety of plot sizes, sampling efforts, and diurnal periods for sampling. We sampled 11 plots ranging in size from 5 by 10 m to 5 by 60 m. In each plot, we computed the total number of species detected every 10 min during 1 hr during the daytime and during the nighttime (0630 hours to 1100 hours, both a.m. and p.m.). We measured the influence of time effort on the measurement of species richness by comparing the curves produced by sample-based rarefaction and species richness estimation (first-order jackknife). We used a general linear model with repeated measures to assess whether the phase of the day during which sampling occurred and the differences in the plot lengths influenced the number of species observed and the number of species estimated. To measure the differences in species composition between the phases of the day, we used a multiresponse permutation procedure and a graphical representation based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling. After 50 min of sampling, we noted a decreased rate of species accumulation and a tendency of the estimated richness curves to reach an asymptote. We did not detect an effect of plot size on the number of species sampled. However, differences in observed species richness and species composition were found between phases of the day. Based on these results, we propose guidelines for visual search for tropical web spiders.

  17. Influence of the length of progestagen treatment and the time of oestradiol benzoate application on the ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, J; Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R H

    2012-06-01

    Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that the pre-ovulatory follicle size, maturity and subsequent susceptibility to gonadotropin are influenced by the length of progestagen treatment in artificial insemination programme in beef cows. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 35 anoestrous beef cows received an intravaginal sponge containing 200 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The treatment lasted for 7 (n = 12), 8 (n = 11) or 9 (n = 12) days. Half of the animals in each group were injected with 0.7 mg of oestradiol benzoate (EB) at device removal (0 h) and the other half 24 h later. In experiment 2, 38 cycling beef cows were treated with the same protocols as in experiment 1. Ultrasound examinations were performed to determine the follicular diameter at device removal (dominant follicle), interval to ovulation and ovulatory follicle diameter. The dominant follicle of anoestrous cows with progestagen for 7 days (8.4 ± 1.6 mm) resulted smaller (p time after device removal was longer (p withdrawal than at 0 h in anoestrous cows (EB0 = 52.7 ± 4.0 h; EB24 = 70.8 ± 6.2 h) and in cyclic cows (EB0 = 50.0 ± 21.0 h; EB24 = 73.0 ± 20.0 h). In anoestrous cows, the treatment with progestagen for 9 days and EB at 24 h increased the diameter of the ovarian follicle (p = 0.033) but did not affect the diameter of the ovulatory follicle in cyclic cows. In conclusion, increasing the length of progestagen treatment for 8 or 9 days compared to 7 days increased the diameter of the dominant follicle, in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows. Oestradiol benzoate administered at device removal resulted in a shorter interval from device removal to ovulation compared with EB injection 24 h after the end of a progestagen treatment.

  18. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  19. Furthering the link between the sarcomere and primary cardiomyopathies: restrictive cardiomyopathy associated with multiple mutations in genes previously associated with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleshu, Colleen; Sakhuja, Rahul; Nussbaum, Robert L; Schiller, Nelson B; Ursell, Philip C; Eng, Celeste; De Marco, Teresa; McGlothlin, Dana; Burchard, Esteban González; Rame, J Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    Mutations in genes that encode components of the sarcomere are well established as the cause of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Sarcomere genes, however, are increasingly being associated with other cardiomyopathies. One phenotype more recently recognized as a disease of the sarcomere is restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We report on two patients with RCM associated with multiple mutations in sarcomere genes not previously associated with RCM. Patient 1 presented with NYHA Class III/IV heart failure at 22 years of age. She was diagnosed with RCM and advanced heart failure requiring heart transplantation. Sequencing of sarcomere genes revealed previously reported homozygous p.Glu143Lys mutations in MYL3, and a novel heterozygous p.Gly57Glu mutation in MYL2. The patient's mother is a double heterozygote for these mutations, with no evidence of cardiomyopathy. Patient 2 presented at 35 years of age with volume overload while hospitalized for oophorectomy. She was diagnosed with RCM and is being evaluated for heart transplantation. Sarcomere gene sequencing identified homozygous p.Asn279His mutations in TPM1. The patient's parents are consanguineous and confirmed heterozygotes. Her father was diagnosed with HCM at 42 years of age. This is the first report of mutations in TPM1, MYL3, and MYL2 associated with primary, non-hypertrophied RCM. The association of more sarcomere genes with RCM provides further evidence that mutations in the various sarcomere genes can cause different cardiomyopathy phenotypes. These cases also contribute to the growing body of evidence that multiple mutations have an additive effect on the severity of cardiomyopathies.

  20. Inhibition mechanism of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA and influence of PLA chain length on P-glycoprotein inhibition activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Xinru; Gao, Yajie; Zhou, Yanxia; Ma, Shujin; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinglin; Yin, Dongdong

    2014-01-06

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) on the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells and further unravel the relationship between PLA chain length in mPEG-PLA and influence on P-gp efflux and the action mechanism. The transport results of rhodamine 123 (R123) across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggested that mPEG-PLA unimers were responsible for its P-gp inhibitory effect. Furthermore, transport studies of R123 revealed that the inhibitory potential of P-gp efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues was strongly correlated with their structural features and showed that the hydrophilic mPEG-PLA copolymers with an intermediate PLA chain length and 10.20 of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance were more effective at inhibiting P-gp efflux in Caco-2 cells. The fluorescence polarization measurement results ruled out the plasma membrane fluidization as a contributor for inhibition of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Concurrently, mPEG-PLA inhibited neither basal P-gp ATPase (ATP is adenosine triphosphate) activity nor substrate stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, suggesting that mPEG-PLA seemed not to be a substrate of P-gp and a competitive inhibitor. No evident alteration in P-gp surface level was detected by flow cytometry upon exposure of the cells to mPEG-PLA. The depletion of intracellular ATP, which was likely to be a result of partial inhibition of cellular metabolism, was directly correlated with inhibitory potential for P-gp mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues. Hence, intracellular ATP-depletion appeared to be possible explanation to the inhibition mechanism of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Taken together, the establishment of a relationship between PLA chain length and impact on P-gp efflux activity and interpretation of action mechanism of mPEG-PLA on P-gp are of fundamental importance and will facilitate future development of mPEG-PLA in the drug delivery area.

  1. Influence of instrument size and varying electrical resistance of root canal instruments on accuracy of three electronic root canal length measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Bhasin, S S

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of instrument size and the effect of the electrical resistance of endodontic instruments on the accuracy of three electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs). Thirty single-rooted extracted human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 10) on the basis of the ERCLMD used: Root ZX II (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan); ProPex (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland); and iPex II (NSK, Tochigi, Japan). The electronic working length measurements (EWL) were made with K-files in the sequence sizes 08, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. The actual working length (AWL) was calculated by fixing a size 30 K-file in the canal and exposing the apical 5 mm of the root. The minor foramen was identified under an optical microscope, and its distance from the file tip was calculated. The accuracy of the ERCLMDs was evaluated in terms of percentages of accurate measurements (0.0 mm tolerance) and measurements with tolerance limits of ±0.5 mm and ±1.0 mm. The findings were analysed with the McNemar test, Pearson's chi-square tests and two-way analysis of variance. The multiple comparison procedures were carried out using Holm-Sidak method. The maximum electrical resistance tolerated by ERCLMDs was evaluated by connecting commercially available resistors between the file clip and the root canal instrument. The resistance was gradually increased until it started to affect the ERCLMD readings. The ERCLMDs were able to actually locate the minor foramen in 7% of samples. File size did not affect the accuracy of ERCLMDs (P > 0.05). Overall, the ERCLMDs gave 65% readings within a tolerance limit of ±0.5 mm and 90% within a tolerance of ±1.0 mm. The electrical resistance of endodontic files was less than the maximum electrical resistance tolerated by ERCLMDs (0.6-1 Ω vs. 2500-4000 Ω). The size of the root canal instrument did not affect the accuracy of ERCLMDs in this laboratory study. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John

  2. Influence of Rest Interval Length Between Sets on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability After a Strength Training Session Performed By Prehypertensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; Machado Reis, Victor; Freitas de Salles, Belmiro; Simão, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Figueiredo, T, Willardson, JM, Miranda, H, Bentes, CM, Machado Reis, V, Freitas de Salles, B, and Simão, R. Influence of rest interval length between sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session performed by prehypertensive men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1813-1824, 2016-The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of 2 different rest interval lengths between sets and exercises during strength training (ST) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in prehypertensive trained men, and to verify how HRV influences BP. Eleven volunteer subjects (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 7.9 kg; height: 172.1 ± 4.1 cm; % body fat: 18.3 ± 6.3; ST experience: 1.7 ± 0.8 years) participated in this study. After assessing one repetition maximum (1RM) loads for the free weight bench press, lat pull-down, shoulder press, biceps curl, triceps extension, leg press, leg extension, and leg curl exercises; subjects performed 2 sessions with different rest intervals between sets and exercises in random order and 72 hours apart. Each ST session consisted of performing 3 sets of eight to 10 repetitions at 70% of a 1RM for each exercise, with either 1-minute (sequence 1 [SEQ1]) or 2-minute (sequence 2 [SEQ2]) rest intervals between sets and exercises, respectively. Before and after each session, BP and HRV (low frequency band, high frequency [HF] band, and square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR-interval index) were tracked for 60 minutes. The results demonstrated a postexercise hypotensive response (PEH) after both rest interval conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, increases in cardiac stress were noted after SEQ1, with a greater withdrawal in parasympathetic activity vs. baseline as noted in the HF band at 1-, 10-, and 20-minute postexercise (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that both sequences provided an effective stimulus for a PEH. Therefore, strength and conditioning professionals may

  3. CAS-1, a C. elegans cyclase-associated protein, is required for sarcomeric actin assembly in striated muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Assembly of contractile apparatuses in striated muscle requires precisely regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeletal proteins into sarcomeric organization. Regulation of actin filament dynamics is one of the essential processes of myofibril assembly, but the mechanism of actin regulation in striated muscle is not clearly understood. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is a key enhancer of actin filament dynamics in striated muscle in both vertebrates and nematodes. Here, we repo...

  4. Influence of polymerization method, curing process, and length of time of storage in water on the residual methyl methacrylate content in dental acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Gulsen; Guvener, Bora; Bural, Canan; Uresin, Yagiz

    2006-02-01

    This study compared the influence of different polymerization methods (heat, auto-, and microwave energy), different curing processes (in the case of heat- and autopolymerized specimens), and length of storage of the polymerized specimens in distilled water at 37 degrees C on the residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) content in dental acrylic resin specimens. Residual MMA of 120 resin specimens were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. For the heat-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were given a long-term terminal boil and then stored in the distilled water for at least 1 day. For the autopolymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were additionally cured in water at 60 degrees C and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. For the microwave-polymerized resins, the lowest residual MMA content was obtained when they were stored in the distilled water at least 1 month. The lowest overall residual MMA content was obtained from heat-polymerized specimens that were given a long-term terminal boil cure and then stored in the distilled water at least 1 day. Different polymerization methods and curing processes have different effects on residual MMA content. It is thus shown that storing a dental acrylic resin specimen in distilled water at 37 degrees C is a simple but effective method of reducing its residual MMA content.

  5. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  6. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to English began on average at age 4;4. Children spoke either a Chinese language or South Asian language as an L1 and were given English standardized tests for NWR and receptive vocabulary. Although the majority of ELLs scored within or above the monolingual normal range (71%), 29% scored below. Mixed logistic regression modeling revealed that a larger English vocabulary, longer English exposure, South Asian L1, and older age all had significant and positive effects on ELLs' NWR accuracy. Error analyses revealed the following L1 effect: onset consonants were produced more accurately than codas overall, but this effect was stronger for the Chinese group whose L1s have a more limited coda inventory compared with English. ELLs' NWR performance is influenced by a number of factors. Consideration of these factors is important in deciding whether monolingual norm referencing is appropriate for ELL children.

  7. Length of hydrocarbon chain influences location of curcumin in liposomes: Curcumin as a molecular probe to study ethanol induced interdigitation of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Elsy; Patra, Digambara

    2016-05-01

    Using fluorescence quenching of curcumin in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes by brominated derivatives of fatty acids, the location of curcumin has been studied, which indicates length of hydrocarbon chain has an effect on the location of curcumin in liposomes. Change of fluorescence intensity of curcumin with temperature in the presence of liposomes helps to estimate the phase transition temperature of these liposomes, thus, influence of cholesterol on liposome properties has been studied using curcumin as a molecule probe. The cooperativity due to the interactions between the hydrocarbon chains during melting accelerates the phase transition of DPPC liposomes in the presence of high percentage of cholesterol whereas high percentage of cholesterol generates a rather rigid DMPC liposome over a wide range of temperatures. We used ethanol to induce interdigitation between the hydrophobic chains of the lipids and studied this effect using curcumin as fluorescence probe. As a result of interdigitation, curcumin fluorescence is quenched in liposomes. The compact arrangement of the acyl chains prevents curcumin from penetrating deep near the midplane. In the liquid crystalline phase ethanol introduces a kind of order to the more fluid liposome, and does not leave space for curcumin to be inserted away from water.

  8. Intermittent stretch training of rabbit plantarflexor muscles increases soleus mass and serial sarcomere number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Dominique; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2015-06-15

    In humans, enhanced joint range of motion is observed after static stretch training and results either from an increased stretch tolerance or from a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. We investigated the effects of an intermittent stretch training on muscle biomechanical and structural variables. The left plantarflexors muscles of seven anesthetized New Zealand (NZ) White rabbits were passively and statically stretched three times a week for 4 wk, while the corresponding right muscles were used as nonstretched contralateral controls. Before and after the stretching protocol, passive torque produced by the left plantarflexor muscles as a function of the ankle angle was measured. The left and right plantarflexor muscles were harvested from dead rabbits and used to quantify possible changes in muscle structure. Significant mass and serial sarcomere number increases were observed in the stretched soleus but not in the plantaris or medial gastrocnemius. This difference in adaptation between the plantarflexors is thought to be the result of their different fiber type composition and pennation angles. Neither titin isoform nor collagen amount was modified in the stretched compared with the control soleus muscle. Passive torque developed during ankle dorsiflexion was not modified after the stretch training on average, but was decreased in five of the seven experimental rabbits. Thus, an intermittent stretching program similar to those used in humans can produce a change in the muscle structure of NZ White rabbits, which was associated in some rabbits with a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  9. Cloning, Sequencing, and the Expression of the Elusive Sarcomeric TPM4α Isoform in Humans

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    Dipak K. Dube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, tropomyosin is encoded by four known TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 each of which can generate a number of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing and/or using alternate promoters. In humans, the sarcomeric isoform(s of each of the TPM genes, except for the TPM4, have been known for a long time. Recently, on the basis of computational analyses of the human genome sequence, the predicted sequence of TPM4α has been posted in GenBank. We designed primer-pairs for RT-PCR and showed the expression of the transcripts of TPM4α and a novel isoform TPM4δ in human heart and skeletal muscle. qRT-PCR shows that the relative expression of TPM4α and TPM4δ is higher in human cardiac muscle. Western blot analyses using CH1 monoclonal antibodies show the absence of the expression of TPM4δ protein (~28 kDa in human heart muscle. 2D western blot analyses with the same antibody show the expression of at least nine distinct tropomyosin molecules with a mass ~32 kD and above in adult heart. By Mass spectrometry, we determined the amino acid sequences of the extracted proteins from these spots. Spot “G” reveals the putative expression of TPM4α along with TPM1α protein in human adult heart.

  10. Cloning, Sequencing, and the Expression of the Elusive Sarcomeric TPM4α Isoform in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lynn; Alshiekh-Nasany, Ruham; Mitschow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, tropomyosin is encoded by four known TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) each of which can generate a number of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing and/or using alternate promoters. In humans, the sarcomeric isoform(s) of each of the TPM genes, except for the TPM4, have been known for a long time. Recently, on the basis of computational analyses of the human genome sequence, the predicted sequence of TPM4α has been posted in GenBank. We designed primer-pairs for RT-PCR and showed the expression of the transcripts of TPM4α and a novel isoform TPM4δ in human heart and skeletal muscle. qRT-PCR shows that the relative expression of TPM4α and TPM4δ is higher in human cardiac muscle. Western blot analyses using CH1 monoclonal antibodies show the absence of the expression of TPM4δ protein (~28 kDa) in human heart muscle. 2D western blot analyses with the same antibody show the expression of at least nine distinct tropomyosin molecules with a mass ~32 kD and above in adult heart. By Mass spectrometry, we determined the amino acid sequences of the extracted proteins from these spots. Spot “G” reveals the putative expression of TPM4α along with TPM1α protein in human adult heart. PMID:27703814

  11. Titin Isoform Size is Not Correlated with Thin Filament Length in Rat Skeletal Muscle

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    Marion Lewis Greaser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling thin filament length in muscle remain controversial. It was recently reported that thin filament length was related to titin size, and that the latter might be involved in thin filament length determination. Titin plays several crucial roles in the sarcomere, but its function as it pertains to the thin filament has not been explored. We tested this relationship using several muscles from wild type rats and from a mutant rat model which results in increased titin size. Myofibrils were isolated from skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, external oblique, gastrocnemius, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, and tibialis anterior using both adult wild type (WT and homozygous mutant (HM rats. Phalloidin and antibodies against tropomodulin-4 and nebulin’s N-terminus were used to determine thin filament length. The WT rats studied express skeletal muscle titin sizes ranging from 3.2 to 3.7 MDa, while the HM rats express a giant titin isoform sized at 3.7 MDa. No differences in phalloidin-based thin filament length, nebulin N terminus distances from the Z line, or tropomodulin distances from the Z line were observed across genotypes. The data indicates that, although titin performs many sarcomeric functions, its correlation with thin filament length and structure could not be demonstrated in the rat. Current models of thin filament assembly are inadequate to explain the phalloidin, nebulin N terminus, and tropomodulin staining patterns in the myofibril.

  12. Influence of In Utero Maternal and Neonate Factors on Cord Blood Leukocyte Telomere Length: Clues to the Racial Disparity in Prostate Cancer?

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    Kari A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modifiable factors in adulthood that explain the racial disparity in prostate cancer have not been identified. Because racial differences in utero that may account for this disparity are understudied, we investigated the association of maternal and neonate factors with cord blood telomere length, as a cumulative marker of cell proliferation and oxidative damage, by race. Further, we evaluated whether cord blood telomere length differs by race. Methods. We measured venous umbilical cord blood leukocyte relative telomere length by qPCR in 38 black and 38 white full-term male neonates. Using linear regression, we estimated geometric mean relative telomere length and tested for differences by race. Results. Black mothers were younger and had higher parity and black neonates had lower birth and placental weights. These factors were not associated with relative telomere length, even after adjusting for or stratifying by race. Relative telomere length in black (2.72 and white (2.73 neonates did not differ, even after adjusting for maternal or neonate factors (all p>0.9. Conclusions. Maternal and neonate factors were not associated with cord blood telomere length, and telomere length did not differ by race. These findings suggest that telomere length at birth does not explain the prostate cancer racial disparity.

  13. S100A1: A Regulator of Striated Muscle Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Handling, Sarcomeric, and Mitochondrial Function

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    Mirko Völkers

    2010-01-01

    S100A1 has further been detected at different sites within the cardiac sarcomere indicating potential roles in myofilament function. More recently, a study reported a mitochondrial location of S100A1 in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, normalizing the level of S100A1 protein by means of viral cardiac gene transfer in animal heart failure models resulted in a disrupted progression towards cardiac failure and enhanced survival. This brief review is confined to the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of S100A1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ handling with a particular focus on its potential as a molecular target for future therapeutic interventions.

