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Sample records for sarcocystis neurona includes

  1. Sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, A J; Barr, B; Rejmanek, D

    2007-11-01

    A 1.5-year-old male Feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. Treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. The dog was euthanized. The brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. Multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. Protozoa morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis sp. were identified at sites of intense inflammation and malacia. Additionally, multiple schizonts were identified in areas without inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for Sarcocystis neurona was strongly positive. No reaction to polyclonal antisera for Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum was found. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the protozoa were S. neurona. Additional aberrant hosts for S. neurona other than horses have been identified, but S. neurona encephalitis has not been documented previously in the dog.

  2. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2006-09-01

    The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers.

  3. Molecular typing of Sarcocystis neurona: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2007-10-21

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important protozoal pathogen because it causes the serious neurological disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The capacity of this organism to cause a wide spectrum of neurological signs in horses and the broad geographic distribution of observed cases in the Americas drive the need for sensitive, reliable and rapid typing methods to characterize strains. Various molecular methods have been developed and used to diagnose EPM due to S. neurona, to identify S. neurona isolates and to determine the heterogeneity and evolutionary relatedness within this species and related Sarcocystis spp. These methods included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA), slide agglutination test (SAT), SnSAG-specific ELISA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and sequence analysis of surface protein genes, ribosomal genes, microsatellite alleles and other molecular markers. Here, the utility of these molecular methods is reviewed and evaluated with respect to the need for molecular approaches that utilize well-characterized polymorphic, simple, independent, and stable genetic markers. These tools have the potential to add to knowledge of the genetic population structure of S. neurona and to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EPM and S. neurona epidemiology. In particular, these methods provide new tools to address the hypothesis that particular genetic variants are associated with adverse clinical outcomes (severe pathotypes). The ultimate goal is to utilize them in future studies to improve treatment and prevention strategies.

  4. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L

    2006-04-15

    Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial

  5. Strains of Sarcocystis neurona exhibit differences in their surface antigens, including the absence of the major surface antigen SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Marsh, Antoinette E; Patil, Bhagyashree A; Saville, William J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E

    2008-05-01

    A gene family of surface antigens is expressed by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona, the primary cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). These surface proteins, designated SnSAGs, are immunodominant and therefore excellent candidates for development of EPM diagnostics or vaccines. Prior work had identified an EPM isolate lacking the major surface antigen SnSAG1, thus suggesting there may be some diversity in the SnSAGs expressed by different S. neurona isolates. Therefore, a bioinformatic, molecular and immunological study was conducted to assess conservation of the SnSAGs. Examination of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed several notable SnSAG polymorphisms. In particular, the EST information implied that the EPM strain SN4 lacked the major surface antigen SnSAG1. The absence of this surface antigen from the SN4 strain was confirmed by both Western blot and Southern blot. To evaluate SnSAG polymorphisms in the S. neurona population, 14 strains were examined by Western blots using monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the four described SnSAGs. The results of these analyses demonstrated that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 are present in all 14 S. neurona strains tested, although some variance in SnSAG4 was observed. Importantly, SnSAG1 was not detected in seven of the strains, which included isolates from four cases of EPM and a case of fatal meningoencephalitis in a sea otter. Genetic analyses by PCR using gene-specific primers confirmed the absence of the SnSAG1 locus in six of these seven strains. Collectively, the data indicated that there is heterogeneity in the surface antigen composition of different S. neurona isolates, which is an important consideration for development of serological tests and prospective vaccines for EPM. Furthermore, the diversity reported herein likely extends to other phenotypes, such as strain virulence, and may have implications for the phylogeny of the various Sarcocystis spp. that undergo sexual stages

  6. Serologic responses of cats against experimental Sarcocystis neurona infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Saville, W J A

    2002-08-02

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of a neurologic disease of horses, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Cats and other carnivores can act as its intermediate hosts and horses are aberrant hosts. Little is known of the sero-epidemiology of S. neurona infections in cats. In the present study, antibodies to S. neurona were evaluated by the S. neurona agglutination test (SAT). Cats fed sporocysts from the feces of naturally infected opossums or inoculated intramuscularly with S. neurona merozoites developed high levels (> or =1:4000) of SAT antibodies. Antibodies to S. neurona were not found in a cat inoculated with merozoites of the closely related parasite, Sarcocystis falcatula. These results should be useful in studying sero-epidemiology of S. neurona infections in cats.

  7. Systems based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora and Toxoplasma are two host parasites that infect an...

  8. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, M A; Lindsay, D S; Greiner, E C

    2006-06-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were present in these opossums. Serum was analyzed using the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). The SAT was modified for use with a filter paper collection system. Antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in any of the serum samples from opossums, indicating that infection in the opossum is localized in the small intestine. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in filter-paper-processed serum samples from 2 armadillos naturally infected with S. neurona.

  9. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, M; Lakritz, J; Halaney, A; Branson, K; Gupta, G D; Kreeger, J; Marsh, A E

    2002-07-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is the parasite most commonly associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Recently, cats (Felis domesticus) have been demonstrated to be an experimental intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona. This study was performed to determine if cats experimentally inoculated with culture-derived S. neurona merozoites develop tissue sarcocysts infectious to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the definitive host of S. neurona. Four cats were inoculated with S. neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites and all developed antibodies reacting to S. neurona merozoite antigens, but tissue sarcocysts were detected in only two cats. Muscle tissues from the experimentally inoculated cats with and without detectable sarcocysts were fed to laboratory-reared opossums. Sporocysts were detected in gastrointestinal (GI) scrapings of one opossum fed experimentally infected feline tissues. The study results suggest that cats can develop tissue cysts following inoculation with culture-derived Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in which the particular isolate was originally derived from a naturally infected cat with tissue sarcocysts. This is in contrast to cats which did not develop tissue cysts when inoculated with S. neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2.

  10. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Furr, M; Saville, W J; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Grigg, M E

    2015-04-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especially sea otters (Enhydra lutris). EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats. This paper updates S. neurona and EPM information from the last 15 years on the advances regarding life cycle, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Early migration of Sarcocystis neurona in ponies fed sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitsur, E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Murphy, J E; Saville, W J A

    2007-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurologic disease of the horse. In the present work, the kinetics of S. neurona invasion is determined in the equine model. Six ponies were orally inoculated with 250 x 10(6) S. neurona sporocysts via nasogastric intubation and killed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 postinoculation (PI). At necropsy, tissue samples were examined for S. neurona infection. The parasite was isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes at 1, 2, and 7 days PI; the liver at 2, 5, and 7 days PI; and the lungs at 5, 7, and 9 days PI by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knock out mice (KO) and from cell culture. Microscopic lesions consistent with an EPM infection were observed in brain and spinal cord of ponies killed 7 and 9 days PI. Results suggest that S. neurona disseminates quickly in tissue of naive ponies.

  12. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  13. Systems-based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Hung, Stacy S; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Boulanger, Martin J; Dubey, Jitender P; Porcella, Stephen F; Kissinger, Jessica C; Howe, Daniel K; Grigg, Michael E; Parkinson, John

    2015-02-10

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled apicomplexan parasites responsible for major economic and health care burdens worldwide. A cousin of Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, and Eimeria, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful parasite genera; it is capable of infecting all vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals-including humans). The past decade has witnessed an increasing number of human outbreaks of clinical significance associated with

  14. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, W J A; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Sofaly, C D; Marsh, A E; Elitsur, E; Vianna, M C; Lindsay, D S; Reed, S M

    2004-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis fayeri infections are common in horses in the Americas. Their antemortem diagnosis is important because the former causes a neurological disorder in horses, whereas the latter is considered nonpathogenic. There is a concern that equine antibodies to S. fayeri might react with S. neurona antigens in diagnostic tests. In this study, 4 ponies without demonstrable serum antibodies to S. neurona by Western immunoblot were used. Three ponies were fed 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) sporocysts of S. fayeri obtained from dogs that were fed naturally infected horse muscles. All ponies remained asymptomatic until the termination of the experiment, day 79 postinoculation (PI). All serum samples collected were negative for antibodies to S. neurona using the Western blot at the initial screening, just before inoculation with S. fayeri (day 2) and weekly until day 79 PI. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from each pony were negative for S. neurona antibodies. Using the S. neurona agglutination test, antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in 1:25 dilution of sera from any samples, except that from pony no. 4 on day 28; this pony had received 1 X 10(7) sporocysts. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs), 7 serum samples were found to be positive for S. neurona antibodies from 1:25 to 1:400 dilutions. Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts were found in striated muscles of all inoculated ponies, with heaviest infections in the tongue. All sarcocysts examined histologically appeared to contain only microcytes. Ultrastructurally, S. fayeri sarcocysts could be differentiated from S. neurona sarcocysts by the microtubules (mt) in villar protrusions on sarcocyst walls; in S. fayeri the mt extended from the villar tips to the pellicle of zoites, whereas in S. neurona the mt were restricted to the middle of the cyst wall. Results indicate that horses with S. fayeri infections may be misdiagnosed as being S. neurona infected using IFAT, and further research

  16. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal.

  17. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Efficacy of decoquinate against Sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Nazir, M Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Ellison, Siobhan P; Strobl, Jeannine S

    2013-09-01

    Decoquinate is a quinolone anticoccidial approved for use in the prevention of intestinal coccidiosis in farm animals. This compound has good activity against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in cell cultures. The drug acts on the parasites' mitochondria. The activity of decoquinate against developing merozoites of 2 isolates of Sarcocystis neurona was examined in cell culture. Merozoite production at 10 days was completely inhibited when decoquinate was used at 20 or 240 nM. The IC50 of decoquinate was 0.5 ± 0.09nM for the Sn6 isolate of S. neurona from a horse and 1.1 ± 0.6 nM for the SnOP15 isolate of S. neurona from an opossum. Levamisole was toxic at 5 μg/ml and no synergism was observed when decoquinate was combined with levamisole and tested against the Sn3YFP isolate of S. neurona. Decoquinate was cidal for developing schizonts of S. neurona at 240 nM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular genetic transfection of the coccidian parasite Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Zhang, Deqing; Breathnach, Cormac C; Vaishnava, Shipra; Striepen, Boris; Howe, Daniel K

    2006-11-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The biology of this pathogen remains poorly understood in part due to unavailability of molecular genetic tools. Hence, with an objective to develop DNA transfection capabilities for S. neurona, the 5' flanking region of the SnSAG1 gene was isolated from a genomic library and used to construct expression plasmids. In transient assays, the reporter molecules beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) could be detected in electroporated S. neurona, thereby confirming the feasibility of transgene expression in this organism. Stable transformation of S. neurona was achieved using a mutant dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene of Toxoplasma gondii that confers resistance to pyrimethamine. This selection system was used to create transgenic S. neurona that stably express beta-gal and YFP. As shown in this study, these transgenic clones can be useful for analyzing growth rate of parasites in vitro and for assessing drug sensitivities. More importantly, the DNA transfection methods described herein should greatly facilitate studies examining intracellular parasitism by this important coccidian pathogen.

  20. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Miller, Melissa A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Nichelason, Amy E; Melli, Ann C; Packham, Andrea E; Jessup, David A; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-12-03

    Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoal parasite shed by opossums (Didelphis virginiana), has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in horses, sea otters, and other marine mammals. Over the course of 3 years (fall 2005-summer 2008), opossums from central California were tested for infection with S. neurona. Of 288 opossums sampled, 17 (5.9%) were infected with S. neurona based on the molecular characterization of sporocysts from intestinal scrapings or feces. Risk factors evaluated for association with S. neurona infection in opossums included: age, sex, location, season, presence of pouch young in females, concomitant infection, and sampling method (live-trapped or traffic-killed). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that opossums in the Central Valley were 9 times more likely to be infected than those near the coast (p=0.009). Similarly, opossum infection was 5 times more likely to be detected during the reproductive season (March-July; p=0.013). This first investigation of S. neurona infection prevalence and associated risk factors in opossums in the western United States can be used to develop management strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of S. neurona infections in susceptible hosts, including horses and threatened California sea otters (Enhydra lutris neries).

  2. Sarcocystis neurona: molecular characterization of enolase domain I region and a comparison to other protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, K E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Dubey, J P; Toribio, R E; Saville, W J A

    2008-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes protozoal myeloencephalitis and has the ability to infect a wide host range in contrast to other Sarcocystis species. In the current study, five S. neurona isolates from a variety of sources, three Sarcocystis falcatula, one Sarcocystis dasypi/S. neurona-like isolate, and one Besnoitia darlingi isolate were used to compare the enolase 2 gene segment containing the domain I region to previously sequenced enolase genes from Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, and Trypanosoma cruzi; enolase 2 segment containing domain I region is highly conserved amongst these parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Immunohistochemistry results indicates reactivity of T. gondii enolase 1 and 2 antibodies to S. neurona merozoites and metrocytes, but no reactivity of anti-enolase 1 to the S. neurona bradyzoite stage despite reactivity to T. gondii bradyzoites, suggesting expression differences between organisms.

  3. Sarcocystis neurona-specific immunoglobulin G in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses administered S neurona vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon; Morrow, Jennifer K; Leger, Clare; Dascanio, John; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia; Palmer, Wally; Kline, Kristen; Cook, Anne

    2004-01-01

    A vaccine against Sarcocystis neurona, which induces equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), has received conditional licensure in the United States. A major concern is whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) response elicited by the vaccine will compromise the use of Western blotting (WB) as a diagnostic tool in vaccinated horses with neurologic disease. Our goals were to determine if vaccination (1) causes seroconversion: (2) causes at least a transient increase in S neurona-specific IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and (3) induces an IgG response that can be differentiated from that induced by natural exposure. Horses included in the study (n = 29) were older than 6 months with no evidence of neurologic disease. The presence or absence of anti-S neurona antibodies in the serum of each horse was determined by WB analysis. Seropositive horses had CSF collected and submitted for cytology, CSF index, and WB analysis. The vaccine was administered to all the horses and boostered 3-4 weeks later. On day 14 after the 2nd administration, serum and CSF were collected and analyzed. Eighty-nine percent (8 of 9) of the initial seronegative horses seroconverted after vaccination, of which 57% (4 of 7) had anti-S neurona IgG in their CSE Eighty percent (16 of 20) of the seropositive horses had an increase in serum S neurona IgG after vaccination. Of the 6 of 20 horses that were initially seropositive/CSF negative, 2 were borderline positive for anti-S neurona IgG in the CSF, 2 tested positive, and 2 were excluded because the CSF sample had been contaminated by blood. There were no WB banding patterns that distinguished samples from horses that seroconverted due to vaccination versus natural exposure. Caution must be used in interpreting WB analysis from neurologic horses that have been recently vaccinated for EPM.

  4. Sarcocystis neurona manipulation using culture-derived merozoites for bradyzoite and sporocyst production.

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    Chaney, Sarah B; Marsh, Antoinette E; Lewis, Stephanie; Carman, Michelle; Howe, Daniel K; Saville, William J; Reed, Stephen M

    2017-04-30

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains a significant central nervous system disease of horses in the American continents. Sarcocystis neurona is considered the primary causative agent and its intermediate life stages are carried by a wide host-range including raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North America. S. neurona sarcocysts mature in raccoon skeletal muscle and can produce central nervous system disease in raccoons, mirroring the clinical presentation in horses. The study aimed to develop laboratory tools whereby the life cycle and various life stages of S. neurona could be better studied and manipulated using in vitro and in vivo systems and compare the biology of two independent isolates. This study utilized culture-derived parasites from S. neurona strains derived from a raccoon or from a horse to initiate raccoon infections. Raccoon tissues, including fresh and cryopreserved tissues, were used to establish opossum (Didelphis virginiana) infections, which then shed sporocyts with retained biological activity to cause encephalitis in mice. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can be generated using in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites, including an isolate originally derived from a naturally infected horse with clinical EPM. This study indicates the life cycle can be significantly manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Investigação de anticorpos contra Sarcocystis neurona e Sarcocystis cruzi em equinos

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    A. M. Antonello

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSarcocystis neurona is the primary agent for Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, important neurological disease characterized by behavior or muscular changes, that impairs animal performance and husbandry. Sarcocystis cruzi is a pathogen related to myositis in cattle. Although related the life cycles of the parasites are distinct. S. neurona has opossums (Didelphis spp. and S. cruzi, dogs as definitive hosts. However, S. neurona and S. cruzi may undergo cross-reactivity in serological tests, interfering on results of EPM ante-mortem diagnostic tests. In the present study, serology of 189 mares was performed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, using antigens of S. neurona and S. cruzi in order to assess the exposure degree of animals to antigens. Analyzing the results, it was observed that most of the animals (84.13% reacted with at least one protozoal species and the number of animals which showed antibodies against S. cruzi was greater than S. neurona (80.42% and 33.86%, respectively and a third of seropositive animals reacted to antigens of both species.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Sarcocystis neurona Protein Kinases

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    Edwin K. Murungi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM, a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans. We identified 97 putative PKs clustering within the various eukaryotic kinase groups. Although containing the universally-conserved PKA (AGC group, S. neurona kinome was devoid of PKB and PKC. Moreover, the kinome contains the six-conserved apicomplexan CDPKs (CAMK group. Several OPK atypical kinases, including ROPKs 19A, 27, 30, 33, 35 and 37 were identified. Notably, S. neurona is devoid of the virulence-associated ROPKs 5, 6, 18 and 38, as well as the Alpha and RIO kinases. Two out of the three S. neurona CK1 enzymes had high sequence similarities to Toxoplasma gondii TgCK1-α and TgCK1-β and the Plasmodium PfCK1. Further experimental studies on the S. neurona putative PKs identified in this study are required to validate the functional roles of the PKs and to understand their involvement in mechanisms that regulate various cellular processes and host-parasite interactions. Given the essentiality of apicomplexan PKs in the survival of apicomplexans, the current study offers a platform for future development of novel therapeutics for EPM, for instance via application of PK inhibitors to block parasite invasion and development in their host.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Sarcocystis neurona Protein Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Edwin K; Kariithi, Henry M

    2017-03-21

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans. We identified 97 putative PKs clustering within the various eukaryotic kinase groups. Although containing the universally-conserved PKA (AGC group), S. neurona kinome was devoid of PKB and PKC. Moreover, the kinome contains the six-conserved apicomplexan CDPKs (CAMK group). Several OPK atypical kinases, including ROPKs 19A, 27, 30, 33, 35 and 37 were identified. Notably, S. neurona is devoid of the virulence-associated ROPKs 5, 6, 18 and 38, as well as the Alpha and RIO kinases. Two out of the three S. neurona CK1 enzymes had high sequence similarities to Toxoplasma gondii TgCK1-α and TgCK1-β and the Plasmodium PfCK1. Further experimental studies on the S. neurona putative PKs identified in this study are required to validate the functional roles of the PKs and to understand their involvement in mechanisms that regulate various cellular processes and host-parasite interactions. Given the essentiality of apicomplexan PKs in the survival of apicomplexans, the current study offers a platform for future development of novel therapeutics for EPM, for instance via application of PK inhibitors to block parasite invasion and development in their host.

  8. Biological characterisation of Sarcocystis neurona isolated from a Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona was isolated from the brain of a juvenile, male southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) suffering from CNS disease. Schizonts and merozoites in tissue sections of the otter's brain reacted with anti-S. neurona antiserum immunohistochemically. Development in cell culture was by endopolyogeny and mature schizonts were first observed at 3 days postinoculation. PCR of merozoite DNA using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 and restriction enzyme digestion of the 1100 bp product with Dra I indicated the organism was S. neurona. Four of four interferon-γ gene knockout mice inoculated with merozoites developed S. neurona-associated encephalitis. Antibodies to S. neurona but not Sarcocystis falcatula, Toxoplasma gondii, or Neospora caninum were present in the serum of inoculated mice. This is the first isolation of S. neurona from the brain of a non-equine host.

  9. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  10. Exposure to Sarcocystis spp. in horses from Spain determined by Western blot analysis using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Yeargan, M; Francisco, I; Dangoudoubiyam, S; Becerra, P; Francisco, R; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A; Howe, D K

    2012-04-30

    Horses serve as an intermediate host for several species of Sarcocystis, all of which utilize canids as the definitive host. Sarcocystis spp. infection and formation of latent sarcocysts in horses often appears to be subclinical, but morbidity can occur, especially when the parasite burden is large. A serological survey was conducted to determine the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. in seemingly healthy horses from the Galicia region of Spain. Western blot analyses using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen suggested greater than 80% seroprevalance of Sarcocystis spp. in a sample set of 138 horses. The serum samples were further tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant S. neurona-specific surface antigens (rSnSAGs). As expected for horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, less than 4% of the serum samples were positive when analyzed with either the rSnSAG2 or the rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. An additional 246 horses were tested using the rSnSAG2 ELISA, which revealed that less than 3% of the 384 samples were seropositive. Collectively, the results of this serologic study suggested that a large proportion of horses from this region of Spain are exposed to Sarcocystis spp. Furthermore, the anti-Sarcocystis seroreactivity in these European horses could be clearly distinguished from anti-S. neurona antibodies using the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona .

  12. Genetic variation among isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of protozoal myeloencephalitis, as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, H M; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2006-06-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged. Here, the genetic diversity of Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Fifteen S. neurona taxa from different regions collected over the last 10 years were used; six isolates were from clinically diseased horses, eight isolates were from wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and one isolate was from a cowbird (Molothrus ater). Additionally, four outgroup taxa were also fingerprinted. Nine primer pairs were used to generate AFLP patterns, with a total number of amplified fragments ranging from 30 to 60, depending on the isolate and primers tested. Based on the presence/absence of amplified AFLP fragments and pairwise similarity values, all the S. neurona isolates tested were clustered in one monophyletic group. No significant correlation could be found between genomic similarity and host origin of the S. neurona isolates. AFLP revealed significant intraspecific genetic variations, and S. neurona appeared as a highly variable species. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that S. neurona populations within Michigan have an intermediate type of population structure that includes characteristics of both clonal and panamictic population structures. AFLP is a reliable molecular technique that has provided one of the most informative approaches to ascertain phylogenetic relationships in S. neurona and its closest relatives, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity using band matching and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, which may be applicable to other related protozoal species.

  13. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis.

  14. Sarcocystis neurona schizonts-associated encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and myositis in a two-month-old dog simulating toxoplasmosis, and presence of mature sarcocysts in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Morris, E; Hanson, M A; Cooley, A J

    2014-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is an unusual species of the genus Sarcocystis. Opossums (Didelphis virginianus, D. albiventris) are the definitive hosts and several other species, including dogs, cats, marine mammals, and horses are intermediate or aberrant hosts. Sarcocysts are not known to form in aberrant hosts. Sarcocystis neurona causes fatal disease in horses (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, EPM). There are numerous reports of fatal EPM-like infections in other species, usually with central nervous system signs and associated with the schizont stage of S. neurona. Here, we report fatal disseminated S. neurona infection in a nine-week-old golden retriever dog from Mississippi, USA. Protozoal merozoites were identified in smears of the cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopically, lesions and protozoa were identified in eyes, tongue, heart, liver, intestines, nasal turbinates, skeletal muscle and brain, which reacted intensely with S. neurona polyclonal antibodies. Mature sarcocysts were seen in sections of muscles. These sarcocysts were ultrastructurally similar to those of S. neurona from experimentally infected animals. These data suggest that the dog is another intermediate host for S. neurona. Data suggest that the dog was transplacentally infected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute onset of encephalomyelitis with atypical lesions associated with dual infection of Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

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    Gerhold, Richard; Newman, Shelley J; Grunenwald, Caroline M; Crews, Amanda; Hodshon, Amy; Su, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    A two-year-old male, neutered, basset hound-beagle mix with progressive neurological impairment was examined postmortem. Grossly, the dog had multiple raised masses on the spinal cord between nerve roots. Microscopically, the dog had protozoal myeloencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona were detected in the CNS by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sarcocysts in formalin-fixed muscle were negative for Sarcocystis by PCR. Banked serum was negative for T. gondii using the modified agglutination test, suggesting an acute case of T. gondii infection or immunosuppression; however, no predisposing immunosuppressive diseases, including canine distemper, were found. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of dual T. gondii and S. neurona infection in a dog. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Has Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Sporozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) cospeciated with its intermediate hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M

    2009-08-26

    The question of how Sarcocystis neurona is able to overcome species barrier and adapt to new hosts is central to the understanding of both the evolutionary origin of S. neurona and the prediction of its field host range. Therefore, it is worth reviewing current knowledge on S. neurona host specificity. The available host range data for S. neurona are discussed in relation to a subject of evolutionary importance-specialist or generalist and its implications to understand the strategies of host adaptation. Current evidences demonstrate that a wide range of hosts exists for S. neurona. This parasite tends to be highly specific for its definitive host but much less so for its intermediate host (I.H.). The unique specificity of S. neurona for its definitive host may be mediated by a probable long coevolutionary relationship of the parasite and carnivores in a restricted ecological niche 'New World'. This might be taken as evidence that carnivores are the 'original' host group for S. neurona. Rather, the capacity of S. neurona to exploit an unusually large number of I.H. species probably indicates that S. neurona maintains non-specificity to its I.H. as an adaptive response to insure the survival of the parasite in areas in which the 'preferred' host is not available. This review concludes with the view that adaptation of S. neurona to a new host is a complex interplay that involves a large number of determinants.

  17. Comparison of prevalence factors in horses with and without seropositivity to Neospora hughesi and/or Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tamez-Trevino, Eva; White, Alexandria; Vangeem, Joshua; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A; Kass, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a commonly diagnosed neurological disease of horses in North America and is caused by infection with Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence factors among horses seropositive or seronegative to N. hughesi and/or S. neurona. A total of 3123 submissions were included in the study, with horses originating from 49 States. Thirty-eight animals from 21 States tested seropositive for N. hughesi only, 840 horses from 40 States were seropositive for S. neurona only, 25 horses from 14 States were seropositive for both protozoa, and 2220 horses from 49 States tested seronegative for both parasites. Significant associations were found between geographical location (State), month of submission, breed and serological status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  19. Evidence to support horses as natural intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Thomas; Murphy, Alice J; Kiupel, Matti; Bell, Julia A; Rossano, Mary G; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-10-10

    Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the definitive host for the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Opossums shed sporocysts in feces that can be ingested by true intermediate hosts (cats, raccoons, skunks, armadillos and sea otters). Horses acquire the parasite by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by opossum feces. However, horses have been classified as aberrant intermediate hosts because the terminal asexual sarcocyst stage that is required for transmission to the definitive host has not been found in their tissues despite extensive efforts to search for them [Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S., Saville, W.J., Reed, S.M., Granstrom, D.E., Speer, C.A., 2001b. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet. Parasitol. 95, 89-131]. In a 4-month-old filly with neurological disease consistent with EPM, we demonstrate schizonts in the brain and spinal cord and mature sarcocysts in the tongue and skeletal muscle, both with genetic and morphological characteristics of S. neurona. The histological and electron microscopic morphology of the schizonts and sarcocysts were identical to published features of S. neurona [Stanek, J.F., Dubey, J.P., Oglesbee, M.J., Reed, S.M., Lindsay, D.S., Capitini, L.A., Njoku, C.J., Vittitow, K.L., Saville, W.J., 2002. Life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona in its natural intermediate host, the raccoon, Procyon lotor. J. Parasitol. 88, 1151-1158]. DNA from schizonts and sarcocysts from this horse produced Sarcocystis specific 334bp PCR products [Tanhauser, S.M., Yowell, C.A., Cutler, T.J., Greiner, E.C., MacKay, R.J., Dame, J.B., 1999. Multiple DNA markers differentiate Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. J. Parasitol. 85, 221-228]. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these PCR products showed banding patterns characteristic of S. neurona. Sequencing, alignment and comparison of both schizont and sarcocyst DNA

  20. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Equine Antibodies Specific to Sarcocystis neurona Surface Antigens†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S.; Morrow, Jennifer K.; Saville, William J.; Dubey, J. P.; Granstrom, David E.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM. PMID:16148170

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of equine antibodies specific to Sarcocystis neurona surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Morrow, Jennifer K; Saville, William J; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2005-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM.