  14. Connecting Sarcomere Protein Mutations to Pathogenesis in Cardiomyopathies: The Development of ‘Disease in a Dish’ Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zaunbrecher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological and protocol developments have greatly increased the ability to utilize stem cells transformed into cardiomyocytes as models to study human heart muscle development and how this is affected by disease associated mutations in a variety of sarcomere proteins. In this perspective we provide an overview of these emerging technologies and how they are being used to create better models of ‘disease in a dish’ for both research and screening assays. We also consider the value of these assays as models to explore the seminal processes in initiation of the disease development and the possibility of early interventions.

  15. Characterisation of the sarcomeric myosin heavy chain multigene family in the laboratory guinea pig

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    Bardsley Ronald G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several chronic conditions leading to skeletal muscle dysfunction are known to be associated with changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms at both the mRNA and protein level. Many of these conditions are modelled, pre-clinically, in the guinea pig due to similar disease onset and progression to the human condition, and their generally well-characterised anatomy. MHC composition is amenable to determination by protein and mRNA based methodologies, the latter quantifying the expression of MHC isoform-specific gene transcripts allowing the detection of earlier, and more subtle changes. As such, the MHC mRNAs, and specific oligonucleotide primers of all common laboratory species have been available for some time. However, due to incomplete genomic annotation, assessment of guinea pig MHC mRNA expression has not been previously possible, precluding the full characterisation of early changes in skeletal muscle in response to disease and disease modulation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the multigenic structure of the sarcomeric MHC family in the guinea pig, and to design and validate specific oligonucleotide primers to enable the assessment of the predominant adult-muscle associated MHC mRNAs in relevant disease models. Results Using a combination of ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RACE and bioinformatics, mRNAs to the four main skeletal-muscle isoforms of MHC were determined. Specific oligonucleotide primers were designed, and following verification of their specificity, found to successfully determine the expression of each MHC mRNA independently. Conclusions Because of their utilisation in the in vivo modelling of disease, there is a requirement to develop molecular methods that accurately differentiate the different MHC mRNAs in the guinea pig to enable rapid profiling of muscle composition in appropriate disease models. The methods developed here are suitable for

  16. Analysis of the ACTN3 heterozygous genotype suggests that α-actinin-3 controls sarcomeric composition and muscle function in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Marshall W; Garton, Fleur C; Houweling, Peter J; Tukiainen, Taru; Lek, Monkol; Macarthur, Daniel G; Seto, Jane T; Quinlan, Kate G R; Yang, Nan; Head, Stewart I; North, Kathryn N

    2016-03-01

    A common null polymorphism (R577X) in ACTN3 causes α-actinin-3 deficiency in ∼ 18% of the global population. There is no associated disease phenotype, but α-actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to sprint and power performance in both elite athletes and the general population. However, despite considerable investigation to date, the functional consequences of heterozygosity for ACTN3 are unclear. A subset of studies have shown an intermediate phenotype in 577RX individuals, suggesting dose-dependency of α-actinin-3, while others have shown no difference between 577RR and RX genotypes. Here, we investigate the effects of α-actinin-3 expression level by comparing the muscle phenotypes of Actn3(+/-) (HET) mice to Actn3(+/+) [wild-type (WT)] and Actn3(-/-) [knockout (KO)] littermates. We show reduction in α-actinin-3 mRNA and protein in HET muscle compared with WT, which is associated with dose-dependent up-regulation of α-actinin-2, z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif and myotilin at the Z-line, and an incremental shift towards oxidative metabolism. While there is no difference in force generation, HET mice have an intermediate endurance capacity compared with WT and KO. The R577X polymorphism is associated with changes in ACTN3 expression consistent with an additive model in the human genotype-tissue expression cohort, but does not influence any other muscle transcripts, including ACTN2. Overall, ACTN3 influences sarcomeric composition in a dose-dependent fashion in mouse skeletal muscle, which translates directly to function. Variance in fibre type between biopsies likely masks this phenomenon in human skeletal muscle, but we suggest that an additive model is the most appropriate for use in testing ACTN3 genotype associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits.

  18. C. elegans SORB-1 localizes to integrin adhesion sites and is required for organization of sarcomeres and mitochondria in myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Timothy; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M; Hardin, Jeff

    2017-10-04

    We have identified and characterized sorb-1, the only Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein family member in C. elegans SORB-1 is strongly localized to integrin adhesion complexes in larvae and adults, including adhesion plaques and dense bodies (Z-disks) of striated muscles and attachment plaques of smooth muscles. SORB-1 is recruited to the actin-binding, membrane-distal regions of dense bodies via its C-terminal SH3 domains in an ATN-1(α-actinin)- and ALP-1(ALP/Enigma)-dependent manner, where it contributes to the organization of sarcomeres. SORB-1 is also found in other tissues known to be under mechanical stress, including stress fibers in migratory distal tip cells and in the proximal gonad sheath, where it becomes enriched in response to tissue distention. We provide evidence for a novel role for sorbin family proteins: SORB-1 is required for normal positioning of the mitochondrial network in muscle cells. Finally, we demonstrate that SORB-1 interacts directly with two other dense body components, DEB-1(vinculin) and ZYX-1(zyxin). This work establishes SORB-1 as a bona fide sorbin family protein, as one of the late additions to the dense body complex, and as a conserved regulator of body wall muscle sarcomere organization and organelle positioning. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  19. Drebrin-like protein DBN-1 is a sarcomere component that stabilizes actin filaments during muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Bodensiek, Kai; Fakhri, Nikta; von Roden, Kerstin; Schaap, Iwan A T; Majoul, Irina; Schmidt, Christoph F; Klopfenstein, Dieter R

    2015-07-06

    Actin filament organization and stability in the sarcomeres of muscle cells are critical for force generation. Here we identify and functionally characterize a Caenorhabditis elegans drebrin-like protein DBN-1 as a novel constituent of the muscle contraction machinery. In vitro, DBN-1 exhibits actin filament binding and bundling activity. In vivo, DBN-1 is expressed in body wall muscles of C. elegans. During the muscle contraction cycle, DBN-1 alternates location between myosin- and actin-rich regions of the sarcomere. In contracted muscle, DBN-1 is accumulated at I-bands where it likely regulates proper spacing of α-actinin and tropomyosin and protects actin filaments from the interaction with ADF/cofilin. DBN-1 loss of function results in the partial depolymerization of F-actin during muscle contraction. Taken together, our data show that DBN-1 organizes the muscle contractile apparatus maintaining the spatial relationship between actin-binding proteins such as α-actinin, tropomyosin and ADF/cofilin and possibly strengthening actin filaments by bundling.

  20. Role of dystroglycan in limiting contraction-induced injury to the sarcomeric cytoskeleton of mature skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Turk, Rolf; Willer, Tobias; Beltrán, Daniel; Inamori, Kei-Ichiro; Peterson, Taylor A; Engle, Jeffrey; Prouty, Sally; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Saito, Fumiaki; Anderson, Mary E; Campbell, Kevin P

    2016-09-27

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a highly expressed extracellular matrix receptor that is linked to the cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. DG is critical for the function of skeletal muscle, and muscle with primary defects in the expression and/or function of DG throughout development has many pathological features and a severe muscular dystrophy phenotype. In addition, reduction in DG at the sarcolemma is a common feature in muscle biopsies from patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. However, the consequence of disrupting DG in mature muscle is not known. Here, we investigated muscles of transgenic mice several months after genetic knockdown of DG at maturity. In our study, an increase in susceptibility to contraction-induced injury was the first pathological feature observed after the levels of DG at the sarcolemma were reduced. The contraction-induced injury was not accompanied by increased necrosis, excitation-contraction uncoupling, or fragility of the sarcolemma. Rather, disruption of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton was evident as reduced passive tension and decreased titin immunostaining. These results reveal a role for DG in maintaining the stability of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton during contraction and provide mechanistic insight into the cause of the reduction in strength that occurs in muscular dystrophy after lengthening contractions.

  1. Talin 1 and 2 are required for myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of myotendinous junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Francesco J.; Monkley, Sue J.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Critchley, David R.; Müller, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Summary Talin 1 and 2 connect integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and regulate the affinity of integrins for ligands. In skeletal muscle, talin 1 regulates the stability of myotendinous junctions (MTJs), but the function of talin 2 in skeletal muscle is not known. Here we show that MTJ integrity is affected in talin 2-deficient mice. Concomitant ablation of talin 1 and 2 leads to defects in myoblast fusion and sarcomere assembly, resembling defects in muscle lacking β1 integrins. Talin 1/2-deficient myoblasts express functionally active β1 integrins, suggesting that defects in muscle development are not primarily caused by defects in ligand binding, but rather by disruptions of the interaction of integrins with the cytoskeleton. Consistent with this finding, assembly of integrin adhesion complexes is perturbed in the remaining muscle fibers of talin 1/2-deficient mice. We conclude that talin 1 and 2 are crucial for skeletal muscle development, where they regulate myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of MTJs. PMID:19793892

  2. Length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity adds stiffness to muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur Knoek J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-09-01

    It is well documented that muscle fibers become more sensitive for [Ca2+] with increasing sarcomere length. In mechanical terms this length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity (LDCS) adds to the stiffness of muscle fibers, because muscle force, normalized for the force-length relationship at maximal stimulation, increases with contractile element (CE) length. Although LDCS is well-documented in the physiological literature, it is ignored in most motor control studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of LDCS as a contributor to the stiffness of a muscle. Comparison of experimental data with predictions derived from the model of activation dynamics proposed by Hatze (Myocybernetic Control Models of Skeletal Muscle, University of South Africa, Pretoria, 1981, pp. 31-42) indicated that this model captures the main characteristics of LDCS well. It was shown that LDCS accounts for the experimentally observed shifts in optimum length at sub-maximal stimulation levels. Furthermore, it was shown that in conditions with low-to-medium muscle stimulation, the contribution of LDCS to the total amount of stiffness provided by the muscle is substantial. It was concluded that LDCS is an important muscle property and should be taken into account in studies concerning motor control.

  3. The eating quality of pork: 1. The influence of ultimate pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, G.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Wal, van der P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty pork carcasses were selected at 13 h post mortem (pm) to contain longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles that possessed a large variation in ultimate pH. On the LL ultimate pH, colour, water holding capacity, sarcomere length, percent intramuscular fat and shear force (at 3 and 7 days pm) were

  4. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  5. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  6. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bukvić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00 and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05 was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the highest average values for germination energy and seed germination, and the lowest for hypocotyls length. Cultivar Vuka had the lowest germination energy (but with the same germination as Stela and the longest hypocotyls. Seed germination as well as root and hypocotyl length significantly depended (p=0.01 on pH of water solution. The higher average values of all traits were found at pH 4.00, except for germination energy. Temperature also significantly affected on all investigated traits (p=0.01, whilst the higher values were attained at higher temperature. Interactions cultivar x pH and cultivar x temperature were significant (p=0.01 for all traits, while pH x temperature interaction was not significant only for seed germination.

  7. Performance evaluation of titanium dioxide based dye-sensitized solar cells under the influence of anodization steps, nanotube length and ionic liquid-free redox electrolyte solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y. L.; Beh, K. P.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, highly ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube (NT) arrays were synthesized on titanium foil using electrochemical anodization method. The morphological aspects of the nanotubes based on different anodization duration and number of anodization steps (maximum two) have been investigated. The nanotube arrays subsequently used as photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) assembly. The studies on the effects of different solvents for triiodide/iodide redox electrolyte and NT length towards the performance of DSSC were conducted. It is known that electrolyte solvent can significantly affect the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. It is noteworthy that longer NT length tends to yield higher efficiency due to better dye adsorption. However, when the NTs exceeded certain length the efficiency decreases instead. Meanwhile, a comparison of DSSC performance based on number of anodization steps on titanium was performed. Highly ordered NT arrays could be obtained using two-steps anodization, which proved to have positive effects on the DSSC performance. The highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency in this work is 2.04%, achieved by two-step anodization. The corresponding average nanotubes length was ˜18 μm, with acetonitrile (ACN) as the redox electrolyte solvent.

  8. Muscle type influences u-calpain mediated troponin-T proteolysis in bovine myofibrils in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of muscle type on postmortem proteolysis remains largely unexplored. Previous attempts to classify muscle tenderness based on ‘muscle type’ indicated differences in tenderness were due to variations in proteolytic enzyme levels, but failed to account for the influence of sarcomere leng...

  9. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-grafted microfibrillated cellulose for use in novel bionanocomposites--influence of the graft length on the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnberg, Hanna; Larsson, Karolina; Lindström, Tom; Hult, Anders; Malmström, Eva

    2011-05-01

    In the present work, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) made from bleached sulfite softwood dissolving pulp was utilized to reinforce a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) biopolymer matrix. To improve the dispersibility of the hydrophilic MFC in the nonpolar matrix and the interfacial adhesion in the composite material, we covalently grafted the MFC with PCL via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). To be able to investigate the effect of the PCL graft length on the mechanical properties of the composite material, we performed ROP to different molecular weights of the grafts. Bionanocomposites containing 0, 3, and 10 wt % MFC were prepared via hot pressing using both unmodified and PCL grafted MFC (MFC-g-PCL) as reinforcement. PCL grafting resulted in improved dispersion of the MFC in a nonpolar solvent and in the PCL matrix. The mechanical testing of the biocomposites showed an improvement in the mechanical properties for the PCL grafted MFC in comparison to ungrafted MFC. It was also shown that there was an impact on the mechanical properties with respect to the PCL graft lengths, and the strongest biocomposites were obtained after reinforcement with MFC grafted with the longest PCL graft length.

  10. The PolyA tail length of yeast histone mRNAs varies during the cell cycle and is influenced by Sen1p and Rrp6p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Suzanne; James, Tharappel C; Bond, Ursula

    2012-03-01

    Yeast histone mRNAs are polyadenylated, yet factors such as Rrp6p and Trf4p, required for the 3'-end processing of non-polyadenylated RNAs, contribute to the cell cycle regulation of these transcripts. Here, we investigated the role of other known 3'-end processing/transcription termination factors of non-polyadenylated RNA in the biogenesis of histone mRNAs, specifically the Nab3p/Nrd1p/Sen1p complex. We also re-evaluated the polyadenylation status of these mRNAs during the cell cycle. Our analysis reveals that yeast histone mRNAs have shorter than average PolyA tails and the length of the PolyA tail varies during the cell cycle; S-phase histone mRNAs possess very short PolyA tails while in G1, the tail length is relatively longer. Inactivation of either Sen1p or Rrp6p leads to a decrease in the PolyA tail length of histone mRNAs. Our data also show that Sen1p contributes to 3'-end processing of histone primary transcripts. Thus, histone mRNAs are distinct from the general pool of yeast mRNAs and 3'-end processing and polyadenylation contribute to the cell cycle regulation of these transcripts.

  11. Estimation of genome length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The genome length is a fundamental feature of a species. This note outlined the general concept and estimation method of the physical and genetic length. Some formulae for estimating the genetic length were derived in detail. As examples, the genome genetic length of Pinus pinaster Ait. and the genetic length of chromosome Ⅵ of Oryza sativa L. were estimated from partial linkage data.

  12. The influence of gamete co-incubation length on the in vitro fertility and sex ratio of bovine bulls with different penetration speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, A; Rubessa, M; Di Francesco, S; Longobardi, V; Di Palo, R; Zicarelli, L; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate whether the sperm penetration speed is correlated to the in vitro fertility and whether adapting the gamete co-incubation length to the kinetics of the bull improves in vitro fertility and affects the sex ratio. In vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa from four different bulls (A-D). At various post-insemination (p.i.) times (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h), samples of oocytes were fixed and stained with DAPI for nuclei examination, while the remaining ones were transferred into culture to evaluate embryo development. The blastocysts produced were sexed by PCR. Two bulls (A and B) had faster kinetics than the others (C and D), as shown by the higher penetration rates recorded at 4 h p.i. (43%, 30%, 11% and 6%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; pbulls did not reflect their in vitro fertility. The incidence of polyspermy was higher for faster penetrating bulls (36%, 24%, 16% and 4%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; pbulls may be improved by adapting the co-incubation length to their penetration speed. A sperm-oocyte co-incubation length of 8 h ensured the greatest blastocyst yields for the two faster penetrating bulls. On the contrary, 16 h co-incubation was required to increase (pbulls. Bulls with a faster kinetics did not alter the embryo sex ratio towards males. The female/male (F/M) ratios recorded were 2.1, 1.4, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.

  13. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid Crystal Phases: Influence of the Chain Length from C8E4 to C14E4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Techert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.

  14. 炉膛长度对烟气自循环工业炉燃烧的影响%Influence of Furnace Hearth Length on Combustion in Flue Gas Self-Circulation Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋湘; 马爱洁; 晗迪布

    2013-01-01

    高温空气燃烧技术中炉膛长度对炉膛内的燃烧特性及火焰特性有重要的影响.针对不同炉膛长度对烟气自循环工业炉进行了模拟研究,得到随着炉膛长度的增加温度分布及NOx排放的规律,并对其产生原因进行分析.最终发现实验炉膛长度为1.0 m时炉膛内燃烧比较稳定,温度分布均匀,NOx排放量较少.%The furnace hearth length in high temperature air combustion technology has important influence on the combustion characteristic and flame characteristic of furnace hearth. The combustion of flue gas self-circulation furnace at different furnaces hearth length were studied by numerical simulation, and the regularity of the temperature distribution and NOχ emission while the furnace length increased was found, and the reasons were also analyzed. It is found that when the furnace length is 1.0 m, the combustion in the furnace is stable, the temperature distribution is uniform, and the NOχ emission is less.

  15. Influence of acid chain length on the properties of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method and LC-MS studies of methylene blue photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Pratibha V; Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Vernekar, Amit A; Tilve, S G

    2016-07-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area. The organic acids acted as bidentate ligand and a surfactant in controlling the size and the mesoporosity. The size of the TiO2 nanoparticulate was found to be in the range of 10-18nm. The catalyst prepared by employing long chain acids octanoic acid and palmitic acid had smaller size, narrow pore radius, higher surface area and showed better photocatalytic activity than the commercially available Degussa P25 catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. A new intermediate was identified by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies during the degradation of methylene blue solution.

  16. Influence of a roughness length error on vertical wind speed extrapolation for 2D ideal hills using an OpenFOAM® RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav-Levy Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling wind flow over a flat and complex terrain, the choice of roughness-length-distribution is critical for accurate wind speed predications. This choice is often made based on the Davenport scale [1]. A satellite or aerial image of the location is used [2–4] and subjective or objective measures are used for translating the image into roughness length - z0 - based on the Davenport scale. The choice of a Davenport table value is generally regarded as within an error of plus or minus one table value, leading to a ±6% error in wind speed predictions for a flat terrain in neutral conditions [5]. In the paper this error is studied for a non-flat terrain, using a series of CFD simulations for 2D hills of various combinations of aspect ratio and steepness. Results show that the wind speed prediction error as a result of a “wrong” parameterization decreases with hill steepness until separation occurs. As a result of separation the error increases slightly, and then decreases again with a further increase in hill steepness.

  17. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces : influence of PEO chain length, grafting density and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, W.; Gage, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective whe

  18. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Dickerson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (b=0.31, P=0.001, referral to a hospital by a physician (b=0.35, P=0.014, and increasing age (b= 0.01, P=0.001 were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62. Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  19. Theoretical investigation on the kinetics and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical-induced transformation of parabens and its consequences for toxicity: Influence of alkyl-chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanpeng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2016-03-15

    As emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), the ubiquitous presence of preservative parabens in water causes a serious environmental concern. Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is a strong oxidant that can degrade EOCs through photochemistry in surface water environments as well as in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). To better understand the degradation mechanisms, kinetics, and products toxicity of the preservative parabens in aquatic environments and AOPs, the (•)OH-initiated degradation reactions of the four parabens were investigated systematically using a computational approach. The four studied parabens with increase of alkyl-chain length were methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propylparaben (PPB), and dibutylparaben (BPB). Results showed that the four parabens can be initially attacked by (•)OH through (•)OH-addition and H-abstraction routes. The (•)OH-addition route was more important for the degradation of shorter alkyl-chain parabens like MPB and EPB, while the H-abstraction route was predominant for the degradation of parabens with longer alkyl-chain for example PPB and BPB. In assessing the aquatic toxicity of parabens and their degradation products using the model calculations, the products of the (•)OH-addition route were found to be more toxic to green algae than original parabens. Although all degradation products were less toxic to daphnia and fish than corresponding parental parabens, they could be still harmful to these aquatic organisms. Furthermore, as alkyl-chain length increased, the ecotoxicity of parabens and their degradation products was found to be also increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B

    2011-02-22

    Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358). Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (β=0.31, P=0.001), referral to a hospital by a physician (β=0.35, P=0.014), and increasing age (β= 0.01, P=0.001) were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62). Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  1. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. The Length of N-Glycans of Recombinant H5N1 Hemagglutinin Influences the Oligomerization and Immunogenicity of Vaccine Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kopera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA is a principle influenza vaccine antigen. Recombinant HA-based vaccines become a potential alternative for traditional approach. Complexity and variation of HA N-glycosylation are considered as the important factors for the vaccine design. The number and location of glycan moieties in the HA molecule are also crucial. Therefore, we decided to study the effect of N-glycosylation pattern on the H5 antigen structure and its ability to induce immunological response. We also decided to change neither the number nor the position of the HA glycosylation sites but only the glycan length. Two variants of the H5 antigen with high mannose glycosylation (H5hm and with low-mannose glycosylation (H5Man5 were prepared utilizing different Pichia strains. Our structural studies demonstrated that only the highly glycosylated H5 antigen formed high molecular weight oligomers similar to viral particles. Further, the H5hm was much more immunogenic for mice than H5Man5. In summary, our results suggest that high mannose glycosylation of vaccine antigen is superior to the low glycosylation pattern. Our findings have strong implications for the recombinant HA-based influenza vaccine design.

  3. Disentangling discrepancies between stellar evolution theory and sub-solar mass stars. The influence of the mixing length parameter for the UV Psc binary

    CERN Document Server

    Lastennet, E; Valls-Gabaud, D; Oblak, E

    2003-01-01

    Serious discrepancies have recently been observed between predictions of stellar evolution models in the 0.7-1.1 M_sun mass range and accurately measured properties of binary stars with components in this mass range. We study one of these objects, the eclipsing binary UV Piscium, which is particularly interesting because Popper (1997) derived age estimates for each component which differed by more than a factor of two. In an attempt to solve this significant discrepancy (a difference in age of 11 Gyr), we compute a large grid of stellar evolution models with the CESAM code for each component. By fixing the masses to their accurately determined values (relative error smaller than 1% for both stars), we consider a wide range of possible metallicities Z (0.01 to 0.05), and Helium content Y (0.25 to 0.34) uncorrelated to Z. In addition, the mixing length parameter alpha_MLT is left as another free parameter. We obtain a best fit in the T_eff-radius diagram for a common chemical composition (Z, Y)=(0.012, 0.31), b...

  4. Polysulfide anions II: structure and vibrational spectra of the S4(2-) and S5(2-) anions. Influence of the cations on bond length, valence, and torsion angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jaroudi, O; Picquenard, E; Demortier, A; Lelieur, J P; Corset, J

    2000-06-12

    The influence of the cations on bond length, valence, and torsion angle of S4(2-) and S5(2-) anions was examined in a series of solid alkali tetra- and pentasulfides by relating their Raman spectra to their known X-ray structures through a force-field analysis. The IR and Raman spectra of BaS4.H2O and the Raman spectra of (NH4)2S4.nNH3, gamma-Na2S4, and delta-Na2S5 are presented. The similarity of spectra of gamma-Na2S4 with those of BaS4.H2O suggests similar structures of the S4(2-) anions in these two compounds with a torsion angle smaller than 90 degrees. The variations of SS bond length, SSS valence angle, and dihedral angle of Sn2- anions are related to the polarization of the lone pair and electronic charge of the anion by the electric field of the cations. A correlation between the torsion angle and the SSS valence angle is shown as that previously reported between the length of the bond around which the torsion takes place and the dihedral angle value. These geometry changes are explained by the hyperconjugation concept and the electron long-pair repulsion.

  5. Influence Factor Analysis on Jet Length of Atmospheric Pressure Argon Plasma Jets%大气压氩气等离子体射流长度的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冠军; 詹江杨; 邵先军; 彭兆裕

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure Ar plasma jets(APPJs) were designed to research their discharge characteristics with three kinds of different jet configurations,i.e.,double wrapped electrode,single wrapped electrode and center-electrode inside tube.The influences of flow rates,applied voltage amplitudes,and electrode configurations on the length of APPJs were studied.The results show that,as the flow rates increase,the flow status of Ar in tube has a process from the laminar state to the transition state and finally to the turbulent state.Correspondingly,the jet length first increases,then decreases,and finally reaches the maximum length when the Reynolds number is around 2000~3000.Under the same gas flow rate,the length of the single-wrapped electrode jet is slightly longer than double wrapped electrode jet while the center-electrode jet is shortest among three electrode configurations.But the discharge stability of center-electrode jet is superior to that of double-wrapped electrode jet,and the single-wrapped electrode jet is the worst.It is generally believed that the length of the jets is based on the high-energy electron in the ionization head.The electric field of double-wrapped electrode jet and single-wrapped electrode jet is mainly axial component of electric field,which leads to the discharge similar to streamer discharge and prolongs the APPJ length,while the electric field of the center-electrode jet is concentrated at the peak of the center electrode,and the discharge is originated from corona discharge with short jet length.The jet length comparison of different tube sizes shows that under our paper's conditions,the maximum jet length of the double-electrode jet and single-electrode jet first increases with the increment of tube sizes and finally tends to saturation,while the maximum jet length of the centre-electrode jet slightly decreases.%为了研究不同大气压氩气射流结构的放电特性以及气流速率、外施电压和电极结构对射

  6. Influence of medically assisted reproduction techniques on crown-rump length and biochemical markers of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Stéphanie; Sauleau, Eric; Sananes, Nicolas; Akaladios, Cherif; Rongières, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether there is a difference between the known gestational age in pregnancies conceived after IVF and the estimated gestational age based on the crown-rump length (CRL) measurement during the first trimester. We retrospectively (between 2007 and 2012) studied a cohort of 6,739 patients who underwent ultrasonography between 11 and 13+6 weeks of amenorrhea. Hospital. Group A consisted of 6,621 patients with regular menses whose term was calculated based on the date of their last menstrual period (LMP). Group B consisted of 529 patients whose pregnancies had been achieved by IVF and in whom term was calculated based on the date of fresh or frozen ET. None. The gestational age difference was obtained by comparing the age obtained by measuring the CRL (Robinson's curve) with the gestational age calculated in accordance with LMP in group A or with ET day in group B. The gestational age difference was significantly more in group B (2.3 days vs. 0.84 days in group A). We found a significant difference regarding biochemical markers for trisomy 21 to the detriment of group B with a significantly reduced pregnancy-associated protein P-A multiple of median (0.78 vs. 0.92). There appears to be a small difference in CRL development between spontaneous pregnancies and pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART). Specific ultrasonographic curves for pregnancies conceived by ART would be more relevant and precise. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not very clear and offer possibilities for future research. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. α-Dystroglycan hypoglycosylation affects cell migration by influencing β-dystroglycan membrane clustering and filopodia length: A multiscale confocal microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, V; Bozzi, M; Signorino, G; Papi, M; De Spirito, M; Brancaccio, A; Maulucci, G; Sciandra, F

    2017-09-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) serves as an adhesion complex linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. DG is encoded by a single gene as a precursor, which is constitutively cleaved to form the α- and β-DG subunits. α-DG is a peripheral protein characterized by an extensive glycosylation that is essential to bind laminin and other extracellular matrix proteins, while β-DG binds the cytoskeleton proteins. The functional properties of DG depend on the correct glycosylation of α-DG and on the cross-talk between the two subunits. A reduction of α-DG glycosylation has been observed in muscular dystrophy and cancer while the inhibition of the interaction between α- and β-DG is associated to aberrant post-translational processing of the complex. Here we used confocal microscopy based techniques to get insights into the influence of α-DG glycosylation on the functional properties of the β-DG, and its effects on cell migration. We used epithelial cells transfected with wild-type and with a mutated DG harboring the mutation T190M that has been recently associated to dystroglycanopathy. We found that α-DG hypoglycosylation, together with an increased protein instability, reduces the membrane dynamics of the β-subunit and its clustering within the actin-rich domains, influencing cell migration and spontaneous cell movement. These results contribute to give novel insights into the involvement of aberrant glycosylation of DG in the developing of muscular dystrophy and tumor metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegrated Dental Implants Based on Platform-Switching Concept: Influence of Diameter, Length, Thread Shape, and In-Bone Positioning Depth on Stress-Based Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vairo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of implant design (in terms of diameter, length, and thread shape, in-bone positioning depth, and bone posthealing crestal morphology on load transfer mechanisms of osseointegrated dental implants based on platform-switching concept. In order to perform an effective multiparametric comparative analysis, 11 implants different in dimensions and in thread features were analyzed by a linearly elastic 3-dimensional finite element approach, under a static load. Implant models were integrated with the detailed model of a maxillary premolar bone segment. Different implant in-bone positioning levels were modeled, considering also different posthealing crestal bone morphologies. Bone overloading risk was quantified by introducing proper local stress measures, highlighting that implant diameter is a more effective design parameter than the implant length, as well as that thread shape and thread details can significantly affect stresses at peri-implant bone, especially for short implants. Numerical simulations revealed that the optimal in-bone positioning depth results from the balance of 2 counteracting effects: cratering phenomena and bone apposition induced by platform-switching configuration. Proposed results contribute to identify the mutual influence of a number of factors affecting the bone-implant loading transfer mechanisms, furnishing useful insights and indications for choosing and/or designing threaded osseointegrated implants.

  9. 摆角、摆长及周期数对测重力加速度的影响分析%Influence and Analysis of Pendulum Angle, Pendulum Length and Periodicity on the Acceleration of Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟凤瑞; 李宇赤; 易中周; 张黎黎; 王丹

    2011-01-01

    用单摆法测量重力加速度是普通物理实验中常用的方法,但在实验中,摆角、摆长和周期数常常对重力加速度的测量误差产生一定的影响.文章主要分析不同摆角、摆长及周期数三个条件对测重力加速度的影响,最终由处理分析结果可知,在普通物理实验室里,取摆角、摆长=47或55cm、周期数次,处理得到的重力加速度与本地的理论计算值很接近.%It is an ordinary method to measure acceleration of gravity with a pendulum in physical experiments.But in the experiment,the pendulum angle,pendulum length and periodicity often have some influences on measurement errors of acceleration of gravity.This paper mainly analyzes the influences of pendulum angle,pendulum length and periodicity on the acceleration of gravity.It can be seen from the processing and analysis results that the value of acceleration of gravity by experiments is very close to the local acceleration theoretical value when the swing angle is 3.8 degrees,pendulum length is 47 cm or 55 cm and periodicity is 37 times.

  10. Omecamtiv Mecarbil Abolishes Length-Mediated Increase in Guinea Pig Cardiac Myofiber Ca(2+) Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, Sampath K; Reda, Sherif M; Chandra, Murali

    2017-08-22

    Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological agent that augments cardiac contractile function by enhancing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Given that interventions that increase myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity have the potential to alter length-dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments, we tested the influence of OM on this fundamental property of the heart. This is significant not only because LDA is prominent in cardiac muscle but also because it contributes to the Frank-Starling law, a mechanism by which the heart increases stroke volume in response to an increase in venous return. We measured steady-state and dynamic contractile indices in detergent-skinned guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) cardiac muscle fibers in the absence and presence of 0.3 and 3.0 μM OM at two different sarcomere lengths (SLs), short SL (1.9 μm) and long SL (2.3 μm). Myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, as measured by pCa50 (-log of [Ca(2+)]free concentration required for half-maximal activation), increased significantly at both short and long SLs in OM-treated fibers when compared to untreated fibers; however, the magnitude of increase in pCa50 was twofold greater at short SL than at long SL. A consequence of this greater increase in pCa50 at short SL was that pCa50 did not increase any further at long SL, suggesting that OM abolished the SL dependency of pCa50. Furthermore, the SL dependency of rate constants of cross-bridge distortion dynamics (c) and force redevelopment (ktr) was abolished in 0.3-μM-OM-treated fibers. The negative impact of OM on the SL dependency of pCa50, c, and ktr was also observed in 3.0-μM-OM-treated fibers, indicating that cooperative mechanisms linked to LDA were altered by the OM-mediated effects on cardiac myofilaments. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  12. Hindlimb immobilization - Length-tension and contractile properties of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Casts were placed around rat feet in plantar flexion position to immobilize the soleus muscle in a shortened position, while the other foot was fixed in dorsal flexion to set the extensor digitorum longus in a shortened position. The total muscular atrophy and contractile properties were measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after immobilization, with casts being replaced every two weeks. The slow twitch soleus and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis and longus muscles were excised after termination of the experiment. The muscles were then stretched and subjected to electric shock to elicit peak tetanic tension and peak tetanic tension development. Force velocity features of the three muscles were assayed in a series of afterloaded contractions and fiber lengths were measured from subsequently macerated muscle. All muscles atrophied during immobilization, reaching a new steady state by day 21. Decreases in fiber and sarcomere lengths were also observed.

  13. Nkx2.5 homeoprotein regulates expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 and sarcomere organization in postnatal cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Hideko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Liu, Margaret K; Maguire, Colin T; Converso, Kimber L; Kang, Peter M; Manning, Warren J; Lawitts, Joel; Paul, David L; Berul, Charles I; Izumo, Seigo

    2003-03-01

    Nkx2.5, an evolutionarily conserved homeodomain containing transcription factor, is one of the earliest cardiogenic markers. Although its expression continues through adulthood, its function in adult cardiomyocytes is not well understood. To examine the effect of Nkx2.5 in terminal differentiated postnatal cardiomyocytes, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type Nkx2.5 (TG-wild), a putative transcriptionally active mutant (carboxyl-terminus deletion mutant: TG-DeltaC) or a DNA non-binding point mutant of Nkx2.5 (TG-I183P) under alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Most TG-wild and TG-DeltaC mice died before 4 months of age with heart failure associated with conduction abnormalities. Cardiomyocytes expressing wild-type Nkx2.5 or a putative transcriptionally active mutant (DeltaC) had dramatically reduced expression of connexin 43 and changed sarcomere structure. Wild-type Nkx2.5 adenovirus-infected adult cardiomyocytes demonstrated connexin 43 downregulation as early as 16 h after infection, indicating that connexin 43 downregulation is due to Nkx2.5 overexpression but not due to heart failure phenotype in vivo. These studies indicate that overexpression of Nkx2.5 in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes dramatically alters cardiac cell structure and function.

  14. Cardiac MRI assessed left ventricular hypertrophy in differentiating hypertensive heart disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to a sarcomeric gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipola, Petri [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); Magga, Jarkko; Peuhkurinen, Keijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Husso, Minna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Pertti; Kuusisto, Johanna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center, P.O. Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI)-assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in differentiating between hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 95 unselected subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension, 24 patients with HCM attributable to the D175N mutation of the {alpha}-tropomyosin gene and 17 control subjects were studied by cine CMRI. Left ventricular (LV) quantitative and qualitative characteristics were evaluated. LV maximal end-diastolic wall thickness, wall thickness-to-LV volume ratio, end-diastolic septum thickness and septum-to-lateral wall thickness ratio were useful measures for differentiating between LVH due to hypertension and HCM. The most accurate measure for identifying patients with HCM was the LV maximal wall thickness {>=}17 mm, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 90%, 93%, 86%, 95% and 91%, respectively. LV maximal wall thickness in the anterior wall, or regional bulging in left ventricular wall was found only in patients with HCM. LV mass index was not discriminant between patients with HCM and those with LVH due to hypertension. LV maximal thickness measured by CMRI is the best anatomical parameter in differentiating between LVH due to mild-to-moderate hypertension and HCM attributable to a sarcomeric mutation. CMRI assessment of location and quality of LVH is also of value in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  16. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  17. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  18. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  19. Influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo Influence of length of hospitalization on neuromotor development in premature newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Giachetta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo prospectivo com 67 RNPT de idade gestacional 34 dias. Na análise estatística considerou-se o nível de significância pThe purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the length of hospital stay on the neuromotor development of preterm newborns (PTNB. This prospective study was carried out with 67 PTNB (gestational age 34 days. In statistical analysis significance level was set at p<0.05. Median AIMS scores (possible range 0-21 were 7 in group A, 5 in group B; weak, significant correlations were found at both groups (r=0.32; r=0.34 between AIMS scores and HP. Results show that PTNB who stayed in hospital for more than 34 days showed developmental delay, suggesting that, without excluding other factors, the longer PTNB length of stay, the greater the motor impairment.

  20. Influence of suction-side winglet length on tip leakage flow in compressor cascade%不同长度吸力面小翼对压气机叶栅间隙影响的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少冰; 钟兢军; 严红明

    2011-01-01

    The numerical simulation was performed to investigate the influence of the suction-side winglet with different lengthes on the tip leakage flow in compressor cascade.The simulation results show that the suction-side winglets can improve the tip clearance flow condition. It is found that the winglet is most effective to weaken the intensity of the leakage vortices if their length is the same with that of the blade tip. With increasing clearance and stronger intensity leakage flow, the winglet's effect is gradually decreased.%对常规直叶栅和三种具有不同长度和起始位置的吸力面小翼叶栅内的三维黏性流场进行了数值模拟.结果表明,不同长度吸力面小翼都不同程度上改善了叶栅顶部的气流流动状况;在叶顶吸力面侧加装与其型线等长度的小翼可以较好地削弱泄漏涡的强度,随着叶顶间隙的增大,泄漏流动增强,其作用效果逐渐降低.