  2. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Gennari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50 and 21% (69 donkeys by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50. The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051. This is the first report ofNeospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  4. Daily feeding of diclazuril top dress pellets in foals reduces seroconversion to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Packham, Andrea; Mackie, Sarah; Kass, Philip H; Hunyadi, Laszlo; Conrad, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Thirty-three foals from a farm with a high exposure rate to Sarcocystis neurona were assigned to either an untreated or a diclazuril-treated group. Treated foals received daily 0.5 mg/kg of diclazuril pellets from 1 to 12 months of age. Monthly blood was tested for IgG against S. neurona using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Following ingestion of colostral antibodies to S. neurona, there was a steady and continuous decline in seroprevalence to S. neurona until foals from both groups reached weaning age. Thereafter, the untreated foal group showed a significant increase in monthly seroprevalence compared to the diclazuril-treated foal group. The difference in temporal seroprevalence could be explained by the successful reduction of S. neurona infection in foals receiving a daily low-dose diclazuril. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  6. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  7. Parasitemia in an immunocompetent horse experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Schott, H C; Murphy, A J; Kaneene, J B; Sellon, D C; Hines, M T; Hochstatter, T; Bell, J A; Mansfield, L S

    2005-01-04

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurological disease of horses in Americans. Most cases are attributed to infection of the central nervous system with Sarcocystis neurona. Parasitemia has not been demonstrated in immunocompetent horses, but has been documented in one immunocompromised foal. The objective of this study was to isolate viable S. neurona from the blood of immunocompetent horses. Horses used in this study received orally administered S. neurona sporocysts (strain SN 37-R) daily for 112 days at the following doses: 100/day for 28 days, followed by 500/day for 28 days, followed by 1000/day for 56 days. On day 98 of the study, six yearling colts were selected for attempted culture of S. neurona from blood, two testing positive, two testing suspect and two testing negative for antibodies against S. neurona on day 84 of the study. Two 10 ml tubes with EDTA were filled from each horse by jugular venipuncture and the plasma fraction rich in mononuclear cells was pipetted onto confluent equine dermal cell cultures. The cultures were monitored weekly for parasite growth for 12 weeks. Merozoites grown from cultures were harvested and tested using S. neurona-specific PCR with RFLP to confirm species identity. PCR products were sequenced and compared to known strains of S. neurona. After 38 days of in vitro incubation, one cell culture from a horse testing positive for antibodies against S. neurona was positive for parasite growth while the five remaining cultures remained negative for parasite growth for all 12 weeks. The Sarcocystis isolate recovered from cell culture was confirmed to be S. neurona by PCR with RFLP. Gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was identical to the challenge strain SN-37R and differed from two known strains UCD1 and MIH1. To our knowledge this is the first report of parasitemia with S. neurona in an immunocompetent horse.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) to horses in Mexico has not been established. Serum samples from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were examined for the presence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based o...

  9. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) as a new natural intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive hos...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

    2003-10-30

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  12. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  13. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

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    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  14. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus in Durango, Mexico

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    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no information regarding Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. Here, we determined the presence of antibodies against S. neurona and N. hughesi in donkeys in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Serum samples of 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus were assayed for S. neurona and N. hughesi antibodies using home-made enzyme-linked immunoassays; six (2.5% of the 239 donkeys tested seropositive for S. neurona. The seroprevalence of S. neurona infection was comparable among donkeys regardless of their origin, health status, or sex. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to S. neurona was associated with increased age (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.11–7.82; p = 0.02. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in two (0.8% of the 239 donkeys. Both exposed donkeys were healthy, 3- and 6-year-old females. This is the first evidence of S. neurona and N. hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Howe, Daniel K; Yeargan, Michelle R; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Alfredo Zamarripa-Barboza, José; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-01-01

    There is currently no information regarding Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. Here, we determined the presence of antibodies against S. neurona and N. hughesi in donkeys in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Serum samples of 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) were assayed for S. neurona and N. hughesi antibodies using home-made enzyme-linked immunoassays; six (2.5%) of the 239 donkeys tested seropositive for S. neurona. The seroprevalence of S. neurona infection was comparable among donkeys regardless of their origin, health status, or sex. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to S. neurona was associated with increased age (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.11-7.82; p = 0.02). Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in two (0.8%) of the 239 donkeys. Both exposed donkeys were healthy, 3- and 6-year-old females. This is the first evidence of S. neurona and N. hughesi infections in donkeys in Mexico. © C. Alvarado-Esquivel et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  17. Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease.

  18. Effect of intermittent oral administration of ponazuril on experimental Sarcocystis neurona infection of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Robert J; Tanhauser, Susan T; Gillis, Karen D; Mayhew, Ian G; Kennedy, Tom J

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of intermittent oral administration of ponazuril on immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in horses inoculated intragastrically with S neurona sporocysts. 20 healthy horses that were seronegative for S neurona-specific IgG. 5 control horses were neither inoculated with sporocysts nor treated. Other horses (5 horses/group) each received 612,500 S neurona sporocysts via nasogastric tube (day 0) and were not treated or were administered ponazuril (20 mg/kg, PO) every 7 days (beginning on day 5) or every 14 days (beginning on day 12) for 12 weeks. Blood and CSF samples were collected on day - 1 and then every 14 days after challenge for western blot assessment of immunoconversion. Clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) were monitored, and tissues were examined histologically after euthanasia. Sera from all challenged horses yielded positive western blot results within 56 days. Immunoconversion in CSF was detected in only 2 of 5 horses that were treated weekly; all other challenged horses immunoconverted within 84 days. Weekly administration of ponazuril significantly reduced the antibody response against the S neurona 17-kd antigen in CSF. Neurologic signs consistent with EPM did not develop in any group; likewise, histologic examination of CNS tissue did not reveal protozoa or consistent degenerative or inflammatory changes. Administration of ponazuril every 7 days, but not every 14 days, significantly decreased intrathecal anti-S neurona antibody responses in horses inoculated with S neurona sporocysts. Protocols involving intermittent administration of ponazuril may have application in prevention of EPM.

  19. Antibody index and specific antibody quotient in horses after intragastric administration of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskett, Katherine A; Mackay, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the use of a specific antibody index (AI) that relates Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgG quotient (Q(SN)) to total IgG quotient (Q(IgG)) for the detection of the anti-S neurona antibody fraction of CNS origin in CSF samples obtained from horses after intragastric administration of S neurona sporocysts. 18 adult horses. 14 horses underwent intragastric inoculation (day 0) with S neurona sporocysts, and 4 horses remained unchallenged; blood and CSF samples were collected on days - 1 and 84. For purposes of another study, some challenged horses received intermittent administration of ponazuril (20 mg/kg, PO). Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgG concentrations in CSF (SN(CSF)) and plasma (SN(plasma)) were measured via a direct ELISA involving merozoite lysate antigen and reported as ELISA units (EUs; arbitrary units based on a nominal titer for undiluted immune plasma of 100,000 EUs/mL). Total IgG concentrations in CSF (IgG(CSF)) and plasma (IgG(plasma)) were quantified via a sandwich ELISA and a radial immunodiffusion assay, respectively; Q(SN), Q(IgG), and AI were calculated. Following sporocyst challenge, mean +/- SEM SN(CSF) and SN(plasma) increased significantly (from 8.8 +/- 1.0 EUs/mL to 270.0 +/- 112.7 EUs/mL and from 1,737 +/- 245 EUs/mL to 43,169 +/- 13,770 EUs/mL, respectively). Challenge did not affect total IgG concentration, Q(SN), Q(IgG), or AI. S neurona-specific IgG detected in CSF samples from sporocyst-challenged horses appeared to be extraneural in origin; thus, this experimental challenge may not reliably result in CNS infection. Calculation of a specific AI may have application to the diagnosis of S neurona-associated myeloencephalitis in horses.

  20. Risk of postnatal exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Conrad, Patricia A; Wilson, W David; Ferraro, Gregory L; Packham, Andrea E; Bowers-Lepore, Jeanne; Carpenter, Tim E; Gardner, Ian A

    2004-08-01

    To estimate risk of exposure and age at first exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi and time to maternal antibody decay in foals. 484 Thoroughbred and Warmblood foals from 4 farms in California. Serum was collected before and after colostrum ingestion and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Samples were tested by use of the indirect fluorescent antibody test; cutoff titers were > or = 40 and > or = 160 for S neurona and N hughesi, respectively. Risk of exposure to S neurona and N hughesi during the study were 8.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Annual rate of exposure was 3.1% for S neurona and 1.7% for N hughesi. There was a significant difference in the risk of exposure to S neurona among farms but not in the risk of exposure to N hughesi. Median age at first exposure was 1.2 years for S neurona and 0.8 years for N hughesi. Highest prevalence of antibodies against S neurona and N hughesi was 6% and 2.1 %, respectively, at a mean age of 1.7 and 1.4 years, respectively. Median time to maternal antibody decay was 96 days for S neurona and 91 days for N hughesi. There were no clinical cases of equine protozoal myeloenchaphlitis (EPM). Exposure to S neurona and N hughesi was low in foals between birth and 2.5 years of age. Maternally acquired antibodies may cause false-positive results for 3 or 4 months after birth, and EPM was a rare clinical disease in horses < or = 2.5 years of age.

  1. Evidence that Surface Proteins Sn14 and Sn16 of Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Are Involved in Infection and Immunity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang Ting; Granstrom, David E.; Zhao, Xiao Min; Timoney, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Based on an analysis of 25,000 equine serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, including samples from horses with neurologic signs typical of EPM or with histologically or parasitologically confirmed EPM, four major immunoblot band patterns have been identified. Twenty-three serum and CSF samples representing each of the four immunoblot patterns were selected from 220 samples from horses with neurologic signs resembling EPM and examined for inhibitory effects on the infectivity of S. neurona by an in vitro neutralization assay. A high correlation between immunoblot band pattern and neutralizing activity was detected. Two proteins, Sn14 and Sn16 (14 and 16 kDa, respectively), appeared to be important for in vitro infection. A combination of the results of surface protein labeling, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and trypsin digestion suggests that these molecules are surface proteins and may be useful components of a vaccine against S. neurona infection. Although S. neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite, it is potentially a target for specific antibodies which may lyse merozoites via complement or inhibit their attachment and penetration to host cells. PMID:9573058

  2. The gamma interferon knockout mouse model for sarcocystis neurona: comparison of infectivity of sporocysts and merozoites and routes of inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K

    2001-10-01

    The dose-related infectivity of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts and merozoites of 2 recent isolates of S. neurona was compared in gamma interferon knockout (KO) mice. Tenfold dilutions of sporocysts or merozoites were bioassayed in mice, cell culture, or both. All 8 mice, fed 1,000 sporocysts, developed neurological signs with demonstrable S. neurona in their tissues. Of 24 mice fed low numbers of sporocysts (100, 10, 1), 18 became ill by 4 wk postinoculation, and S. neurona was demonstrated in their brains; antibodies (S. neurona agglutination test) to S. neurona and S. neurona parasites were not found in tissues of the 6 mice that were fed sporocysts and survived for >39 days. One thousand culture-derived merozoites of these 2 isolates were pathogenic to all 8 mice inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.). Of the 24 mice inoculated s.c. with merozoites numbering 100, 10, or 1, only 3 mice had demonstrable S. neurona infection; antibodies to S. neurona were not found in the 21 mice that had no demonstrable organisms. As few as 10 merozoites were infective for cell cultures. These results demonstrate that at least 1,000 merozoites are needed to cause disease in KO mice. Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts were infective to mice by the s.c. route.

  3. Life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona in its natural intermediate host, the raccoon, Procyon lotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Reed, S M; Lindsay, D S; Capitini, L A; Njoku, C J; Vittitow, K L; Saville, W J A

    2002-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes encephalomyelitis in many species of mammals and is the most important cause of neurologic disease in the horse. Its complete life cycle is unknown, particularly its development and localization in the intermediate host. Recently, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) was recognized as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. In the present study, migration and development of S. neurona was studied in 10 raccoons that were fed S. neurona sporocysts from experimentally infected opossums; 4 raccoons served as controls. Raccoons were examined at necropsy 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 22, 37, and 77 days after feeding on sporocysts (DAFS). Tissue sections of most of the organs were studied histologically and reacted with anti-S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit serum in an immunohistochemical test. Parasitemia was demonstrated in peripheral blood of raccoons 3 and 5 DAFS. Individual zoites were seen in histologic sections of intestines of raccoons euthanized 1, 3, and 5 DAFS. Schizonts and merozoites were seen in many tissues 7 to 22 DAFS, particularly in the brain. Sarcocysts were seen in raccoons killed 22 DAFS. Sarcocysts at 22 DAFS were immature and seen only in skeletal muscle. Mature sarcocysts were seen in all skeletal samples, particularly in the tongue of the raccoon 77 DAFS; these sarcocysts were infective to laboratory-raised opossums. This is the first report of the complete development of S. neurona schizonts and sarcocysts in a natural intermediate host.

  4. Risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in California horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Conrad, Patricia A; Barr, Bradd C; Wilson, W David; Ferraro, Gregory L; Packham, Andrea E; Carpenter, Tim E; Gardner, Ian A

    2004-12-01

    The study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in foals from 4 California farms during 3 foaling seasons. Serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody tests for S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serum antibody titers were neurona and N. hughesi in mares increased with age. Mares neurona and N. hughesi, respectively, than mares from California. The strength of association between positivity to either parasite and state of birth decreased as age increased. Mares positive for S. neurona and N. hughesi were 2.2 and 1.7 times more likely, respectively, to have a previous abortion than negative mares, adjusted for age and state of birth. The annual mortality rate for mares was 4%. The annual incidence rate of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis was 0.2%. In conclusion, there was no detectable risk of transplacental transmission of S. neurona and N. hughesi. Prevalence of antibodies against both parasites in mares increased with age.

  5. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  6. Serological investigation of transplacental infection with Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in broodmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mackie, Sarah; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the likelihood of transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in foals, born from seropositive mares. Three broodmares with persistent N. hughesi infection gave birth to eight healthy foals over a period of 7 years. These foals were seropositive to N. hughesi prior to colostrum ingestion, with titers ranging between 640 and 20,480, measured by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Of 174 foals born at another farm to mares with a high seroprevalence to S. neurona, only one (with a pre-colostrum antibody titer of 80) tested seropositive. Transplacental transmission of N. hughesi seems to occur from latently infected mares to their foals, while this route of transmission does not seem to occur commonly for S. neurona. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro efficacy of nitro- and halogeno-thiazolide/thiadiazolide derivatives against Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargala, G; Le Goff, L; Ballet, J J; Favennec, L; Stachulski, A V; Rossignol, J F

    2009-06-10

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The aim of this work was to document inhibitory activities of nitazoxanide (NTZ, [2-acetolyloxy-N-(5-nitro 2-thiazolyl) benzamide]) and new thiazolides/thiadiazolides on S. neurona in vitro development, and investigate their structure-activity relationships. S. neurona was grown in bovine turbinate cell cultures. At concentrations varying from 1.0 to 5.0mg/L, nitazoxanide and 21 of 32 second generation thiazolide/thiadiazolide agents exerted a > or =95% maximum inhibition on S. neurona development. Most active agents were either NO(2) or halogen substituted in position 5 of their thiazole moiety. In contrast, other 5-substitutions such as hydrogen, methyl, SO(2)CH(3), and CH(3) negatively impacted activity. Compared with derivatives with an acetylated benzene moiety, deacetylated compounds which most probably represent primary metabolites exhibited similar inhibitory activities. Present data provide the first evidence of in vitro inhibitory activities of nitazoxanide and new thiazolides/thiadiazolides on S. neurona development. Active halogeno-thiazolide/thiadiazolides may provide a valuable nitro-free alternative to nitazoxanide for EPM treatment depending on further evaluation of their in vivo activities.

  8. The identification of a sequence related to apicomplexan enolase from Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A P; Thelen, J J; Lakritz, J; Brown, C R; Marsh, A E

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease caused by Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite. S. neurona is also associated with EPM-like diseases in marine and small mammals. The mechanisms of transmission and ability to infect a wide host range remain obscure; therefore, characterization of essential proteins may provide evolutionary information allowing the development of novel chemotherapeutics that target non-mammalian biochemical pathways. In the current study, two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry were combined to characterize and identify an enolase protein from S. neurona based on peptide homology to the Toxoplasma gondii protein. Enolase is thought to be a vestigial, non-photosynthetic protein resulting from an evolutionary endosymbiosis event of an apicomplexan ancestor with green algae. Enolase has also been suggested to play a role in parasite stage conversion for T. gondii. Characterization of this protein in S. neurona and comparison to other protozoans indicate a biochemical similarity of S. neurona enolase to other tissue-cyst forming coccidians that cause encephalitis.

  9. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  10. Parasitemia due to Sarcocystis neurona-like infection in a clinically ill domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzer, Nina C; Marsh, Antoinette E; Burkhard, Mary Jo; Radin, M Judith; Wellman, Maxey L; Jugan, Maria; Parker, Valerie

    2017-09-11

    An 8-year-old, 6-kg, male neutered Domestic Shorthair cat was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSU-VMC) for difficulty breathing. Physical examination and thoracic radiographs indicated pneumonia, a soft-tissue mass in the left caudal lung lobe, and diffuse pleural effusion. The effusion was classified as modified transudate. Rare extracellular elongated (~5-7 μm × 1-2 μm) zoites with a central round to oval-shaped purple to deep purple vesicular nucleus with coarsely stippled chromatin and light blue cytoplasm were seen on a peripheral blood smear. Serum IgG and IgM were positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, suggesting that the infection was acute rather than a recrudescence of prior infection. This organism was most consistent with either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on DNA sequence analysis of PCR products using COC ssRNA, ITS-1, snSAG2, and JNB25/JD396 primer sets. This is the first report to visualize by light microscopy circulating Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in the peripheral blood of a domestic cat. Therefore, Sarcocystis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with suspected systemic protozoal infection. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Identification of a dithiol-dependent nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deqing; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2006-09-01

    A putative nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) gene was identified in a database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of culture-derived S. neurona merozoites demonstrated a dithiol-dependent NTPase activity, consistent with the presence of a homologue to the TgNTPases of Toxoplasma gondii. A complete cDNA was obtained for the S. neurona gene and the predicted amino acid sequence shared 38% identity with the two TgNTPase isoforms from T. gondii. Based on the obvious homology, the S. neurona protein was designated SnNTP1. The SnNTP1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 714 amino acids with a predicted 22-residue signal peptide and an estimated mature molecular mass of 70kDa. Southern blot analysis of the SnNTP1 locus revealed that the gene exists as a single copy in the S. neurona genome, unlike the multiple gene copies that have been observed in T. gondii and Neospora caninum. Analyses of the SnNTP1 protein demonstrated that it is soluble and secreted into the culture medium by extracellular merozoites. Surprisingly, indirect immunofluorescence analysis of intracellular S. neurona revealed apical localisation of SnNTP1 and temporal expression characteristics that are comparable with the microneme protein SnMIC10. The absence of SnNTP1 during much of endopolygeny implies that this protein does not serve a function during intracellular growth and development of S. neurona schizonts. Instead, SnNTP1 may play a role in events that occur during or proximal to merozoite egress from and/or invasion into cells.

  12. A novel Sarcocystis neurona genotype XIII is associated with severe encephalitis in an unexpectedly broad range of marine mammals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lorraine; Johnson, Christine K; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Gibson, Amanda K; Haman, Katherine H; Huggins, Jessica L; Sweeny, Amy R; Sundar, Natarajan; Raverty, Stephen A; Grigg, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of protozoal encephalitis among marine mammals in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To characterise the genetic type of S. neurona in this region, samples from 227 stranded marine mammals, most with clinical or pathological evidence of protozoal disease, were tested for the presence of coccidian parasites using a nested PCR assay. The frequency of S. neurona infection was 60% (136/227) among pinnipeds and cetaceans, including seven marine mammal species not previously known to be susceptible to infection by this parasite. Eight S. neurona fetal infections identified this coccidian parasite as capable of being transmitted transplacentally. Thirty-seven S. neurona-positive samples were multilocus sequence genotyped using three genetic markers: SnSAG1-5-6, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4. A novel genotype, referred to as Type XIII within the S. neurona population genetic structure, has emerged recently in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and is significantly associated with an increased severity of protozoal encephalitis and mortality among multiple stranded marine mammal species. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona and act as intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, L S; Mehler, S; Nelson, K; Elsheikha, H M; Murphy, A J; Knust, B; Tanhauser, S M; Gearhart, P M; Rossano, M G; Bowman, D D; Schott, H C; Patterson, J S

    2008-05-06

    We tested the hypothesis that brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), and act as intermediate hosts for this parasite. In summer 1999, wild caught brown-headed cowbirds were collected and necropsied to determine infection rate with Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic inspection. Seven of 381 (1.8%) birds had grossly visible sarcocysts in leg muscles with none in breast muscles. Histopathology revealed two classes of sarcocysts in leg muscles, thin-walled and thick-walled suggesting two species. Electron microscopy showed that thick-walled cysts had characteristics of S. falcatula and thin-walled cysts had characteristics of S. neurona. Thereafter, several experiments were conducted to confirm that cowbirds had viable S. neurona that could be transmitted to an intermediate host and cause disease. Specific-pathogen-free opossums fed cowbird leg muscle that was enriched for muscle either with or without visible sarcocysts all shed high numbers of sporocysts by 4 weeks after infection, while the control opossum fed cowbird breast muscle was negative. These sporocysts were apparently of two size classes, 11.4+/-0.7 microm by 7.6+/-0.4 microm (n=25) and 12.6+/-0.6 microm by 8.0+/-0 microm (n=25). When these sporocysts were excysted and introduced into equine dermal cell tissue culture, schizogony occurred, most merozoites survived and replicated long term and merozoites sampled from the cultures with long-term growth were indistinguishable from known S. neurona isolates. A cowbird Sarcocystis isolate, Michigan Cowbird 1 (MICB1), derived from thin-walled sarcocysts from cowbirds that was passaged in SPF opossums and tissue culture went on to produce neurological disease in IFNgamma knockout mice indistinguishable from that of the positive control inoculated with S. neurona. This, together with the knowledge that S. falcatula does not cause lesions in IFNgamma knockout mice, showed that cowbird

  14. Investigation of SnSPR1, a novel and abundant surface protein of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deqing; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-04-15

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project has produced over 15,000 partial cDNA sequences from the equine pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. While many of the sequences are clear homologues of previously characterized genes, a significant number of the S. neurona ESTs do not exhibit similarity to anything in the extensive sequence databases that have been generated. In an effort to characterize parasite proteins that are novel to S. neurona, a seemingly unique gene was selected for further investigation based on its abundant representation in the collection of ESTs and the predicted presence of a signal peptide and glycolipid anchor addition on the encoded protein. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and monospecific polyclonal antiserum against the recombinant protein was produced by immunization of a rabbit. Characterization of the native protein in S. neurona merozoites and schizonts revealed that it is a low molecular weight surface protein that is expressed throughout intracellular development of the parasite. The protein was designated Surface Protein 1 (SPR1) to reflect its display on the outer surface of merozoites and to distinguish it from the ubiquitous SAG/SRS surface antigens of the heteroxenous Coccidia. Interestingly, infection assays in the presence of the polyclonal antiserum suggested that SnSPR1 plays some role in attachment and/or invasion of host cells by S. neurona merozoites. The work described herein represents a general template for selecting and characterizing the various unidentified gene sequences that are plentiful in the EST databases for S. neurona and other apicomplexans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the value of investigating these novel sequences since it can offer new candidates for diagnostic or vaccine development while also providing greater insight into the biology of these parasites.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K

    2013-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. Sera from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were tested for anti-protozoal antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on major surface antigens of these two parasites. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in 240 (48.5%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rSnSAG2/4/3 trivalent ELISA. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to S. neurona was associated with age, feeding grains and crops, and small herd size. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in 15 (3.0%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rNhSAG1 ELISA and confirmed by Western blot of N. hughesi tachyzoite antigen. This is the first report of S. neurona and N. hughesi exposure in horses in Mexico, and it affirms that EPM should be in the differential diagnosis for horses exhibiting signs of neurologic disease in this country. © M.R. Yeargan et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  16. Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

    2006-06-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (Pneurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes.

  17. SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdus, Carolyn A; Marsh, Antoinette E; Saville, Willliam J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-11-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Previous work has identified a gene family of paralogous surface antigens in S. neurona called SnSAGs. These surface proteins are immunogenic in their host animals, and are therefore candidate molecules for development of diagnostics and vaccines. However, SnSAG diversity exists in strains of S. neurona, including the absence of the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1. Instead, sequence for an alternative SnSAG has been revealed in two of the SnSAG1-deficient strains. Herein, we present data characterizing this new surface protein, which we have designated SnSAG5. The results indicated that the protein encoded by the SnSAG5 sequence is indeed a surface-associated molecule that has characteristics consistent with the other SAGs identified in S. neurona and related parasites. Importantly, Western blot analyses of a collection of S. neurona strains demonstrated that 6 of 13 parasite isolates express SnSAG5 as a dominant surface protein instead of SnSAG1. Conversely, SnSAG5 was not detected in SnSAG1-positive strains. One strain, which was isolated from the brain of a sea otter, did not express either SnSAG1 or SnSAG5. Genetic analysis with SnSAG5-specific primers confirmed the presence of the SnSAG5 gene in Western blot-positive strains, while also suggesting the presence of a novel SnSAG sequence in the SnSAG1-deficient, SnSAG5-deficient otter isolate. The findings provide further indication of S. neurona strain diversity, which has implications for diagnostic testing and development of vaccines against EPM as well as the population biology of Sarcocystis cycling in the opossum definitive host.

  18. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  20. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S

    2002-08-15

    To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic testing were tested for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and a western blot test. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and test for associations between positive results of a test for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot test results and T. gondii test results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii testing. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA test had lower specificity than western blot analysis.

  1. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses.

  2. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Barr, B C; Nordhausen, R; James, E R; Magargal, S L; Murray, M; Conrad, P A; Toy-Choutka, S; Jessup, D A; Grigg, M E

    2009-10-01

    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Schizonts, free merozoites and tissue cysts were observed in the brains of all three infected animals. Tissue cysts walls from sea otter 1 (SO1) stained positively using anti-S. neurona polyclonal antiserum. However, positive staining does not preclude infection by closely related or cross-reactive tissue cyst-forming coccidian parasites. Two immature tissue cysts in the brain of SO1 were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features included cyst walls with thin villous projections up to 1 microm long with tapered ends and a distinctive, electron-dense outer lining layer composed of linearly-arranged, semi-circular structures with a "hobnailed" surface contour. Small numbers of microtubules extended down through the villi into the underlying granular layer. Metrocytes were short and plump with an anterior apical complex, 22 sub-pellicular microtubules, numerous free ribosomes and no rhoptries. Some metrocytes appeared to be dividing, with two adjacent nuclear profiles. Collectively these ultrastructural features were compatible with developing protozoal cysts and were similar to prior descriptions of S. neurona tissue cysts. Panspecific 18S rDNA primers were utilized to identify protozoa infecting the brains of these otters and DNA amplification and additional sequencing at the ITS1 locus confirmed that all three otters were infected with S. neurona. No other Sarcocystis spp. were detected in the brains or skeletal muscles of these animals by immunohistochemistry or PCR. We believe this is the first ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of S. neurona tissue cysts in the CNS of any animal.

  3. Anti-Sarcocystis neurona immunostaining associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in Brazil Imunomarcação de Sarcocystis neurona associada com um caso de mieloencefalite protozoária eqüina no Brasil

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    Tatiane Alves da Paixão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study (1942 to 2005 of histopathological lesions included samples of central nervous system (SNC from 203 animals in the Equidae family. A total of 42.4% of these samples had significant pathological changes, which were classified as inflammatory (62.8%, degenerative (25.6%, circulatory (10.5%, and neoplasic (1.1% lesions. Immunohistochemistry anti-Sarcocystis neurona antigens was performed in all the cases with inflammatory changes (54, of which one of the case of encephalitis resulted positive to immunostaining. Although evidence of EPM (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis has been previously reported in Brazil, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which characteristic EPM lesion was associated with anti-S. neurona immunostaining in Brazil.Em um estudo retrospectivo (de 1942 a 2005, amostras do sistema nervoso central de 203 eqüídeos foram avaliadas para a presença de alterações histológicas. Dessas amostras, 42,4% apresentaram alguma lesão histopatológica significativa, das quais foram classificadas como alterações inflamatórias (62,8%, degenerativas (25,6%, circulatórias (10,5% e neoplásicas (1,1%. Fragmentos de SNC dos 54 animais com alterações inflamatórias foram avaliados para detecção de antígenos de Sarocystis neurona pela técnica de imunoistoquímica, que foi positiva em um caso de encefalite em eqüino. Embora haja registros de MPE no Brasil, este é o primeiro caso confirmado imunoistoquimicamente.