  1. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joshua A.; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Green, Eric M.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  2. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  3. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  4. Influence of different methods of cervical flaring on establishment of working length Influência de diferentes métodos de ampliação cervical na determinação do comprimento de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieison Nardi Lazzaretti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the influence of three different rotary systems for cervical flaring on establishment of the real working length. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty mandibular first molars were submitted to conventional endodontic access and initial working length measurement, followed by irrigation/suction of the pulp chamber with 5% sodium hypochlorite. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and cervical flaring of the mesiobuccal canals were performed using one of the following instrument systems: Group 1 - Gates-Glidden burs; Group 2 - Orifice Openers; Group 3 - La Axxess system. Two subsequent numbers of instruments of each rotary system were used and the final working length was recorded. A digital calyper was used to record the working length, in millimeters, to investigate a possible discrepancy between initial and final measurements. RESULTS: Analysis of variance (Anova na Tukey test revealed statistical difference between Group 1 and Groups 2 and 3 (p£ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: all groups presented shorter working length after cervical flaring; groups prepared with instruments La Axxes and Orifice Opener presented the best results among the systems studied.OBJETIVO: determinar a influência de três sistemas distintos de instrumentos rotatórios para alargamento cervical na determinação do comprimento real de trabalho. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Trinta primeiros molares inferiores foram submetidos ao acesso endodôntico convencional e odontometria inicial pelo método visual, utilizando-se para irrigação/aspiração da câmara pulpar o hipoclorito de sódio a 5%. Procedeu-se a ampliação cervical dos canais mésio-vestibulares empregando-se diferentes alargadores cervicais. De acordo com o sistema de ampliação cervical empregado, as 30 amostras foram divididas aleatoriamente em 3 grupos de 10 dentes cada. No Grupo 1 as brocas de Gates-Glidden foram utilizadas para a ampliação cervical; no Grupo 2, Orifice Openers foram

  5. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  6. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  7. Observations on oesophageal length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  8. Functional phosphatome requirement for protein homeostasis, networked mitochondria, and sarcomere structure in C. elegans muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Susann; Bass, Joseph J; Barratt, Thomas F; Ali, Mohammed Z; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is central to locomotion and metabolic homeostasis. The laboratory worm Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed into a genomic model for assessing the genes and signals that regulate muscle development and protein degradation. Past work has identified a receptor tyrosine kinase signalling network that combinatorially controls autophagy, nerve signal to muscle to oppose proteasome-based degradation, and extracellular matrix-based signals that control calpain and caspase activation. The last two discoveries were enabled by following up results from a functional genomic screen of known regulators of muscle. Recently, a screen of the kinome requirement for muscle homeostasis identified roughly 40% of kinases as required for C. elegans muscle health; 80 have identified human orthologues and 53 are known to be expressed in skeletal muscle. To complement this kinome screen, here, we screen most of the phosphatases in C. elegans. RNA interference was used to knockdown phosphatase-encoding genes. Knockdown was first conducted during development with positive results also knocked down only in fully developed adult muscle. Protein homeostasis, mitochondrial structure, and sarcomere structure were assessed using transgenic reporter proteins. Genes identified as being required to prevent protein degradation were also knocked down in conditions that blocked proteasome or autophagic degradation. Genes identified as being required to prevent autophagic degradation were also assessed for autophagic vesicle accumulation using another transgenic reporter. Lastly, bioinformatics were used to look for overlap between kinases and phosphatases required for muscle homeostasis, and the prediction that one phosphatase was required to prevent mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was assessed by western blot. A little over half of all phosphatases are each required to prevent abnormal development or maintenance of muscle. Eighty-six of these phosphatases have known

  9. Coexistence of Digenic Mutations in Both Thin (TPM1) and Thick (MYH7) Filaments of Sarcomeric Genes Leads to Severe Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a South Indian FHCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi Rani, Deepa; Nallari, Pratibha; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Rani, Jhansi; Meraj, Khunza; Ganesan, Mala; Narasimhan, Calambur; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in sarcomeric genes are the leading cause for cardiomyopathies. However, not many genetic studies have been carried out on Indian cardiomyopathy patients. We performed sequence analyses of a thin filament sarcomeric gene, α-tropomyosin (TPM1), in 101 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and 147 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients against 207 ethnically matched healthy controls, revealing 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of these, one mutant, S215L, was identified in two unrelated HCM cases-patient #1, aged 44, and patient #2, aged 65-and was cosegregating with disease in these families as an autosomal dominant trait. In contrast, S215L was completely absent in 147 DCM and 207 controls. Patient #1 showed a more severe disease phenotype, with poor prognosis and a family history of sudden cardiac death, than patient #2. Therefore, these two patients and the family members positive for S215L were further screened for variations in MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, MYL2, MYL3, and ACTC. Interestingly, two novel thick filaments, D896N (homozygous) and I524K (heterozygous) mutations, in the MYH7 gene were identified exclusively in patient #1 and his family members. Thus, we strongly suggest that the coexistence of these digenic mutations is rare, but leads to severe hypertrophy in a South Indian familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM).

  10. Severe protein aggregate myopathy in a knockout mouse model points to an essential role of cofilin2 in sarcomeric actin exchange and muscle maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurniak, Christine B; Chevessier, Frédéric; Jokwitz, Melanie; Jönsson, Friederike; Perlas, Emerald; Richter, Hendrik; Matern, Gabi; Boyl, Pietro Pilo; Chaponnier, Christine; Fürst, Dieter; Schröder, Rolf; Witke, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human actin depolymerizing factor cofilin2 result in an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy. Here, we report on the targeted ablation of murine cofilin2, which leads to a severe skeletal muscle specific phenotype within the first two weeks after birth. Apart from skeletal muscle, cofilin2 is also expressed in heart and CNS, however the pathology was restricted to skeletal muscle. The two close family members of cofilin2 - ADF and cofilin1 - were co-expressed in muscle, but unable to compensate for the loss of cofilin2. While primary myofibril assembly and muscle development were unaffected in cofilin2 mutant mice, progressive muscle degeneration was observed between postnatal days 3 and 7. Muscle pathology was characterized by sarcoplasmic protein aggregates, fiber size disproportion, mitochondrial abnormalities and internal nuclei. The observed muscle pathology differed from nemaline myopathy, but showed combined features of actin-associated myopathy and myofibrillar myopathy. In cofilin2 mutant mice, the postnatal expression pattern and turnover of sarcomeric α-actin isoforms were altered. Levels of smooth muscle α-actin were increased and remained high in developing muscles, suggesting that cofilin2 plays a crucial role during the exchange of α-actin isoforms during the early postnatal remodeling of the sarcomere.

  11. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  12. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than......Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... analysis in 548 same-sex Danish twins (274 pairs) aged 73-94 years, of whom 204 pairs experienced the death of one or both co-twins during 9-10 years of follow-up (1997-2007). From the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) distribution, the authors obtained the mean TRFL (mTRFL) and the mean values...

  13. Influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain length on the thermal behavior of spin-coated thin films of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)/PEG blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujing; Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mn = 400, 1500, and 3400) chain length on the miscibility and thermal properties of spin-coated films of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHx, HHx = 6.9 mol %)/PEG blends was elucidated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectroscopy. To extract more detailed information about the spectral variations induced by the temperature, 2D correlation spectroscopy was applied to the temperature-dependent IR spectra of PHBHx/PEG blends. It was found that PEG 400 was completely miscible with PHBHx while PEG 1500 and 3400 were only partially miscible, reflecting that PHBHx/PEG miscibility decreased with the increasing molecular weight of PEG. The amorphous band of carbonyl group of 70/30 PHBHx/PEG 400 blend is resolved into two bands at 1744 and 1754 cm-1 in the asynchronous spectrum, which is not observed in the corresponding asynchronous 2D correlation spectra of PHBHx and its blend with PEG 1500 and 3400. This observation suggests that we captured the possible existence of two different types of amorphous state in 70/30 PHBHx/PEG 400 blend and the band at 1744 cm-1 is related to the amorphous mixture of PHBHx and PEG 400. Furthermore, 2D correlation analysis and the normalized peak height trends demonstrate that PEG 400 disrupts the crystalline structure of PHBHx, indicating low molecular weight PEG 400 has a clear effect on the thermal properties of PHBHx as well as depressing its melting temperature.

  14. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.

  15. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  16. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  17. Expression and identification of 10 sarcomeric MyHC isoforms in human skeletal muscles of different embryological origin. Diversity and similarity in mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, Francesco; Toniolo, Luana; Cancellara, Pasqua; Reggiani, Carlo; Maccatrozzo, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    In the mammalian genome, among myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms a family can be identified as sarcomeric based on their molecular structure which allows thick filament formation. In this study we aimed to assess the expression of the 10 sarcomeric isoforms in human skeletal muscles, adopting this species as a reference for comparison with all other mammalian species. To this aim, we set up the condition for quantitative Real Time PCR assay to detect and quantify MyHC mRNA expression in a wide variety of human muscles from somitic, presomitic and preotic origin. Specific patterns of expression of the following genes MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH8, MYH13, MYH14/7b and MYH15 were demonstrated in various muscle samples. On the same muscle samples which were analysed for mRNA expression, the corresponding MyHC proteins were studied with SDS PAGE and Western blot. The mRNA-protein comparison allowed the identification of 10 distinct proteins based on the electrophoretic migration rate. Three groups were formed based on the migration rate: fast migrating comprising beta/slow/1, alpha cardiac and fast 2B, slow migrating comprising fast 2X, fast 2A and two developmental isoforms (NEO and EMB), intermediate migrating comprising EO MyHC, slow B (product of MYH15), slow tonic (product of MYH14/7b). Of special interest was the demonstration of a protein band corresponding to 2B-MyHC in laryngeal muscles and the finding that all 10 isoforms are expressed in extraocular muscles. These latter muscles are the unique localization for extraocular, slow B (product of MYH15) and slow tonic (product of MYH14/7b).

  18. 纳米级尺寸参数对钛氧化物忆阻器的特性影响∗%Influence of length parameter on the characteristics of nanoscale titanium oxide memristor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭羽泉; 段书凯; 王丽丹

    2015-01-01

    According to the completeness theory of circuit, Chua [Chua L O 1971 IEEE Trans. Circ. Theor. 1971 18 507] put forward the fourth basic circuit element memristor besides resistor, inductor and capacitor in 1971. And memorisistance is defined as the ratio of the flux to the charge passing through it. With the emergence and development of nanoscale semiconductor technology, HP laboratoty successfully fabricated a physical memristor in 2008. The successful fabrication of memristive device caused a stir in the whole electronic field and thus a vast number of researchers were involved in the research, owing to its superior properties, i.e., nanoscale dimension, continuous input and output property, switching characteristics and unique non-volatile memory capacity. With all these extraordinary properties, memristors possess many possibilities for the development of future integrated circuits and analog computer. With the gradually in-depth study of memristor, memristor is being microsized, and its internal structure, motion law among its internal particles and influences resulting from the parameters are further explored. In recent years, the memristor has made significant achievement in the areas of non-volatile solid-state memory, intelligent storage, very-large-scale integrated circuitry, programmable analog circuits, and artificial neural networks. So far, the influence of size parameter on the memristor has been little studied, although the size parameter is one of the key factors in the memristor fabrication technology, which severely restricts the memristor development and its practical application. In the paper, we theoretically analyze the influences of size parameter on two practical memristor models (i.e., the HP memristor and spintronic memristor) in detail based on the Ohm’s law. On this basis, a series of circuit experimental simulation is carried out, and the corresponding memristor characteristic curves are thus obtained. Furthermore, we choose 4 most

  19. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  20. Finite element modeling of passive material influence on the deformation and force output of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John A; Chi, Sheng-Wei; Yang, Judy P; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Edgerton, Victor R; Sinha, Shantanu

    2012-05-01

    The pattern of deformation of different structural components of a muscle-tendon complex when it is activated provides important information about the internal mechanics of the muscle. Recent experimental observations of deformations in contracting muscle have presented inconsistencies with current widely held assumption about muscle behavior. These include negative strain in aponeuroses, non-uniform strain changes in sarcomeres, even of individual muscle fibers and evidence that muscle fiber cross sectional deformations are asymmetrical suggesting a need to readjust current models of contracting muscle. We report here our use of finite element modeling techniques to simulate a simple muscle-tendon complex and investigate the influence of passive intramuscular material properties upon the deformation patterns under isometric and shortening conditions. While phenomenological force-displacement relationships described the muscle fiber properties, the material properties of the passive matrix were varied to simulate a hydrostatic model, compliant and stiff isotropically hyperelastic models and an anisotropic elastic model. The numerical results demonstrate that passive elastic material properties significantly influence the magnitude, heterogeneity and distribution pattern of many measures of deformation in a contracting muscle. Measures included aponeurosis strain, aponeurosis separation, muscle fiber strain and fiber cross-sectional deformation. The force output of our simulations was strongly influenced by passive material properties, changing by as much as ~80% under some conditions. The maximum output was accomplished by introducing anisotropy along axes which were not strained significantly during a muscle length change, suggesting that correct costamere orientation may be a critical factor in the optimal muscle function. Such a model not only fits known physiological data, but also maintains the relatively constant aponeurosis separation observed during in vivo

  1. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding Betula, and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  2. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank–Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (ktr; which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K+ contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the ktr was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of ktr in rat muscle at optimal length (Lopt) and 90% of optimal length (L90) revealed that ktr was significantly slower at Lopt (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s−1 in duplicate analyses) than at L90 (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s−1). We therefore show that ktr can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the ktr decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank–Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics. PMID:23277479

  3. pi-Selective stationary phases: (I) Influence of the spacer chain length of phenyl type phases on the aromatic and methylene selectivity of aromatic compounds in reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Kirsty [University of Western Sydney, Australia; Dennis, Gary [University of Western Sydney, Australia; Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Shalliker, R. Andrew [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2010-01-01

    Phenyl type stationary phases of increasing spacer chain length (phenyl, methyl phenyl, ethyl phenyl, propyl phenyl and butyl phenyl, with 0-4 carbon atoms in the spacer chain, respectively) were synthesized and packed in house to determine the impact that the spacer chain length has on the retention process. Two trends in the aromatic selectivity, q{sub aromatic}, were observed, depending on whether the number of carbon atoms in the spacer chain is even or odd. Linear log k' vs {phi} plots were obtained for each stationary phase and the S coefficient was determined from the gradient of these plots. For the phenyl type phases, the S vs n{sub c} plots of the retention factors of linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons vs the number of rings exhibit a distinct discontinuity that between 3 and 4 rings, which increases with increasing spacer chain length for even phases but decreases for odd phases. Accordingly, we suggest that the retention factors depend differently on the number of carbon atoms in the spacer chain depending on whether this number is even or odd and that this effect is caused by different orientations of the aromatic ring relative to the silica surface.

  4. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  5. Influência da idade no tempo de internação e no grau evolutivo das apendicites agudas Age influence in hospital stay length and acute apendicitis evolution grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wilson Rocha Almeida

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o grau evolutivo da apendicite determinada pela inspeção trans-operatória com o resultado anatomopatológico, e identificar alguma relação entre a idade, grau evolutivo da apendicite aguda e o tempo de internação hospitalar. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 199 pacientes submetidos a apendicectomia entre o período de outubro de 2003 a agosto de 2004, quanto à idade, sexo, tempo de internação e a fase do processo inflamatório segundo anatomopatológico das peças. RESULTADOS: A análise foi possível em 182 casos. Nestes pacientes, a distribuição quanto ao sexo mostrou maior incidência em homens, com 54,4% casos; a mediana da idade foi de 20 anos, sendo a faixa etária mais prevalente entre os 11-20 anos com 36,22% dos casos. A mediana do tempo de internação foi de três dias. Houve uma diferença significativa do tempo de internação de acordo com a faixa etária dos pacientes, sendo que os pacientes acima de 60 anos tiveram maior tempo de internação. O anatomopatológico evidenciou 73,62% casos de apendicite supurada, 13,73% apendicite branca, 7,14% gangrenosa, 4,49% catarral e 0,54% neoplásico, confirmando o diagnóstico de apendicite em 86,24%. O tempo de internação e a idade não foram significativamente diferentes entre os graus evolutivos da apendicite aguda. CONCLUSÕES: A apendicite aguda ocorre com maior freqüência nos pacientes jovens e do sexo masculino. Os pacientes idosos permanecem mais tempo internados, porém não houve diferença na idade nem tempo de internação em relação aos vários graus evolutivos da apendicite.BACKGROUND: To study appendicitis evolution grade in comparison with intraoperative inspection and pathological results. Also a relationship between age and hospital stay length is reviewed. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 199 patients submitted to appendicectomy between October 2003 through August 2004 using: age, sex, length of hospital stay and

  6. FETAL FOOT LENGTH AND HAND LENGTH: RELATIONSHIP WITH CROWN RUMP LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of gestational age of fetus is of great medicolegal importance. Multiple parameters of the fetal anatomical measurements are in use. However, gestational age assessment may be difficult in fetus with anencephaly, hydrocephalus, short limb dysplasia, post mortem destruction or in mutilated case. Study of literature suggests that fetal foot has a characteristic pattern of normal growth and the fetal foot shows gradual increase in length relative to the length of the embryo and could be used to estimate gestational age. The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy in estimating gestational age using fetal foot and hand length by studying its relation with crown rump length in the foetuses of Manipuri origin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1 To study the relationship between fetal crown rump length and fetal hand and foot length, thereby determining the accuracy in estimating gestational age by a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 formalin fixed fetuses of Manipuri origin, obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, were included in the study, carried out in the Department of Anatomy, from February 2015 to July 2015. The parameters studied were crown rump length, foot length and hand length of fetuses. The data was analysed using SPSS software by regression analysis. Graphs were also plotted to determine pattern of growth and their correlation with crown rump length if any. RESULTS A total of 100 fetuses were studied, of which 43 were females and 57 were males. The mean foot length and hand length progressively increased with increase in crown rump length. Measurements were not significantly different in right or left side or among male and female fetuses. A statistically significant linear relationship was seen between foot length and crown rump length of the fetus (r=0.980, p<0.0001 and hand length and crown rump length of the fetus

  7. Determination of Arabidopsis thaliana telomere length by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I; Vega-Palas, Miguel A

    2014-07-02

    In humans, telomere length studies have acquired great relevance because the length of telomeres has been related to natural processes like disease, aging and cancer. However, very little is known about the influence of telomere length on the biology of wild type plants. The length of plant telomeres has been usually studied by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) analyses. This technique requires high amounts of tissue, including multiple cell types, which might be the reason why very little is known about the influence of telomere length on plant natural processes. In contrast, many of the human telomere length studies have focused on homogenous cell populations. Most of these studies have been performed by PCR, using telomeric degenerated primers, which allow the determination of telomere length from small amounts of human cells. Here, we have adapted the human PCR procedure to analyze the length of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres. This PCR approach will facilitate the analysis of telomere length from low amounts of tissue. We have used it to determine that CG and non CG DNA methylation positively regulates Arabidopsis telomere length.

  8. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  9. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  10. Nebulin deficiency in adult muscle causes sarcomere defects and muscle-type-dependent changes in trophicity: novel insights in nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank; Buck, Danielle; De Winter, Josine; Kolb, Justin; Meng, Hui; Birch, Camille; Slater, Rebecca; Escobar, Yael Natelie; Smith, John E; Yang, Lin; Konhilas, John; Lawlor, Michael W; Ottenheijm, Coen; Granzier, Henk L

    2015-09-15

    Nebulin is a giant filamentous protein that is coextensive with the actin filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. Nebulin mutations are the main cause of nemaline myopathy (NEM), with typical adult patients having low expression of nebulin, yet the roles of nebulin in adult muscle remain poorly understood. To establish nebulin's functional roles in adult muscle, we studied a novel conditional nebulin KO (Neb cKO) mouse model in which nebulin deletion was driven by the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promotor. Neb cKO mice are born with high nebulin levels in their skeletal muscles, but within weeks after birth nebulin expression rapidly falls to barely detectable levels Surprisingly, a large fraction of the mice survive to adulthood with low nebulin levels (Muscles rich in glycolytic fibers upregulate proteolysis pathways (MuRF-1, Fbxo30/MUSA1, Gadd45a) and undergo hypotrophy with smaller cross-sectional areas (CSAs), worsening their force deficit. Muscles rich in oxidative fibers do not have smaller weights and can even have hypertrophy, offsetting their specific-force deficit. These studies reveal nebulin as critically important for force development and trophicity in adult muscle. The Neb cKO phenocopies important aspects of NEM (muscle weakness, oxidative fiber-type predominance, variable trophicity effects, nemaline rods) and will be highly useful to test therapeutic approaches to ameliorate muscle weakness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  12. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  13. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  14. Immunonutrition – the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz, Kai J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. Patients and methods: A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet.Results: In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week.Summary: We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit and general ward stays.

  15. Immunonutrition – the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Kai J.; Schallert, Reiner; Daniel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. Patients and methods: A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet. Results: In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week. Summary: We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit) and general ward stays. PMID:26734536

  16. 断裂长度与最大位移的关系及其影响因素%Relationship between fault length and maximum displacement and influenced factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shun-shan; A. F.NIETO-SAMANIEGO; LI Dong-xu

    2004-01-01

    断裂最大位移与断裂迹长遵循幂律关系:D=cLn, 但幂指数n的大小有很大的变化范围.为探索幂指数n的大小和断裂机制,从已发表的文献中收集了18组数据,这些数据的断裂长度具有8个数量级的跨度.经相关分析,我们得到n值的大小变化于0.55和1.65 之间,平均值为1.083 9.由于走滑断裂的最大长度在其倾向方向,不宜与倾滑断裂一起统计,我们去掉一组走向滑动断裂的数据,幂指数平均值为1.106 6.用双回归方法得到的幂指数峰值(nd)是1.0~1.1.这些结果表明断裂最大位移与断裂迹长应该是非常接近线性关系.这种线性关系可以用Dugdale 模型加以解释.该模型认为弹塑性物质拉张裂缝端点的变形是非弹性变形.模型的适用范围是单一岩性,一次构造力作用.我们认为n值的大小之所以有很大的变化范围,有可能受到断裂迹线长度偏差的影响,造成长度偏差的因素包括:不同的观察平面,断裂端点的分辨率,断裂连接作用,岩石力学性质变化,断裂多期活动等.%The relationship between maximum displacement and fault trace length obeys the power-law equation: D = cLn. Data including 18 datasets and spanning more than 8 orders of fault length magnitudes is collected from the published literature for determining the exponent value (n). The range of the calculated values of nd is from 0.55 to 1.65. The average value of nd is 1.083 9. If one dataset from strike-slip faults is precluded, the average value of nd is 1.106 6. The peak value of nd (double regression) is 1.0~1.1. These results imply that the relationship between the maximum displacement and fault trace length is approximately linear. The relationship can be explained by Dugdales model. This model explains the development of faults in a single tectonics event with homogeneous host-rock. The power-law exponent (n) for maximum displacement-trace length would be affected by the deviations of

  17. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  18. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  19. Impedance of Finite Length Resistor

    CERN Document Server

    Krinsky, Samuel; Podobedov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a and length g, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k>>1/a). In the equilibrium regime, ka2

  20. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  1. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  2. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  3. [Telomere length, telomerase activity, stress and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, I M; Mikhelson, V M; Spivak, D L

    2015-01-01

    The review is dedicated to analysis of data available at present time concerning possible influence of stress upon telomere lengths and telomerase activity, as well as various ways of counteracting it. Present-day telomerase theory of aging gains a new impetus, shedding light upon the influence of psychological state of humans and their ability to counteract stress, upon the process of aging. It also tends to regard telomere shortening and the decrease in the activity of telomerase as a marker of level of the ability to adapt to both inner and outer influences. Both aging and age-dependent diseases are proved to be substantially retarded not only by the administration of drugs, but also by psychological means, which forms a good way towards healthy longevity. With complete understanding of the impossibility to prevent or even to slow down natural senescence itself, these methods allow to remove causes, which accelerate senescence, and to increase the average human longevity.

  4. Influence of gamma-irradiation on telomere length of cultured human lymphocytes%γ射线辐射对人淋巴细胞端粒长度影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭月凤; 张睿凤; 张慧芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨γ射线辐射对人淋巴细胞平均端粒长度的影响。方法培养非洲淋巴细胞瘤病毒转化正常人B淋巴细胞( Peng-EBV细胞),接受钴-60γ射线照射,剂量率为0.96 Gy/min,吸收剂量分别为0.2、0.6、1.6、3.0和6.0 Gy;以不进行照射的细胞作为对照组。分别收集照射后24、48和72 h细胞样品,提取基因组DNA。采用定量聚合酶链式反应( Q-PCR)法检测样品平均端粒长度。分析γ辐射影响人淋巴细胞端粒长度的剂量-效应和时间-效应。结果端粒标准DNA的标准曲线为Ct=B+M ×lg D=35.264-3.339 lg D(相关系数=0.964,P<0.05)。γ射线单次照射可导致Peng-EBV细胞在照射后24~72 h端粒长度较同时间点对照组延长(P<0.05)。在0.0~1.6 Gy剂量范围内,γ射线诱导的Peng-EBV细胞端粒长度在照射后48 h有随剂量增加而增加的趋势(P<0.05)。0.6和1.6 Gy 2个剂量组的端粒延长幅度有随照后时间延长而增大的趋势(P<0.05)。结论Q-PCR方法适用于淋巴细胞绝对端粒长度检测。γ射线单次照射可以导致Peng-EBV细胞平均端粒长度增加。%Objective To investigate the effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on average telomere length of human lymphocytes.Methods Epstein-Barr virus transformated human B homeocyte lines ( Peng-EBV cells) were cultured, and then were exposed to 60 Coγ-ray at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min.The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.6, 1.6, 3.0, and 6.0 Gy, respectively.The Peng-EBV cells without irradiation exposure were selected as control group.The sample cells were collected after irradiation for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively and genome DNA was extracted.The average telomere length of samples was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( Q-PCR) .Then, the time-effect and dose-effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on the telomere length of human lymphocytes

  5. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  6. 圆顶轴棱锥底角及焦距对局域空心光束的影响%Influence of base angle and focal length of vaulted axicons on bottle beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴逢铁; 陈婧; 程治明

    2013-01-01

    从衍射理论导出圆顶轴棱锥后的光场分布,用软件对圆顶轴棱锥后的光强进行仿真,结果表明,圆顶轴棱锥可以得到多个局域空心光束.分别改变圆顶轴棱锥的底角和顶端半凸透镜的焦距,再用软件对圆顶轴棱锥后的光强进行仿真,所得光强分布表明,圆顶轴棱锥的底角影响局域空心光束的周期和暗域数量,而顶端平凸透镜的焦距主要影响局域空心光束中暗域的数量,对周期几乎没有影响.在实际应用中可通过调节参量得到所需要局域空心光束.%The distribution of light field behind a vaulted axicon is calculated with diffraction theory and simulated with software, the result demonstrates that vaulted axicons can he used to generate bottle beams. The light intensity is simulated again after changing the base angle or the focal length, the result shows that the base angle of vaulted axicons has some effect on the period and the number of dark regions of bottle beams, while the focal length of plano-convex lenses on the top of vaulted axicons is related to the number of dark regions but has little effect on the period. The required bottle beam can be obtained according to adjusting the relevance parameters in practical application.

  7. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  8. Effect of parallel segmented flow chromatography on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate III--influence of the column length, particle diameter, and the molecular weight of the analyte on the efficiency gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Pynt, Jarrod; Soliven, Arianne; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-03-14

    The effects of column length on performance in segmented flow chromatography were tested. Column efficiencies were measured for 4.6mm I.D. 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 cm long columns packed with 3.0 μm Hypurity-C18 fully porous particles and of 4.6mm I.D. 5, 10, 15 and 25 cm long columns packed with 5 μm Hypersil GOLD C18 particles. For each column length and particle type, two different configurations were tested: (1) both the inlet and outlet column endfittings were standard and (2) the inlet endfitting was standard but the outlet endfitting allowed parallel segmentation of the exiting flow into a central and a peripheral coaxial region. The segmentation flow ratio was set at 45% (for 3 μm) and at 43% or 21% (for 5 μm). Four samples were used, naphthalene, toluene, butylbenzene, and insulin, which has a ten times smaller diffusion coefficient than the small molecules. The column performance for the low molecular weight compound is significantly improved at velocities above the optimum value when the outlet flow rate is segmented because longitudinal diffusion and mass transfer resistance of this compound in the stationary phase are negligible sources of band broadening at reduced linear velocities between 5 and 25. At high flow rate (4 mL/min), the long-range eddy dispersion terms are about 3.9, 3.2, 2.6, and 1.8h unit lower for the 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 cm long columns, respectively. The longer the column, the lower the efficiency improvement because the border effects are smaller. This result was not systematically observed for the columns packed with 5 μm particles because the transverse dispersion is larger. In contrast, the gain in column efficiency is marginal for insulin because the mass transfer mechanism of this compound is mostly controlled by the slow diffusivity of insulin across Hypurity-C18 particles.

  9. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S

    2015-01-01

    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  10. Circadian regulation of myocardial sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, telethonin: identification of cardiac clock-controlled genes using open access bioinformatics data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Podobed

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and are regulated at the molecular level by a circadian clock mechanism. We and others previously demonstrated that 9-13% of the cardiac transcriptome is rhythmic over 24 h daily cycles; the heart is genetically a different organ day versus night. However, which rhythmic mRNAs are regulated by the circadian mechanism is not known. Here, we used open access bioinformatics databases to identify 94 transcripts with expression profiles characteristic of CLOCK and BMAL1 targeted genes, using the CircaDB website and JTK_Cycle. Moreover, 22 were highly expressed in the heart as determined by the BioGPS website. Furthermore, 5 heart-enriched genes had human/mouse conserved CLOCK:BMAL1 promoter binding sites (E-boxes, as determined by UCSC table browser, circadian mammalian promoter/enhancer database PEDB, and the European Bioinformatics Institute alignment tool (EMBOSS. Lastly, we validated findings by demonstrating that Titin cap (Tcap, telethonin was targeted by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 by showing 1 Tcap mRNA and TCAP protein had a diurnal rhythm in murine heart; 2 cardiac Tcap mRNA was rhythmic in animals kept in constant darkness; 3 Tcap and control Per2 mRNA expression and cyclic amplitude were blunted in Clock(Δ19/Δ19 hearts; 4 BMAL1 bound to the Tcap promoter by ChIP assay; 5 BMAL1 bound to Tcap promoter E-boxes by biotinylated oligonucleotide assay; and 6 CLOCK and BMAL1 induced tcap expression by luciferase reporter assay. Thus this study identifies circadian regulated genes in silico, with validation of Tcap, a critical regulator of cardiac Z-disc sarcomeric structure and function.

  11. Length Invisibilization of Tachyonic Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Faster than the speed of light particle such as tachyonic neutrino due to its superluminal nature disapper and is undetectable. L = iΩ-1Lo where, i =√{ - 1 } is imaginary Number, Ω = 1 /√{βs2 - 1 } is Estakhr's Omega factor, L is the Superluminal Length, Lo is the proper length, βs =Vs / c > 1 is superluminal speed parameter, Vs is Superluminal velocity and c is speed of light.

  12. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2015-10-12

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Research on influence law of capillary length on performance of room air conditioner in non-standard working condition%非标工况下毛细管长度对家用空调器性能影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮; 熊军; 陈绍林

    2012-01-01

    通过研究家用空调器的制冷量、能效比、排气温度、吸气温度等随室外温度和毛细管长度的变化规律,得出增加毛细管长度有利于提升高温工况下的制冷量,缩短毛细管长度有利于提升低温工况下的制冷量的结论,对于空调系统匹配有一定的指导意义.%The influence law of capillary length and outdoor temperature on cooling capacity, COP, exhaust temperature, suction temperature of room air conditioner are analyzed. The results show that increasing capillary length is benefit for cooling capacity under high temperature condition and decreasing length brings advantage to cooling capacity under low temperature condition. The study will provide reference for air-conditioning system matching.

  14. The influence of determining the working length with an apex locator on the amount of apically extruded debris following instrumentation with ProTaper Next and HyFlex CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Çiçek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The amount of apically extruded debris caused by new nickel-titanium rotary systems after determination of the working length (WL with an apex locator has not been investigated. To compare the amount of apically extruded debris with ProTaper Next (PTN and HyFlex CM systems after determination of WL with/without an apex locator. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted mandibular incisor teeth divided into four groups were used in this study. In Groups 1 and 2, a 10 K-file was progressed until it was just visible at the major apical foramen and WL was recorded as 1 mm short. In Groups 3 and 4, the WL was determined with the Root ZX (sensitivity of 0.1 using a 10 K-file. During the instrumentation, the PTN was used to X2 in groups 1 and 3, and the HyFlex CM was used to 25/.06 in groups 2 and 4. Distilled water was used as an irrigant. Debris was collected in tubes then stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water. The Eppendorf tubes, including the extruded debris, were weighed to obtain final weights. The amount of extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the empty tube from the weight of the dry tube. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Less apically extruded debris was obtained in Group 3, with a significant difference compared to Group 1 and Group 2 (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The usage of apex locator to determine the WL decreased the amount of apically extruded debris. In addition, PTN caused less apical debris extrusion after determination WL with/without apex locator.

  15. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  16. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  17. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  18. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  19. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  20. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/j.cam.2009.09.043

    2009-01-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  1. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related cardiac troponin C L29Q mutation alters length-dependent activation and functional effects of phosphomimetic troponin I*.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Y Li

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+ binding properties of the FHC-associated cardiac troponin C (cTnC mutation L29Q were examined in isolated cTnC, troponin complexes, reconstituted thin filament preparations, and skinned cardiomyocytes. While higher Ca(2+ binding affinity was apparent for the L29Q mutant in isolated cTnC, this phenomenon was not observed in the cTn complex. At the level of the thin filament in the presence of phosphomimetic TnI, L29Q cTnC further reduced the Ca(2+ affinity by 27% in the steady-state measurement and increased the Ca(2+ dissociation rate by 20% in the kinetic studies. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that L29Q destabilizes the conformation of cNTnC in the presence of phosphomimetic cTnI and potentially modulates the Ca(2+ sensitivity due to the changes of the opening/closing equilibrium of cNTnC. In the skinned cardiomyocyte preparation, L29Q cTnC increased Ca(2+ sensitivity in a highly sarcomere length (SL-dependent manner. The well-established reduction of Ca(2+ sensitivity by phosphomimetic cTnI was diminished by 68% in the presence of the mutation and it also depressed the SL-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity. This might result from its modified interaction with cTnI which altered the feedback effects of cross-bridges on the L29Q cTnC-cTnI-Tm complex. This study demonstrates that the L29Q mutation alters the contractility and the functional effects of the phosphomimetic cTnI in both thin filament and single skinned cardiomyocytes and importantly that this effect is highly sarcomere length dependent.

  2. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  3. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  4. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density; Influencia de la cubierta vegetal arbustiva y la longitud de la ladera sobre la densidad aparente del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Inertial Effects on Finite Length Pipe Seismic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corrado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic analysis for soil-pipe interaction which accounts for length and constraining conditions at the ends of a continuous pipe is developed. The Winkler model is used to schematize the soil-structure interaction. The approach is focused on axial strains, since bending strains in a buried pipe due to the wave propagation are typically a second-order effect. Unlike many works, the inertial terms are considered in solving equations. Accurate numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of pipe length and constraint conditions on the pipe seismic strain. The obtained results are compared with results inferred from other models present in the literature. For free-end pipelines, inertial effects have significant influence only for short length. On the contrary, their influence is always important for pinned pipes. Numerical simulations show that a simple rigid model can be used for free-end pipes, whereas pinned pipes need more accurate models.

  6. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  7. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  8. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and ... both fish species showed strong correlation between the weight and length with correlation coefficient (r) and ..... Basic data on the assessment of Sphyraena ... review of methods and their application.

  9. Persistence length of dendronized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailov, I.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerical results for the thermodynamic rigidity and induced persistence length of dendronized polymers with systematically varied topology of their grafts obtained by the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field method. The results were compared to predictions of an analytical mean-fiel

  10. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  11. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  12. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  13. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  14. Stretch and shortening of skeletal muscles activated along the ascending limb of the force-length relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, Dilson E; Pun, Clara

    2010-01-01

    There is a history dependence of skeletal muscle contraction. When muscles are activated and subsequently stretched, they produce a long lasting force enhancement. When muscles are activated and subsequently shortened, they produce a long-lasting force depression. The purposes of the studies shown in this chapter were (1) to evaluate if force enhancement and force depression are present along the ascending limb of the force-length (FL) relation, (2) to evaluate if the history-dependent properties of force production are associated with sarcomere length (SL) non-uniformity, and (3) to determine the effects of cross-bridge (de)activation on force depression. Isolated myofibrils were activated by either Ca²(+) or MgADP and were subjected to consecutive stretches or shortenings along the ascending limb of the FL relation, separated by periods (approximately 5 s) of isometric contraction. Force after stretch was higher than force after shortening when the contractions were produced at similar SLs. The difference in force could not be explained by SL non-uniformity. After shortening, MgADP activation produced forces that were higher than Ca²(+) activation. Since MgADP induces the formation of strongly bound cross-bridges, the result suggests that force depression following shortening is associated with cross-bridge deactivation.

  15. Length of internship influences performance on medical residency exam Duração do internato influencia o desempenho no exame de residência médica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar de Souza Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Medical education encompasses globally diverse context and conditions. The Brazilian scenario seemed a natural environment to study the influence of medical education programs and internship duration on the entrance exam for medical residency. This investigation evaluates some methods used during the entrance exam for medical residency as a means to make a distinction between candidates with longer clerkships. METHODS: Candidates selected for a residency program performed a multiple-choice (MC, an open question (OQ and OSCE-like tests, an interview and a curriculum analysis for participation in scientific meetings, papers published and voluntary activities. Groups were compared for gender, year of graduation, tests and OSCE scores. RESULTS: Participants were distributed into two groups based on clerkship duration: 2 years or less than 2 years. There was no difference for the MCT score among groups or any of the activities from interview and curriculum analysis. The 2 years clerkship group showed significantly higher OQ (p=0.009 and OSCE-like affective (p=0.025 and knowledge (p=0.002 scores. CONCLUSION: The OSCE test identified some aspects related to competence acquisition and assessed basic skills and attitudes essential to the supervised practice of medicine during residency. OSCE discriminated aspects not perceived by the sole use of knowledge tests.OBJETIVOS: A educação médica mostra contextos e condições globalmente diversas. O cenário no Brasil pode ser considerado um ambiente natural para se estudar a influência da diversidade dos programas de educação médica bem como a duração do internato no exame de entrada para residência médica. Esta investigação avalia alguns métodos usados no exame de entrada para residência médica como métodos para diferenciar os candidatos com internatos mais longos. MÉTODOS: Candidatos selecionados para um programa de residência executaram um teste múltiplas-escolhas (MCT

  16. Sarcomere Dysfunction in Nemaline Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    de Winter, Josine M.; Ottenheijm, Coen A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies (incidence 1:50.000). Hallmark features of NM are skeletal muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies in the muscle fiber. The clinical phenotype of NM patients is quite diverse, ranging from neonatal death to normal lifespan with almost normal motor function. As the respiratory muscles are involved as well, severely affected patients are ventilator-dependent. The mechanisms underlying muscle weaknes...

  17. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  18. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  19. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  20. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  1. 耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染病例对经济损失与住院日影响的对照研究%Case-control study of influence of methicillin-resistant St ap hy lococcus aureus infection on economic losses and length of hospital stay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建国; 陈宝勤; 王雪莲; 叶清星; 卢珍玲; 苏成豪; 牛建军

    2014-01-01

    direct economic losses caused by the MRSA infection in the patients aged between 60 and 75 years old was the highest ( 100 208 .9 yuan) ,with the prolonged length of hospital stay of 22 days .The economic losses caused by the MSSA infection in the patients aged more than 75 years old was the highest ,with the direct economic losses of 23 914 .4 yuan ,the prolonged length of hospital stay of 6 .9 days .CONCLUSIONS The MRSA infection increases the economic burden of the patients ,extends the length of hospital stay ,and influence the turnover rate of the bed .

  2. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... unique environmental factors, estimated at 72% (95% CI 56% to 84%) affected LTL attrition rate with no indication of shared environmental effects. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that estimated heritability of LTL and also its age-dependent attrition. As LTL attrition is much slower in adults than...... in children and given that having a long or a short LTL is largely determined before adulthood, our findings suggest that heritability and early life environment are the main determinants of LTL throughout the human life course. Thus, insights into factors that influence LTL at birth and its dynamics during...