  4. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Selma Samiko Miyazaki Onuma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9% showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7% for S. neurona, and seven (63.6% for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  5. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N; Asmundsson, I M; Thomas, N J; Samuel, M D; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M

    2008-03-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  6. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  7. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Verma, Shiv K; Scheele, Suzanne; DeRocher, Amy E; Yeargan, Michelle; Choi, Ryan; Smith, Tess R; Rivas, Kasey L; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development. Recombinant SnCDPK1 was tested against four bumped kinase inhibitors shown to potently inhibit both T. gondii (Tg) CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoite growth. SnCDPK1 was inhibited by low nanomolar concentrations of these BKIs and S. neurona growth was inhibited at 40-120nM concentrations. Thermal shift assays confirmed these bumped kinase inhibitors bind CDPK1 in S. neurona cell lysates. Treatment with bumped kinase inhibitors before or after invasion suggests that bumped kinase inhibitors interfere with S. neurona mammalian host cell invasion in the 0.5-2.5μM range but interfere with intracellular division at 2.5μM. In vivo proof-of-concept experiments were performed in a murine model of S. neurona infection. The experimental infected groups treated for 30days with compound BKI-1553 (n=10 mice) had no signs of disease, while the infected control group had severe signs and symptoms of infection. Elevated antibody responses were found in 100% of control infected animals, but only 20% of BKI-1553 treated infected animals. Parasites were found in brain tissues of 100% of the control infected animals, but only in 10% of the BKI-1553 treated animals. The bumped kinase inhibitors used in these assays have been chemically optimized for potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties, and hence are good candidates for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Copyright © 2016

  8. Development and evaluation of a Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Meadows, C; Bolten, K; Saville, W J A

    2006-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses caused primarily by the protozoal parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Currently available antemortem diagnostic testing has low specificity. The hypothesis of this study was that serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses experimentally challenged with S neurona would have an increased S neurona-specific IgM (Sn-IgM) concentration after infection, as determined by an IgM capture enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). The ELISA was based on the S neurona low molecular weight protein SNUCD-1 antigen and the monoclonal antibody 2G5 labeled with horseradish peroxidase. The test was evaluated using serum and CSF from 12 horses experimentally infected with 1.5 million S neurona sporocysts and 16 horses experimentally infected with varying doses (100 to 100,000) of S neurona sporocysts, for which results of histopathologic examination of the central nervous system were available. For horses challenged with 1.5 million sporocysts, there was a significant increase in serum Sn-IgM concentrations compared with values before infection at weeks 2-6 after inoculation (P neurona, there were significant increases in serum Sn-IgM concentration at various points in time after inoculation, depending on the challenge dose (P < .01). In addition, there was a significant increase between the CSF Sn-IgM concentrations before and after inoculation (P < .0001). These results support further evaluation of the assay as a diagnostic test during the acute phase of EPM.

  9. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in skunks (Mephitis Mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Cheadle, M Andy; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2002-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Natural cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. Sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (D. virginiana) from Connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona using the S. neurona agglutination test (SAT) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. The SAT was validated for skunk sera using pre- and postinfection serum samples from 2 experimentally infected skunks. Of the 24 (46%) skunks 11 were positive, and all 12 raccoons were positive for S. neurona antibodies. None of the 7 opossums was positive for antibodies to S. neurona. These results suggest that exposure to sporocysts of S. neurona by intermediate hosts is high in Connecticut. The absence of antibodies in opossums collected from the same areas is most likely because of the absence of systemic infection in the definitive host.

  10. Evidence that antibodies against recombinant SnSAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites are involved in infection and immunity in equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Siobhan; Witonsky, Sharon

    2009-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the principal etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). An immunodominant protein of S. neurona, SnSAG-1, is expressed by the majority of S. neurona merozoites isolated from spinal tissues of horses diagnosed with EPM and may be a candidate for diagnostic tests and prophylaxis for EPM. Five horses were vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant SnSAG1 (rSnSAG1) and 5 control (sham vaccinated) horses were vaccinated with adjuvant only. Serum was evaluated pre- and post-vaccination, prior to challenge, for antibodies against rSnSAG1 and inhibitory effects on the infectivity of S. neurona by an in vitro serum neutralization assay. The effect of vaccination with rSnSAG1 on in vivo infection by S. neurona was evaluated by challenging all the horses with S. neurona merozoites. Blinded daily examinations and 4 blinded neurological examinations were used to evaluate the presence of clinical signs of EPM. The 5 vaccinated horses developed serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers of SnSAG1, detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), post-vaccination. Post-vaccination serum from vaccinated horses was found to have an inhibitory effect on merozoites, demonstrated by in vitro bioassay. Following the challenge, the 5 control horses displayed clinical signs of EPM, including ataxia. While 4 of the 5 vaccinated horses did not become ataxic. One rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horse showed paresis in 1 limb with muscle atrophy. All horses showed mild, transient, cranial nerve deficits; however, disease did not progress to ataxia in rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horses. The study showed that vaccination with rSnSAG-1 produced antibodies in horses that neutralized merozoites when tested by in vitro culture and significantly reduced clinical signs demonstrated by in vivo challenge.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Mitchell, S M; Morrow, J K; Rhyan, J C; Stewart, L M; Granstrom, D E; Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Saville, W J; Lindsay, D S

    2003-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, N. hughesi, and Toxoplasma gondii are 4 related coccidians considered to be associated with encephalomyelitis in horses. The source of infection for N. hughesi is unknown, whereas opossums, dogs, and cats are the definitive hosts for S. neurona, N. caninum, and T. gondii, respectively. Seroprevalence of these coccidians in 276 wild horses from central Wyoming outside the known range of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were found only in 1 of 276 horses tested with the modified agglutination test using 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 86 (31.1%) of the 276 horses tested with the Neospora agglutination test--the titers were 1:25 in 38 horses, 1:50 in 15, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 8, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 2, 1:3,200 in 2, and 1:12,800 in 1. Antibodies to S. neurona were assessed with the serum immunoblot; of 276 horses tested, 18 had antibodies considered specific for S. neurona. Antibodies to S. neurona also were assessed with the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). Thirty-nine of 265 horses tested had SAT antibodies--in titers of 1:50 in 26 horses and 1:100 in 13. The presence of S. neurona antibodies in horses in central Wyoming suggests that either there is cross-reactivity between S. neurona and some other infection or a definitive host other than opossum is the source of infection. In a retrospective study, S. neurona antibodies were not found by immunoblot in the sera of 243 horses from western Canada outside the range of D. virginiana.

  12. Sarcocyst Development in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) Inoculated with Different Strains of Sarcocystis neurona Culture-Derived Merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E L; Marsh, A E; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Reed, S M; Bolten, K E; Pei, W; Saville, W J A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the United States; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon muscles, and raccoons also develop clinical signs simulating EPM. The focus of this study was to determine if sarcocysts would develop in raccoons experimentally inoculated with different host-derived strains of in vitro-cultivated S. neurona merozoites. Four raccoons were inoculated with strains derived from a raccoon, a sea otter, a cat, and a horse. Raccoon tissues were fed to laboratory-raised opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ), the definitive host of S. neurona . Intestinal scraping revealed sporocysts in opossums who received muscle tissue from raccoons inoculated with the raccoon-derived or the sea otter-derived isolates. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can mature in raccoons inoculated with in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites. In contrast, the horse and cat-derived isolates did not produce microscopically or biologically detected sarcocysts. Immunoblot analysis revealed both antigenic and antibody differences when testing the inoculated raccoons. Immunohistochemical staining indicated differences in staining between the merozoite and sarcocyst stages. The successful infections achieved in this study indicates that the life cycle can be manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, thereby allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle.

  13. Improved detection of equine antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using polyvalent ELISAs based on the parasite SnSAG surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Howe, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common neurologic disease of horses that is caused by the apicomplexan pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. To help improve serologic diagnosis of S. neurona infection, we have modified existing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the immunogenic parasite surface antigens SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 to make the assays polyvalent, thereby circumventing difficulties associated with parasite antigenic variants and diversity in equine immune responses. Two approaches were utilized to achieve polyvalence: (1) mixtures of the individual recombinant SnSAGs (rSnSAGs) were included in single ELISAs; (2) a collection of unique SnSAG chimeras that fused protein domains from different SnSAG surface antigens into a single recombinant protein were generated for use in the ELISAs. These new assays were assessed using a defined sample set of equine sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) that had been characterized by Western blot and/or were from confirmed EPM horses. While all of the polyvalent ELISAs performed relatively well, the highest sensitivity and specificity (100%/100%) were achieved with assays containing the rSnSAG4/2 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to SnSAG2) or using a mixture of rSnSAG3 and rSnSAG4. The rSnSAG4 antigen alone and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to Domain 2 of SnSAG3) exhibited the next best accuracy at 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Binding ratios and percent positivity (PP) ratios, determined by comparing the mean values for positive versus negative samples, showed that the most advantageous signal to noise ratios were provided by rSnSAG4 and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera. Collectively, our results imply that a polyvalent ELISA based on SnSAG4 and SnSAG3, whether as a cocktail of two proteins or as a single chimeric protein, can give optimal results in serologic testing of serum or CSF for the presence of antibodies against S. neurona. The use of polyvalent SnSAG ELISAs will

  14. Effect of daily administration of pyrantel tartrate in preventing infection in horses experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Schott, Harold C; Kaneene, John B; Murphy, Alice J; Kruttlin, Elizabeth A; Hines, Melissa T; Sellon, Debra C; Patterson, Jon S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Dubey, J P; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-05-01

    To determine whether daily administration of pyrantel tartrate can prevent infection in horses experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona. 24 mixed-breed specific-pathogen-free weanling horses, 10 adult horses, 1 opossum, and 6 mice. Sarcocystis neurona-naïve weanling horses were randomly allocated to 2 groups. Group A received pyrantel tartrate at the labeled dose, and group B received a nonmedicated pellet. Both groups were orally inoculated with 100 sporocysts/d for 28 days, 500 sporocysts/d for 28 days, and 1000 sporocysts/d for 56 days. Blood samples were collected weekly, and CSF was collected monthly. Ten seronegative adult horses were monitored as untreated, uninfected control animals. All serum and CSF samples were tested by use of western blot tests to detect antibodies against S. neurona. At the end of the study, the number of seropositive and CSF-positive horses in groups A and B were compared by use of the Fisher exact test. Time to seroconversion on the basis of treatment groups and sex of horses was compared in 2 univariable Cox proportional hazards models. After 134 days of sporocyst inoculation, no significant differences were found between groups A and B for results of western blot tests of serum or CSF There were no significant differences in number of days to seroconversion on the basis of treatment groups or sex of horses. The control horses remained seronegative. Daily administration of pyrantel tartrate at the current labeled dose does not prevent S. neurona infection in horses.

  15. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Harris, Michael; Hatfield, Brian; Langlois, Gregg; Jessup, David A; Magargal, Spencer L; Packham, Andrea E; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Melli, Ann C; Murray, Michael A; Gulland, Frances M; Grigg, Michael E

    2010-09-20

    During April 2004, 40 sick and dead southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were recovered over 18km of coastline near Morro Bay, California. This event represented the single largest monthly spike in mortality ever recorded during 30 years of southern sea otter stranding data collection. Because of the point-source nature of the event and clinical signs consistent with severe, acute neurological disease, exposure to a chemical or marine toxin was initially considered. However, detailed postmortem examinations revealed lesions consistent with an infectious etiology, and further investigation confirmed the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona as the underlying cause. Tissues from 94% of examined otters were PCR-positive for S. neurona, based on DNA amplification and sequencing at the ITS-1 locus, and 100% of tested animals (n=14) had elevated IgM and IgG titers to S. neurona. Evidence to support the point-source character of this event include the striking spatial and temporal clustering of cases and detection of high concentrations of anti-S. neurona IgM in serum of stranded animals. Concurrent exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid may have enhanced susceptibility of affected otters to S. neurona and exacerbated the neurological signs exhibited by stranded animals. Other factors that may have contributed to the severity of this epizootic include a large rainstorm that preceded the event and an abundance of razor clams near local beaches, attracting numerous otters close to shore within the affected area. This is the first report of a localized epizootic in marine wildlife caused by apicomplexan protozoa.

  16. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.A.; Conrad, P.A.; Harris, M.; Hatfield, B.; Langlois, G.; Jessup, David A.; Magargal, S.L.; Packham, A.E.; Toy-Choutka, S.; Melli, A.C.; Murray, M.A.; Gulland, F.M.; Grigg, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    During April 2004, 40 sick and dead southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were recovered over 18 km of coastline near Morro Bay, California. This event represented the single largest monthly spike in mortality ever recorded during 30 years of southern sea otter stranding data collection. Because of the point-source nature of the event and clinical signs consistent with severe, acute neurological disease, exposure to a chemical or marine toxin was initially considered. However, detailed postmortem examinations revealed lesions consistent with an infectious etiology, and further investigation confirmed the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona as the underlying cause. Tissues from 94% of examined otters were PCR-positive for S. neurona, based on DNA amplification and sequencing at the ITS-1 locus, and 100% of tested animals (n= 14) had elevated IgM and IgG titers to S. neurona. Evidence to support the point-source character of this event include the striking spatial and temporal clustering of cases and detection of high concentrations of anti- S. neurona IgM in serum of stranded animals. Concurrent exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid may have enhanced susceptibility of affected otters to S. neurona and exacerbated the neurological signs exhibited by stranded animals. Other factors that may have contributed to the severity of this epizootic include a large rainstorm that preceded the event and an abundance of razor clams near local beaches, attracting numerous otters close to shore within the affected area. This is the first report of a localized epizootic in marine wildlife caused by apicomplexan protozoa. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jered M Wendte

    Full Text Available Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause

  18. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendte, Jered M; Miller, Melissa A; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Magargal, Spencer L; Jessup, David A; Grigg, Michael E

    2010-12-23

    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease

  19. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  20. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Daniela Santos de Meneses

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272 of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  1. Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona microneme protein SnMIC10: protein characteristics and expression during intracellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Carruthers, Vernon B; Striepen, Boris; Morrison, David P; Entzeroth, Rolf; Howe, Daniel K

    2003-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite, is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Like other members of the Apicomplexa, S. neurona zoites possess secretory organelles that contain proteins necessary for host cell invasion and intracellular survival. From a collection of S. neurona expressed sequence tags, we identified a sequence encoding a putative microneme protein based on similarity to Toxoplasma gondii MIC10 (TgMIC10). Pairwise sequence alignments of SnMIC10 to TgMIC10 and NcMIC10 from Neospora caninum revealed approximately 33% identity to both orthologues. The open reading frame of the S. neurona gene encodes a 255 amino acid protein with a predicted 39-residue signal peptide. Like TgMIC10 and NcMIC10, SnMIC10 is predicted to be hydrophilic, highly alpha-helical in structure, and devoid of identifiable adhesive domains. Antibodies raised against recombinant SnMIC10 recognised a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa in Western blots of S. neurona merozoites, consistent with the size predicted for SnMIC10. In vitro secretion assays demonstrated that this protein is secreted by extracellular merozoites in a temperature-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of SnMIC10 showed a polar labelling pattern, which is consistent with the apical position of the micronemes, and immunoelectron microscopy provided definitive localisation of the protein to these secretory organelles. Further analysis of SnMIC10 in intracellular parasites revealed that expression of this protein is temporally regulated during endopolygeny, supporting the view that micronemes are only needed during host cell invasion. Collectively, the data indicate that SnMIC10 is a microneme protein that is part of the excreted/secreted antigen fraction of S. neurona. Identification and characterisation of additional S. neurona microneme antigens and comparisons to orthologues in other Apicomplexa could provide further insight into the

  2. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendte, J M; Miller, M A; Nandra, A K; Peat, S M; Crosbie, P R; Conrad, P A; Grigg, M E

    2010-04-19

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sarcocystis neurona infection in gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice: comparative infectivity of sporocysts in two strains of KO mice, effect of trypsin digestion on merozoite viability, and infectivity of bradyzoites to KO mice and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Saville, W J A

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is the primary cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). EPM or EPM-like illness has been reported in horses, sea otters, and several other mammals. The gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse is often used as a model to study biology and discovery of new therapies against S. neurona because it is difficult to induce clinical EPM in other hosts, including horses. In the present study, infectivity of three life cycle stages (merozoites, bradyzoites, sporozoites) to KO mice and cell culture was studied. Two strains of KO mice (C57-black, and BALB/c-derived, referred here as black or white) were inoculated orally graded doses of S. neurona sporocysts; 12 sporocysts were infective to both strains of mice and all infected mice died or became ill within 70 days post-inoculation. Although there was no difference in infectivity of sporocysts to the two strains of KO mice, the disease was more severe in black mice. S. neurona bradyzoites were not infectious to KO mice and cell culture. S. neurona merozoites survived 120 min incubation in 0.25% trypsin, indicating that trypsin digestion can be used to recover S. neurona from tissues of acutely infected animals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila M; Norton, Terry M; Lindsay, David S

    2007-03-15

    In the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. Three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for T. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) and one black and white ruffed lemur (25%) were positive for S. neurona (titers of 1:1000); and one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) was positive for E. cuniculi (titer of 1:400). All blue-eyed black lemurs were negative for antibodies to T. gondii, S. neurona, and E. cuniculi. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in ring-tailed lemurs and antibodies to S. neurona and E. cuniculi in any species of prosimian.

  5. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  6. Seroprevalences of anti-Sarcocystis neurona and anti-Neospora hughesi antibodies among healthy equids in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kaitlyn E; Smith, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Guerrero, Leopoldo; Ng, Mitchell; Pusterla, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the general seroprevalence of anti-Sarcocystis neurona and anti-Neospora hughesi antibodies among healthy equids by use of indirect fluorescent antibody tests and determine potential risk factors for seropositivity. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Whole blood samples collected from 5,250 equids (1 sample/animal) across 18 states in the United States during October 2013. PROCEDURES Information regarding potential risk factors (geographic region, breed, primary use, sex, and age) was collected along with the blood samples. For each equid, an indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to determine serum titers of antibody against each of the 2 protozoal parasites. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were created to determine ORs for seropositivity. RESULTS The overall seroprevalence of anti-S neurona and anti-N hughesi antibodies in the tested equids was 78% and 34%, respectively. Of the equids, 31% were seropositive and 18% were seronegative for antibodies against both parasites. Factors associated with equids being seropositive for anti-S neurona antibodies were residence in the South, warmblood breed, and age > 5 years. Seroprevalence of anti-N hughesi antibodies did not differ among equids in different states across the country, but warmblood breed and age > 5 years were associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With regard to risk factors for S neurona and N hughesi exposure and antibody response among tested equids, older age was not unexpected; however, the influences of warmblood breed and geographic location on seropositivity for anti-S neurona antibody but not for anti-N hughesi antibody deserve further investigation.

  7. Phylogenetic congruence of Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the United States based on sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeographical relationships of available Sarcocystis neurona isolates from different localities in the United States. All 13 Sarcocystis isolates from different hosts were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses using two published DNA markers (25/396 and 33/54). The 334 bp sequence of the 25/396 marker of these isolates and Besnoitia darlingi, B. bennetti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and minimum evolution (ME) methods based on the sequences of the 25/396 marker of the 13 Sarcocystis isolates obtained in this study and sequences of 10 related isolates from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees revealed a close relatedness among S. neurona isolates in the US (nucleotide sequence diversity neurona into two separate groups: a northern US group and a Southern US group. These findings suggest a correlation between grouping of the isolates and geographical segregation and were consistent with a genetic bottleneck hypothesis during opossum colonisation of North America. These data do not support either the view of S. neurona as a single super-species or its division into multiple subspecies.

  8. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne P; Gulland, Frances M D; Johnson, Christine K; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Van Bonn, William G

    2012-02-01

    An underweight, lethargic adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) became stranded along the California shore and was captured and transported to a rehabilitation hospital for assessment and care. Initial physical assessment revealed the sea lion was lethargic and in poor body condition. Active myositis was diagnosed on the basis of concurrent elevations in activities of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase detected during serum biochemical analysis. Infection with Sarcocystis neurona was diagnosed after serologic titers increased 4-fold over a 3-week period. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histopathologic findings, positive results on immunohistochemical staining, and results of quantitative PCR assay on biopsy specimens obtained from the diaphragm and muscles of the dorsal cervical region. Anticoccidial treatment was instituted with ponazuril (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and continued for 28 days. Prednisone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was administered for 2 days and then every 24 hours for 5 days to treat associated inflammation. At the end of treatment, the sea lion was clinically normal, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase values were within reference limits, and antibody titers against S neurona had decreased 6-fold. The sea lion was released approximately 3 months after becoming stranded. S neurona-induced myositis was diagnosed in a free-ranging California sea lion. On the basis of the successful treatment and release of this sea lion, anticoccidial treatment should be considered for marine mammals in which protozoal disease is diagnosed.

  10. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite.

  11. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  12. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  13. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Manoel Junqueira Maciel Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%, T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8% and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%; and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%, 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8% and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%, respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4% were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2% for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8% for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE. The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.

  14. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Rosa, Marina Helena Figueredo; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Garcia, Adriana de Mello; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2016-06-07

    The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.

  16. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  17. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with the presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2004-11-10

    From April 1996 to December 2002 the prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Southern Michigan was estimated. Sporocysts of S. neurona were found in intestinal scrapings from 31 (15%) of 206 examined opossum. The frequency of infection was higher in adult animals (26/206; 12.6%) and females (19/206; 9.2%) than in juveniles (5/206; 2.4%) and males (12/206; 5.8%). Also, prevalence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums in relation to factors such as age, sex, season, body condition, presence of concomitant infection, and presence of young in the pouch of females was studied in detail over the course of the year, 2002. Univariate analyses identified the following factors as being associated with the presence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums: (i) for age, adult (odd ratio [OR] = 2.074, P = 0.0005); (ii) for sex, female (OR = 7.016, P = 0.0119); (iii) for season, summer (OR = 7.917, P = 0.0032) and spring (OR = 4.071, P = 0.1063); (iv) for body condition, poor (OR = 3.50, P = 0.1200) and good (OR = 1.167, P = 0.8637); (v) for the presence of concomitant infection (OR = 23.056, P = 0001), and (vi) for the presence of young in the pouch of females (OR = 40.083, P = 0.0001). Multivariate logistic-regression analyses selected the following factors as being significantly associated with presence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums: (i) for the presence of concomitant infection (OR = 8.722, P = 0.0160) and (ii) for the presence of young in the pouch of females (OR = 31.915, P = 0.0065). The prevalence of S. neurona sporocysts in D. virginiana suggests that this opossum may constitute an ample reservoir of infection to other animals in the northern United States.

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Yai, Lucia Eiko Oishi; Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the importance of capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T. cruzi epimastigotes. None of the samples from capybara reacted positively with L. infantum promastigotes or with spores of E. cuniculi . Two (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to S. neurona merozoites, and 2 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum tachyzoites. A serum sample from 1 capybara was positive for antibodies to both T. cruzi and N. caninum. None of the remaining 62 samples reacted with more than 1 parasite.

  19. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE WITH DELAYED HYPERCALCEMIA SECONDARY TO SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA-INDUCED MYOSITIS AND RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Hanley, Christopher S; Duncan, Mary C; Ulmer, Kyle; Padilla, Luis R

    2015-09-01

    A 3-yr-old captive-born California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) developed Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis that led to acute renal failure. The sea lion was successfully managed with fluid therapy, antiprotozoals, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, and diuretics, but developed severe delayed hypercalcemia, a syndrome identified in humans after traumatic or exertion-induced rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with calcitonin was added to the management, and the individual recovered fully. The case emphasizes that animals with rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure risk developing delayed hypercalcemia, which may be life threatening, and calcium levels should be closely monitored past the resolution of renal failure.

  1. The heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC is a key component of a cis-acting promoter element that is critical for SnSAG1 expression in Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2009-07-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona undergoes a complex process of intracellular development, during which many genes are temporally regulated. The described study was undertaken to begin identifying the basic promoter elements that control gene expression in S. neurona. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of five S. neurona genes revealed a conserved heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC that is similar to the WGAGACG motif described upstream of multiple genes in Toxoplasma gondii. The promoter region for the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1, which contains three heptanucleotide motifs within 135 bases of the transcription start site, was dissected by functional analysis using a dual luciferase reporter assay. These analyses revealed that a minimal promoter fragment containing all three motifs was sufficient to drive reporter molecule expression, with the presence and orientation of the 5'-most heptanucleotide motif being absolutely critical for promoter function. Further studies should help to identify additional sequence elements important for promoter function and for controlling gene expression during intracellular development by this apicomplexan pathogen.

  2. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively.

  4. Morphological and molecular characteristics of four Sarcocystis spp. in Canadian moose (Alces alces), including Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2014-04-01

    Individual sarcocysts were isolated from fresh or alcohol-fixed muscle samples of two moose from Alberta, Canada, and examined by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular methods, comprising polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the complete18S rRNA gene and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). By LM, four sarcocyst types were recognized, and the sequencing results showed that each type represented a distinct species, i.e. Sarcocystis alces, Sarcocystis alceslatrans, Sarcocystis ovalis and Sarcocystis taeniata n. sp. The finding of S. alceslatrans and S. ovalis has been reported briefly previously, but further details are provided here, including the ultrastructure of sarcoysts of S. alceslatrans as seen by SEM. The species S. alces was found for the first time in Canadian moose, whereas the finding of S. taeniata is the first record of this species in any host. The sarcocysts of S. taeniata were sac-like and about 1,000-1,100 × 60-80 μm in size. By LM, the cysts had a thin and smooth wall with no visible protrusions, whereas SEM revealed that the cyst surface had sparsely but regularly distributed, thin ribbon-like protrusions, about 2 μm long and 0.2 μm wide, lying flat against the surface and leaving most of the cyst surface naked. Similar protrusions have previously been reported from Sarcocystis grueneri in reindeer, which was found by sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses to be the species most closely related to S. taeniata. The phylogenetic analyses further suggested that S. taeniata, like S. alces and S. alceslatrans, use canids as definitive hosts, whereas corvid birds are known definitive hosts for S. ovalis. In contrast to the three other species found, S. taeniata displayed considerable intra-specific and intra-isolate sequence variation (substitutions, insertions/deletions) in certain regions of the 18S rRNA gene.

  5. Inhibitory Activities of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Targeted Dihydroxyisoflavone and Trihydroxydeoxybenzoin Derivatives on Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, and Cryptosporidium parvum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargala, G.; Baishanbo, A.; Favennec, L.; François, A.; Ballet, J. J.; Rossignol, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Several gene sequences of parasitic protozoa belonging to protein kinase gene families and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, which act via binding to receptor tyrosine kinases of the EGF receptor (EGFR) family, appear to mediate host-protozoan interactions. As a clue to EGFR protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) mediation and a novel approach for identifying anticoccidial agents, activities against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, and Cryptosporidium parvum grown in BM and HCT-8 cell cultures of 52 EGFR PTK inhibitor isoflavone analogs (dihydroxyisoflavone and trihydroxydeoxybenzoine derivatives) were investigated. Their cytotoxicities against host cells were either absent, mild, or moderate by a nitroblue tetrazolium test. At concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μg/ml, 20 and 5 analogs, including RM-6427 and RM-6428, exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect of ≥95% against at least one parasite or against all three, respectively. In immunosuppressed Cryptosporidium parvum-infected Mongolian gerbils orally treated with either 200 or 400 mg of agent RM-6427/kg of body weight/day for 8 days, fecal microscopic oocyst shedding was abolished in 6/10 animals (P of 0.05, respectively). After RM-6427 therapy (200 mg/kg/day for 8 days), the reduction in the ratio of animals with intracellular parasites was nearly significant in ileum (P = 0.067) and more marked in the biliary tract (P < 0.0013) than after nitazoxanide or paromomycin treatment (0.05 < P < 0.004). RM-6428 treatment at a regimen of 400 mg/kg/day for 12 days inhibited oocyst shedding, measured using flow cytometry from day 4 (P < 0.05) to day 12 (P < 0.02) of therapy, when 2/15 animals had no shedding (P < 0.0001) and 11/15 were free of gut and/or biliary tract parasites (P < 0.01). No mucosal alteration was microscopically observed for treated or untreated infected gerbils. To our knowledge, this report is the first to suggest that the isoflavone class of agents has the potential for

  6. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on detecting intrathecal antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 ELISAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Howe, D K; Morrow, J K; Graves, A; Yeargan, M R; Johnson, A L; MacKay, R J; Furr, M; Saville, W J A; Williams, N M

    2013-01-01

    Recent work demonstrated the value of antigen-specific antibody indices (AI and C-value) to detect intrathecal antibody production against Sarcocystis neurona for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The study was conducted to assess whether the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced to a simple serum : cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titer ratio to achieve accurate EPM diagnosis. Paired serum and CSF samples from 128 horses diagnosed by postmortem examination. The sample set included 44 EPM cases, 35 cervical-vertebral malformation (CVM) cases, 39 neurologic cases other than EPM or CVM, and 10 non-neurologic cases. Antibodies against S. neurona were measured in serum and CSF pairs using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 (SnSAG2, 4/3) ELISAs, and the ratio of each respective serum titer to CSF titer was determined. Likelihood ratios and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on serum titers, CSF titers, and serum : CSF titer ratios. Excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was obtained from the SnSAG2, 4/3 serum : CSF titer ratio. Sensitivity and specificity of 93.2 and 81.1%, respectively, were achieved using a ratio cutoff of ≤100, whereas sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 95.9%, respectively, if a more rigorous cutoff of ≤50 was used. Antibody titers in CSF also provided good diagnostic accuracy. Serum antibody titers alone yielded much lower sensitivity and specificity. The study confirms the value of detecting intrathecal antibody production for antemortem diagnosis of EPM, and they further show that the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced in practice to a simple serum : CSF titer ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. A new trivalent SnSAG surface antigen chimera for efficient detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle; de Assis Rocha, Izabela; Morrow, Jennifer; Graves, Amy; Reed, Stephen M; Howe, Daniel K

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the SnSAG surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona provide reliable detection of infection by the parasite. Moreover, accurate serodiagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is achieved with the SnSAG ELISAs by measuring antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to reveal active infection in the central nervous system. Two independent ELISAs based on recombinant (r)SnSAG2 or a chimeric fusion of SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 (rSnSAG4/3) are currently used together for EPM serodiagnosis to overcome varied antibody responses in different horses. To achieve reliable antibody detection with a single ELISA instead of 2 separate ELISAs, rSnSAG2 was fused with rSnSAG4/3 into a single trivalent protein, designated rSnSAG2/4/3. Paired serum and CSF from 163 horses were tested with all 3 ELISAs. When the consensus antibody titers obtained with the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs were compared to the single SAG2/4/3 ELISA titers, Spearman rank correlation coefficients of ρ = 0.74 and ρ = 0.90 were obtained for serum and CSF, respectively, indicating strong agreement between the tests. When the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 consensus serum-to-CSF titer ratio was compared to the rSnSAG2/4/3 serum-to-CSF titer ratio, the Spearman correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.87, again signifying strong agreement. Importantly, comparing the diagnostic interpretation of the serum-to-CSF titer ratios yielded a Cohen kappa value of 0.77. These findings suggest that the single ELISA based on the trivalent rSnSAG2/4/3 will provide serologic and diagnostic results that are highly comparable to the consensus of the 2 independent ELISAs based on rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. An outbreak of Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Speer, Brian; Wellehan, James F X; Bradway, Daniel S; Wright, Lewis; Reavill, Drury; Barr, Bradd C; Childress, April; Shivaprasad, H L; Chin, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    A total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. Histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a Sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. By immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue cysts in muscle did not react with polyclonal antisera against Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum, or with a monoclonal antibody to S. neurona. Transmission electron microscopy on sarcocyst tissue cyst walls from 2 birds was morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis calchasi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of partial 18S ribosomal RNA from muscle tissue cysts and brain schizonts from 3 birds was consistent with a clade containing S. calchasi and Sarcocystis columbae but could not distinguish these closely related Sarcocystis species. However, PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 RNA segment in the brain from 2 birds and muscle from 2 birds specifically identified the isolates as S. calchasi. The current report documents that multiple psittacine species are susceptible intermediate hosts of S. calchasi, and that infection can cause encephalitis resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in psittacine aviaries.

  9. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  10. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the importance of capybara. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruel, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Sarcacystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T cruzi epimastigotes. None of the sampl...

  11. Sarcocyst development in raccoons (Procyon lotor) inoculated with different strains of Sarcosytis neurona culture-derived merozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the USA; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon...

  12. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: S. falcatula, S. neurona, and S. speeri. It appears that there may be additional undescribed species of Sarcocystis in D. virginiana feces. The South American opossums (D. albive...

  13. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  14. Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The number of Sarcocystis species that infect sea otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. Sea otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S. neurona have walls 1a??3 I?m thick with type 9 villar protrusions, ultrastructure of a distinct thin-walled sarcocyst (0.5a??0.7 I?m thick) lacking villar protrusions, but instead exhibiting minute type 1 undulations on the sarcocyst wall, is described in this report. Parasites characterized from a sea otter infection were inferred to be related to, but distinct from, other species belonging to Sarcocystis, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the beta subunit of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene.

  15. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystic neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N.; Asmundsson, I.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Dubey, J.P.; Rosenthal, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  16. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2009-02-01

    During 2001 to 2004, 4 species of hawks (Buteo and Accipiter spp.) from Georgia were surveyed for Sarcocystis spp. infections by examining intestinal sections. In total, 159 of 238 (66.8%) hawks examined were infected with Sarcocystis spp. Samples from 10 birds were characterized by sequence analysis of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene (783 base pairs). Only 3 of the 10 sequences from the hawks were identical; the remainder differed by at least 1 nucleotide. Phylogenetic analysis failed to resolve the position of the hawk Sarcocystis species, but they were closely related several Sarcocystis species from raptors, rodents, and Sarcocystis neurona. The high genetic diversity of Sarcocystis suggests that more than 1 species infects these 4 hawk species; however, additional molecular or experimental work will be required to determine the speciation and diversity of parasites infecting these avian hosts. In addition to assisting with determining species richness of Sarcocystis in raptors, molecular analysis should be useful in the identification of potential intermediate hosts.

  17. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  18. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic assemblage of Sarcocystis spp. in Malaysian snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcocystis species are protozoan parasites with a wide host range including snakes. Although there were several reports of Sarcocytis species in snakes, their distribution and prevalence are still not fully explored. Methods In this study, fecal specimens of several snake species in Malaysia were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis by PCR of 18S rDNA sequence. Microscopy examination of the fecal specimens for sporocysts was not carried as it was difficult to determine the species of the infecting Sarcocystis. Results Of the 28 snake fecal specimens, 7 were positive by PCR. BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses of the amplified 18S rDNA sequences revealed the snakes were infected with either S. nesbitti, S. singaporensis, S. zuoi or undefined Sarcocystis species. Conclusion This study is the first to report Sarcocystis infection in a cobra, and S. nesbitti in a reticulated python. PMID:24010903

  20. Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai n. spp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) Associated with Severe Myositis and Hepatitis in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J. P.; Sykes, J. E.; Shelton, G. D.; Sharp, N.; Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Viviano, J.; Sundar, N.; Khan, A.; Grigg, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    There are several reports of Sarcocystis sarcocysts in muscles of dogs but these species have not been named. Additionally, there are 2 reports of Sarcocystis neurona in dogs. Here, we propose 2 new names, Sarcocystis caninum, and Sarcocystis svanai for sarcocysts associated with clinical muscular sarcocystosis in 4 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), 1 each from Montana and Colorado in the USA, and 2 from British Columbia, Canada. Only the sarcocyst stage was identified. Most of the sarcocysts identified were S. caninum. Sarcocysts were studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and PCR. Based on collective results 2 new species, Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai were designated. Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai were structurally distinct. Sarcocystis caninum sarcocysts were up to 1.2 mm long and up to 75 μm wide. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall “type 9”, 1–2 μm thick, and contained villar protrusions that lacked microtubules. Bradyzoites in sections were 7–9 μm long. Sarcocysts of S. svanai were few and were identified by TEM. Sarcocystis svanai sarcocysts were “type 1”, thin walled (< 0.5 μm), and the wall lacked villar protrusions but had tiny blebs that did not invaginate. DNA was extracted either from infected frozen muscle biopsies or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Dogs were either singly infected with S. caninum or multiply co-infected with S. caninum and S. svanai (the result of a mixed infection) based on multi-locus DNA sequencing and morphology. BLASTn analysis established that the sarcocysts identified in these dogs were similar to, but not identical to S. canis or S. arctosi, parasites found to infect polar bears (Ursus maritimus) or brown bears (Ursus arctosi), respectively. However, the S. caninum sequence showed 100% identify over the 18S rRNA region sequenced to that of S. arctica

  1. Accipiter hawks (Accipitridae) confirmed as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis turdusi, Sarcocystis cornixi and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Sylvia L; Maier, Kristina; Müller, Jana; Enderlein, Dirk; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Sarcocystis is a large genus of protozoan parasites with complex heteroxenous life cycles. For many species, either the intermediate or the definitive host is still unknown. In this study, 116 Accipiter hawks (Eurasian sparrowhawks and northern goshawks) were investigated for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in their intestinal tract or their faeces. To gain a wide distribution, samples were collected throughout Germany within 2 years. It was possible to detect Sarcocystis-like oocysts in 65 samples. Sequencing of the ITS region or species-specific PCR identified 33 samples as Sarcocystis turdusi/Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus (18), Sarcocystis calchasi (6), Sarcocystis columbae (3), Sarcocystis cornixi (3) and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo (3). Besides the known infestation with S. columbae, S. sp. ex A. nisus and S. calchasi the Accipiter hawks were thereby confirmed as definitive host of S. turdusi, S. cornixi and S. sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo for the first time.

  2. Las neuronas de la conciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Quian Quiroga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la conciencia ha sido descrito como uno de los grandes desafíos de la humanidad. Es por ello que los neurocientíficos se han dedicado a estudiar la percepción visual consciente de objetos. Un reciente estudio en humanos –implantados con electrodos intracraneales por motivos clínicos- mostró la presencia de neuronas que disparan exclusivamente cuando las imágenes son percibidas conscientemente.

  3. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil.

  4. Neuronas espejo y el aprendizaje en anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Jhon; Navarro, José Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  5. Neuronas espejo y el aprendizaje en anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Jhon; Navarro, José Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  6. Diversity of Sarcocystis spp shed by opossums in Brazil inferred with phylogenetic analysis of DNA coding ITS1, cytochrome B, and surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Samantha Y O B; da Silva, Juliana I G; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Keid, Lara B; Zwarg, Ticiana; de Oliveira, Alice S; Sanches, Thaís C; Joppert, Adriana M; Pena, Hilda F J; Oliveira, Tricia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2016-05-01

    Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed. We found four allele variants of cytB, seven allele variants of ITS1, 10 allele variants of sag2, 13 allele variants of sag3, and 6 allele variants of sag4. None of the sporocyst-derived sequences obtained from Brazilian opossums revealed 100% identity to SN138 at cytB gene, nor to SN138 or SF1 at ITS1 locus. In addition, none of the sag alleles were found identical to either SF1 or SN138 homologous sequences, and a high number of new sag allele types were found other than those previously described in Brazil. Out of ten sag2 alleles, four are novel, while eight out of 13 sag3 alleles are novel and one out of six sag4 alleles is novel. Further studies are needed to clarify if such a vast repertoire of allele variants of Sarcocystis is the consequence of re-assortments driven by sexual exchange, in order to form individuals with highly diverse characteristics, such as pathogenicity, host spectrum, among others or if it only represents allele variants of different species with different biological traits.

  7. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  8. Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in a captive black bear (Ursus americanus) associated with Sarcocystis canis-like infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jennifer L; Haldorson, Gary J; Bradway, Dan S; Britton, Ann P

    2011-03-01

    Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a 13-year-old captive black bear (Ursus americanus) with a history of acute onset of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, and bilirubinuria. Gross lesions included severe icterus, multisystemic hemorrhage, and gall bladder edema. The most significant microscopic lesion was severe necrotizing hepatitis with intralesional protozoa that reproduced by endopolygeny consistent with a Sarcocystis spp. Infrequent microglial nodules were randomly scattered within the white matter of the cerebral cortices, thalamus, and brainstem, but intralesional protozoal schizonts were not observed. In the liver, immunohistochemistry was positive for Sarcocystis spp. and negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. Positive staining was not observed in the brain. Genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of liver and brain; in both tissues, PCR was positive for Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons revealed 100% identity to the published sequences of Sarcocystis canis and Sarcocystis arctosi.

  9. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate.

  10. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis in Hamadan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Zoonotic parasites are large groups of zoonoses among which the most important are hydatid cyst, liver trematodes and sarcocystis.These zoonoses are of considerable importance regarding both human health and economy. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of tissue zoonotic parasites and their epidemiologic status in Hamadan and to estimate the health and medical burden they impose on the society.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, viscera (including liver, lung, kidney, heart,… and muscles of 2590 sheep, 420 cattle, and 490 goats were macroscopically inspected for hydatid cysts, liver flukes, cysticercus , and microscopically (for Sarcocystis in the Hamadan abattoir. The data were presented by descriptive tables and analyzed by 2 statistical test. Results: The infection rate for hydatid cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found 12.3%, 4.9%, 6.5%, and 5.5% respectively. The high infection rates for hydatid cyst and Fasciola were found in cattle (16.2% and 9.5% and for Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found in sheep (6.9%. Infection rate of lungs was higher (41.2% than liver (36.6% and liver and lung simultaneously were 22.2% in the infected animals. Infection to Sarcocystis and Cysticercus were not found in the cattle. Conclusion: This study indicated that infection rate of tissue zoonotic parasites are relatively high in the domestic animals of Hamadan , however, the rate is lower in comparison to the previous studies. These parasites had imposed considerable economic burden on the society through reduction in the dairy production and increased the risk of infection in the population as well. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 5-12

  11. Short communication: Genetic variants of Sarcocystis cruzi in infected Malaysian cattle based on 18S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yit Han; Fong, Mun Yik; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Shahari, Shahhaziq; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are pathogenic parasites that infect a wide range of animals, including cattle. A high prevalence of cattle sarcocystosis has been reported worldwide, but its status is unknown in Malaysia. This study focused on utilizing 18S rDNA to identify Sarcocystis species in Malaysian cattle and to determine their genetic variants. In this study, only Sarcocystis cruzi was detected in Malaysian cattle. The intra-species S. cruzi phylogenetic tree analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), respectively displayed two minor groups among the parasite isolates. This finding was supported by high Wright FST value (FST=0.647). The definitive hosts (dogs) may play a fundamental role in the development of S. cruzi genetic variants. Additionally, the existence of microheterogeneity within the S. cruzi merozoites and/or distinct genetic variants arisen from independent merozoites in mature sarcocysts, possibly contributed to the existence of intra-species variations within the population.

  12. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  13. LAS NEURONAS DEL SEPTUM LATERAL MODIFICAN LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS NEURONAS DEL NUCLEO TUBEROMAMILAR DEL HIPOTALAMO

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El septum lateral (SL), es un núcleo del cerebro anterior, que, procesa la información sensorial afectiva procedente del hipocampo y dirige sus respuestas, importantes para la supervivencia, hacia las zonas del hipotálamo importantes para la motivación, como lo es el núcleo tuberomamilar del hipotálamo (TMN). El TMN contiene las neuronas histaminérgicas en el cerebro, la cual relacionamos con la vigilia y alerta en conductas motivadas y así puede dirigir y reforzar el comportamiento. El TM...

  14. The resurrection of a species: Sarcocystis bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 is distinct from the current Sarcocystis hirsuta in cattle and morphologically indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    should again be used not only for the species originally described from cattle in Germany but also for morphologically indistinguishable taxa recently reported from cattle under the names S. sinensis and S. rommeli. Because of the morphological similarity between S. bovifelis and S. sinensis, it is likely that cats also act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. The present paper also gives a thorough review of all research in the 1970s pertaining to S. bovifelis, including its development in cats and cattle; a review of reports of S. bovifelis-like sarcocysts in cattle, water buffaloes and other hosts; and a review of reports of the taxon currently named S. hirsuta in cattle. The usage of the name S. sinensis versus Sarcocystis dubeyi for the S. bovifelis-like taxon in water buffaloes is discussed, and the latter name is found to represent a nomen dubium since the original description concerned a mixture of a S. sinensis- and a Sarcocystis hominis-like species. Based on available transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the three-dimensional configuration of the cyst wall protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis and the current S. hirsuta has been inferred and is described. The protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis are shaped like soft plastic tubes, having a cylindrical basal portion and a flattened distal portion, making them prone to fold over. The protrusions of the current S. hirsuta are thin, flattened and flexible rectangular structures (like a soft cover note book), which are attached to the cyst surface with a narrow stalk. The appearance of both types of protrusions in ultrathin sections viewed by TEM is highly dependent on how the sarcocysts and the protrusions themselves have been sectioned.

  15. ACOPLAMIENTO EXCITATORIO E INHIBITORIO DE NEURONAS PULSANTES ACOPLADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Armando Segovia Chaves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La información es representada como patrones de actividad neuronal o pulsos, lo que crea una diferencia significante entre las redes neuronales pulsantes y las redes neuronales clásicas. Una característica diferente de las redes neuronales pulsantes es que la información es codificada en patrones de actividad neuronal y estas se comunican usando trenes de pulsos en lugar de valores individuales. Además, este tipo de redes neuronales pulsantes trabajan con una gran cantidad de neuronas donde se requiere grandes recursos computacionales para ser simuladas. En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis teórico de las redes neuronales pulsantes,  para el caso de dos neuronas acopladas. Se logra obtener teóricamente las condiciones para acoplamiento excitatorio e inhibitorio en las neuronas.

  16. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  17. Estructura electrotónica de neuronas motoras de sanguijuela

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas son células con estructuras tridimensionales complejas adaptadas a su función. Poseen extensos árboles neuríticos, en los que pueden recibir señales de otras neuronas en distintos puntos de su estructura. Las neuritas funcionan como cables, cuyas propiedades morfológicas y las propiedades eléctricas de la membrana determinan cómo se propagarán las señales. Los registros electrofisiológicos intracelulares nos permiten conocer con gran precisión la evolución en el tiempo del potenc...

  18. Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis bertrami sarcocysts from naturally infected donkey (Equus asinus) from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in equids. Little is known of Sarcocystis infections in donkeys (Equus asinus). Here we describe the structure of Sarcocystis bertrami-like from the donkey by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM, TEM). Nineteen sarcocysts fro...

  19. Modelos de neuronas artificiales en software para su uso en preparaciones de electrofisiología

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto tiene por objetivo la implementación y validación online o en tiempo real de circuitos híbridos compuestos por neuronas vivas de sistemas biológicos y neuronas electrónicas implementadas en software. En estos circuitos híbridos las neuronas vivas y las neuronas artificiales interactúan bidireccionalmente a través de sinapsis artificiales. El desarrollo de estos circuitos híbridos es de gran interés en el contexto de la investigación en neurociencia ya que permiten...

  20. Modelos de neuronas artificiales en software para su uso en preparaciones de electrofisiología

    OpenAIRE

    Cubillos Martínez, Jenniffer

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto tiene por objetivo la implementación y validación online o en tiempo real de circuitos híbridos compuestos por neuronas vivas de sistemas biológicos y neuronas electrónicas implementadas en software. En estos circuitos híbridos las neuronas vivas y las neuronas artificiales interactúan bidireccionalmente a través de sinapsis artificiales. El desarrollo de estos circuitos híbridos es de gran interés en el contexto de la investigación en neurociencia ya que permiten...

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts from the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) from Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Thompson, Peter C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Mowery, Joseph; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Antunes Murata, Fernando H; Sinnett, David R; Van Hemert, Caroline; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-07-01

    The muscles of herbivores commonly harbor sarcocysts of parasites belonging to species in the genus Sarcocystis, but such muscle parasites are rare in carnivores. Here, we report Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts in muscles of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Alaska, USA, for the first time. The tongues of 56 foxes were examined for Sarcocystis infection using several methods. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were detected in pepsin digests of 13 (23.2%), and sarcocysts were found in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) of 9 (16.0%). By light microscopy, sarcocysts were up to 4 mm long and up to 245 μm wide. In HE-stained sections, the sarcocyst wall appeared smooth and up to 1.5 μm thick without visible protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had a wavy parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (pvm) folded as pleomorphic villar protrusions (vp), sometimes with anastomoses of villar tips. The vp and the ground substance (gs) layer were smooth and without microtubules. The gs was up to 2.0 μm thick. The total width of the wall including vp and the gs was up to 4.0 μm. The vp were up to 3.0 μm long and most closely resembled "type 9c." All sarcocysts were mature and contained numerous 8.1 × 2.1 μm sized bradyzoites. Molecular characterization (at 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and cox1) showed the highest affinity for S. arctica of the Arctic fox (V. lagopus) from Norway. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that sarcocysts are common in tongues of Alaskan Arctic foxes suggesting that these carnivores are serving as intermediate hosts, and we also provide ultrastructure of S. arctica from the Arctic fox for the first time.

  2. Survey on Sarcocystis in bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meawad Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Sarcocystis sp. infection in cattle and buffalo carcasses slaughtered at El-Kharga abattoir, New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for Sarcocystis macrocysts through a year (2015. Macroscopic Sarcocystis was detected from a total of 2120 cattle and buffalo carcasses. In addition, 100 meat samples were collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each and were examined microscopically for sarcocystosis. Results: The overall incidence of Sarcocystis macrocyst among bovine carcasses was 159/2120 (7.5%. Total incidence in cattle was 149/2000 (7.45%, whereas it was 10/120 (8.33% in buffalo carcasses. Concerning gender, the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was 127/1790 (7.09% in male and 32/330 (9.69% in females bovine carcasses. The highest detection rate of Sarcocystis lesions was from the esophagus (76.3% followed by throat muscles (35.3%, tongue (33.8%, and diaphragm muscles (18.71%. Macrocysts from cattle were identified to Sarcocystis hirsuta, whereas Sarcocystis fusiformis was identified from buffalo carcasses. By microscopic examination, 18 (36% of 50 female cattle carcasses harbor Sarcocystis sp., whereas 11 (22% of buffalo carcasses were harbored Sarcocystis microcysts. Conclusion: A high incidence of Sarcocystis infection was detected among slaughtered bovines in El-Kharga abattoir, Egypt. Sarcocystis macrocysts were a higher incidence in female elder animals macrocysts were identified to S. hirsuta in cattle and S. fusiformis in buffaloes. Sarcocystosis constitute a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir. Beef meat may carry health risks to consumers.

  3. NEURONAS ESPEJO Y EL APRENDIZAJE EN ANESTESIA Learning anaesthesia and mirror neurons

    OpenAIRE

    John Bautista; José R Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  4. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species from Polish roe deer based on ssu rRNA and cox1 sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenda, Rafał; Ugorski, Maciej; Bednarski, Michał

    2014-08-01

    Sarcocysts from four Polish roe deer were collected and examined by light microscopy, small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA), and the subunit I of cytochrome oxidase (cox1) sequence analysis. This resulted in identification of Sarcocystis gracilis, Sarcocystis oviformis, and Sarcocystis silva. However, we were unable to detect Sarcocystis capreolicanis, the fourth Sarcocystis species found previously in Norwegian roe deer. Polish sarcocysts isolated from various tissues differed in terms of their shape and size and were larger than the respective Norwegian isolates. Analysis of ssu rRNA gene revealed the lack of differences between Sarcocystis isolates belonging to one species and a very low degree of genetic diversity between Polish and Norwegian sarcocysts, ranging from 0.1% for Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis oviformis to 0.44% for Sarcocystis silva. Contrary to the results of the ssu rRNA analysis, small intraspecies differences in cox1 sequences were found among Polish Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis silva isolates. The comparison of Polish and Norwegian cox1 sequences representing the same Sarcocystis species revealed similar degree of sequence identity, namely 99.72% for Sarcocystis gracilis, 98.76% for Sarcocystis silva, and 99.85% for Sarcocystis oviformis. Phylogenetic reconstruction and genetic population analyses showed an unexpected high degree of identity between Polish and Norwegian isolates. Moreover, cox1 gene sequences turned out to be more accurate than ssu rRNA when used to reveal phylogenetic relationships among closely related species. The results of our study revealed that the same Sarcocystis species isolated from the same hosts living in different geographic regions show a very high level of genetic similarity.

  5. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons.

  6. Sarcocystis in moose (Alces alces): molecular identification and phylogeny of six Sarcocystis species in moose, and a morphological description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2008-06-01

    Muscle tissues from 34 moose from Southeastern Norway and two moose from Canada were examined. Sarcocysts were excised and morphologically classified by light microscopy, and some cysts were further examined by scanning electron microscopy or DNA amplification and sequencing at the small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene. In Norwegian moose, three sarcocyst types were recognized, yet five Sarcocystis species were found by sequence analysis. New names were proposed for three species which could be characterised by both morphological and molecular methods, i.e., Sarcocystis alces, Sarcocystis ovalis, and Sarcocystis scandinavica. S. alces was the most prevalent species, whereas S. scandinavica and the two unnamed species were rare and might either use another principal intermediate host or a rare definitive host. The five species in Norwegian moose were different from Sarcocystis alceslatrans isolated from a Canadian moose. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete ssu rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between the six Sarcocystis species from moose and species from reindeer and Sika deer. We conclude that molecular methods are necessary for unequivocal species identification, as different cervid hosts harbour morphologically indistinguishable sarcocysts.

  7. Prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) from Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Qiong; Esch, G W; Chen, Jin-Qing; Huang, Si; Wen, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Despite the importance of worldwide goat production, little is known about the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) in China. The aims of the present study were to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats in Kunming, China, as well as to identify parasite species based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. Only microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 174 of 225 goats (77.3 %). By light and transmission electron microscopy, two species, i.e., Sarcocystis capracanis and Sarcocystis hircicanis, were identified. Two sarcocysts from each of the two species were randomly selected for DNA extraction; the 18S rRNA gene (18S rRNA), the 28S rRNA gene (28S rRNA), and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced. The results were compared with other previously sequenced Sarcocystis species retrieved from GenBank. There was little sequence variation between two isolates of the same species. S. capracanis was most closely related with Sarcocystis tenella; 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial cox1 sequences shared identities of 95.7-99.1, 95.3, and 92.3-93.2 % with those of S. tenella, respectively. Thus, mitochondrial cox1 sequences seem to perform better than 18S rRNA sequences or 28S rRNA sequences for identification of the two species. S. hircicanis was most closely related to Sarcocystis arieticanis, i.e., 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences of the former species shared 97.2-97.4 and 95.6-96.1 % identities with those of latter, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the three genetic markers yielded similar results and indicated the two species were within a group of Sarcocystis species with canines as known, or presumed, definitive hosts.

  8. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emociones, sea parte de tal sistema. Parece ser que el sistema de neuronas espejo se reorganiza funcionalmente para compensar daños en la amígdala en algunos pacientes.