  3. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  4. Validation of a novel ultrasound measurement of achilles tendon length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Riecke, Anja Falk; Boesen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: A clinically applicable and accurate method for measuring Achilles tendon length is needed to investigate the influence of elongation of the Achilles tendon after acute rupture. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultrasonographic (US) length measurement...... of the Achilles tendon-aponeurosis complex. METHODS: Both legs of 19 non-injured subjects were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US. The length from calcaneus to the medial head of m. Gastrocnemius was measured by three independent US examiners. Repeated US measurements were performed and compared...... to be further assessed in the setting of acute Achilles tendon rupture. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This new ultrasound measurement might allow for length measurement of ruptured Achilles tendons in the acute and chronic state after rupture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  5. Genetic Associations with Gestational Length and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Feenstra, Bjarke; Bacelis, Jonas; Liu, Xueping; Muglia, Lisa M.; Juodakis, Julius; Miller, Daniel E.; Litterman, Nadia; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Russell, Laura; Hinds, David A.; Hu, Youna; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Chen, Xiaoting; Chavan, Arun R.; Wagner, Günter P.; Pavličev, Mihaela; Nnamani, Mauris C.; Maziarz, Jamie; Karjalainen, Minna K.; Rämet, Mika; Sengpiel, Verena; Geller, D Frank; Boyd, Heather A.; Palotie, Aarno; Momany, Allison; Bedell, Bruce; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Huusko, Johanna M.; Forney, Carmy R.; Kottyan, Leah C.; Hallman, Mikko; Teramo, Kari; Nohr, Ellen A.; Davey-Smith, George; Melbye, Mads; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundDespite evidence that genetic factors contribute to gestational length and preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We hypothesized that analyzing larger data sets with gestational length information by genomewide association would reveal trait-influencing variants.MethodsWe performed a genomewide association study in a discovery data set of 43,568 women of European ancestry from 23andMe, Inc., for gestational length as a continuous trait and for term or preterm (preterm birth with genomewide significance. Analysis of mother-infant dyads indicated that these findings likely resulted from maternal genome actions.ConclusionsOur study is the first to identify maternal genetic variants robustly associated with gestational length and preterm birth. Roles of these loci in uterine development, maternal nutrition, and vascular control support their mechanistic involvement and create opportunities to investigate new risk factors for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:28877031

  6. Graded-index optical fiber tweezers with long manipulation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuan; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qun-Feng; Wu, Yu; Rao, Yunjiang; Peng, Gang-Ding; Lang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ke

    2014-10-20

    Long manipulation length is critical for optical fiber tweezers to enhance the flexibility of non-contact trapping. In this paper a long manipulation distance of more than 40 μm is demonstrated experimentally by the graded-index fiber (GIF) tweezers, which is fabricated by chemically etching a GIF taper with a large cone angle of 58°. The long manipulation distance is obtained by introducing an air cavity between the lead-in single mode fiber and the GIF as well as by adjusting the laser power in the existence of a constant background flow. The influence of the cavity length and the GIF length on the light distribution and the focusing length of the GIF taper is investigated numerically, which is helpful for optimizing the parameters to perform stable optical trapping. This kind of optical fiber tweezers has advantages including low-cost, easy-to-fabricate and easy-to-use.

  7. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2) cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a

  8. Myosin heavy chain and cardiac troponin T damage is associated with impaired myofibrillar ATPase activity contributing to sarcomeric dysfunction in Ca(2+)-paradox rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Árpád; Kalász, Judit; Pásztor, Enikő T; Tóth, Attila; Papp, Zoltán; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Barta, Judit

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential contribution of myofibrils to contractile dysfunction in Ca(2+)-paradox hearts. Isolated rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution (Control), followed by Ca(2+)-depletion, and then Ca(2+)-repletion after Ca(2+)-depletion (Ca(2+)-paradox) by Langendorff method. During heart perfusion left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate of pressure development (+ dP/dt), and pressure decay (-dP/dt) were registered. Control LVDP (127.4 ± 6.1 mmHg) was reduced during Ca(2+)-depletion (9.8 ± 1.3 mmHg) and Ca(2+)-paradox (12.9 ± 1.3 mmHg) with similar decline in +dP/dt and -dP/dt. LVEDP was increased in both Ca(2+)-depletion and Ca(2+)-paradox. Compared to Control, myofibrillar Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was decreased in the Ca(2+)-depletion group (12.08 ± 0.57 vs. 8.13 ± 0.19 µmol Pi/mg protein/h), besides unvarying Mg(2+) ATPase activity, while upon Ca(2+)-paradox myofibrillar Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was decreased (12.08 ± 0.57 vs. 8.40 ± 0.22 µmol Pi/mg protein/h), but Mg(2+) ATPase activity was increased (3.20 ± 0.25 vs. 7.21 ± 0.36 µmol Pi/mg protein/h). In force measurements of isolated cardiomyocytes at saturating [Ca(2+)], Ca(2+)-depleted cells had lower rate constant of force redevelopment (k tr,max, 3.85 ± 0.21) and unchanged active tension, while those in Ca(2+)-paradox produced lower active tension (12.12 ± 3.19 kN/m(2)) and k tr,max (3.21 ± 23) than cells of Control group (25.07 ± 3.51 and 4.61 ± 22 kN/m(2), respectively). In biochemical assays, α-myosin heavy chain and cardiac troponin T presented progressive degradation during Ca(2+)-depletion and Ca(2+)-paradox. Our results suggest that contractile impairment in Ca(2+)-paradox partially resides in deranged sarcomeric function and compromised myofibrillar ATPase activity as a result of myofilament protein degradation, such

  9. Socioecological variables predict telomere length in wild spotted hyenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Nora; Treidel, Lisa A; Holekamp, Kay E; Place, Ned J; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Telomeres are regarded as important biomarkers of ageing and serve as useful tools in revealing how stress acts at the cellular level. However, the effects of social and ecological factors on telomere length remain poorly understood, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated the influences of within-group dominance rank and group membership on telomere length in wild adult spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We found large effects of both factors; high-ranking hyenas exhibited significantly greater mean telomere length than did subordinate animals, and group membership significantly predicted mean telomere length within high-ranking females. We further inquired whether prey availability mediates the observed effect of group membership on telomere length, but this hypothesis was not supported. Interestingly, adult telomere length was not predicted by age. Our work shows for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of social rank on telomere length in a wild mammal and enhances our understanding of how social and ecological variables may contribute to organismal senescence.

  10. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  11. Influence of autograft removal on rabbit patellar tendon length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monllau, J C; Hinarejos, P; Alvarez, P; Alameda, F; Ballester, J

    2004-02-01

    Twelve adult New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, 30% of the central mass of the right patellar tendon was removed. In group 2, 60% was removed. The left knees served as controls. The animals were killed 1 year later. The patella-patellar tendon-tibial tuberosity units of all knees were studied using histological and morphometric analysis. In both groups, the tendons had lengthened. Lengthening average was 2.50 mm in group 1 and 8.17 mm in group 2. In both groups, histology revealed poor alignment of the collagen fibres and high cellularity, although the findings in group 1 were nearer the normal histological pattern. The results suggest that removal of significant portions of the patellar tendon leads to lengthening of the resulting tendon. In clinical practice, it seems prudent to pay attention to the dimensions of the patellar tendon when harvesting a graft.

  12. The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Ferguson, Tyler; Briesch, Amy M.; Volpe, Robert J.; Daniels, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although direct observation is one of the most frequently used assessment methods by school psychologists, studies have shown that the number of observations needed to obtain a dependable estimate of student behavior may be impractical. Because direct observation may be used to inform important decisions about students, it is crucial that data be…

  13. HIV-1 envelope subregion length variation during disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Curlin

    Full Text Available The V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein is the primary determinant of viral coreceptor usage, whereas the V1V2 loop region is thought to influence coreceptor binding and participate in shielding of neutralization-sensitive regions of the Env glycoprotein gp120 from antibody responses. The functional properties and antigenicity of V1V2 are influenced by changes in amino acid sequence, sequence length and patterns of N-linked glycosylation. However, how these polymorphisms relate to HIV pathogenesis is not fully understood. We examined 5185 HIV-1 gp120 nucleotide sequence fragments and clinical data from 154 individuals (152 were infected with HIV-1 Subtype B. Sequences were aligned, translated, manually edited and separated into V1V2, C2, V3, C3, V4, C4 and V5 subregions. V1-V5 and subregion lengths were calculated, and potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNLGS counted. Loop lengths and PNLGS were examined as a function of time since infection, CD4 count, viral load, and calendar year in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. V1V2 length and PNLGS increased significantly through chronic infection before declining in late-stage infection. In cross-sectional analyses, V1V2 length also increased by calendar year between 1984 and 2004 in subjects with early and mid-stage illness. Our observations suggest that there is little selection for loop length at the time of transmission; following infection, HIV-1 adapts to host immune responses through increased V1V2 length and/or addition of carbohydrate moieties at N-linked glycosylation sites. V1V2 shortening during early and late-stage infection may reflect ineffective host immunity. Transmission from donors with chronic illness may have caused the modest increase in V1V2 length observed during the course of the pandemic.

  14. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

    2013-04-01

    Let n Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  15. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P; Slayter, H S

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the anti-hinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  16. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  17. Influence of Different Emergency Reception and Triage Workflows between Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes on the Victim's Length of Stay in Emergency Department%芦山和汶川地震中不同急诊接诊分诊流程对地震伤员急诊滞留时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛洁; 席茜; 白艳; 胡海; 曹钰

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较在芦山和汶川地震伤员救治中四川大学华西医院两种不同急诊接诊、分诊流程对大规模地震伤员急诊滞留时间的影响.方法 回顾性分析芦山地震后12小时内华西医院急诊科收治的65例伤员的诊治信息及在急诊科滞留时间,与汶川地震时批量伤员急诊滞留时间相对比,分析两种院内急诊接诊、分诊流程对大规模地震伤员急诊滞留时间的影响.结果 芦山地震伤员按接诊、分诊流程在急诊滞留时间中位数为0.51 h,而汶川伤员在急诊滞留时间中位数为2.13h,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 芦山接诊、分诊流程是对汶川地震时的接诊、分诊流程的经验总结和改进,可作为类似灾后批量伤员院内急诊接诊、分诊的参考.%Objective To explore the influence of two emergency reception and triages workflows between Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes on the victim's length of stay in emergency department of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University.Methods A total of 65 victims admitted in the West China Hospital within 12 hours after Lushan earthquake were retrospectively analyzed,and their diagnosis and treatment information and the length of stay in emergency department were collected and compared with those of the victims in Wenchuan earthquake.Then we analyzed the influence of two emergency reception and triage workflows on the length of stay of the batches of earthquake victims.Results For the Lushan earthquake victims,the median length of stay in the emergency reception and triage workflow was 0.51 hour,while that was 2.13 hours for the Wenchuan earthquake victims,with a significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion The emergency reception and triage workflow for Lushan earthquake victims is a summarized experience and improvement based on that for Wenchuan earthquake,which can be used as references for treating batches of victims in the emergency department after a disaster.

  18. Root canal length measurement in teeth with electrolyte compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, K C; Kim, S C; Lee, S J; Kim, Y J; Kim, N G; Kim, D W

    2002-03-01

    Electronic root canal length measurement devices have made it easier and faster to measure the root canal length of a tooth compared with the conventional radiographic method. Of these electronic apex locators, the frequency-dependent type features greater accuracy and convenience in operation. However, its accuracy is still influenced by the presence of blood and/or the various electrolytes used in root canal therapy. This study describes the development of a new frequency-dependent electronic apex locator featuring electrolyte compensation, utilising an impedance ratio and voltage difference technique to minimise the influence of electrolytes on the accuracy of root canal length measurement. The errors for distances from file tips to apical constrictions were determined in vivo with the device operating with electrolyte compensation. The measured lengths were compared with the true lengths of the extracted teeth determined using a microscope. The mean error was +0.14+/-0.27mm, and 95.2% of the measurements were within the clinical tolerance of +/-0.5mm. It was also found that the degree of accuracy was not dependent on the size of the apical foramen (p = 0.74).

  19. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  20. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  1. Patients' perception of leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Alice; Hill, Janet; Orr, John; Humphreys, Patricia; Rooney, Aidan; Morrow, Esther; Beverland, David

    2015-01-01

    Perception of a leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common sources of patient dissatisfaction and can have a direct influence on the considered success of the operation.This research examined postoperative perception of imposed limb discrepancies in a group of THA patients compared to a group of participants with no previous hip surgery. Two subgroups of THA patients were involved: those who did not perceive a difference in limb length following THA and those that did.Discrepancies were imposed in 2.5 mm increments. For discrepancies ≥5 mm, a significant number of participants were aware of a difference (74%). There was no significant difference in perception of imposed discrepancies between THA patients and participants with no previous hip surgery. THA patients who perceived a difference in their limb lengths postoperatively had significantly worse pain and oxford scores when compared to THA patients who perceived their limb lengths to be equal. Knowing the boundaries between LLDs that go undetected and those that patients are aware of could guide surgeons when evaluating the balance between correct soft tissue tension and the resulting unequal leg length. From these findings, discrepancies >5 mm are likely to be perceived. Whether this perception would lead directly to a negative outcome score and patient dissatisfaction is more complex to project and likely to be patient specific. Intraoperative methods to aid the controlled positioning of implanted components could help maintain and restore leg length to within an acceptable amount that patients cannot perceive.

  2. A Motor-Driven Mechanism for Cell-Length Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rishal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Size homeostasis is fundamental in cell biology, but it is not clear how large cells such as neurons can assess their own size or length. We examined a role for molecular motors in intracellular length sensing. Computational simulations suggest that spatial information can be encoded by the frequency of an oscillating retrograde signal arising from a composite negative feedback loop between bidirectional motor-dependent signals. The model predicts that decreasing either or both anterograde or retrograde signals should increase cell length, and this prediction was confirmed upon application of siRNAs for specific kinesin and/or dynein heavy chains in adult sensory neurons. Heterozygous dynein heavy chain 1 mutant sensory neurons also exhibited increased lengths both in vitro and during embryonic development. Moreover, similar length increases were observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon partial downregulation of dynein heavy chain 1. Thus, molecular motors critically influence cell-length sensing and growth control.

  3. Introducing artificial length scales to tailor magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, J; Strache, T; Liedke, M O; Marko, D; Wintz, S; Lenz, K; Keller, A; Facsko, S [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Moench, I; McCord, J [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden, PO Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: J.Fassbender@fzd.de

    2009-12-15

    Magnetism is a collective phenomenon. Hence, a local variation on the nanoscale of material properties, which act on the magnetic properties, affects the overall magnetism in an intriguing way. Of particular importance are the length scales on which a material property changes. These might be related to the exchange length, the domain wall width, a typical roughness correlation length, or a length scale introduced by patterning of the material. Here we report on the influence of two artificially created length scales: (i) ion erosion templates that serve as a source of a predefined surface morphology (ripple structure) and hence allow for the investigation of roughness phenomena. It is demonstrated that the ripple wave length can be easily tuned over a wide range (25-175 nm) by varying the primary ion erosion energy. The effect of this ripple morphology on the induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic Permalloy films is studied. Only below a ripple wavelength threshold ({approx}60 nm) is a significant induced magnetic anisotropy found. Above this threshold the corrugated Permalloy film acts as a flat film. This cross-over is discussed in the frame of dipolar interactions giving rise to the induced anisotropies. (ii) Ion implantation through a lithographically defined mask, which is used for a magnetic property patterning on various length scales. The resulting magnetic properties are neither present in non-implanted nor in homogeneously implanted films. Here new insight is gained by the comparison of different stripe patterning widths ranging from 1 to 10 {mu}m. In addition, the appearance of more complicated magnetic domain structures, i.e. spin-flop domain configurations and head-on domain walls, during hard axis magnetization reversal is demonstrated. In both cases the magnetic properties, the magnetization reversal process as well as the magnetic domain configurations depend sensitively on the artificially introduced length scale.

  4. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more accou...... the uncertainty is large and parties are not very polarized. Partisan voters always prefer a long term length. When politicians learn while in office a long term length becomes more attractive for swing voters....

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable health and sanitation requirements. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  6. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  7. Estimation of stature from arm span, arm length and tibial length among Bengalee children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dorjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of human stature has significant bearings on assessment of growth, nutritional status and personal identification. Often the prediction of stature from bone remains or body parts of children is complicated by the ongoing growth. Despite these disadvantages, a situation may arise where estimation of a child’s stature becomes important. In such a situation equations derived for adults cannot be applicable. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 240 children (boys: 116; girls: 124 aged between 3 to 11 years and belonging to the Bengali Hindu Caste Population from Naxalbari, District Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Standard procedures were followed to record stature, arm span, arm length and tibial length. Intra- and inter- observer technical errors of the measurement (TEM were calculated. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, linear regression and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Result: The boys had higher mean age, mean stature, mean arm span, mean arm length and tibial length than girls. However, using ANOVA, the sex difference were not significant (p>0.05. Stature was observed to be positively and significantly correlated with all the anthropometric variables among both sexes. When stepwise regression was used, it was observed that the correlation coefficient (R and the coefficient of determination (R2 increased with inclusion of arm length and tibial length with arm span as the predictor. The addition of age as a variable further increased the predictive accuracy of the model. Predictive accuracies of the equations were higher among girls than boys. Conclusion: The present study has observed strong associations of stature with age, arm span, arm length and tibia length. The strength of prediction in general increased with the increasing number of parameters and from using linear to stepwise multiple regressions. Addition of age as a variable influenced

  8. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  9. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Svetlana; Popović, Srdjan; Mrvošević Marojević, Ljiljana; Ivović, Miomira; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Stojanović, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Barać, Marija; Barać, Branko; Kovačević, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Micić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

  10. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vujović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT and male to female transsexuals (MFT and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male’s left hand ratio was lower than in control female’s left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism.

  11. Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...

  12. Maternal synchronization of gestational length and lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Besnard

    Full Text Available Among all mammals, fetal growth and organ maturation must be precisely synchronized with gestational length to optimize survival at birth. Lack of pulmonary maturation is the major cause of infant mortality in preterm birth. Whether fetal or maternal genotypes influence the close relationship between the length of gestation and lung function at birth is unknown. Structural and biochemical indicators of pulmonary maturity were measured in two mouse strains whose gestational length differed by one day. Shorter gestation in C57BL/6J mice was associated with advanced morphological and biochemical pulmonary development and better perinatal survival when compared to A/J pups born prematurely. After ovarian transplantation, A/J pups were born early in C57BL/6J dams and survived after birth, consistent with maternal control gestational length. Expression of genes critical for perinatal lung function was assessed in A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. A subset of mRNAs important for perinatal respiratory adaptation was selectively induced in the A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. mRNAs precociously induced after ovarian transfer indicated an important role for the transcription factors C/EBPα and CREB in maternally induced lung maturation. We conclude that fetal lung maturation is determined by both fetal and maternal genotypes. Ovarian transfer experiments demonstrated that maternal genotype determines the timing of birth and can influence fetal lung growth and maturation to ensure perinatal survival.

  13. On chirality and length-dependent potentials in polymer entanglements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, C.C. [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines)]. E-mail: cbernido@mozcom.com; Carpio-Bernido, M.V. [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines); Bornales, J.B. [Physics Department, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City 9200 (Philippines)

    2005-05-23

    The lineal structure of an entangled polymer of length L is simulated by a potential, V=f-bar (s){theta}, where, f-bar =df/ds, 0=influence of chirality or 'handedness'.

  14. Age, CAG repeat length, and clinical progression in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Mo, Alisa; Welsh, Claire S; Margolis, Russell L; Ross, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore the effect of CAG repeat length on the rate of clinical progression in patients with Huntington's disease. The dataset included records for 569 subjects followed prospectively at the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center. Participants were seen for a mean of 7.1 visits, with a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Subjects were evaluated using the Quantified Neurologic Examination and its Motor Impairment subscale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Huntington's disease Activities of Daily Living Scale. By itself, CAG repeat length showed a statistically significant but small effect on the progression of all clinical measures. Contrary to our previous expectations, controlling for age of onset increased the correlation between CAG repeat length and progression of all variables by 69% to 159%. Graphical models further supported the idea that individuals with smaller triplet expansions experience a more gradual decline. CAG repeat length becomes an important determinant of clinical prognosis when accounting for age of onset. This suggests that the aging process itself influences clinical outcomes in Huntington's disease. Inconsistent results in prior studies examining CAG repeat length and progression may indeed reflect a lack of age adjustment.

  15. Factors Influencing the Phenotypic Expression of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Genetic Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Romero-Puche, Antonio José; García-Molina Sáez, Esperanza; Sabater-Molina, María; López-Ayala, José María; Muñoz-Esparza, Carmen; López-Cuenca, David; de la Morena, Gonzalo; Castro-García, Francisco José; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan Ramón

    2017-07-04

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disorder with variable expression. It is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes but the phenotype could be modulated by other factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether factors such as sex, systemic hypertension, or physical activity are modifiers of disease severity and to establish their role in age-related penetrance of HCM. We evaluated 272 individuals (mean age 49 ± 17 years, 57% males) from 72 families with causative mutations. The relationship between sex, hypertension, physical activity, and left ventricular hypertrophy was studied. The proportion of affected individuals increased with age. Men developed the disease 12.5 years earlier than women (adjusted median, 95%CI, -17.52 to -6.48; P < .001). Hypertensive patients were diagnosed with HCM later (10.8 years of delay) than normotensive patients (adjusted median, 95%CI, 6.28-17.09; P < .001). Individuals who performed physical activity were diagnosed with HCM significantly earlier (7.3 years, adjusted median, 95%CI, -14.49 to -1.51; P = .016). Sex, hypertension, and the degree of physical activity were not significantly associated with the severity of left ventricular hypertrophy. Adjusted survival both free from sudden death and from the combined event were not influenced by any of the exploratory variables. Men and athletes who are carriers of sarcomeric mutations are diagnosed earlier than women and sedentary individuals. Hypertensive carriers of sarcomeric mutations have a delayed diagnosis. Sex, hypertension, and physical activity are not associated with disease severity in carriers of HCM causative mutations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental study of the influence on moxibustion for telomere length in brain cell of subacute aging mice%艾灸对亚急性衰老小鼠脑细胞端粒长度影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明良; 杨晓忱; 钟润琪; 谢朝霞; 李君玲; 周宇; 田楠; 袁红; 赵宏

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察艾灸足三里穴对亚急性衰老小鼠脑细胞染色体端粒长度的影响,探究艾灸抗衰老在基因水平的作用机制.方法 将36只健康雄性ICR小鼠按随机数字表法分为空白组、衰老模型组(对照组)、衰老模型加艾灸治疗组(治疗组)3组.通过背部皮下注射D-半乳糖30天制造亚急性衰老模型;艾灸治疗组隔日艾灸足三里穴,双侧轮换灸,共15次.30天后对各组小鼠进行跳台实验以比较其智能,测量各组小鼠脾重指数、脑细胞染色体端粒长度及脑重指数.结果 治疗组小鼠与其他2组比较,跳台实验成绩优于其他2组(P>0.05);脾重指数较高,端粒长度较长,差异亦均有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01);治疗组小鼠脑重指数虽优于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 艾灸足三里穴能明显延缓脑细胞染色体端粒的缩短,这可能是艾灸抗衰老基因水平作用机制之一.%Objective To observe the influence of moxibustion at Zusanli (ST 36) for telomere length of chromosome in brain cell of subacute aging mice and explore action mechanism of moxibustion for anti-aging in genetic level. Methods Thirty-six healthy male ICR mice were divided into three groups according to random digital table: a blank group, an aging model group (control group), an aging model and moxibusition treatment group (treatment group). Subacute aging models were established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose on the back for 30 days. In the treatment group, moxibustion was applied at Zusanli (ST 36) every other day, two sides in turn, and totally 15 times were required. After 30 days, intelligence level was measured with step-down test in each group. Besides the spleen index, telomere length of chromosome in brain cell and brain weight index in each group were measured. Results Compared with the other two groups, the treatment group had a better result in step-down test (P >0.05), and the spleen index

  17. Axial Globe Length in Congenital Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kang, Hyera; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    To compare axial globe length between affected and unaffected sides in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. This prospective observational study included 37 patients (age range: 7 months to 58 years). The axial globe length, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD-1), and refractive power were measured. The axial globe length difference was calculated by subtracting the axial globe length on the unaffected side from that of the affected side. The relationships among axial globe length differences, MRD-1 on the affected sides, and patient ages were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. No significant differences were found in the axial globe length between sides (P = .677). The axial globe length difference was 0.17 ± 0.30 mm (mean ± standard deviation), and two patients (5.4%), aged 32 to 57 years, showed axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer (corresponding to a refractive power of 2 diopters) on the affected side compared to the unaffected side. The multiple regression model between axial globe length difference, patient age, and MRD-1 on the affected sides was less appropriate (YAGL = 0.003XAGE-0.048XMRD-1 +0.112; r = 0.338; adjusted r2 = 0.062; P = .127). The cylindrical power was greater on the affected side (P = .046), although the spherical power was not different between sides (P = .657). No significant difference was identified in the axial globe length between sides, and only 5% of non-pediatric patients showed an axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer on the affected side. Congenital ptosis may have little effect on axial globe length elongation, and the risk of axial myopia-induced anisometropic amblyopia may be low in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Fibonacci Lengths of Certain Nilpotent 2-Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. DOOSTIE; A. T. ADNANI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study two classes of 2-generated 2-groups of nilpotency class 2 classified by Kluempen in 2002 and also a class of finite 2-groups of high nilpotency class for their Fibonacci lengths.Their involvement in certain interesting sequences of Tribonacci numbers gives us some explicit formulas for the Fibonacci lengths and this adds to the small class of finite groups for which the Fibonacci length are known.

  19. Large Slip Length over a Nanopatterned Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding; DI Qin-Feng; LI Jing-Yuan; QIAN Yue-Hong; FANG Hai-Ping

    2007-01-01

    A thermodynamic method is employed to analyse the slip length of hydrophobic nanopatterned surface.The maximal slip lengths with respect to the hydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are computed.It is found that the slip length reaches more than 50μm if the nanopatterned surfaces have a contact angle larger than 160°.Such results are expected to find extensive applications in micro-channels and helpful to understand recent experimental observations of the slippage of nanopatterned surfaces.

  20. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  1. New length operator for loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yongge; Yang, Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    An alternative expression for the length operator in loop quantum gravity is presented. The operator is background-independent, symmetric, positive semi-definite, and well-defined on the kinematical Hilbert space. The expression for the regularized length operator can moreover be understood both from a simple geometrical perspective as the average of a formula relating the length to area, volume and flux operators, and also consistently as the result of direct substitution of the densitized triad operator with the functional derivative operator into the regularized expression of the length. Both these derivations are discussed, and the origin of an undetermined overall factor in each case is also elucidated.

  2. On the attached length of orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Yudin, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The attached length of orifices in reactive mufflers has been estimated based on numerical calculations by the finite-element method. The numerical results for a diaphragm in a duct are compared with the theoretical data obtained by Rayleigh, Fock, Karal, and Ingard. The dependence of the attached length on the diaphragm thickness is given. The results obtained are generalized for the case in which the orifice is a Helmholtz resonator neck. The effect of the resonator length on the attached length of the neck is analyzed.

  3. Mouse gestation length is genetically determined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is an enormous public health problem, affecting over 12% of live births and costing over $26 billion in the United States alone. The causes are complex, but twin studies support the role of genetics in determining gestation length. Despite widespread use of the mouse in studies of the genetics of preterm birth, there have been few studies that actually address the precise natural gestation length of the mouse, and to what degree the timing of labor and birth is genetically determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further develop the mouse as a genetic model of preterm birth, we developed a high-throughput monitoring system and measured the gestation length in 15 inbred strains. Our results show an unexpectedly wide variation in overall gestation length between strains that approaches two full days, while intra-strain variation is quite low. Although litter size shows a strong inverse correlation with gestation length, genetic difference alone accounts for a significant portion of the variation. In addition, ovarian transplant experiments support a primary role of maternal genetics in the determination of gestation length. Preliminary analysis of gestation length in the C57BL/6J-Chr#(A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strain (B.A CSS panel suggests complex genetic control of gestation length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data support the role of genetics in regulating gestation length and present the mouse as an important tool for the discovery of genes governing preterm birth.

  4. Does managed care make a difference? Physicians' length of stay decisions under managed and non-managed care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.D. de; Westert, G.P.; Noetscher, C.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study we examined the influence of type of insurance and the influence of managed care in particular, on the length of stay decisions physicians make and on variation in medical practice. METHODS: We studied lengths of stay for comparable patients who are insured under managed or

  5. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  6. Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle.

  7. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... power unit behind the cab and on an over-cab rack. No State shall impose an overall length limitation of... may carry boats on the power unit so long as the length and width restrictions of the vehicles and...) in 23 CFR 658.19. (6) Munitions carriers using dromedary equipment. A truck tractor equipped with...

  8. Length-biased Weighted Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Modi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for life-time data. In this paper, we develop the length-biased form of Weighted Maxwell distribution (WMD. We study the statistical properties of the derived distribution including moments, moment generating function, hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, Shannon entropy and estimation of parameters

  9. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...

  10. Leaf Length Variation in Perennial Forage Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Barre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf length is a key factor in the economic value of different grass species and cultivars in forage production. It is also important for the survival of individual plants within a sward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the basis of within-species variation in leaf length. Selection for leaf length has been highly efficient, with moderate to high narrow sense heritability. Nevertheless, the genetic regulation of leaf length is complex because it involves many genes with small individual effects. This could explain the low stability of QTL found in different studies. Leaf length has a strong response to environmental conditions. However, when significant genotype × environment interactions have been identified, their effects have been smaller than the main effects. Recent modelling-based research suggests that many of the reported environmental effects on leaf length and genotype × environment interactions could be biased. Indeed, it has been shown that leaf length is an emergent property strongly affected by the architectural state of the plant during significant periods prior to leaf emergence. This approach could lead to improved understanding of the factors affecting leaf length, as well as better estimates of the main genetic effects.

  11. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  12. 7 CFR 29.6024 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.6024 Section 29.6024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6024 Length. The linear measurement of cured tobacco leaves from...

  13. The cross-bridge dynamics is determined by two length-independent kinetics: Implications on muscle economy and Frank-Starling Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiad Pavlov, Daria; Landesberg, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart and the skeletal muscle force-length relationship are not clear. This study tested the effects of sarcomere length (SL) on the average force per cross-bridge and on the rate of cross-bridge cycling in intact rat cardiac trabeculae (n=9). SL was measured by laser diffraction and controlled with a fast servomotor to produce varying initial SLs. Tetanic contractions were induced by addition of cyclopiazonic acid, to maintain a constant activation. Stress decline and redevelopment in response to identical ramp shortenings, starting at various initial SLs, was analyzed. Both stress decline and redevelopment responses revealed two distinct kinetics: a fast and a slower phase. The duration of the rapid phases (4.2 ± 0.1 msec) was SL-independent. The second slower phase depicted a linear dependence of the rate of stress change on the instantaneous stress level. Identical slopes (70.5 ± 1.6 [1/s], p=0.33) were obtained during ramp shortening at all initial SLs, indicating that the force per cross-bridge and cross-bridge cycling kinetics are length-independent. A decrease in the slope at longer SLs was obtained during stress redevelopment, due to internal shortening. The first phase is attributed to rapid changes in the average force per cross-bridge. The second phase is ascribed to both cross-bridge cycling between its strong and weak conformations and to changes in the number of strong cross-bridges. Cross-bridge cycling kinetics and muscle economy are length-independent and the Frank-Starling Law cannot be attributed to changes in the force per cross-bridge or in the single cross-bridge cycling rates.

  14. Length contraction in Very Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    Glashow and Cohen claim that many results of special theory of relativity (SR) like time dilation, relativistic velocity addition, etc, can be explained by using certain proper subgroups, of the Lorentz group, which collectively form the main body of Very special relativity (VSR). They did not mention about length contraction in VSR. Length contraction in VSR has not been studied at all. In this article we calculate how the length of a moving rod contracts in VSR, particularly in the HOM(2) version. The results are interesting in the sense that in general the length contraction formulas in VSR are different from SR but in many cases the two theories predict similar length contraction of moving rods.

  15. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. S.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length.

  16. Variable length representation in evolutionary electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, R S; Pacheco, M A; Vellasco, M

    2000-01-01

    This work investigates the application of variable length representation (VLR) evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the field of Evolutionary Electronics. We propose a number of VLR methodologies that can cope with the main issues of variable length evolutionary systems. These issues include the search for efficient ways of sampling a genome space with varying dimensionalities, the task of balancing accuracy and parsimony of the solutions, and the manipulation of non-coding segments. We compare the performance of three proposed VLR approaches to sample the genome space: Increasing Length Genotypes, Oscillating Length Genotypes, and Uniformly Distributed Initial Population strategies. The advantages of reusing genetic material to replace non-coding segments are also emphasized in this work. It is shown, through examples in both analog and digital electronics, that the variable length genotype's representation is natural to this particular domain of application. A brief discussion on biological genome evolution is also provided.

  17. Muscle Structure Influences Utrophin Expression in mdx Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Glen B.; Combs, Ariana C.; Odom, Guy L.; Bloch, Robert J.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To examine the influence of muscle structure on the pathogenesis of DMD we generated mdx4cv:desmin double knockout (dko) mice. The dko male mice died of apparent cardiorespiratory failure at a median age of 76 days compared to 609 days for the desmin−/− mice. An ∼2.5 fold increase in utrophin expression in the dko skeletal muscles prevented necrosis in ∼91% of 1a, 2a and 2d/x fiber-types. In contrast, utrophin expression was reduced in the extrasynaptic sarcolemma of the dko fast 2b fibers leading to increased membrane fragility and dystrophic pathology. Despite lacking extrasynaptic utrophin, the dko fast 2b fibers were less dystrophic than the mdx4cv fast 2b fibers suggesting utrophin-independent mechanisms were also contributing to the reduced dystrophic pathology. We found no overt change in the regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells when comparing the wild-type, desmin−/−, mdx4cv and dko gastrocnemius muscles injured with notexin. Utrophin could form costameric striations with α-sarcomeric actin in the dko to maintain the integrity of the membrane, but the lack of restoration of the NODS (nNOS, α-dystrobrevin 1 and 2, α1-syntrophin) complex and desmin coincided with profound changes to the sarcomere alignment in the diaphragm, deposition of collagen between the myofibers, and impaired diaphragm function. We conclude that the dko mice may provide new insights into the structural mechanisms that influence endogenous utrophin expression that are pertinent for developing a therapy for DMD. PMID:24922526

  18. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  19. Length of residence, social ties, and economic opportunities,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, M B

    1976-08-01

    This study examines length of residence for movers--that subsection of the population which accounts for the high mobility rates in the United States. The propensity for repeated migration is studied in relation to economic opportunities and previous familial and personal contacts. The results indicate no influence of economic opportunities on duration of residence. This finding is consistent with recent research that indicates economic conditions are not a general stimulus for out-migration, although they are for inmigration. On the other hand, length of residence is found to be longer where previous familial and personal contacts existed. Overall, the results provide additional evidence of the importance of social, as opposed to strictly economic variables in the migration process.

  20. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  1. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); LaserLaB Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed {sup 40}Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  2. The tree length of an evolving coalescent

    CERN Document Server

    Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Weisshaupt, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A well-established model for the genealogy of a large population in equilibrium is Kingman's coalescent. For the population together with its genealogy evolving in time, this gives rise to a time-stationary tree-valued process. We study the sum of the branch lengths, briefly denoted as tree length, and prove that the (suitably compensated) sequence of tree length processes converges, as the population size tends to infinity, to a limit process with cadlag paths, infinite infinitesimal variance, and a Gumbel distribution as its equilibrium.

  3. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  4. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  5. Length variations amongst protein domain superfamilies and consequences on structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Sandhya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Related protein domains of a superfamily can be specified by proteins of diverse lengths. The structural and functional implications of indels in a domain scaffold have been examined. METHODOLOGY: In this study, domain superfamilies with large length variations (more than 30% difference from average domain size, referred as 'length-deviant' superfamilies and 'length-rigid' domain superfamilies (<10% length difference from average domain size were analyzed for the functional impact of such structural differences. Our delineated dataset, derived from an objective algorithm, enables us to address indel roles in the presence of peculiar structural repeats, functional variation, protein-protein interactions and to examine 'domain contexts' of proteins tolerant to large length variations. Amongst the top-10 length-deviant superfamilies analyzed, we found that 80% of length-deviant superfamilies possess distant internal structural repeats and nearly half of them acquired diverse biological functions. In general, length-deviant superfamilies have higher chance, than length-rigid superfamilies, to be engaged in internal structural repeats. We also found that approximately 40% of length-deviant domains exist as multi-domain proteins involving interactions with domains from the same or other superfamilies. Indels, in diverse domain superfamilies, were found to participate in the accretion of structural and functional features amongst related domains. With specific examples, we discuss how indels are involved directly or indirectly in the generation of oligomerization interfaces, introduction of substrate specificity, regulation of protein function and stability. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests a multitude of roles for indels that are specialized for domain members of different domain superfamilies. These specialist roles that we observe and trends in the extent of length variation could influence decision making in modeling of new superfamily

  6. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  7. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  9. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter R Underhill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively. Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively. Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  10. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  11. Derived length for arbitrary topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jayanthan

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of derived length is as old as that of ordinal numbers itself. It is also known as the Cantor-Bendixon length. It is defined only for dispersed (that is scattered spaces. In this paper this notion has been extended in a natural way for all topological spaces such that all its pleasing properties are retained. In this process we solve a problem posed by V. Kannan. ([1] Page 158.

  12. Reduced fetal telomere length in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is an important complication of pregnancy that poses significant threats to women and their offspring. Telomere length shortens as cellular damage increases and is associated with metabolic diseases. Telomere length in fetal leucocytes was determined in 82 infants of women with GDM (N = 82 and 65 normal pregnant women (N = 65. Women with preeclampsia (N = 45 and gestational hypertension (N = 23 were also studied. In the GDM group, telomere length was significantly shorter than normal pregnancy (P = 0.028, but there were no significant differences in fetal telomere length between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy (P = 0.841 and between gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy (P = 0.561. Regression analysis revealed that fetal telomere length was significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to GDM (P = 0.027 after adjustment for maternal age, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and fetal gender. Shortened telomere length may increase the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood of GDM offspring.

  13. Classifying stages of third molar development: crown length as a predictor for the mature root length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Willems, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tooth development staging techniques were reported based on arbitrarily set borderlines between succeeding stages. Anatomic tooth features or predictions of future tooth part dimensions were described to identify the thresholds between the established stages. The need to predict mature tooth dimensions, while the tooth considered is still in development, is a drawback to use this staging technique for dental age estimations. Using the fully mature crown length as a predictor for the future root length could provide a tool for undisputable staging. The aim of this study was first to measure the crown and root length of fully mature third molars and second to investigate whether the crown length could be used as a predictor of the root length, in order to classify the observed root length as a proportion of the future mature root. The crown and root lengths of all present third molars were digitally measured on dental panoramic radiographs of 1,000 subjects. The included subjects were equally distributed in gender, and their age ranged between 22 and 40 years. Two occlusal borders, the cement enamel junction and the root apices, were defined as landmarks for standardized measurements. Regression models with root length as response and crown length as predictor were established and revealed low R (2) and high RMSE values. Due to the small explained variance by the prediction models and the high variation in prediction errors, the observed crown length cannot be used to predict the final root length of a developing third molar.