  9. Fenotipo celular de las neuronas sensitivas afectadas en la ataxia de Friedreich

    OpenAIRE

    Mollá Moliner, Belén

    2016-01-01

    La FRDA es una enfermedad caracterizada por la afectación primaria del ganglio dorsal. La falta de frataxina no afecta por igual a todos los tipos neuronales del ganglio dorsal, siendo las neuronas propioceptivas las más dañadas. Esto nos lleva a cuestionarnos porque este tipo neuronal es más sensible a una deficiencia de frataxina. Esta tesis doctoral se ha centrado en la investigación de la biología celular de frataxina en neuronas sensitivas del ganglio dorsal y las consecuencias fisiop...

  10. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza; Jesús Ezquerro Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emocion...

  11. Modelado de un Sistema de Neuronas Espejo en un Agente Autónomo Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    David Castillo Arceo; Esaú Escobar; Jorge Hermosillo; Bruno Lara

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación está basada en el importante trabajo interdisciplinario desarrollándose en las ciencias cognitivas y que estudia tópicos tales como Neuronas Espejo, Reconocimiento de Comportamientos, Imit a ción, y Robótica Cognitiva. Abordando una perspectiva anclada en la Teoría de la Simulación y basado en modelos computacionales sobre Sistemas de Neuronas Espejo se ha diseñado un sistema, implemen tado en un Agente Autónomo Artificial. Dicho sistema d...

  12. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza; Jesús Ezquerro Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emocion...

  13. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (<1 μm), whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 μm or more). Here, we describe a new species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1 μm thick) and had minute protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had short, conical villar protrusions (vp) that were up to 0.5 μm long and up to 0.5 μm wide, similar to type 29. The vp on the sarcocyst wall lacked microtubules but had six or more disc-shaped plaques. The ground substance layer was smooth, approximately 0.5 μm thick, and without microtubules. The bradyzoites were 8-11 μm long. The structure of the sarcocyst wall was distinct from any species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts.

  14. First Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis ovicanis (Protozoa, Apicomplexa in the Brain of Sheep in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to survey the presence of Sarcocystis in sheep's brain in North Khorasan Province.In general, 80 samples of sheep's brain were collected from slaughtered sheep in slaughterhouses of North Khorasan Province. Tissue digestion method was used for observing bradyzoites in tissues. Histopathological processing tracing Sarcocystis and ensuing structural change in the brain tissue were conducted. PCR analysis was conducted on all the brain samples. Sequencing was done for one PCR product. Genotype was identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Sarcocystis spp. was found in one of the brain samples (1.25% using tissue digestion method. The presence of bradyzoite was also confirmed in the prepared histopathological sections. PCR analysis was positive in one of samples. Genotyping of one sample proved that Sarcocystis species was Sarcocystis ovicanis and the nucleotide sequence of this parasite was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number No.KF489431.Sarcocystis ovicanis can involve brain tissue of sheep and consequently causes clinical symptoms.

  15. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza; Jesús Ezquerro Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía...

  16. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTRACELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barrios-Socha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En la transición a la vida extrauterina, el recién nacido sufre un período de ayuno (prelactancia que transcurre entre el cese de la nutrición placentaria y la instauración de la lactancia. El gasto de energía por las neuronas es tan alto en estas circunstancias, que la glucogenólisis es incapaz de restablecer los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. En consecuencia, durante la prelactancia debe haber otros sustratos energéticos y lipogénicos, que adicionalmente ayuden a mantener la síntesis de neurotransmisores.Este trabajo establece la importancia de acetato en el metabolismo oxidativo y del lipogénico en neuronas durante la prelactancia. Se determinaron las velocidades de oxidación y lipogénesis en cultivos quiescentes de neuronas fetales de rata incubadas con acetato (5 mM, [1- 14C]-acetato, [2- 14C]-acetato y [U- 14C]-acetato(200-300dpm/nmol Adicionalmente, se utilizaron inhibidores enzimáticos como el dicloroacetato(1 mM y el aminooxiacetato (5 mM, e inhibidores del transporte como el α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato(2 mM, butilmalonato (5 mM y 1,2,3-bencenotricarboxilato (5 mM.Los resultados en su conjunto indican que las neuronas pueden metabolizar acetato más como sustrato energético que lipogénico, lo que nos permite pensar que este sustrato puede llegar a ser más importante para ayudar a mantener el metabolismo oxidativo, favoreciendo el reciclaje de carbonos en la prelactancia.Adicionalmente, se evidenció con el uso de [1-14C]-acetato una alta actividad anaplerótica sobre todo cuando las neuronas requieren mantener los reservorios de oxalacetato y acetil-CoA para mantener la respiración. Estos resultados señalan a la acetil-CoA sintetasa (AceCS2 y la enzima málica (mME mitocondriales, como enzimas claves para mantener el funcionamiento de las neuronas en la prelactancia.Con el uso de [2-14C]-acetato, los resultados sugieren que las neuronas tienen un alto requerimiento de carbonos, principalmente para la síntesis de

  17. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.

    2008-01-01

    were constructed using Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood estimations. All six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were placed together with other Sarcocystis species using an even-toed ungulate as their intermediate host. The three canine transmitted species, S. grueneri, S. rangi, S...

  18. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) are definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces and Sarcocystis hjorti from moose (Alces alces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether foxes might act as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces in moose. In 2 experiments, 6 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 6 blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) were fed muscle tissue from moose containing numerous sarcocysts of S. alces, and euthanazed 7-28 days post-infection (p.i.). Intestinal mucosal scrapings and faecal samples were screened microscopically for Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts, which were identified to species by means of species-specific primers and sequence analysis targeting the ssu rRNA gene. All foxes in both experiments became infected with Sarcocystis; the oocysts were fully sporulated by 14 days p.i., containing sporocysts measuring 14-15 x 10 microm. Molecular identification revealed that the oocysts/sporocysts belonged to 2 species, S. alces and Sarcocystis hjorti, although sarcocysts of S. hjorti were only identified in moose subsequent to the infection of foxes. In the first experiment, all 8 foxes also became infected with a Hammondia sp. derived from moose, shedding unsporulated, subspherical oocysts, measuring 10-12 microm in diameter, from 6-7 days p.i. onwards. The study proved that canids (the red fox and arctic fox) are definitive hosts for S. alces and S. hjorti, as had been inferred from the phylogenetic position of these species.

  19. A review of Sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P

    1976-11-15

    The nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of Sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. Sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. The following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: S cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), S hirsuta (cat), S hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: S ovicanis (dog), S tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: S miescheriana (dog), S porcifelis n sp (cat), S porcihominis n sp (man); and 1 species in the horse: S bertrami (dog). Sarcocystis cruzi, S ovicanis, and S porcifelis are highly pathogenic to the ox, the sheep, and the pig, respectively. Clinical signs of acute bovine sarcocystosis are: anorexia, pyrexia (42 C, or more), anemia, cachexia, enlarged palpable lymph nodes, excessive salivation, and loss of hair at the tip of the tail. Anemia, anorexia, ataxia, and abortions are the chief clinical signs of acute ovine sarcocystosis. These signs are evident at the time of vascular endothelium is parasitized by schizonts. The schizonts disappear in about 1 month, and cysts are formed in the muscles. The cystic phase of sarcocystosis is virtually nonpathogenic. Carnivores shed sporocysts in their feces after ingesting the intramuscular cysts from the herbivores. Sarcocystis is nonpathogenic to the definitive host. Feline and canine coccidia are also reviewed. The following 11 species are found in cats: Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Isospora felis, Isosporarivolta, Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia sp, and 5 types of Sarcocystis (S hirsuta from the ox, S tenella from the sheep, S muris from the mouse, S porcifelis from the pig, and Sarcocystis sp from Grant's gazelle). The following 10 species are found in canine feces (Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis, Isospora wallacei n sp; and 7 types of Sarcocystis (S cruzi from the ox, S ovicanis from the sheep, S bertrami and Sarcocystis

  20. Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae no cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina S. Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Eles foram dados por via oral para um bezerro em aleitamento, sendo observados cistos com morfologia compatível com os de Sarcocystis cruzi na musculatura cardíaca e esquelética, três meses após a infecção. Musculatura cardíaca deste bezerro foi dada para um segundo cão doméstico livre de coccídios, que eliminou esporocistos compatíveis com os de Sarcocystis em suas fezes, tendo com períodos pré-patente e patente 11 e 12 dias após a infecção respectivamente. Para comparar a morfologia dos esporocistos e cistos, um segundo cão, também livre de coccídios, foi alimentado com musculatura cardíaca de um bovino infectando naturalmente e positivo para cistos de S. cruzi. Esporocistos compatíveis com os eliminados pelo primeiro cão foram encontrados nas fezes. Apesar dos esporocistos eliminados pelo cachorro-do-mato serem significativamente diferentes dos eliminados pelos cães infectados experimentalmente, pode se considerar com base na morfologia dos esporocistos, cistos e na transmissão biológica que a espécie encontrada nas fezes do cachorro-do-mato é Sarcocystis cruzi.Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were identified in feces samples of a crab-eating fox, and were orally given to a suckling calf; after 3 months of infection, sarcocysts morphologically similar to Sarcocystis cruzi were observed in cardiac and skeletal striated muscles. The cardiac muscles of this calf were orally given to a puppy free of coccidia, that shed sporocysts in its feces.with a prepatent and patent period of 11 and 12 days after infection, respectively. To compare the morphology of the sporocysts and cysts, a second puppy was fed on bovine cardiac muscles infected naturally, and sporocysts identical to those shed by the first dog were recovered from its feces. In spite of the significant difference between sporocysts found in the mucosa of the crab-eating fox and

  1. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  2. Sarcocystis nesbitti Infection in Human Skeletal Muscle: Possible Transmission from Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee Ling; Chang, Phooi Yee; Tan, Chong Tin; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Wong, Kum Thong

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti is an intracellular protozoan parasite found as sarcocysts within muscle fibers of intermediate hosts (monkey and baboon). The definitive host is suspected to be the snake. We report two cases from a larger cohort of 89 patients who had fever, headache, and generalized myalgia after a trip to Pangkor Island, Malaysia. Sarcocysts were detected in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens by light and electron microscopy from these two patients. DNA sequencing based on the 18S ribosomal DNA region identified the Sarcocystis species as S. nesbitti. We also identified S. nesbitti sequences in the stools of a snake (Naja naja). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences form a cluster with most of the other known Sarcocystis species for which the snake is a definitive host. We believe these two patients were likely to have symptomatic acute muscular sarcocystosis after S. nesbitti infection that may have originated from snakes. PMID:24420776

  3. Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) no cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous)

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina S. Rodrigues; Gisele S. Meireles; Paulo R. Carvalho Filho; Ribeiro, Carlos T.; Flausino,Walter; Lopes,Carlos Wilson G.

    2008-01-01

    Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Eles foram dados por via oral para um bezerro em aleitamento, sendo observados cistos com morfologia compatível com os de Sarcocystis cruzi na musculatura cardíaca e esquelética, três meses após a infecção. Musculatura cardíaca deste bezerro foi dada para um segundo cão doméstico livre de coccídios, que eliminou esporocistos compatíveis com os de Sarcocystis em suas fezes, tendo com períodos pré-patent...

  4. Sarcocystis canis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), the etiologic agent of generalized coccidiosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A

    1991-08-01

    Sarcocystis canis n. sp. is proposed for the protozoon associated with encephalitis, hepatitis, and generalized coccidiosis in dogs. Only asexual stages are known in macrophages, neurons, dermal, and other cells of the body. The parasite is located free in the host cell cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole; schizonts divide by endopolygeny. Schizonts are 5-25 x 4-20 microns and contain 6-40 merozoites. Merozoites are approximately 5-7 microns x 1 micron and do not contain rhoptries. The parasite is PAS-negative and reacts with Sarcocystis cruzi antiserum but not with Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, or Caryospora bigenetica antisera in an immunohistochemical test.

  5. cromo (VI en cultivos primarios de neuronas y astrocitos de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Uroz Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende comparar la concentración letal 50 (CL , dosis que causa la muerte del 50% de las células de 50 metilmercurio, cadmio (II y cromo (VI en cultivos primarios de corteza de rata. Se emplearon hemisferios cerebrales de rata para preparar los cultivos primarios. Los cultivos primarios de neuronas fueron realizados a partir de ratas Wistar de 14-16 días de gestación, usando el medio Eagle modificado por Dulbecco. Para los cultivos primarios de astrocitos se emplearon ratas de un día de vida y el medio de cultivo de Waymouth. Se emplearon las tinciones de azul de metileno y azul tripano para cuantificar la muerte neuronal mediante citometría. La CL para neuronas y astrocitos se calculó mediante el 50 método de Reed-Muench. En cultivos de 24 horas, la CL para las 50 -6 -6 neuronas fue de 5 x 10 M para el metilmercurio, 3,7 x 10 M para el -6 cadmio (II y 5,34 x 10 M para el cromo (VI. En el caso de los -5 astrocitos, las CL en los cultivos de 24 horas fue de 1,46 x 10 M para 50 -5 -5 el metilmercurio, 3,73 x 10 M para el cadmio (II y 2,46 x 10 M para el cromo (VI. Estos resultados muestran una resistencia diez veces mayor aproximadamente de los astrocitos con respecto a las neuronas para estos tres compuestos.

  6. Neuro3d: software de reconstrucción tridimensional de neuronas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Se describe un proyecto de cooperación interdisciplinaria para construir un sistema de reconstrucción tridimensional de neuronas a partir de cortes observados al microscopio electrónico. Se presentan brevemente las partes constitutivas del sistema: adquisición de las imágenes, apareamiento, visualización e interfaz gráfica. Se presentan algunos resultados obtenidos.

  7. Modelado de un Sistema de Neuronas Espejo en un Agente Autónomo Artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castillo Arceo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación está basada en el importante trabajo interdisciplinario desarrollándose en las ciencias cognitivas y que estudia tópicos tales como Neuronas Espejo, Reconocimiento de Comportamientos, Imit a ción, y Robótica Cognitiva. Abordando una perspectiva anclada en la Teoría de la Simulación y basado en modelos computacionales sobre Sistemas de Neuronas Espejo se ha diseñado un sistema, implemen tado en un Agente Autónomo Artificial. Dicho sistema deberá reconocer los movimientos de otro agente, basado en el aprendizaje de sus movimientos y las relaciones que surgen de éstos con la percepción del mundo. El diseño de este sistema se propone parta de dos supuestos: (1 El Sistemas de Neuronas Espejo visto como un acoplamiento de los Modelos Internos Inverso y Directo - siendo el segundo y su función de predictor lo que se hipotetiza es la función de las Neuronas Espejo - y (2 que la base para el re conocimiento de las conductas de otros está en la habilidad de los seres vivos de empatar en un lenguaje común las conductas propias, desarrolladas a lo largo de su experiencia, con las conductas ejercidas por otros. Presentamos un ejercicio donde nuestro Agente imita a otro para comprobar que el reconocimiento de las conductas de los otros es posible desde la perspectiva que se ha adoptado. Creemos que nuestro experimento es una prueba de concepto y presenta una base s ó lida para investigaciones futuras.

  8. Aborto ovino associado com infecção por Sarcocystis sp Ovine abortion associated with Sarcocystis sp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Pescador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecções por protozoários têm distribuição mundial e podem causar aborto, nascimentos prematuros e ou morte fetal em diversas espécies animais. Em julho de 2004, oito ovinos Corriedale apresentaram problemas reprodutivos caracterizados por aborto e natimortalidade no terço final da gestação. Dessas oito perdas, um natimorto macho foi enviado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária para necropsia. Alterações macroscópicas não foram observadas durante a necropsia. Lesões histológicas foram observadas principalmente no cérebro e coração e se caracterizaram por encefalite não-supurativa multifocal acentuada associada à presença de protozoários no interior de células endoteliais e vasos sanguíneos e miocardite não-supurativa focal leve. Alguns desses organismos apresentaram formato de roseta. O teste de imunoistoquímica anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi negativo, mas houve reação cruzada com anticorpo anti-Neospora caninum. O exame de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi negativo. A bacteriologia aeróbica e micro-aeróbica não revelou crescimento significativo. Esses achados foram compatíveis com o diagnóstico de Sarcocystis sp.Protozoal infection has worldwide distribution and may cause abortion, premature parturition or fetal death in almost all domestic animals. In July 2004, eight Corriedale sheep showed abortion and stillbirth in the third trimester of gestation. Of these reproductive losses, one stillborn male was submitted to the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology for necropsy investigation. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was negative. No significant bacteria was isolated from lung and liver by aerobic and microaerobic cultures. Macroscopic lesions were not found in any fetal tissue. The histological lesions were observed mainly in the brain and heart and consisted primarily of severe multifocal nonsupurative encephalitis and nonsuppurative myocarditis. Schizonts of a protozoan

  9. NEURONAS ESPEJO Y EL APRENDIZAJE EN ANESTESIA Learning anaesthesia and mirror neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bautista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente comprender las acciones sino también las intenciones de otros individuos. Se les atribuye función en los procesos de aprendizaje simple a través de la observación y la imitación que pueden ser aprovechados en la enseñanza de la anestesiología.Mirror neurons were initially described in primates from the Macaca nemestrina species around 1990 by the neurophysiologist Giacomo Rizzolatti and his group from Parma University in Italy. They are motor neurons which become activated when an individual observes a concrete action for which they are predetermined without any type of motor activity being produced. It is currently considered that these neurons participate in adapting to the social setting since they lead to understanding other individuals' actions and intensions. A function has been ascribed to them regarding simple learning through observation and imitation which can be exploited in teaching anesthesiology.

  10. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. METHODS This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using 7 markers: SAG1, 5′-3′SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. RESULTS T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox, 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum, 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum, 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon, and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine. Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1 and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  11. CAMBIOS EN LAS PROPIEDADES DEL RECEPTOR DE GLICINA DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DE NEURONAS ESPINALES EN CULTIVO. EFECTOS CELULARES DE LA ACTIVACION.

    OpenAIRE

    TAPIA AMARO, JUAN CARLOS

    2002-01-01

    Evidencia experimental sugiere que el neurotransmisor inhibitorio glicina puede regular el crecimiento neurítico de neuronas embrionarias. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se propuso: 1) determinar cómo la activación del receptor de glicina en neuronas inmadur 216p.

  12. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  13. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  14. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in muscle of an Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from tongue of the wolf were up to 900 µm long, slender, and appeared to h...

  15. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  16. Cyst wall ultrastructure of two Sarcocystis spp. from European mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon) in Germany compared with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odening, K; Stolte, M; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1995-10-01

    Muscle samples from six wild and two captive European mouflons (Ovis ammon musimon) in Germany as well as one domestic sheep from a German zoo were infected with sarcocysts (Sarcocystis: Sarcocystidae, Apicomplexa). Sarcocystis tenella and S. arieticanis were identified by light and electron microscopy. Both species are determined for the first time from wild sheep, and this is the first description of S. arieticanis from wild sheep.

  17. Mecanismos de regulación de la glucolisis en neuronas y su función en supervivencia celular

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    [ES] El mantenimiento de un correcto equilibrio en el metabolismo energético neuronal es esencial para la supervivencia celular. Existen datos que indican que la neurotransmisión glutamatérgica activa señales moleculares que afectan tanto a la captación de glucosa por las neuronas como a sus vias de metabolización. En esta tesis doctoral describimos un método sensible y específico para la determinación de flujos metabólicos por vía de las pentosas-fosfato y por glucolisis en neuronas a...

  18. Virus de rabia en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto

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    H. Hurtado

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las neuronas sensoriales de los ganglios de la raíz dorsal (GRD del ratón adulto, son un modelo interesante en el estudio de la infección in vitro por virus de rabia. Su importancia radica puesto que es una de las vías que tiene el virus para llegar a sistema nervioso central. El virus de la rabia usualmente entra por la mordedura de un animal infectado, inicialmente llega al músculo, replicándose localmente, pasa a terminales nerviosas adyacentes, sube a través del sistema nervioso periférico y llega a los ganglio de la raíz dorsal. Durante el transporte del virus no hay síntomas y la enfermedad sólo se inicia con la llegada del virus al sistema nervioso central, donde la replicación del virus es seguida por su transporte en sentido centrífugo, teniendo un particular e inexplicable tropismo por las glándulas salivares y lacrimales. Objetivo: Describir el proceso de infección del virus de la rabia en neuronas GRD. Metodología: Cultivos de neuronas de GRD de ratón adulto fueron inoculados con virus de rabia cepa CVS, siendo observada la ultraestructura en tiempos progresivos de infección desde 5 minutos hasta 60 horas. Los resultados obtenidos en los que no se observaron viriones, nos llevaron a hacer un marcaje con inmunoperoxidasas para evidenciar este proceso. Para corroborar los resultados obtenidos fue necesario comparar ultraestructuralmente y con la técnica de inmunoperoxidasas la infección en tejido cerebral de ratones adultos inoculados experimentalmente. Resultados: Este estudio nos permite afirmar que la producción de partículas virales en neuronas de ganglio de raíz dorsal de ratón adulto, cultivadas in vitro, e inoculadas con virus de rabia es escasa, comparada con la gran cantidad de antígeno viral observada en vesículas de 0,5 mm localizadas en el citoplasma de estas mismas células. Los resultados más importantes del estudio revelan que las neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto son

  19. EFECTO DEL COBRE SOBRE LA EXCITABILIDAD ELECTRICA DE NEURONAS PIRAMIDALES DE CA 1

    OpenAIRE

    VERA BUSCHMANN, JORGE ALEJANDRO

    2010-01-01

    El cobre es un metal esencial para los organismos aeróbicos y ha sido vinculado principalmente al metabolismo celular. Además, existen evidencias para proponer que este metal tiene un rol en la modulación de la excitabilidad neuronal. Sin embargo, esta hipótesis no ha sido demostrada directamente. En nuestro laboratorio encontramos que cobre en concentraciones que pueden alcanzarse en el espacio sináptico (0,01-0,1 μM), aumenta la tasa de disparos espontáneos de neuronas pir...

  20. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

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    J. Tovar-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por lasreacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoácidos, suministrando los recursos para la producción de energía y sustratos que son compartimentados intercelularmente.Se estudió el efecto de la fijación de CO2 en procesos metabólicos intercelulares donde está involucrado el acetato. En incubaciones con neuronas y astrocitos de 7 y 14 días de cultivo, utilizando acetato (5 mM y [14C]-bicarbonato de sodio (10 µ Ci (500-1000 dpm/nmol, se determinó la incorporación en metabolitos marcados en células y en sustratos estables liberados al medio. Adicionalmente, se realizaron experimentos similares utilizando inhibidores como el aminooxiacetato (AOA, dicloroacetato (DCA, α-ciano-4-hidroxicinnamato (α-CN, butilmalonato (BM y bencenotricarboxílato (BT, cuantificando porcromatografía de capa delgada la concentración en el medio de incubación de alanina, aspartato, glutamato y glutamina.Los resultados indican que las neuronas tienen una menor capacidad para fijar carbonos en estructuras celulares, durante la prelactancia, pero utilizan mejor el acetato vía acetil-CoA mitocondrial (AceCS2 para la producción de energía y aminoácidos. En los astrocitos, estas reacciones favorecen la utilización del acetato vía citrato liasa y Acetil-CoA citosólica (AceCS1 para la producción de estructuras y sustratos utilizados por las neuronas, que para la producción de aminoácidos.

  1. El uniportador de calcio mitocondrial en cultivos de neuronas de hipocampo de rata

    OpenAIRE

    García Casas, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    La captura de Ca2+ por parte de la mitocondria se debe principalmente a la apertura del Uniportador de Calcio Mitocondrial. La hipótesis del envejecimiento neuronal postula que durante el envejecimiento se produce una sobrecarga de Ca2+ mitocondrial que promueve la apoptosis celular (Fig. 7). Además, estudios previos de nuestro laboratorio han mostrado que la entrada de calcio a la mitocondria en neuronas jóvenes, maduras y envejecidas varía en respuesta a un estímulo con NMDA. To...

  2. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tovar-Franco; F. Saavedra

    2005-01-01

    Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por lasreacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoáci...

  3. COMPARTIMENTACIÓN INTERCELULAR DEL ACETATO EN NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS DURANTE LA PRELACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar Franco, J.; Laboratorio de Neurobioquímica, Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Saavedra, F.; Laboratorio de Neurobioquímica, Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2005-01-01

    Durante el período perinatal el cerebro utiliza sustratos alternativos a la glucosa para mantener su desarrollo, pues en este momento sus niveles están disminuidos. El acetato es metabolizado por las neuronas y los astrocitos durante la prelactancia. La utilización del acetato por estas células puede verse mejorada por las reacciones fijadoras de CO2, algunas de las cuales participan en el mantenimiento de los intermediarios del TCA, que son reducidos por la producción y liberación de aminoác...

  4. Caracterización del metabolismo del glucógeno en neuronas y su implicación en la tolerancia a la hipoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Martínez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de glucógeno en las neuronas ha sido motivo de controversia durante las pasadas décadas. Sin embargo, está aceptado que las neuronas expresan la maquinaria necesaria para sintetizar glucógeno, pero no para degradarlo. La presencia de la glucógeno sintasa (GS) en las neuronas es un misterio y no existe ningún estudio que analice cuál es su función fisiológica en este tipo neuronal. Recientemente se ha establecido un paralelismo entre la GS neuronal y el caballo de Troya, ya que mú...

  5. Neuronas Espejo y Teoría de la Mente en la explicación de la empatía

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Emilio; González Marqués, Javier; Maestú Unturbe, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    La empatía es la capacidad de una persona para vivenciar los pensamientos y sentimientos de los otros, reaccionando adecuadamente. Diferenciamos en la empatía dos componentes: cognitivo y emocional. El componente cognitivo comprende los pensamientos y sentimientos del otro. El componente afectivo comparte el estado emocional de otra persona. Comentamos dos teorías para explicar la empatía: las neuronas espejo y la Teoría de la Mente. Las neuronas espejo son un tipo particular de neuronas que ...

  6. ¿La neurotoxicidad del etanol depende del estadío de diferenciación neuronal? Estudio en cultivos primarios de neuronas corticales

    OpenAIRE

    Guadagnoli, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    El abuso de alcohol conduce a graves problemas sanitarios y sociales, tanto por la elevada incidencia de su consumo como por las diferentes patologías asociadas a él, entre las que merecen destacarse las producidas a nivel del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC). Las neuronas son particularmente sensibles al efecto neurotóxico del etanol (EtOH). En este trabajo se demostró que las neuronas corticales en cultivo son suceptibles al daño inducido por el EtOH. Es sabido que no todas las neuronas son i...

  7. Identification and intraspecific genetic diversity of Sarcocystis rileyi from ducks, Anas spp., in Lithuania and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakas, P; Oksanen, A; Butkauskas, D; Sruoga, A; Kutkienė, L; Švažas, S; Isomursu, M; Liaugaudaitė, S

    2014-10-01

    Macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were detected in the muscles of 28 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 1 Eurasian Wigeon ( Anas penelope ), and 1 Common Teal ( Anas crecca ) hunted in Lithuania and Finland. According to the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, and ITS-1 region, the macrocysts examined from all 30 ducks belonged to Sarcocystis rileyi. This parasite was found in the Eurasian Wigeon and the Common Teal for the first time. All S. rileyi isolates examined were identical to each other and differed from 2 S. rileyi isolates previously reported from 2 Mallards from the United States only by 1 nucleotide substitution within the ITS-1 region.

  8. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Sarcocystis chloropusae (protozoa: Sarcocystidae) n. sp. from the common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morsey, A; El-Seify, M; Desouky, A Y; Abdel-Aziz, M M; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2015-07-01

    A new name Sarcocystis chloropusae is proposed for a parasite previously found in two of 25 common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) from Brolos Lake, Egypt. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 650 μm long, the cyst wall was up to 4.5 μm thick, and contained villar protrusions that were up to 4 μm long and up to 2 μm wide. The villar protrusions were crowded, contained vesicles but lacked microtubules. The ground substance layer was smooth. The bradyzoites were up to 12 μm long and up to 2 μm wide. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the (ITS-1) supported the conclusion that the Sarcocystis in G. chloropus is a distinct species.