  14. Desert bird associations with broad-scale boundary length: Applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Current understanding regarding the effects of boundaries on bird communities has originated largely from studies of forest-non-forest boundaries in mesic systems. To assess whether broad-scale boundary length can affect bird community structure in deserts, and to identify patterns and predictors of species' associations useful in avian conservation, we studied relations between birds and boundary-length variables in Chihuahuan Desert landscapes. Operationally, a boundary was the border between two adjoining land covers, and broad-scale boundary length was the total length of such borders in a large area. 2. Within 2-km radius areas, we measured six boundary-length variables. We analysed bird-boundary relations for 26 species, tested for assemblage-level patterns in species' associations with boundary-length variables, and assessed whether body size, dispersal ability and cowbird-host status were correlates of these associations. 3. The abundances or occurrences of a significant majority of species were associated with boundary-length variables, and similar numbers of species were related positively and negatively to boundary-length variables. 4. Disproportionately small numbers of species were correlated with total boundary length, land-cover boundary length and shrubland-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for large proportions of boundary length). Disproportionately large numbers of species were correlated with roadside boundary length and riparian vegetation-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for small proportions of boundary length). Roadside boundary length was associated (positively and negatively) with the most species. 5. Species' associations with boundary-length variables were not correlated with body size, dispersal ability or cowbird-host status. 6. Synthesis and applications. For the species we studied, conservationists can use the regressions we report as working models to anticipate influences of boundary-length changes

  15. Factors affecting gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish donkey breeds reared in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo, J; Perez-Marin, C C

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigated gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in three different Spanish donkey breeds (Andalusian, Zamorano-Leones, and Catalonian) kept on farm conditions in southern Spain, using data for ten consecutive breeding seasons. Gestation length was measured in 58 pregnancies. Ovarian ultrasonography was used to detect the ovulation, in order to ascertain true gestation length (ovulation-parturition). Pregnancy was diagnosed approximately 14-18 d after ovulation and confirmed on approximately day 60. Average gestation length was 362 +/-15.3 (SD) d, and no significant differences were observed between the three different breeds. Breeding season had a significant effect (P gestation length. After parturition, foal-heat was detected in 53.8% of the postpartum cycles studied (n = 78), and ovulation occurred on day 13.2 +/- 2.7. The duration of foal-heat was 4.7 +/-1.7 d, with a pregnancy rate of 40.5%. When subsequent estrus cycles were analyzed, the interovulatory interval (n = 68) and estrus duration (n = 258) were extended to a mean 23.8 +/- 3.5 and 5.7 +/- 2.2 d, respectively. Both variables were influenced by the year of study (P gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish jennies. Breeding season affected gestation length in farm conditions. Also, seasonal influence was observed on the length of the estrus cycle (i.e., interovulatory interval), although foal-heat was not affected by environmental factors.

  16. Measurement of the Length of an Optical Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Glenn has been involved in developing optical trapping and optical micromanipulation techniques in order to develop a tool that can be used to probe, characterize, and assemble nano and microscale materials to create microscale sensors for harsh flight environments. In order to be able to assemble a sensor or probe candidate sensor material, it is useful to know how far an optical trap can reach; that is, the distance beyond/below the stable trapping point through which an object will be drawn into the optical trap. Typically, to measure the distance over which an optical trap would influence matter in a horizontal (perpendicular to beam propagation) direction, it was common to hold an object in one optical trap, place a second optical trap a known distance away, turn off the first optical trap, and note if the object was moved into the second trap when it was turned on. The disadvantage of this technique is that it only gives information of trap influence distance in horizontal (x y) directions. No information about the distance of the influence of the trap is gained in the direction of propagation of the beam (the z direction). A method was developed to use a time-of-flight technique to determine the length along the propagation direction of an optical trap beam over which an object may be drawn into the optical trap. Test objects (polystyrene microspheres) were held in an optical trap in a water-filled sample chamber and raised to a pre-determined position near the top of the sample chamber. Next, the test objects were released by blocking the optical trap beam. The test objects were allowed to fall through the water for predetermined periods of time, at the end of which the trapping beam was unblocked. It was noted whether or not the test object returned to the optical trap or continued to fall. This determination of the length of an optical trap's influence by this manner assumes that the test object falls through the water in the sample chamber at

  17. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  18. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  19. Delayed feedback model of axonal length sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamched, Bhargav R; Bressloff, Paul C

    2015-05-05

    A fundamental question in cell biology is how the sizes of cells and organelles are regulated at various stages of development. Size homeostasis is particularly challenging for neurons, whose axons can extend from hundreds of microns to meters (in humans). Recently, a molecular-motor-based mechanism for axonal length sensing has been proposed, in which axonal length is encoded by the frequency of an oscillating retrograde signal. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of this length-sensing mechanism in which advection-diffusion equations for bidirectional motor transport are coupled to a chemical signaling network. We show that chemical oscillations emerge due to delayed negative feedback via a Hopf bifurcation, resulting in a frequency that is a monotonically decreasing function of axonal length. Knockdown of either kinesin or dynein causes an increase in the oscillation frequency, suggesting that the length-sensing mechanism would produce longer axons, which is consistent with experimental findings. One major prediction of the model is that fluctuations in the transport of molecular motors lead to a reduction in the reliability of the frequency-encoding mechanism for long axons. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tactile length contraction as Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan; Ngo, Vy; Goldreich, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To perceive, the brain must interpret stimulus-evoked neural activity. This is challenging: The stochastic nature of the neural response renders its interpretation inherently uncertain. Perception would be optimized if the brain used Bayesian inference to interpret inputs in light of expectations derived from experience. Bayesian inference would improve perception on average but cause illusions when stimuli violate expectation. Intriguingly, tactile, auditory, and visual perception are all prone to length contraction illusions, characterized by the dramatic underestimation of the distance between punctate stimuli delivered in rapid succession; the origin of these illusions has been mysterious. We previously proposed that length contraction illusions occur because the brain interprets punctate stimulus sequences using Bayesian inference with a low-velocity expectation. A novel prediction of our Bayesian observer model is that length contraction should intensify if stimuli are made more difficult to localize. Here we report a tactile psychophysical study that tested this prediction. Twenty humans compared two distances on the forearm: a fixed reference distance defined by two taps with 1-s temporal separation and an adjustable comparison distance defined by two taps with temporal separation t ≤ 1 s. We observed significant length contraction: As t was decreased, participants perceived the two distances as equal only when the comparison distance was made progressively greater than the reference distance. Furthermore, the use of weaker taps significantly enhanced participants' length contraction. These findings confirm the model's predictions, supporting the view that the spatiotemporal percept is a best estimate resulting from a Bayesian inference process.

  1. Metastable neon collisions: anisotropy and scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Mogendorff, V P; Verhaar, B J; Beijerinck, H C W

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effective scattering length $a$ of spin-polarized Ne*. Due to its anisotropic electrostatic interaction, its scattering length is determined by five interaction potentials instead of one, even in the spin-polarized case, a unique property among the Bose condensed species and candidates. Because the interaction potentials of Ne* are not known accurately enough to predict the value of the scattering length, we investigate the behavior of $a$ as a function of the five phase integrals corresponding to the five interaction potentials. We find that the scattering length has five resonances instead of only one and cannot be described by a simple gas-kinetic approach or the DIS approximation. However, the probability for finding a positive or large value of the scattering length is not enhanced compared to the single potential case. The complex behavior of $a$ is studied by comparing a quantum mechanical five-channel numerical calculation to simpler two-channel models. We find that th...

  2. The length of words reflects their conceptual complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Molly L; Frank, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Are the forms of words systematically related to their meaning? The arbitrariness of the sign has long been a foundational part of our understanding of human language. Theories of communication predict a relationship between length and meaning, however: Longer descriptions should be more conceptually complex. Here we show that both the lexicons of human languages and individual speakers encode the relationship between linguistic and conceptual complexity. Experimentally, participants mapped longer words to more complex objects in comprehension and production tasks and across a range of stimuli. Explicit judgments of conceptual complexity were also highly correlated with implicit measures of study time in a memory task, suggesting that complexity is directly related to basic cognitive processes. Observationally, judgments of conceptual complexity for a sample of real words correlate highly with their length across 80 languages, even controlling for frequency, familiarity, imageability, and concreteness. While word lengths are systematically related to usage-both frequency and contextual predictability-our results reveal a systematic relationship with meaning as well. They point to a general regularity in the design of lexicons and suggest that pragmatic pressures may influence the structure of the lexicon.

  3. 老年男性退行性心脏瓣膜病患者病程长短对心律失常的影响及意义%Influence and significance of the length of the course on arrhythmia of the elderly male patients with degenerative valvular heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自豪; 李素娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence and significance of the length of the course on arrhythmia of the elderly male patients with degenerative valvular heart disease.Methods:50 elderly male patients with degenerative valvular heart disease were selected from March 2013 to March 2014.At the same time,patients without degenerative valvular heart disease were selected as the control group.Patients were followed up by dynamic electrocardiogram,for a period of 6 years.By the end of follow-up, according to the statistical results,we compared the incidence of arrhythmia occurrence of the two groups.Results:With the increase of age of the two groups,the occurrence of various types of arrhythmia rate was raised,atrial premature beat was more than 100/24 hours,ventricular premature beat was more than 100/24 hours,we compared the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia rate of the two groups,there was no significant difference(P>0.05);and in the first year and 2 years,we compared the occurrence of rapid atrial arrhythmias of the two groups,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);in the third years later,we compared the incidence rate of the two groups,there was no significant difference(P>0.05).Conclusion:In SDHVD patients,with the extension of age and disease duration,atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block incidence were increased,we suggested that patients should receive ECG examination regularly,and we should take the necessary intervention measures according to the inspection results.%目的:探讨男性老年退行性心脏瓣膜病(SDHVD)患者病程长短对心律失常的影响及意义.方法:2013 年 3月-2014年3月收治男性老年退行性心脏瓣膜病患者50例,并选择同期进行治疗的无老年退行性心脏瓣膜病患者作为对照组,对两组患者进行动态心电图随访,为期 6 年,随访结束后根据统计结果比较并分析两组患者心律失常的发生情况.结果:两组患者随年龄的增加各类

  4. Genetic architecture of natural variation of telomere length in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Nick; Teubenbacher, Astrid; Kerdaffrec, Envel; Farlow, Ashley; Nordborg, Magnus; Riha, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Telomeres represent the repetitive sequences that cap chromosome ends and are essential for their protection. Telomere length is known to be highly heritable and is derived from a homeostatic balance between telomeric lengthening and shortening activities. Specific loci that form the genetic framework underlying telomere length homeostasis, however, are not well understood. To investigate the extent of natural variation of telomere length in Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined 229 worldwide accessions by terminal restriction fragment analysis. The results showed a wide range of telomere lengths that are specific to individual accessions. To identify loci that are responsible for this variation, we adopted a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach with multiple recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. A doubled haploid RIL population was first produced using centromere-mediated genome elimination between accessions with long (Pro-0) and intermediate (Col-0) telomere lengths. Composite interval mapping analysis of this population along with two established RIL populations (Ler-2/Cvi-0 and Est-1/Col-0) revealed a number of shared and unique QTL. QTL detected in the Ler-2/Cvi-0 population were examined using near isogenic lines that confirmed causative regions on chromosomes 1 and 2. In conclusion, this work describes the extent of natural variation of telomere length in A. thaliana, identifies a network of QTL that influence telomere length homeostasis, examines telomere length dynamics in plants with hybrid backgrounds, and shows the effects of two identified regions on telomere length regulation.

  5. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  6. Length and distance on a quantum space

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This contribution is an introduction to the metric aspect of noncommutative geometry, with emphasize on the Moyal plane. Starting by questioning "how to define a standard meter in a space whose coordinates no longer commute?", we list several recent results regarding Connes's spectral distance calculated between eigenstates of the quantum harmonic oscillator arXiv:0912.0906, as well as between coherent states arXiv:1110.6164. We also question the difference (which remains hidden in the commutative case) between the spectral distance and the notion of quantum length inherited from the length operator defined in various models of noncommutative space-time (DFR and \\theta-Minkowski). We recall that a standard procedure in noncommutative geometry, consisting in doubling the spectral triple, allows to fruitfully confront the spectral distance with the quantum length. Finally we refine the idea of discrete vs. continuous geodesics in the Moyal plane, introduced in arXiv:1106.0261.

  7. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  8. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  9. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  10. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  11. Telomerase activity and telomere length in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex.

  12. Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length in Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex. PMID:25962144

  13. Universality of modulation length and time exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Seidel, Alexander; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-10-01

    We study systems with a crossover parameter λ, such as the temperature T, which has a threshold value λ(*) across which the correlation function changes from exhibiting fixed wavelength (or time period) modulations to continuously varying modulation lengths (or times). We introduce a hitherto unknown exponent ν(L) characterizing the universal nature of this crossover and compute its value in general instances. This exponent, similar to standard correlation length exponents, is obtained from motion of the poles of the momentum (or frequency) space correlation functions in the complex k-plane (or ω-plane) as the parameter λ is varied. Near the crossover (i.e., for λ→λ(*)), the characteristic modulation wave vector K(R) in the variable modulation length "phase" is related to that in the fixed modulation length "phase" q via |K(R)-q|[proportionality]|T-T(*)|(νL). We find, in general, that ν(L)=1/2. In some special instances, ν(L) may attain other rational values. We extend this result to general problems in which the eigenvalue of an operator or a pole characterizing general response functions may attain a constant real (or imaginary) part beyond a particular threshold value λ(*). We discuss extensions of this result to multiple other arenas. These include the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. By extending our considerations, we comment on relations pertaining not only to the modulation lengths (or times), but also to the standard correlation lengths (or times). We introduce the notion of a Josephson time scale. We comment on the presence of aperiodic "chaotic" modulations in "soft-spin" and other systems. These relate to glass-type features. We discuss applications to Fermi systems, with particular application to metal to band insulator transitions, change of Fermi surface topology, divergent effective masses, Dirac systems, and topological insulators. Both regular periodic and glassy (and spatially chaotic behavior) may be found in

  14. PENDULUM WITH LINEAR DAMPING AND VARIABLE LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建平; 杨翠红; 李怡平

    2004-01-01

    The methods of multiple scales and approximate potential are used to study pendulums with linear damping and variable length. According to the order of the coefficient of friction compared with that of the slowly varying parameter of length, three different cases are discussed in details. Asymptotic analytical expressions of amplitude, frequency and solution are obtained. The method of approximate potential makes the results effective for large oscillations. A modified multiple scales method is used to get more accurate leading order approximations when the coefficient friction is not small. Comparisons are also made with numerical results to show the efficiency of the present method.

  15. Localization length fluctuation in randomly layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiming; Huang, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-10-01

    Localization properties of the two-component randomly layered media (RLM) are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The localization length is found fluctuating around the analytical result obtained under the high-frequency limit. The fluctuation amplitude approaches zero with the increasing of disorder, which is characterized by the distribution width of random thickness. It is also found that the localization length over the mean thickness periodically varies with the distribution center of random thickness. For the multi-component RLM structure, the arrangement of material must be considered.

  16. Isospin odd pi K scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, J

    2005-01-01

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the pi K scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte and P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of m_s in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order M_pi^2. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on pi K atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  17. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  18. Isospin odd {pi}K scattering length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: julia.schweizer@univie.ac.at

    2005-10-13

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the {pi}K scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte, P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of m{sub s} in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on {pi}K atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  19. A simple method for focal length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  20. 菊头蝠耳长与叫声频率的相关性%Correlation between ear length and call frequency in Rhinolophus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉华; 左明雪; 梁冰; 张信文; 张树义

    2003-01-01

    Echolocation calls of 10 Chinese rhinolophid species were recorded to investigate the relationship between morphology and echolocation signals.All horseshoe bats use FM-CF-FM calls.Rhinolophus rex at 23.7kHz,the lowest frequency in this genus between call frequency and ear length (r=-0.942,P<0.001)and also between call frequency and forcarm length(r=-0.696,P<0.05),Residual analysis was carried out to remove the influence of other morphological features.After calculating ear length,forearm length residuals were not significantly related to call frequency(r=-0.095,P=0.808).The significance of the correlation between ear length ear length and call frequency was slightly lowered(r=-0.642,P=0.062) after "removing" the influence of forearm length.Ear length,therefore,was a better predictor of call frequency than forearm length.

  1. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  2. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well...... understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  3. Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-02-01

    We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.

  4. Tail paradox, partial identifiability, and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannala, Bruce; Zhu, Tianqi; Yang, Ziheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have observed that Bayesian analyses of sequence data sets using the program MrBayes sometimes generate extremely large branch lengths, with posterior credibility intervals for the tree length (sum of branch lengths) excluding the maximum likelihood estimates. Suggested explanations for this phenomenon include the existence of multiple local peaks in the posterior, lack of convergence of the chain in the tail of the posterior, mixing problems, and misspecified priors on branch lengths. Here, we analyze the behavior of Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms when the chain is in the tail of the posterior distribution and note that all these phenomena can occur. In Bayesian phylogenetics, the likelihood function approaches a constant instead of zero when the branch lengths increase to infinity. The flat tail of the likelihood can cause poor mixing and undue influence of the prior. We suggest that the main cause of the extreme branch length estimates produced in many Bayesian analyses is the poor choice of a default prior on branch lengths in current Bayesian phylogenetic programs. The default prior in MrBayes assigns independent and identical distributions to branch lengths, imposing strong (and unreasonable) assumptions about the tree length. The problem is exacerbated by the strong correlation between the branch lengths and parameters in models of variable rates among sites or among site partitions. To resolve the problem, we suggest two multivariate priors for the branch lengths (called compound Dirichlet priors) that are fairly diffuse and demonstrate their utility in the special case of branch length estimation on a star phylogeny. Our analysis highlights the need for careful thought in the specification of high-dimensional priors in Bayesian analyses.

  5. Cable dynamics applied to long-length scale mechanics of DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Sachin; Lillian, Todd; Noel C Perkins; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of cable dynamics models as a means to explore the mechanics of DNA on long-length scales. It is on these length scales that DNA forms twisted and curved three-dimensional shapes known as supercoils and loops. These long-length scale DNA structures have a pronounced influence on the functions of this molecule within the cell including the packing of DNA in the cell nucleus, transcription, replication and gene repair. We provide a short background to the mechanics...

  6. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted elonga

  7. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  8. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted

  9. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  10. Tevatron bunch length studies at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Jones; Bob Kephart; and Rick Vidal

    2002-05-29

    A luminous interaction region can be described by the distribution in (x, y, z) over which p{bar p} interactions are observed in a detector. The spatial size of this distribution can be written in terms of expressions that involve only combinations of the proton and anti-proton bunch sizes. Hence, it is not possible to determine the sizes of the proton and anti-proton bunches independently by fitting the distribution of (x, y, z) from the recorded events. If, in addition to the coordinates (x, y, z) at which p{bar p} interactions occur, the times at which the interactions took place are also measured, then it becomes possible to measure the lengths of the proton and anti-proton bunches separately. This sensitivity is due to a correlation between z and t that arises from the fact that the proton and anti-proton bunches travel in opposite directions. The derivation presented in section 2 quantifies this correlation, resulting in an expression for the probability density as a function of z and t for p{bar p} interactions. By fitting the distributions observed at CDF using this model, we measure the lengths of the proton and anti-proton bunches at times throughout several Tevatron stores. From this analysis the evolution of the bunch lengths can be studied. We attempt to correlate these with other measures of the bunch length obtained using different experimental techniques.

  11. Length, protein–protein interactions, and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Frenkel, D.; Gupta, V.; Deem, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein–protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they ar

  12. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    a chronic (previously fatal) disease. The active elderly often stick to their image of themselves as active, youthful and energetic in spite of a chronic disease. Old age and disease is not what they identify with and seems to be conceived at an arms length. In the paper the author explores how health...

  13. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  14. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  15. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  16. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca

  17. Optimality Of Variable-Length Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Miller, Warner H.; Rice, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents analysis of performances of conceptual Rice universal noiseless coders designed to provide efficient compression of data over wide range of source-data entropies. Includes predictive preprocessor that maps source data into sequence of nonnegative integers and variable-length-coding processor, which adapts to varying entropy of source data by selecting whichever one of number of optional codes yields shortest codeword.

  18. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  19. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... childhood are crucial for understanding the role of telomere genetics in human ageing and longevity....

  20. Stressful life events and leucocyte telomere length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bendix, Laila; Rask, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stress is associated with increased risk of a number of somatic and mental disorders with relation to immune system functioning. We aimed to explore whether stressful events in early and recent life was associated with leucocyte telomere length (TL), which is assumed...