  10. Eosinophilic myositis resulted from Sarcocystis infection in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Kimura

    Full Text Available Partial changes of color (greenish to brownish were found in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle. The disseminated lesions of the skeletal muscles were histopathologically examined in relation to Sarcocystis infection. The lesions in the muscles showed granulomas with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sarcocysts had a distinct wall, which was radically striated by palisading villar protrusions. The sarcocyst wall was surrounded by degenerative eosinophils and necrotic muscle fibers. In conclusion, eosinophilic myositis in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle resulted from Sarcocystis spp. infection. The muscular lesions were characterized by the presence of granulomas and capsulated sarcocysts surrounded by numerous eosinophils. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 500-502

  11. DNA extraction methods and multiple sampling to improve molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Patrícia; Portella, Luiza Pires; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Libardoni, Felipe; Sangioni, Luis Antonio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-10-01

    Molecular detection of Sarcocystis spp. in tissue samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite spreads unevenly through tissues, forming tissue cysts, and the cystic wall is an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the cysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of four protocols for DNA extraction from cysts of Sarcocystis spp. present in bovine myocardium samples or after their harvest in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution as well as determine the effects of single or multiple sampling on the accuracy of molecular diagnosis of sarcocystosis in cattle hearts. Cysts and myocardium samples from nine bovine hearts were randomly distributed to four DNA extraction protocols: kit, kit with modification, DNAzol, and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR as replicates of each heart (simplicate, duplicate, and triplicate), and the probability of a true positive diagnostic was calculated. Among the protocols tested, the kit with modification was determined to be the most suitable for DNA extraction from cysts in PBS solution (92.6 % of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol resulted in higher DNA detection frequency from bovine myocardium samples (48.1 %). Multiple sampling improved the molecular diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle hearts, increasing at 22.2 % the rate of true positive diagnostic.

  12. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis falcatula in bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo Viana; da Silva, Bruna Zafalon; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-02-01

    The infection by S. falcatula is commonly associated with respiratory disease in captive psittacine birds, with a few case reports of this protozoan causing encephalitis in wild birds. We describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of an infection by S. falcatula in a bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus). Clinically, wing paralysis and mild motor incoordination were observed. At necropsy, the telencephalic cortex showed multifocal to coalescing yellowish soft areas. Histologically, multifocal to coalescent nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis of telencephalic cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem was observed. Necrotic areas showed multiple protozoan organism characteristics of Sarcocystis sp. schizonts in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells or lying free in the neuropil. Partial genetic sequences of the gene encoding cytochrome b (CYTB), the gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (RPOB) and the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) from Sarcocystis sp. schizonts revealed that the parasite had ITS-1 sequences that were 100% identical to the homologous alleles from Sarcocystis sp. shed by Didelphis albiventris in Brazil. RPOB and CYTB sequences were 100% identical to homologous of S. falcatula available in Genbank. Thus, this is the first report of necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by S. falcatula in bare-faced ibis (P. infuscatus).

  13. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakas, Petras; Liaugaudaitė, Simona; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Švažas, Saulius

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that Sarcocystis rileyi is one of the earliest described species of the genus Sarcocystis forming macrocysts in ducks, the life cycle of this species is still unknown in Europe. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were observed in faeces of four of 23 (17.4 %) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of four of 20 (20.0 %) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of seven of 13 (53.8 %) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) hunted in Lithuania. A very small number of Sarcocystis sporocysts measuring 11.9 × 8.3 μm (n = 5) was found in faecal samples, whereas considerably more sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts and free sporocysts were detected in the small intestines of red foxes and raccoon dogs. These sporocysts measured 12.9 × 8.1 μm (n = 16) and 12.1 × 8.1 μm (n = 54) in red foxes and raccoon dogs, respectively. Using species-specific PCR and subsequent sequencing, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region partial sequences of oocysts/sporocysts from small intestine mucosal scrapings of six raccoon dogs and three red foxes were identified as belonging to S. rileyi. The present study provides strong evidence showing that the red fox and the raccoon dog can serve as final hosts of S. rileyi in Europe; however, transmission experiments are needed for the ultimate approval.

  14. Factores tróficos en neuronas dopaminérgicas mesencefálicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pinzón

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descubrimiento, se ha postulado, y en algunos casos comprobado, que los factores tróficos juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo, mantenimiento y regeneración del sistema nervioso. El conocimiento y la manipulación de estas sustancias ha servido para: a formular nuevas teorías acerca de la etiología de varios desórdenes neurodebeneraivos y b desarrollar nuevas altemativas terapéuticas para estas entidades. En la presente revisión, resumimos los principales efectos de diferentes factores tróficos sobre las neuronas dopaminérgicas de la substantia nigra en desarrollo, cuya degeneración en el adulto ocasiona la mayoría de los síntomas observados en la enfermedad de Parkinson.

  15. Molecular Analysis of Sarcocystis Spp. Isolated from Sheep (Ovis aries in Babol Area, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges KALANTARI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed.Methods: Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward.Results: The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150. The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (~1100 bp from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%, six (20% and four (13.3% isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei.Conclusion: Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial.

  16. Ultrastructure of the cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from skeletal muscle of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

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    Bjørn Gjerde

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Mature muscle cysts of Sarcocystis rangi from Rangifer tarandus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The long and slender cysts were located within skeletal muscle cells, and were bounded by a unit membrane, the cyst membrane. The cysts were provided with closely spaced flexible, hairlike surface processes, measuring up to 12.6 |im in length and 0.3 to 0.6 \\lm in diameter. The projections had a smooth surface, whereas the cyst membrane formed numerous hexagonally packed vesicular invaginations between the bases of the projections. The cyst membrane was reinforced by an underlying thin layer of electron-dense material, except at the points where it was invaginated. Cyst ground substance formed a thin layer at the periphery of the cysts, filled the core of the projections, and formed thin septa that divided the interior of the cysts into numerous compartments. Most compartments contained a large number of tightly packed cystozoites, whereas a few metrocytes were forund in each of a few compartments at the periphery of the cysts. Some of the cystozoites multiplied by endodyogeny. The metrocytes displayed a vacuolation of their cytoplasm. The cysts of S. rangi were similar in surface morphology to the sarcocysts of certain other Sarcocystis species reported from other intermediate hosts.Ultrastrukturen til cyster av Sarcocystis rangi frå skjelettmuskulaturen hos rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Muskelcyster av S. rangi frå rein vart undersøkt ved transmisjonselektronmikroskopi. Dei lange cystene låg intracellulært i skjelettmuskelceller, og var avgrensa av ein elementærmembran, cystemembranen. Cystene var utstyrt med talrike hårliknande overflateprosessar, som strekte seg langsetter cysteoverflata. Prcsessane var opptil 12.6 Hm lange, og målte 0.3 til 0.6 \\lm i diameter. Prosessane hadde ei glatt overflate, medan cystemembranen danna talrike regelmessige ordna, små invaginasjonar innimellom basis av prosessane

  17. Pervasive Environmental Contamination with Human Feces Results in High Prevalence of Zoonotic Sarcocystis Infection in Pigs in the Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, M; Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2016-04-01

    Three species of Sarcocystis-S. miescheriana, S. suihominis, and S. porcifelis-have been recorded from pigs ( Sus scrofa ). Among these 3 species, the zoonotic species S. suihominis is of paramount importance and an important food safety issue. Previous studies indicate prevalence of porcine Sarcocystis species in India, but molecular evidence, among other evidence, is required for proper species differentiation. Myocardium from 250 stray and farm pigs destined for slaughter for human consumption were collected from slaughter shops located in urban slums in Punjab, northern India. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis by using an intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion, Sarcocystis 18S ribosomal RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time quantitative PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA). The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Ten representative samples were sequenced in both the directions from which 7 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 146 (58.4%), 169 (67.6%), 182 (72.8%), and 191 (76.4%) of samples by using intact cyst isolation, pepsin HCl digestion, conventional PCR, and qPCR-MCA, respectively. Molecularly, 1 S. miescheriana isolate and 6 isolates of the zoonotic species S. suihominis were recorded. This is the first study providing molecular identification for the presence of zoonotic species S. suihomonis in India. The prevalence of zoonotic S. suihominis in pork in India is worrisome and warrants intervention policies to stop the practice of rearing pigs under unhygienic conditions.

  18. Occurrence and Distribution of Sarcocystis Parasite Isolated from Sheep in Yazd Province, Iran

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    Bahador Hajimohammadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sarcocystis species are one of the most important meat borne parasites. Sarcocystosis causes several symptoms in human as well as numerous diseases with high economic impact in livestock. In current paper at first results of a pilot study for determination of disease agent in lamb of Yazd province central Iran is presented. Then status of parasite in red meat products in study region gets discussed. Materials and Methods: Muscles of 70 slaughtered Sheep from both sexes and different ages were investigated for presence of parasite cysts during September to October 2013. Carcass inspection with naked eye at industrial slaughterhouse of Yazd for macroscopic cysts, and pepsin-digestion method for microscopic cysts was performed on common infected sites of infection. Results: No macroscopic cyst was seen at inspection, however bradyzoites of parasite were observed in 97.14% of animals’ digested muscles. No significant difference between infection and age groups or sex of animals was observed. Conclusion: As humans are considered as final and intermediate host of different species of Sarcocystis, and parasite cysts present at microscopic sizes, transmission of infection from lamb meat should come into consideration. Hence public training of disease health importance, parasite cycle and methods of inactivation probable cysts in meat is recommended.

  19. Experimentos con una protección basada en redes de neuronas artificiales

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    Orlys Ernesto Torres Breffe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de los experimentos físicos realizados con una protección basada totalmente en Redes de Neuronas Artificiales para un transformador eléctrico a escala de laboratorio. Se demuestra que unas Redes de Neuronas Artificiales entrenadas, con datos provenientes de regímenes simulados matemáticamente, opera correctamente con señales de regímenes provenientes de casos reales, al menos a escala de laboratorio y con niveles reducidos de intensidad. Se describe la instalación experimental, tanto desde el puntode vista de hardware como software utilizando la tecnología de National Instrument. Se entrenan diferentes tipos de Redes Neuronales y todas aprendieron a proteger correctamente. Estos experimentos establecen las pautas para el desarrollo de Relés Electrónicos Inteligentes que no se ajustarían, al menos con datos y valores de difícil comprensión como los actuales relés, sino que se entrenarían una vez mediante la simulación matemática y la experiencia práctica los haría cada vez mejores. In this work is shown the results of the physical experiments done with a protection totally based in Artificial Neural Networks for an electric transformer of the laboratory scale. Its demonstrated that some Artificial Neural Networks trained with data coming from a mathematically simulated regimens, it operates correctly with signals coming fromreal cases, at least to laboratory scale and with reduced levels of intensity. The experimental installation is described, so much from the hardware and software point of view, using the technology of National Instrument. Different types of Artificial Neural Nets are trained and all learned how to protect correctly. These experiments establish the rules forthe development of Intelligent Electronic Relays that would not be adjusted, at least with complex data and values like the current relays, they will be trained once from the mathematically simulation and the

  20. Parasite distribution and early-stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR.

  1. Inmunorreactividad de neuronas gabaergicas y glutamatergicas en la corteza y el cerebelo de ratones infectados con rabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rengifo Castillo, Aura Caterine

    2012-01-01

    La rabia es una enfermedad viral que produce cambios en la función neuronal. Estos cambios, entre otros, inducen alteraciones en el metabolismo de los neurotransmisores. Los signos clínicos de la rabia indican que se podría afectar el sistema GABA-glutamato y, por lo tanto, el balance entre la inhibición y excitación neuronal. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la inmunorreactividad de neuronas GABAérgicas y glutamatérgicas en la corteza y el cerebelo de ratones infectados co...

  2. RESONANCIA ELECTRICA EN EL RANGO THETA (8) EN NEURONAS DE LA CAPA II DEL NUCLEO CORTICAL ANTERIOR DE LA AMIGDALA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El complejo de la amígdala participa en procesar información sensorial relevante desde el punto de vista emocional. La información sensorial olfativa entra desde el bulbo olfatorio (OB) a este complejo a través de la corteza olfatoria, la cual incluye los núcleos corticales de la amígdala. En ratas las neuronas mitrales del OB y aquellas de la capa II del núcleo cortical anterior (ACo) y la corteza periamigdaloide división medial (P A Cm) presentan oscilaciones intrínsecas del potencial de...

  3. RESONANCIA ELECTRICA EN EL RANGO THETA (0) EN NEURONAS DE LA CAPA II DEL NUCLEO CORTICAL ANTERIOR DE LA AMIGDALA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El complejo de la amígdala participa en procesar información sensorial relevante desde el punto de vista emocional. La información sensorial olfativa entra desde el bulbo olfatorio (OB) a este complejo a través de la corteza olfatoria, la cual incluye los núcleos corticales de la amígdala. En ratas las neuronas mitrales del OB y aquellas de la capa II del núcleo cortical anterior (ACo) y la corteza periamigdaloide división medial (P A Cm) presentan oscilaciones intrínsecas del ...

  4. Avances en el desarrollo infantil temprano: desde neuronas hasta programas a gran escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo infantil temprano (DIT es la base del desarrollo económico y social de los países y de su capacidad de cumplir con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS. La gestación y los primeros 3 años de vida son fundamentales para que los niños tengan un desarrollo físico, psicosocial, emocional y cognitivo adecuado para el resto de sus vidas. La crianza y el cuidado cariñoso y sensible a las necesidades de los niños durante la gestación y la primera infancia son esenciales para el desarrollo de los billones de neuronas y trillones de sinapsis necesarias. El DIT requiere de acceso a buena nutrición y servicios de salud desde la gestación, crianza sensible de acuerdo a la etapa de desarrollo del niño, protección social y del bienestar del niño, y oportunidades de estimulación y aprendizaje temprano. Para mejorar el DIT a nivel nacional se recomiendan seis acciones con fuerte participación de la sociedad civil: expandir la voluntad política y financiamiento, crear un entorno de políticas favorables basadas en evidencia, construir capacidad con coordinación intersectorial, asegurar una gobernanza justa y transparente de los programas y servicios, aumentar apoyo a la investigación multidisciplinaria y promover el desarrollo de líderes. México ha logrado avances importantes en DIT bajo el liderazgo del Sector Salud, pero enfrenta retos significativos para implementar estas recomendaciones. La reciente creación de un marco nacional intersectorial favorable al DIT con apoyo de los organismos internacionales y la participación de la sociedad civil pueden ayudar a sobreponer estos retos.

  5. Use of proteinase K in the excystation of Sarcocystis cruzi sporocysts for in vitro culture and DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiritu, W; Cawthorn, R J; Kibenge, F S

    1994-03-01

    Proteinase K was used for the cleaning of Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa) sporocysts prior to excystation. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cell cultures inoculated with the excysted sporozoites remained free of bacterial contamination for the duration of the experiment and had high yields of merozoites. The excysted sporozoites also yielded genomic DNA that could be labelled efficiently with 32P dATP by the random priming method.

  6. Ongoing outbreak of an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness among travellers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, D H; Freedman, D O; Neumayr, A; Parola, P

    2012-11-08

    As of 4 November, 2012, 100 patients with an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, have been identified. Thirty-five travelled there mostly during July and August 2011 and 65 mostly during July and August 2012, suggesting an ongoing outbreak. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing. Public health agencies and practicing clinicians should be aware of this rarely-reported disease in humans and consider it as differential diagnosis in travellers returning from Tioman Island.

  7. A report of intestinal sarcocystosis in the bullsnake (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) and a re-evaluation of Sarcocystis sp. from snakes of the genus Pituophis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszak, P; Cunningham, A

    1995-07-01

    We report a severe enteric infection of Sarcocystis sp. from a wild-caught bullsnake (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi). The animal was collected in October 1988 by a commercial dealer, imported into the United Kingdom during November 1988 and purchased by the London Zoo, in December 1988. The animal was not fed after capture and was anorexic from the time of purchase to the time of death in January 1989. On necropsy, the animal was emaciated and the mucosa of the proximal intestine was markedly thickened. The lamina propria was packed with oocysts, and enterocytes were parasitized by an organism which closely resembled Sarcocystis roudabushi and Sarcocystis idahoensis, two bisporocystid coccidia described previously from Pituophis melanoleucus. We propose that Sarcocystis idahoensis and Sarcocystis roudabushi are synonymous since both occur in the same host species, both invade the intestinal lamina propria and entreocytes, and sporocyst measurement ranges of both species overlap. This is the first report of death believed to be due to sarcocytosis in a naturally-infected definitive host.

  8. In the United States, negligible rates of zoonotic sarcocystosis occur in feral swine that, by contrast, frequently harbour infections with Sarcocystis miescheriana, a related parasite contracted from canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Yang, Y; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P

    2015-04-01

    Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays an important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocystis infection, the myocardium of 1006 feral pigs (Sus scrofa) trapped or hunted in 29 states during the Comprehensive Feral Swine Disease Surveillance Program of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services unit during 2012-2014. Sarcocysts were detected in histological sections of 25% (251/1006) of myocardium with an average parasitic load/intensity of infection of 3.03 sarcocysts/section (1.5×0.7 cm), and higher prevalence of myocarditis in severe infections. Microscopic examination of pepsin digests of 147 hearts revealed a higher prevalence of Sarcocystis bradyzoites (49%, 72/147) than when diagnosed by histology. A fragment of Sarcocystis 18S rRNA was amplified and digested with a restriction endonuclease, revealing a pattern consistent with Sarcocystis miescheriana in all 44 selected samples. Sequencing 31 of these 44 isolates confirmed their correspondence to S. miescheriana. Thus, S. miescheriana infection, but not the zoonotic parasite Sarcocystis suihominis, appears to be prevalent and widespread in feral pigs in the USA.

  9. [Control of toxicity of Sarcocystis fayeri in horsemeat by freezing treatment and prevention of food poisoning caused by raw consumption of horsemeat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Seiya; Furukawa, Masato; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Jiro; Saito, Morihiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Irikura, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    More than 27 outbreaks per year of food poisoning caused by consuming horse meat were reported in Kumamoto Prefecture (including Kumamoto City) from January 2009 to September 2011. It was found that the causative agent of the outbreaks was a protein with a molecular weight of 15 kDa that had originated from bradyzoites of Sarcocystis fayeri parasitizing the horse meat. Rabit ileal loop tests showed that pepsin treatment of homogenates of frozen horse meat containing the cysts of S. fayeri induced loss of toxicity, presumably by digestion of the proteinous causative agent(s). Slices of horse meat containing the cysts were frozen at below -20°C for various periods. The cysts were collected after thawing the slices, then treated in an artificial stomach juice containing pepsin. The bradyzoites of the cysts kept at -20°C for 48 hr or more completely disappeared. Simultaneously, the 15 kDa protein also disappeared in the frozen cysts. After notifying the public and recommending freezing treatment of horse meat, no subsequent cases of food poisoning were reported. This indicates that freezing of horse meat is effective to prevent the occurrence of food poisoning caused by consuming raw horse meat containing S. fayeri.

  10. The Neurona at Home project: Simulating a large-scale cellular automata brain in a distributed computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, L.; Villanueva-Oller, J.; Moraño, J. A.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) has become the standard open source solution for grid computing in the Internet. Volunteers use their computers to complete an small part of the task assigned by a dedicated server. We have developed a BOINC project called Neurona@Home whose objective is to simulate a cellular automata random network with, at least, one million neurons. We consider a cellular automata version of the integrate-and-fire model in which excitatory and inhibitory nodes can activate or deactivate neighbor nodes according to a set of probabilistic rules. Our aim is to determine the phase diagram of the model and its behaviour and to compare it with the electroencephalographic signals measured in real brains.

  11. Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, B

    1980-04-01

    Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) were conducted to determine host specificity of various stages of the parasite. Sporocysts were not passed by four dogs or four cats fed infected skeletal muscle from deer mice. Seven white mice (Mus musculus) and 34 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts following oral inoculation with S. idahoensis sporocysts; however, excystation of sporocysts occurred in two white-footed mice killed four hours post inoculation (PI). A gopher snake orally inoculated with sporocysts remained negative for coccidia for two months PI. Three deer mice orally inoculated and three intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with tachyzoites from liver meronts developed sarcocysts in their skeletal muscles similar to those seen in deer mice orally inoculated with sporocysts. Liver meronts were not found. Ten deer mice orally inoculated and 10 deer mice inoculated IP with bradyzoites from S. idahoensis sarcocysts remained negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts at necropsy 17 days PI.

  12. Ultrastructural studies of sarcocystis cruzi (Hasselmann,1926 Wenyon, 1926 infection in cattle (Bos Taurus: Philippine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claveria F.G

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the first report of Sarcocysli s cruzi infection in domesticated cattle (Bos taurus in the Philippines. Fusiformshaped microscopic sarcocysts (183-578 μm long and 20-98 μm wide with distinct septae were found in the skeletal, striated and heart muscle. The sarcocyst wall or parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, 1.37-2.75 μm thick consisted of closely-packed villar protrusions 80-400 nm in dm. Middle and distal segments of VP were bent approximately 90 degrees parallel to the cyst wall surface. The villar core lacked microtubules, and at some points, the distal ends of the VP collectively formed conical tufts. Primary cyst wall had numerous 70-100 nm bubble-like undulations, and the ground substance was 0.25-0.5 μm in thickness. The ultrastructure of S. cruzi cyst wall typifies the Type 7 sarcocyst wall, and bears close similarities with the Philippine and the Vietnam strain of bubaline Sarcocystis levinei.

  13. Sarcocystis schneideri n. sp. (Sarcocystidae) infecting the barber skink Eumeces schneideri schneideri (Scincidae) Daudin, 1802. A light and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Aal, Zain Abd; Maarouf, Wael; Morsy, Kareem; Al Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-06-01

    The current study provides the first record of infection with Sarcocystis species in the barber skink Eumeces schneideri schneideri (Scincidae) captured from the north region of Egypt around the cities of El-Hamam and Al-Dabaa, Mersa Matruh Governorate, Egypt. Morphology of the parasite cysts was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Five out of 80 (6.25%) of the examined skinks were found to be infected. The infection was recorded firstly by light microscopy as spindle-shaped cysts embedded in the muscle tissue. The cysts were microscopic and measured 250-900 μm in length × 50-100 μm in width (mean, 575 × 75 μm). The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.28 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and osmiophilic knob-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance measuring 0.15-0.17 μm (mean, 0.16 μm). This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 3-5 μm in length and 1.5-2.5 in width with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. The morphological and morphometric data obtained during study were compared with those recorded previously from organisms within the Scincidae family. It was observed that this parasite possessed some distinguishing characteristics from the comparable species, which should be considered as a new species of the Sarcocystis genus, and the proposed name was Sarcocystis schneideri n. sp. with new host and locality records in Egypt.

  14. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts.

  15. EFECTO DE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS COMPARTIMENTADOS POR NEURONAS Y ASTROCITOS, SOBRE LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE CALCIO EXTRA E INTRACELULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Guzmán de Aristizábal

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo de intercambio de sustratos entre neuronas y astrocitos, no es claro y menos claro es, si los efectos metabólicos en las células receptoras, son resultado de señalización por calcio. Se plantea la posibilidad de que existan señales entre neuronas y astrocitos que relacionen su funcionamiento metabólico a través de las concentraciones de calcio. La concentración de calcio se midió por absorción atómica en el medio intra y extracelular de cultivos primarios de neuronas y astrocitos y posteriormente en el medio intra y extracelular después de una hora de incubación con lactato, glutamato, glutamina y acetato a concentraciones fisiológicas. Las comparaciones estadísticas se efectuaron con ANOVA y Duncan (p < 0.05. Se hicieron 3 replicaciones de cada experimento con 5 repeticiones. Los resultados permiten afirmar que al hacer incubaciones in vitro con los sustratos, se producen variaciones en las concentraciones de calcio extra é intracelular. El estrés metabólico puede estar influyendo en estas variaciones. Adicionalmente, se demuestra que los astrocitos son menos dependientes del calcio extracelular que las neuronas. Las variaciones del calcio intracelular pueden incrementar el metabolismo de estas células y acelerar el metabolismo mitocondrial. Se postula que cambios en la concentración de calcio afectan el metabolis-mo de células excitables en incubaciones in vitro usando diferentes sustratos.

  16. Cross-sectional survey in pig breeding farms in Hesse, Germany: seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora caninum in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damriyasa, I.M.; Bauer, C.; Edelhofer, R.

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to estimate the prevalences of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (ELISA, IFAT), Sarcocystis spp. (ELISA, using S. miescheriana as antigen) and Neospora caninum (ELISA, immunoblotting) in sows from breeding farms in southern Hesse, Germany. A total of 2041 plas...

  17. Sarcocystis pantherophis, n. sp. from eastern rat snakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) definitive hosts and interferongamma gene knockout mice as experimental intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report a new species, Sarcocystis pantherophisi with the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) as natural definitive host and the interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mouse as the experimental intermediate host. Sporocysts (n=15) from intestinal contents of the snake were 17.3 x 10....

  18. In the United States, negligible rates of zoonotic sarcocystosis occur in feral swine that, by contrast, frequently harbor infections with Sarcocystis meischeriana, a related parasite contracted from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocysti...

  19. Occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris in regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi de determinar a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. albiventris e D. aurita em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, utilizou-se noventa e oito Didelphis mortos, sendo 66 D. aurita e 32 D. albiventris, e também 28 D. aurita e cinco D. albiventris vivos. O método de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose foi empregado para isolamento dos oocistos/esporocistos de Sarcocystis spp. do intestino delgado e das fezes. Encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. no intestino delgado de 9,1% dos D. aurita (6/66, sendo que quatro destes também houve positividade nas fezes. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre machos e fêmeas positivos (P= 0,522, e entre os positivos de diferentes origens do Estado de São Paulo (P= 0,627, quanto a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. Entretanto, houve diferença estatística significativa entre animais de vida livre e de cativeiro (P = 0.009, sendo que somente os de vida livre foram positivos. Entre adultos e filhotes positivos também houve diferença (P= 0,004, sendo os adultos mais parasitados que os filhotes. Das amostras provenientes dos 28 D. aurita vivos, encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. em 7.1% (2/28 deles. Dos 32 D. albiventris, todos foram negativos para Sarcocystis spp. nas amostras de intestino delgado e fezes. Os cincos D. albiventris vivos também foram negativos. Sendo assim, pode-se observar que a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. aurita e D. albiventris nestas três regiões do Estado de São Paulo é baixa para estas condições analisadas.

  20. Occurrence and first molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Romania: Public health significance of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Imre, Mirela; Ciontu, Cătălin; Chisăliță, Ion; Dudu, Andreea; Matei, Marius; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-03-01

    Domestic and wild pigs, as intermediate hosts, can harbor tissue cysts of three Sarcocystis species namely S. miescheriana, S. suihominis and S. porcifelis. Out of them, S. suihominis is zoonotic. Romania is a country with high consumption of raw and/or undercooked traditional pork products. This fact may greatly favor the acquiring of the zoonotic Sarcocystis infections by humans, as definitive host. Based on this consideration and in order to investigate the occurrence and public health significance of Sarcocystis spp. in two western counties (Caraş-Severin and Timiş) of Romania, a total of 165 heart samples from hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa, n=101) and home slaughtered domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, n=64) were screened using microscopic fresh examination and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 60.4% of wild boars, and 23.4% of domestic pigs. Genetic characterization of isolates through the PCR-RFLP procedure, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, was successfully achieved for all microscopically positive samples, indicating the presence of a single species, S. miescheriana, in both hosts. The identity of 13 selected S. miescheriana isolates was also confirmed through sequencing. The tested hosts older than 27 months were found to be significantly higher infected (p<0.05) with Sarcocystis than the 6 to ≤27months age group. Although the human infective S. suihominis has not been registered, for a more reliable epidemiological picture, further molecular studies enrolling a larger number of animals and diagnosis on human intestinal Sarcocystis infections are still necessary.

  1. A Survey on Sarcocystis Infection Rate in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep by Macroscopic Inspection and Pepsin Digestion Methods in Hamadan Abattoir, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parandin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: 130 heteroxenous species of sarcosytis with different life cycle and pathogenesis have been recognized. The pathogenic species for humans are S. hominis from cattle and S. suihominis from pig that humans are definitive and cattle and pig are intermedi-ate hosts. Some species of Sarcocystis can cause important economic loss and disease in livestock, and health issues in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered Cattle and sheep in Hamadan, west of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study a total of 324 cattle and 334 sheep carcasses were examined using naked eye inspection for macroscopic Sarcocysts, and digestion method, for microscopic types of parasite. Muscles from thigh, heart, tongue, esophagus, diaphragm and costal muscles were examined. All carcasses examined by naked eyes and tissues were minced and poured in digestion medium separately and sediment was examined microscopically. Results: The prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis in cattle was detected in 100% and there was no macroscopic cyst in examined carcasses. However, the prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis in the sheep was also 100% and the sarcocysts were found in the 48.34 % of esophagus and 29.49% of diaphragm muscles by naked eyes inspection. Conclusion: The digestion is found the most sensitive method for diagnosis of Sarcocystis. Al-though 100% of muscles were found infected but the majority of the cysts in the sheep and all in the cattle were as microcysts. That means, the meat should be cooked sufficiently irrespec-tive of meat inspection results. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 210-216

  2. Morphologic identification of a new Sarcocystis sp. in the common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus ) (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from Brolos Lake, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morsey, Ahmed; El-Seify, Mahmoud; Desouky, Abdel-Razik Y; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis species are among the most common and widespread protozoan parasites of mammals and birds. The current study provides the first record of infection with Sarcocystis species in the common moorhens from Brolos Lake, KafrElsheikh province, Egypt. Morphology of the parasite cysts was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Out of 25 examined birds, sarcocysts were found in neck, thigh, and legs muscles of two birds. The cysts were microscopic and measured 150-650 μm in length×45-185 μm in width. Histologically, the sarcocyst wall appeared striated and characterized by the presence of radial spines. Ultrastructurally, it measured 2-4.5 μm in thickness and had irregularly shaped crowded finger-like villar protrusions that measured 1.5-4 μm in length and up to 0.4-2 μm in width with the presence of dense electron ground substance of 200-750 nm thick. Several septa derived from the ground substance were present and divided the cyst into compartments containing both bradyzoites and metrocytes. The bradyzoites were banana-shaped and measured 6-12 × 1-2 μm with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. The ultrastructural features of the cyst wall belonged to type 10 cyst wall according the classification of Dubey et al. (1989) and Dubey and Odening (2001).

  3. EXPERIMENTOS CON UNA PROTECCION BASADA EN REDES DE NEURONAS ARTIFICIALES;EXPERIMENTS WITH A PROTECTION BASED ON ARTIFICIALS NEURONS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlys Ernesto - Torres Breffe y otros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de los experimentos físicos realizados con una protección basadatotalmente en Redes de Neuronas Artificiales para un transformador eléctrico a escala de laboratorio. Se demuestraque unas Redes de Neuronas Artificiales entrenadas, con datos provenientes de regímenes simuladosmatemáticamente, opera correctamente con señales de regímenes provenientes de casos reales, al menos a escalade laboratorio y con niveles reducidos de intensidad. Se describe la instalación experimental, tanto desde el puntode vista de hardware como software utilizando la tecnología de National Instrument. Se entrenan diferentes tipos deRedes Neuronales y todas aprendieron a proteger correctamente. Estos experimentos establecen las pautas para eldesarrollo de Relés Electrónicos Inteligentes que no se ajustarían, al menos con datos y valores de difícilcomprensión como los actuales relés, sino que se entrenarían una vez mediante la simulación matemática y laexperiencia práctica los haría cada vez mejores.In this work is shown the results of the physical experiments done with a protection totally based in Artificial NeuralNetworks for an electric transformer of the laboratory scale. Its demonstrated that some Artificial Neural Networkstrained with data coming from a mathematically simulated regimens, it operates correctly with signals coming fromreal cases, at least to laboratory scale and with reduced levels of intensity. The experimental installation is described,so much from the hardware and software point of view, using the technology of National Instrument. Different typesof Artificial Neural Nets are trained and all learned how to protect correctly. These experiments establish the rules forthe development of Intelligent Electronic Relays that would not be adjusted, at least with complex data and valueslike the current relays, they will be trained once from the mathematically simulation and the practical

  4. Neuronas Espejo: un nuevo camino dentro de las Neurociencias : Aportes y aplicaciones, en el área de la reeducación y la rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Cuadrado, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo, pretende sumergirse en el mundo de las Neuronas Espejo. Dichas neuronas fueron descubiertas por un equipo de Neurobiólogos Italianos, de la Universidad de Parma, en el año 1995. Es el ultimo "gran descubrimiento" que se ha hecho en el ámbito de las Neurociencias; tanto que hasta algunos especialistas han llegado a decir, que tal descubrimiento estaba llamado a desempeñar en las Neurociencias, un papel semejante al que había tenido en Biología, la decodificación de la e...

  5. Adaptación y modificaciones de corta y larga duración en la actividad eléctrica de neuronas de la corteza cerebral in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro Laseca, Rafael Jesús

    2017-01-01

    El sistema nervioso central lleva a cabo sus complejas funciones gracias a la actividad armónica de sus unidades básicas, las neuronas, que son células de una enorme sofisticación morfológica y funcional. Una neurona típica recibe decenas de miles de aferencias y es capaz de generar en cada instante la respuesta bioquímica y electrofisiológica adecuada que permite la transmisión a otras células de una información c...

  6. Regulación de las GTPasas de la familia Ras y la viabilidad de neuronas dopaminérgicas en respuesta a la señalización purinérgica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    158 p. El ATP es una molécula natural cuya liberación descontrolada puede elevar su concentración extracelular a rango mM y promover la estimulación de receptores purinérgicos. Se sabe que esta estimulación tiene efectos citotóxicos sobre las neuronas dopaminérgicas, aunque se desconocen los eventos moleculares a los que implica. La muerte de estas neuronas está íntimamente relacionada con la Enfermedad de Parkinson, ya que conlleva una disminución de la síntesis de dopamina y consecuente ...

  7. Neuronas Espejo: un nuevo camino dentro de las Neurociencias : Aportes y aplicaciones, en el área de la reeducación y la rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Cuadrado, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo, pretende sumergirse en el mundo de las Neuronas Espejo. Dichas neuronas fueron descubiertas por un equipo de Neurobiólogos Italianos, de la Universidad de Parma, en el año 1995. Es el ultimo "gran descubrimiento" que se ha hecho en el ámbito de las Neurociencias; tanto que hasta algunos especialistas han llegado a decir, que tal descubrimiento estaba llamado a desempeñar en las Neurociencias, un papel semejante al que había tenido en Biología, la decodificación de la e...

  8. Mieloencefalite protozoária eqüina (Relato de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Gonçalves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO :O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de mieloencefalite protozoária eqüina no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O diagnóstico se baseou nos sinais clínicos, no resultado positivo para anticorpos contra Sarcocystis neurona no soro e no líquor pela técnica de Western blot. Palavras chave: Mieloencefalite, Sarcocystis neurona, eqüinos. SUMMARY: The purpose of this work was to present a case of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The diagnosis was based on the clinical sings, the positive results of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid analysis (Western blot for antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona. Keywords: Myeloencephalitis, Sarcocystis neurona,

  9. Estudios del rol modulador de ghrelina sobre la actividad neuroendocrina: circuitos neuronales implicados en la activación de las neuronas CRF hipofisiotrópicas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral estudiamos los circuitos neuronales que median los efectos de la ghrelina sobre las neuronas CRF hipofisiotrópicas del NPV y el eje HHA. Esperamos que el esclarecimiento de estos circuitos pueda ayudar a entender cómo funcionan y cómo se integran la homeostasis energética y el estrés. Así como también, contribuir al desarrollo de futuras terapias que intenten manipular las acciones de la ghrelina. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

  10. Efecto del 3-nitropropionato sobre el metabolismo del lactato y del acetato en neuronas y astrocitos crecidos in vitro en concentraciones perinatales

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar-Franco, RJairo Alfonso; Grupo de Neurobioquímica. Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Cra. 7ª # 43-82, Bogotá D.C.; Criollo-Rayo, Ángel Alexandro; Departamento de Biología, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Tolima

    2009-01-01

    Las reacciones anapleróticas son un mecanismo metabólico esencial para la continuidad postnatal del desarrollo cerebral, contribuyendo en procesos que requieren sustratos sintetizados a partir de intermediarios del ciclo de Krebs, sin embargo, se desconoce su papel en el neonato durante la prelactancia. Objetivo. Estimar la capacidad anaplerótica de neuronas y astrocitos crecidos in vitro. Materiales y métodos. Se midió el efecto del 3-nitropropionato (3-NPA)(2 mM), un inhibidor de Succinato ...

  11. Estudio comparativo de la toxicidad del metilmercurio, cadmio (II) y cromo (VI) en cultivos primarios de neuronas y astrocitos de rata

    OpenAIRE

    V Uroz Martínez; MJ Anadón-Baselga; M. Capó-Martí

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende comparar la concentración letal 50 (CL , dosis que causa la muerte del 50% de las células) de 50 metilmercurio, cadmio (II) y cromo (VI) en cultivos primarios de corteza de rata. Se emplearon hemisferios cerebrales de rata para preparar los cultivos primarios. Los cultivos primarios de neuronas fueron realizados a partir de ratas Wistar de 14-16 días de gestación, usando el medio Eagle modificado por Dulbecco. Para los cultivos primarios de as...

  12. Análisis de las Propiedades Integrativas de las Neuronas de la Región Ventral de la Sustancia Gris Periacueductal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Diego

    2016-01-01

    La sustancia gris central periacueductal (SGC) se localiza entre el romboencéfalo y el diencéfalo. Sus neuronas, de un tamaño relativamente pequeño, están densamente empaquetadas rodeando al acueducto mesencefálico. En los roedores, la SGC comienza caudalmente por delante del locus coeruleus donde el acueducto de Silvio se abre al cuarto ventrículo. Rostralmente se extiende hasta la comisura posterior donde se mezcla con la sustancia gris aso...

  13. Estudio de migración de neuronas Pax6+ en el tálamo del pollo y del ratón

    OpenAIRE

    Domenech Hita, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVO GENERAL El objetivo general de esta tesis es la caracterización de la migración protagonizada por un conjunto de neuronas Pax6+ en el tálamo del pollo y del ratón y su análisis comparativo. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS Se utilizaron embriones de pollo (HH28 – HH38) para analizar mediante técnicas de inmunohistoquímica y de hibridación in situ con sondas de mRNA del gen Pax6 en secciones de vibratomo. También se llevaron a cabo marcajes mediante BDA y posterior cultivo organotípic...

  14. Caracterización de un modelo organotípico de cultivos de neuronas corticales de humano derivadas de trauma craneoencefálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Riascos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El trauma craneoencefálico (TEC es un problema de salud global que puede generar en los pacientes que lo padecen, muerte, discapacidad y/o alteraciones psiquiátricas con gran impacto sobre su desempeño posterior y sobre su ámbito familiar. En los últimos años se ha avanzado en el conocimiento de los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que subyacen al TCE. Sin embargo, esto no está completamente entendido, como tampoco hay claridad sobre los mecanismos de neuroprotección. Por esta razón cada vez más se buscan modelos que permitan aproximarse al estudio de este síndrome y de esta manera aproximarse a la neuroprotección.Objetivo: Caracterizar un modelo de cultivo organotípico de neuronas corticales humanas obtenidas de personas que sufrieron TCE y a las cuales se les practicó remoción de la contusión.Metodología: Se utilizó tejido cortical humano procedente de 4 individuos que sufrieron TCE y a los cuales se les removió la contusión. Se obtuvieron tajadas de corteza cerebral de 1,500-2,000 mm, las cuales se mantuvieron en un flujo continuo de LCRa a 2 ml/min y una mezcla gaseosa de O2 al 95% y CO2 al 5% con burbujeo permanente durante 2, 8 y 14 horas. Se tomó como tiempo cero el momento de obtención de la muestra. Después de cada tiempo se tomaron las tajadas, se cortaron en un vibrátomo de medio líquido a 50 mm y se procesaron inmunohistoquímicamente con los marcadores neuronales de degeneración NeuN y MAP2.Resultados: Los resultados indican que las muestras de corteza cerebral se pudieron mantener con cierto grado de integridad celular y laminar hasta las 2 horas de cultivo. Se observó que a partir de este tiempo se inicia un proceso de alteración de la citoarquitectura neuronal y laminar, determinada por la pérdida y alteración de la inmunorreactividad a los marcadores NeuN y MAP2. Además se encontró que hay vulnerabilidad celular que compromete en mayor medida a las neuronas localizadas en las l

  15. 化隆县家畜膈肌住肉孢子虫感染情况研究%Study on the Infection of Sarcocystis in Diaphragmatic Muscle of Yak and Sheep in Hualong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康明; 李英; 石文辉; 席进桂花

    2013-01-01

    [目的]摸清化隆县牦牛和绵羊住肉孢子虫的感染情况.[方法]采用膈肌压片镜检法,对青海省化隆县6个乡(镇)的牦牛和绵羊膈肌中住肉孢子虫的感染情况进行研究.[结果]化隆县牦牛和绵羊膈肌中住肉孢子虫的感染率分别为40%和93.3%,感染寄生强度分别为11和41 个/g肉样.化隆县牦牛和绵羊中住肉孢子虫的感染情况较为严重.[结论]该研究可为今后住肉孢子虫的防治提供科学依据.%[Objective] The research aimed to investigate the infection situation of Sarcocystis in yak and sheep in Hualong County. [Method] Using microscope examination method of pressed diaphragmatic muscle, the infection situations of Sarcocystis in diaphragmatic muscle of yak and sheep in six towns (countrysides) of Hualong County were studied. [Result] The infection rate of Sarcocystis in diaphragm muscle of yak and sheep in Hualong County were 40% and 93.3% respectively. And the intensity of infection were 11 and 41 worms in each gram of meat sample. The infection of Sarcocystis in yak and sheep was serious in Hualong County. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific basis for the control of Sarcocystis in future.

  16. Participación de los receptores muscarínicos en el efecto del β - amiloide (25-35) sobre las neuronas piramidales de la región CA3 del hipocampo. Estudio Electrofisiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria Castro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de esta Tesis Doctoral es estudiar el efecto del péptido β - amiloide (25 - 35) y sus mecanismos de acción en neuronas piramidales pertenecientes a la región CA3 del hipocampo de rata por medio de técnicas electrofisiológicas de registro intracelular. [EN] The overall objective of this Thesis is to study the effect of β peptide - amyloid (25 - 35) and their mechanisms of action in pyramidal neurons belonging to the region of rat hippocampal CA3 through electrophysi...

  17. Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Mawgood, Sahar Abdel

    2015-09-01

    A total of 33 macroscopically visible (3-11 × 1-5 mm) sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis were excised from the oesophagus of 12 freshly slaughtered water buffalos in Giza, Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were characterised at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing, whereas a few selected isolates were characterised at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit following cloning. Among the 33 cox1 sequences (1,038-bp long), there was a total of 13 haplotypes, differing from each other by one to seven substitutions and sharing an identity of 99.3-99.9 %. In comparison, the sequence identity was 98.8-99.0 % among eight complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (1,873-1,879-bp long), 98.1-100 % among 28 complete ITS1 sequences (853-864-bp long) and 97.4-99.6 % among five partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (1,607-1,622 bp). At the three nuclear loci, the intraspecific (and intra-isolate) sequence variation was due to both substitutions and indels, which necessitated cloning of the PCR products before sequencing. Some additional clones of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were highly divergent from the more typical clones, but the true nature of these aberrant clones could not be determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on either 18S rRNA gene or cox1 nucleotide sequences, placed S. fusiformis closest to Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo, but only the analyses based on cox1 data separated the two taxa clearly from each other and showed that they were separate species (monophyletic clusters and 93 % sequence identity at cox1 versus interleaved sequences and 98.7-99.1 % sequence identity at the 18S rRNA gene). Two cats experimentally infected with sarcocysts of S. fusiformis started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post-infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  20. First identification of Sarcocystis tenella (Railliet, 1886) Moulé, 1886 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) by PCR in naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Su, Chunlei; Langoni, Helio

    2009-11-12

    Sarcocystis tenella is a dog-sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. The present study was initially aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other Apicomplexa parasites in 602 Brazilian sheep. Twenty of these sheep were positive with antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and IFAT-IgG tests, positive with PCR-RFLP genotyping at multiple loci, and parasites were isolated from mice infected with sheep tissue samples. Two additional sheep born in Brazil, a 2-year-old female Polwarth (Ideal) sheep, a breed originated from Australia (#1), and a 1-year-old male Corriedale sheep, a breed originated from New Zealand and Australia (#2) were positive to T. gondii antibodies by serum tests, and PCR, but negative for bioassay in mice. In genotyping at 12 loci, sheep #1 sample and #2 presented positive results only for some markers. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) was performed in all 22 animals to identify the possibility of co-infection of T. gondii with other Apicomplexa parasites, such as S. tenella, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi, resulting in a T. gondii profile for the first 20 animals and a unique genotyping profile for sheep #1 and #2, identical to S. tenella. The 18S rRNA PCR products (approximately 310 bp) were sequenced and blasted to GenBank database at NCBI. Both samples were identical to S. tenella 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number L24383-1). These results suggest the existence of co-infection of S. tenella with T. gondii in ewes from Brazil.

  1. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  2. Enolasa específica de neurona en dos recién nacidos con depresión ligera al nacer Neuron- specific Enolase in two newborns presenting with moderate depression at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La enolasa específica de neurona es una isoenzima que se vierte al torrente sanguíneo después de un episodio de daño neuronal. En los procesos de hipoxia neonatal estos valores enzimáticos en suero suelen estar alterados. El objetivo del presente artículo fue estudiar la enolasa específica de neurona en suero de 2 recién nacidos con Apgar bajo y determinar si, en el seguimiento durante un año, dichos pacientes presentaban trastornos del desarrollo psicomotor. MÉTODOS. Se tomaron muestras de suero al momento del nacimiento y a las 72 h siguientes. Se determinaron los niveles de enolasa específica de neurona por un método inmunoenzimático de tipo ELISA. Cada muestra fue evaluada por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para citomegalovirus, en el Instituto de Inmunología de Wuersburg (Alemania. También se cuantificaron anticuerpos contra citomegalovirus de clase IgM e IgG, en el Laboratorio de Neuroquímica de la Universidad Georg August de Goettingen (Alemania. Se recogieron los datos clínicos de interés de cada recién nacido y al año se citaron a estos pacientes y se les realizó un examen físico para evaluar su neurodesarrollo. RESULTADOS. Las cifras de enolasa estuvieron incrementadas tanto al nacimiento como a las 72 h, con anticuerpos anticitomegalovirus de clase IgG que fueron transferidos de la madre a través de la placenta. No se encontró presencia de este virus en el momento del nacimiento. En el examen físico y neurológico realizado al año se constató que los niños evolucionaban satisfactoriamente hasta esa fecha. CONCLUSIONES. Se recomienda extender el estudio hasta los 3 años de vida y aumentar el número de pacientes estudiados, con énfasis en aquellos casos cuyo Apgar es menor de 5 a los 5 min del nacimiento.INTRODUCTION: Neuron-specific Enolase of is an isoenzyme present in blood stream after a neuronal damage episode. In processes of neonatal hypoxia, these enzymatic values

  3. Non increased neuron-specific enolase concentration in cerebrospinal fluid during first febrile seizures and a year follow-up in pediatric patients No incrementos en la concentración de enolasa específica de neurona en el líquido cefalorraquídeo durante el primer ataque febril y al año en pacientes pediátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO J. DORTA-CONTRERAS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the commonest acute neurological disorder of early childhood. Studies suggested that febrile seizures are previous acute events from a more serious neurological problem. Due to neuron-specific enolase is generally accepted as a marker for neuropathological processes in the brain, 16 pediatric patients were studied during their first seizures and a year after it. Neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and blood were analysed by an immune enzyme assay. Non pathological neuron-specific enolase values were obtained in both periods in the group of patients. There were no significative differences when paired series statistics test was performed with 95% of confidence. Neuron-specific enolase appears not to be a marker for febrile seizures because its concentration not be increased in cerebrospinal fluid in this group of patients.Los ataques febriles constituyen el trastorno neurológico agudo más común en la infancia temprana. Existen estudios que sugieren que los ataques febriles son eventos agudos previos a problemas neurológicos más severos. Debido a que la enolasa específica de neurona está aceptada generalmente como marcador de procesos neuropatológicos en el cerebro, se estudiaran 16 pacientes pediátricos durante su primer ataque y al año de este. La enolasa específica de neurona en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y sangre fue analizada por una prueba inmunoenzimática. No se obtuvieron valores patológicos de enolasa específica de neurona en ambos períodos en el grupo de pacientes. No hubo diferencias significativas al aplicar el test de series apareadas con un 95% de confianza. La enolasa específica de neurona parece no ser un marcador para ataques febriles porque su concentración no se incrementa en este grupo de pacientes.

  4. Gene Discovery in the Apicomplexa as Revealed by EST Sequencing and Assembly of a Comparative Gene Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Brunk, Brian P.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Pape, Deana; Tang, Keliang; Cole, Robert H.; Martin, John; Wylie, Todd; Dante, Mike; Fogarty, Steven J.; Howe, Daniel K.; Liberator, Paul; Diaz, Carmen; Anderson, Jennifer; White, Michael; Jerome, Maria E.; Johnson, Emily A.; Radke, Jay A.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Waterston, Robert H.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Roos, David S.; Sibley, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale EST sequencing projects for several important parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa were undertaken for the purpose of gene discovery. Included were several parasites of medical importance (Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii) and others of veterinary importance (Eimeria tenella, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum). A total of 55,192 ESTs, deposited into dbEST/GenBank, were included in the analyses. The resulting sequences have been clustered into nonredundant gene assemblies and deposited into a relational database that supports a variety of sequence and text searches. This database has been used to compare the gene assemblies using BLAST similarity comparisons to the public protein databases to identify putative genes. Of these new entries, ∼15%–20% represent putative homologs with a conservative cutoff of p neurona: , , , , , , , , , , , , , –, –, –, –, –. Eimeria tenella: –, –, –, –, –, –, –, –, – , –, –, –, –, –, –, –, –, –, –, –. Neospora caninum: –, –, , – , –, –.] PMID:12618375

  5. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  6. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  7. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  8. Prevalence of Muscular Sarcosporidiosis in Slaughtered Domestic Pigs in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Noorazmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2017-01-01

    Sarcosporidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites, namely, Sarcocystis spp. In pigs, three species of Sarcocystis spp. have been recognised, including Sarcocystis meischeriana, Sarcocystis porcifelis and Sarcocystis suihominis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of muscular sarcosporidiosis in pigs using the pepsin digestion technique. A total of 150 fresh heart, oesophagus and thigh muscle samples from 50 Yorkshire and Landrace pigs were collected from two local abattoirs in Perak from May to August 2014. All the fresh muscle samples were thoroughly examined for macrocyst-forming Sarcocystis spp. and processed using the peptic digestion technique to detect bradyzoites. The results from the muscle samples showed that 58% (29 out of 50) of the pigs were positive for Sarcocystis spp. These findings highlight the importance of implementing stringent measures for screening pigs in abattoirs for Sarcocystis spp. infection because this infection in pigs is a public health concern. PMID:28228924

  9. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  10. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  11. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  12. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  13. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  14. Neuronas espejo, intersubjetividad y desarrollo temprano

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Mauricio Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Clásicamente la capacidad que poseemos las personas, y algunos primates, para atribuir estados mentales (intenciones, deseos, creencias, etc.) se ha intentado explicar desde dos perspectivas. La primera de ellas, usualmente denominada inferencialista, asume que esta capacidad se basa en la capacidad de nuestro sistema cognitivo para realizar inferencias sobre los estados mentales propios y de las demás personas. La segunda, a la conocida como simulacionista, sostiene que nuestra capacidad par...

  15. Cytokine Gene Expression in Response to SnSAG1 in Horses with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer A.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Ellison, Siobhan E.; Bird, R. Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L.

    2005-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. β-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-γ production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease. PMID:15879026

  16. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  17. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  18. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  19. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  20. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  1. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  2. Including risk in the balanced scorecard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    iiSouthern African Business Review Special Edition Accounting Research 2015. Including risk in the .... customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives comprise ...... Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kaplan ...

  3. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  4. DISCOVERY OF THREE NOVEL COCCIDIAN PARASITES INFECTING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS), WITH EVIDENCE OF SEXUAL REPLICATION AND INTERSPECIES PATHOGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C.; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametocytes, macrogamonts) and asexual (schizonts, merozoites) coccidian stages were identified in enterocytes within parasitophorous vacuoles, consistent with apicomplexan development in a definitive host. Serology was negative for tissue cyst-forming coccidians, and immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was inconclusive and negative for Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of ITS-1 gene sequences amplified from frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal sections identified DNA sequences with closest homology to Neospora sp. (80%); these novel sequences were referred to as belonging to coccidian parasites ‘‘A,’’ ‘‘B,’’ and ‘‘C.’’ Subsequent molecular analyses completed on a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with protozoal lymphadenitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis showed that it was infected with a coccidian parasite bearing the ‘‘C’’ sequence type. Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species. PMID:21495828

  5. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Jang, Spencer S.; Dodd, Erin M.; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California’s sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health. PMID:19720009

  6. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  7. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  8. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  9. The Case for Strategies that Include Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Case for Strategies that Include Men. Denise M Roth and .... one set of approaches advocated using medical cri- teria to identify and ... planning, offering services for the prevention and ..... are equipped with the basic minimum needed to respond to ..... Lane SD Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in ...

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  11. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi

  12. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  13. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  14. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  15. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  16. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  18. Opioid dependence treatment, including buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Dennis W; Fye, Carol L; Boardman, Kathy D; Sather, Mike R

    2002-02-01

    To review opioid dependence (OD) and its treatment. Pharmacologic treatments, including the use of buprenorphine/naloxone, are presented. Pharmaceutical care functions for outpatient OD treatment are discussed. Primary and review articles were identified by MEDLINE and HEALTHSTAR searches (from 1966 to November 2000) and through secondary sources. Tertiary sources were also reviewed regarding general concepts of OD and its treatment. Relevant articles were reviewed after identification from published abstracts. Articles were selected based on the objectives for this article. Studies of the treatment of OD with buprenorphine were selected based on the topic (pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions) and study design (randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with OD with active/placebo comparisons and/or comparisons of active OD treatments). Articles regarding pharmacists' activities in the treatment and prevention of OD were reviewed for the pharmaceutical care section. OD is considered a medical disorder with costly adverse health outcomes. Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is cost-effective for OD, only about 12% of individuals with OD receive this treatment. Psychological and pharmacologic modalities are used to treat OD, but patients often relapse. Drug therapy includes alpha 2-agonists for withdrawal symptoms, detoxification regimens with or without opioids, opioid antagonists, and opioid replacement including methadone, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 1999 allows for office-based opioid replacement therapies. Sublingual buprenorphine with naloxone can be used in this milieu. Buprenorphine with naloxone is currently under new drug application review with the Food and Drug Administration. Clinical research shows buprenorphine to be equal in effectiveness to methadone, but safer in overdose due to its ceiling effect on respiratory depression. It has lower abuse potential and fewer

  19. Inmunomarcación de neuronas dopaminérgicas en cortes flotantes de hipotálamo de rata: preservación alternativa del tejido nervioso antes del corte Immunohistochemical Studies Of Dopaminergic Neurons On Free Floating Sections: Alternative Cryopreservation Method Of Nervous Tissue Before Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cholich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio inmunohistoquímico de la enzima tirosina hidroxilasa (marcador de neuronas dopaminérgicas en el hipotálamo de ratas Wistar machos adultas en cortes flotantes de muestras fijadas por perfusión. Debido a que el número de cerebros que se procesaron fue superior al número que pueden ser cortados inmediatamente, el material debió almacenarse congelando los cerebros enteros a -80ºC. Pero por un desperfecto técnico del equipo de refrigeración, las muestras debieron trasladarse a -20ºC resultando en el deterioro de las mismas. Ante este inconveniente, los sucesivos cerebros fueron almacenados en sacarosa al 30% p/v en buffer fosfato salino (PBS con 0,01% de azida sódica y mantenidos a 4ºC durante tiempos variables (de semanas a meses hasta ser congelados con gas clorofluorado y cortados. Estos cerebros no mostraron alteración en la estructura morfológica del tejido. Esta metodología de preservación aquí descrita sería una alternativa de elección válida para aquellos laboratorios que no cuenten con un equipo de refrigeración de -80ºC.In central nervous system histological studies, free-floating sections of perfusion-fixed samples are frequently used. Samples storage may be performed freezing either the entire brain at -80ºC or sections at -20ºC. When studying hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme (dopaminergic neurons marker by immunohistochemistry in adult male Wistar rats, entire brains were stored at -80ºC. Due to an abrupt freezer technical failure, samples should be thawed to -20ºC with the resulting samples damage. To avoid this situation, subsequent brains were stored in 30% sucrose in saline phosphate buffer (PBS with 0.01% sodium azide and kept at 4ºC for different periods (weeks to months until they were frozen with chlorofluorade gas and cut. These brains showed no morphological alterations of tissue structure. This preservation method appeared to be an alternative valid option to

  20. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  1. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  2. Protozoal Meningoencephalitis in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Naturally Occuring Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, R.A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  3. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  4. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  5. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  6. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.

    2010-11-01

    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  7. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  8. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  10. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  11. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  12. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  13. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  14. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  15. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  17. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  18. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  19. Imaging of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Baraliakos, X

    2011-03-01

    New bone formation of the vertebral column is pathognomonic for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while acute and/or chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints are relevant for diagnosis. The 'gold standard' for assessment of structural changes in AS are conventional radiographs, while MRI is useful to assess inflammation. Recent MRI studies have shown that the lower half of the thoracic spine is most commonly affected in AS. Scoring tools for spinal inflammation such as the ASspiMRI-a have been proposed, successfully used in large clinical trials and compared in a multireader experiment; none was finally preferred by OMERACT. Quantification of structural spinal AS changes is performed by the modified Stokes AS Spine Score (mSASSS), which evaluates lateral cervical and lumbar radiographs. Two years was identified as the shortest possible follow-up time based on the reliability and sensitivity to change of the mSASSS. A potential disadvantage of the mSASSS is that the thoracic spine is not included. Recent data based on the mSASSS have suggested that tumour necrosis factor blockers do not inhibit radiographic progression in AS. Since the mean radiographic change is reported to be less than 1 syndesmophyte over 2 years, the sensitivity to change of the mSASSS has been questioned. However, in one study where continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was compared with on-demand use, a difference between these two methods of drug intake was reported. The face and construct validity of the mSASSS has been criticised because a score of ´1´ contains a mixture of osteodestructive (erosions) and osteoproliferative changes (squaring and sclerosis). A new scoring system, the RASSS, which concentrates only on bone formation and which includes the lower part of the thoracic spine is currently being evaluated. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in AS has recently been investigated. Low sclerostin and DKK-1 serum levels, both inhibitors of bone

  20. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  1. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, F; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10 % of each other at K>3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/i...

  2. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  3. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series.

  4. Locomotive Assignment Optimization Including Train Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intention– Cyclic locomotive assignment planning is a specific type of organization of locomotive usage, and in fact, it means putting the complete workload to a closed chain, which is repeated periodically. The concept of cyclic locomotive assignment planning type organization in the area of train traction has proven in practice as the best one, but as it is made for in-advance defined timetable and without considering the stochastic nature of the timetable realization process, it leads to incompatibility in using locomotives. Methodology – Methodology defined in this paper contains: research of train delays on the Serbian Railways and Montenegrin Railways networks, analysis of the real system organization of locomotive usage in conditions of train delays, theoretical thesis of solving the problem of optimal cyclic locomotive assignment planning in conditions of train delays, designing of a model with algorithms, preparing the software package, testing the model and program with results, as well as the conclusions drawn from the complete research project. Results– The optimization model of cyclic locomotive assignment planning during the process of making timetable including train delays has been defined. Conclusion –The obtained results have shown as expected, that the larger delays of trains required a larger number of locomotives. However, by using this model it is possible to optimize the required number of locomotives, taking into account the real time delays of trains.

  5. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  6. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  7. Correspondence between future-included and future-not-included theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time $T_B$ and the past state at time $T_A$ as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time $t$ of a future-included theory for large $T_B-t$ and large $t-T_A$ corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large $t-T_A$. This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

  8. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  9. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Toxoplasmatinae: comparison between inferences based on mitochondrial and apicoplast genetic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Klein Sercundes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phylogenies within Toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. Here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpC and beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB, and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome B (cytB were analyzed. Laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona were investigated, along with Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (strains RH, CTG and PTG, Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondiand two genetically divergent lineages of Hammondia heydorni. The molecular analysis based on organellar genes did not clearly differentiate between N. caninum and N. hughesi, but the two lineages of H. heydorni were confirmed. Slight differences between the strains of S. falcatula and S. neurona were encountered in all markers. In conclusion, congruent phylogenies were inferred from the three different genes and they might be used for screening undescribed sarcocystid parasites in order to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships with organisms of the family Sarcocystidae. The evolutionary studies based on organelar genes confirm that the genusHammondia is paraphyletic. The primers used for amplification of clpC and rpoB were able to amplify genetic sequences of organisms of the genus Sarcocystisand organisms of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae as well.

  11. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Compartir On this Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease is usually diagnosed with one ...

  13. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  14. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  15. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  17. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  20. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../services, including Child Protection, and/or establishing Multi-Disciplinary Teams. (b) Must include, where... circumstances and abilities and the extent to which the account holder needs assistance in managing his or her financial affairs; and (2) Managing supervised IIM accounts of children and adults (in conjunction with...

  1. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  2. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  3. Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

  4. Including Students with Disabilities. ERIC Mini-Bib EB14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 19 publications to help educators more effectively include students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The publications, including books, journal articles, videotapes, and reports, are dated from 1993 through 1999, and most are available through the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)…

  5. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  6. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  7. Thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-03-07

    A thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactor includes a multi-flight auger having different helix portions having different pitch. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor portions between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between portions during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat.

  8. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... U.S. Morbidity Number of adults with diagnosed chronic bronchitis in the past year: 9.3 million Percent ...

  10. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  11. Should LSP Dictionaries also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional slang, as popular names for items of nomenclature, and also as trade names. ... and animals), in chemistry (the periodical system of elements, or the IUPAC .... includes new coinages from business journals and journalists' jargon which.

  12. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  13. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  14. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  16. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  17. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stick to a healthy meal plan. Artificial sweeteners Examples of artificial sweeteners include: Acesulfame potassium (Sunett, ... can cause diarrhea in some people. Naturally derived sweeteners Naturally derived sweeteners, stevia (Truvia, PureVia) and agave ...

  18. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... abuse, and are at higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including. HIV.[2] Because of mistrust in the ... [5,6] In countries where legislation penalises .... HIV/ STI risks. Discuss health prevention needs of transgender men.

  19. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  20. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  1. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  2. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  3. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  4. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  5. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    asymmetries. The paper contributes theoretically in its innovative use of perspectivist theory in relation to text, and in identifying that the insights of polyocularity could valuably inform a new health communication paradigm, as current health communication paradigms do not fully recognize patients......Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper......’ perspectives. Apart from its theoretical contributions, the paper includes guidelines to support the production of PILs where patients’ perspectives are included. The guidelines are informed by practices that have characterised previous polyocular communication events, as well as research into how to maximize...

  6. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  7. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  9. Seismic Response of Wind Turbines: Time Domain Simulations Including SSI

    OpenAIRE

    Amdal, Åse Marit Wist

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a 5MW offshore wind turbine on a monopile foundation was created in order to calculate the dynamic response of the structure including soil-structure interaction. The main focus was to develop a reliable numerical model of the coupled system - including the tower, monopile foundation and the surrounding soil. The wind turbine was subjected to earthquake load in the time-domain. The global response of the wind turbine was compared for the two prevalent meth...

  10. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  11. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  12. Six-dimensional beam-beam kick including coupled motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. A. Leunissen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The six-dimensional beam-beam interaction as developed in 1992 by Hirata, Moshammer, and Ruggiero has been extended to include linear coupled motion and an arbitrary crossing plane. The technique of symplectic mapping in the six-dimensional phase space, called synchrobeam mapping, is applied to investigate the beam-beam kick within a solenoid. A linear beam-beam model including coupling is discussed in detail, also in the framework of a six-dimensional symplectic dispersion formalism.

  13. The Future of Constitutionally Required Lesser Included Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Hoffheimer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For over a generation courts have recognized that failing to instruct juries on lesser included offenses results in wrongful convictions. In Beck v. Alabama, the Supreme Court held that in capital cases juries must be instructed on the option of returning convictions of non-capital lesser included offenses. The Court explained that this right prevents juries from being forced to make all-or-nothing choices between guilt and innocence in cases where serious crimes have been committed and pressures to convict of some crime are great.

  14. Should Listening and Speaking be included in a Language Test?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.

  15. Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...

  16. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  17. A Reactive Behavior Agent: Including Emotions into a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Laureano-Cruces

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Why we have emotions and how they influence human behavior are two questions we constantly ask ourselves.According to researchers in the field, there are two kinds of information that the person receives to make a decision.This information is integrated to generate a whole. One comes from ourselves it is proprioceptive and refers toemotions; the other one is external, it comes from the environment. Thus, emotions are immersed in different areas ofa person’s life, including social, functional, and cognitive aspects. It has an important role in the decision-makingprocess. It is on this last point that this paper focuses its approach, which consists of including a cognitive structure ofemotions in a reactive behavior in order to enrich behavior, including the information generated through internalevaluation of the external physical stimuli. Our work is based on the OCC theory (named after the name of its authors:Ortony, Collins and Clore. This theory proposes that a decision-making process is affected through differentperspectives: a goals and events, b agents and their actions, and c objects and their capacity for attraction. Thecase study is situated within a scenario that represents an approach that seeks to include a module of emotions withinthe design of the architecture of a videogame.

  18. The Subjectivities of "Included" Students with Disabilities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The contextual precept of this paper is to re-theorise inclusive education beyond technical rational solutions to the "problem" of disability. Drawing on Foucauldian and critical disability theories, I make the case for the analysis of inclusive schooling through the lens of students' "included" subjectivities--notwithstanding…

  19. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  20. Understanding heat transfer in 2D channel flows including recirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Stigter, J.D.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inviscid, irrotational two-dimensional flows can be modelled using the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral. Although bounded flows including boundary layer separation and recirculation are not irrotational, a model is presented that uses the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral to model these flows. The model sepa

  1. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  2. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  3. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  4. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  5. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  6. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  7. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper...

  8. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data (such as service area, geographical characteristics, customer mix, historical loads, projected... consumer. (iii) Considerations that may be used to develop potential options include cost, market potential... customer must make the load forecasting data available to Western upon request. (6) Measurement...

  9. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  10. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220.114 Section 220.114 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  11. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25.1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones: regions included. 29.1181 Section 29.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other combustion equipment installation described in § 29.859; (6...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23.1181 Section 23.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., turbine, and tailpipe sections. (c) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; and (d) Any fuel-burning heater...

  15. The International Project 1992 Update Including "Microfilming Projects Abroad."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutimann, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Describes microfilming projects in 30 countries collected from questionnaire responses. Additional topics discussed include cooperative programs for preservation and access; an overview of national programs; mass deacidification; new technologies, such as digital preservation; microfilming projects abroad; and future priorities. (Contains 10…

  16. Thick Plate Homogenization of Sandwich Panels Including Folded Cellular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEE, Arthur; Sab, Karam

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we provide the Bending-Gradient homogenization scheme and apply it to a sandwich panel including the chevron pattern. It turns out that the shear forces stiffness of the sandwich panel is strongly influenced by a skin distortion phenomenon which cannot be neglected in conventional design.

  17. The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire [Including Supporting and Technical Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire (IIQ) is a student rating form designed to provide evaluative feedback to instructors about their teaching. The IIQ was first developed at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1969 and revised in 1972. The documents included here describe the development of the IIQ and research associated with…

  18. 30 CFR 250.211 - What must the EP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the EP include? 250.211 Section 250.211 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary...

  19. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  20. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  1. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  2. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  3. /facet: A Generic Facet Browser Including Temporal and Spatial Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.

    2007-01-01

    A generic facet browser including temporal and spatial visualization. The existing MultimediaN Eculture demo is updated in two ways: improved visualization of the semantic timeline and added a natural language sentence generator for cluster headers. Relation search interface is also implemente

  4. 31 CFR 306.87 - Partnerships (including nominee partnerships).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partnerships (including nominee partnerships). 306.87 Section 306.87 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  5. Computer aided design of reentrant coaxial filters including coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boria, V.; Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced EM based CAD tool is used for the detailed characterisation of a family of reentrant coaxial waveguide filters. The EM analysis includes the effects of tuning screws and of the input/output coaxial excitation. The software is essentially used as an efficient replacement for the tradition

  6. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  7. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, J M; Nalbant, H; Bulut, A; Sahip, Y

    2001-11-01

    In this article we present the results of three studies investigating methods for including men in antenatal education in Istanbul, Turkey. Participants were first-time expectant parents living in low and middle-income areas. After a formative study on the roles of various family members in health during the period surrounding a first birth, an antenatal-clinic-based education programme for women and for couples was carried out as a randomised, controlled study. Based on the results, separate community-based antenatal education programmes for expectant mothers and expectant fathers were tested. There was demand among many pregnant women and some of their husbands for including expectant fathers in antenatal education. In the short term, these programmes seemed to have positive effects on women and men's reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In the clinic-based programme the positive effects of including men were mainly in the area of post-partum family planning, while in the community-based programme positive effects among men were also seen in the areas of infant health, infant feeding and spousal communication and support. Free antenatal education should be made available to all expectant mothers and when possible, men should be included, either together with their wives or in a culture such as that of Turkey, in separate groups.

  8. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  9. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  10. Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Dankel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.

  11. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  12. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  13. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K-J; Shvyd' ko, Yuri

    2010-08-23

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  14. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  15. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  16. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  17. Outcomes Among Pregnant Women Included in the Operation TOMODACHI Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    Table 1 shows the status of potentially-exposed pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes include live delivery, spontaneous loss, and induced abortion ...birth defects, which are defined according to the Case Definition of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.3 Additional uses for these data...pregnancy outcome in the electronic medical data/records. Overall, the live delivery rates are quite high and the spontaneous loss rates are quite

  18. Rehabilitation of a triple amputee including a hip disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C I; Kim, Y C; Jang, S H; Bang, I K; Shin, J S

    1998-12-01

    A multiple amputee more severe than a triple amputee is uncommon. There have been no reports on the rehabilitation outcome of a triple amputee, including hip disarticulation and transtibial amputation. The authors report the rehabilitation of a patient with left hip disarticulation, right trans-tibial amputation, and left trans-humeral amputation due to a train accident. He has successfully completed the rehabilitation programme and has become independent in prosthetic ambulation, activities of daily living, and driving.

  19. Search for BSM physics including dark matter at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Xiangyang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased centre-of-mass energy of the proton-proton collisions of the LHC run 2 gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of particles not foreseen by the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on BSM searches. Although the focus is on searches for production of DM particles, results include searches for heavy resonances in many final states and for production of supersymmetric particles.

  20. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  1. Circuit Modeling of a MEMS Varactor Including Dielectric Charging Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giounanlis, P.; Andrade-Miceli, D.; Gorreta, S.; Pons-Nin, J.; Dominguez-Pumar, M.; Blokhina, E.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical models for MEMS varactors including the effect of dielectric charging dynamics are not available in commercial circuit simulators. In this paper a circuit model using lumped ideal elements available in the Cadence libraries and a basic Verilog-A model, has been implemented. The model has been used to simulate the dielectric charging in function of time and its effects over the MEMS capacitance value.

  2. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  3. Tuneable photonic device including an array of metamaterial resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Wanke, Michael; Benz, Alexander

    2017-03-14

    A photonic apparatus includes a metamaterial resonator array overlying and electromagnetically coupled to a vertically stacked plurality of quantum wells defined in a semiconductor body. An arrangement of electrical contact layers is provided for facilitating the application of a bias voltage across the quantum well stack. Those portions of the semiconductor body that lie between the electrical contact layers are conformed to provide an electrically conductive path between the contact layers and through the quantum well stack.

  4. An Axisymmetrical Acoustic BEM Formulation Including Visco-Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dimensions. However, this is not usually true for small devices such as microphones, hearing aids, couplers, MEMS devices, mobile phones, etc., and then the losses need to be modeled. In this paper a numerical implementation of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) which includes visco-thermal losses...... of the boundary into elements is adequate and the problem has a manageable size. The method can be extended to full three-dimensional BEM....

  5. Chiral-scale effective theory including a dilatonic meson

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan-Ling; Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    A scale-invariant chiral effective Lagrangian is constructed for octet pions and a dilaton figuring as Nambu-Goldstone bosons with vector mesons incorporated as hidden gauge fields. The Lagrangian is built to the next-to-leading order in chiral-scale counting without baryon fields and then to leading order including baryons. The resulting theory is hidden scale-symmetric and local symmetric. We also discuss some possible applications of the present Lagrangian.

  6. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    CERN Document Server

    Spitoni, E

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies, and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if co...

  7. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  8. Transport Phenomena in Thin Rotating Liquid Films Including: Nucleate Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir

    2005-01-01

    In this grant, experimental, numerical and analytical studies of heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk have been conducted. Heat transfer coefficients were measured experimentally in a rotating disk heat transfer apparatus where the disk was heated from below with electrical resistance heaters. The heat transfer measurements were supplemented by experimental characterization of the liquid film thickness using a novel laser based technique. The heat transfer measurements show that the disk rotation plays an important role on enhancement of heat transfer primarily through the thinning of the liquid film. Experiments covered both momentum and rotation dominated regimes of the flow and heat transfer in this apparatus. Heat transfer measurements have been extended to include evaporation and nucleate boiling and these experiments are continuing in our laboratory. Empirical correlations have also been developed to provide useful information for design of compact high efficiency heat transfer devices. The experimental work has been supplemented by numerical and analytical analyses of the same problem. Both numerical and analytical results have been found to agree reasonably well with the experimental results on liquid film thickness and heat transfer Coefficients/Nusselt numbers. The numerical simulations include the free surface liquid film flow and heat transfer under disk rotation including the conjugate effects. The analytical analysis utilizes an integral boundary layer approach from which

  9. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  10. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  11. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  12. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  13. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  14. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  15. We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-03-23

    The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.

  16. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  17. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  18. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  19. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  20. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  1. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize t...

  2. Harmonic measure for percolation and ising clusters including rare events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David A; Sander, Leonard M; Ziff, Robert M

    2008-10-03

    We obtain the harmonic measure of the hulls of critical percolation clusters and Ising-model Fortuin-Kastelyn clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities as small as 10{-300}. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our results for external hulls agree with Duplantier's theoretical predictions for D(q) and his exponent -23/24 for the harmonic measure probability distribution for percolation. For the complete hull, we find the probability decays with an exponent of -1 for both systems.

  3. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, M

    2014-01-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  4. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  5. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...

  6. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  7. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  8. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  9. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  10. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  11. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  12. Remote observations of reentering spacecraft including the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Cagle, Melinda F.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Gibson, David M.

    Flight measurement is a critical phase in development, validation and certification processes of technologies destined for future civilian and military operational capabilities. This paper focuses on several recent NASA-sponsored remote observations that have provided unique engineering and scientific insights of reentry vehicle flight phenomenology and performance that could not necessarily be obtained with more traditional instrumentation methods such as onboard discrete surface sensors. The missions highlighted include multiple spatially-resolved infrared observations of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during hypersonic reentry from 2009 to 2011, and emission spectroscopy of comparatively small-sized sample return capsules returning from exploration missions. Emphasis has been placed upon identifying the challenges associated with these remote sensing missions with focus on end-to-end aspects that include the initial science objective, selection of the appropriate imaging platform and instrumentation suite, target flight path analysis and acquisition strategy, pre-mission simulations to optimize sensor configuration, logistics and communications during the actual observation. Explored are collaborative opportunities and technology investments required to develop a next-generation quantitative imaging system (i.e., an intelligent sensor and platform) with greater capability, which could more affordably support cross cutting civilian and military flight test needs.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  14. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  15. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFotis, G. C.; Van Dongen, M. J.; Hampton, A. S.; Komatsu, C. H.; Trowell, K. T.; Havas, K. C.; Davis, C. M.; DeSanto, C. L.; Hays, K.; Wagner, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, Tmax and χmax, ordering temperatures Tc, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that Tmax of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD2O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser Tmax than do nH2O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr2·2D2O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr2·2H2O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these.

  16. A Mixed Mode Cochlear Amplifier Including Neural Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Matthew R.; Holmes, W. Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model is derived from the physiology of the cochlea. It is comprised of three main elements of the peripheral hearing system: the cochlear mechanics, hair cell motility, and neurophysiology. This model expresses both active compression wave and active traveling wave modes of operation. The inclusion of a neural loop with a time delay, and a new paradigm for the mechanical response of the outer hair cells, are believed to be unique features of the MMCA. These elements combine to form an active feedback loop to constitute the cochlear amplifier, whose input is a passive traveling wave vibration. The result is a cycle-by-cycle amplifier with nonlinear response. This system can assume an infinite number of different operating states. The stable state and the first few amplitude-limited unstable (Hopf-bifurcated) states are significant in describing the operation of the peripheral hearing system. A hierarchy of models can be constructed from this concept, depending on the amount of detail included. The simplest model of the MMCA is a nonlinear delay line resonator. It was found that even this simple MMCA version can explain a large number of hearing phenomena, at least qualitatively. This paper concentrates on explaining the fractional octave shift from the living to postmortem response in terms of the new model. Other mechanical, hair cell and neurological phenomena can also be accounted for by the MMCA, including two-tone suppression behavior, distortion product responses, otoacoustic emissions and neural spontaneous rates.

  17. Kabuki syndrome: expanding the phenotype to include microphthalmia and anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Banka, Siddharth; Reardon, William

    2015-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic malformation syndrome that is characterized by distinct facies, structural defects and intellectual disability. Kabuki syndrome may be caused by mutations in one of two histone methyltransferase genes: KMT2D and KDM6A. We describe a male child of nonconsanguineous Irish parents presenting with multiple malformations, including bilateral extreme microphthalmia; cleft palate; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; duplex kidney; as well as facial features of Kabuki syndrome, including interrupted eyebrows and lower lid ectropion. A de-novo germline mutation in KMT2D was identified. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal mutations in any of the known microphthalmia/anopthalmia genes. We also identified four other patients with Kabuki syndrome and microphthalmia. We postulate that Kabuki syndrome may produce this type of ocular phenotype as a result of extensive interaction between KMT2D, WAR complex proteins and PAXIP1. Children presenting with microphthalmia/anophthalmia should be examined closely for other signs of Kabuki syndrome, especially at an age where the facial gestalt might be less readily appreciable.

  18. Evaluation of FEMA-440 for including soil-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khoshnoudian F.; Behmanesh I.

    2010-01-01

    Replacing the entire soil-structure system with a fixed base oscillator to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a common analysis method in seismic design. This technique has been included in design procedures such as NEHRP, ASCE, etc. By defining an equivalent fundamental period and damping ratio that can modify the response of the structure. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of SSI should be reconsidered when a structure undergoes a nonlinear displacement demand. In recent documents on Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs), FEMA-440 (2005), a modified damping ratio of the replacement oscillator was proposed by introducing the ductility of the soil-structure system obtained from pushover analysis. In this paper, the damping defined in FEMA-440 to include the soil-structure interaction effect is evaluated, and the accuracy of the Coefficiem Method given in FEMA-440 and the Equivalent Linearization Method is studied. Although the improvements for Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs) in FEMA-440 are achieved for a fixed base SDOF structure, the soil effects are not perfectly obtained. Furthermore, the damping definition of a soil-structure system is extended to structures to consider bilinear behavior.

  19. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  20. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  1. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  2. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-03-29

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker–Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas.Phys. Plasmas23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time

  3. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  4. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  5. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  6. Linearizing neutrino evolution equations including neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Väänänen, D

    2013-01-01

    We linearize the neutrino mean-field evolution equations describing the neutrino propagation in a background of matter and of neutrinos, using techniques from many-body microscopic approaches. The procedure leads to an eigenvalue equation that allows to identify instabilities in the evolution, associated with a change of the curvature of the neutrino energy-density surface. Our result includes all contributions from the neutrino Hamiltonian and is generalizable to linearize the equations of motion at an arbitrary point of the evolution. We then consider the extended equations that comprise the normal mean field as well as the abnormal mean field that is associated with neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations. We first re-derive the extended neutrino Hamiltonian and show that such a Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by introducing a generalized Bogoliubov transformation with quasi-particle operators that mix neutrinos and antineutrinos. We give the eigenvalue equations that determine the energies of the quasi...

  7. Floating-point systolic array including serial processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeland, S.B.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes, in a systolic array system utilizing a plurality of semiconductor chips, a semiconductor chip. It comprises: a plurality of processing elements each including a floating-point serial processor and a plurality of data storage registers; global bus means coupled to the serial processor of each of the plurality of processing elements for inputing and outputing data to and from each chip and for programming each serial processor; and a plurality of data buses coupled to each of the plurality of data storage registers of each of the plurality of processing elements. The global bus means being coupled to the plurality of data storage registers for programming the data storage registers.

  8. Goldilocks Models of Higher-Dimensional Inflation (including modulus stabilization)

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mechanics of inflation in simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like in that they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size, yet simple enough to solve the full 6D field equations using basic tools. The solutions are not limited to the effective 4D regime with H m_KK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict eta ~ 0 hence n_s ~ 0.96 and r ~ 0.096 and so are ruled out if tensor modes remain unseen. Analysis of general parameters is difficult without a full 6D fluctuation calculation.

  9. Gravitational solutions, including radiation, for a perturbed light beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nackoney, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    Linearized field equations and solutions are derived for a perturbed sheet beam of light. The work is based on an exact solution of a collimated beam in the geometrical limit. The linearized field changes of the initially curved background metric can be put, with the help of the harmonic conditions, into a normal coordinate form. These six normal coordinates satisfy six linearized, inhomogeneous, field equations in three variables. Stationary solutions include divergent beams. Gravitational waves propagating opposite to the beam's flux are found to be confined to a region about the propagation axis of the beam, much as is experienced in wave guides. Radiative cases can be produced by large angle scattering of light and are discussed in terms of their effect on an ideal optical antenna. The effect is one that grows linearly with time. The growth time is prohibitively long for the most energetic systems that can be realistically considered in the foreseeable future.

  10. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the along-wind forced vibration response of an onshore wind turbine. The study includes the dynamic interaction effects between the foundation and the underlying soil, as softer soils can influence the dynamic response of wind turbines. A Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF...... rotational speed (3P effects). The effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction on the rotation of the foundation has also been investigated.......) horizontal axes onshore wind turbine model is developed for dynamic analysis using an Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model is comprised of a rotor blade system, a nacelle and a flexible tower connected to a foundation system using a substructuring approach. The rotor blade system consists of three rotating...

  12. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  13. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  14. Oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

  15. Precision Obesity Treatments Including Pharmacogenetic and Nutrigenetic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Ramirez, Maria J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  17. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  18. Optimising the composition of natural moulding sands including thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy St. Kowalski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the choice of the moulding sand mixture composition in terms of the sand behaviour in contact withmolten metal. Studies of high-temperature phenomena make assessment of the sand composition applicability under real operatingconditions possible, thus leading to the elimination of sand-originating casting defects. The research was conducted on selected moulding materials included in the composition of traditional moulding sand mixtures without the addition of carbon. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress-induced allotropic changes of quartz was examined. The analysis of these phenomena was based on 3D charts and maps generated from data collected during the tests.

  19. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P.J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  20. A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J

    2005-01-01

    Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes.

  1. About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries The article discusses the problem of ambiguity of the exponents of logical existential quantification occurring in the verbal group of Bulgarian, Polish and Russian sentences: Bulg. отвреме навреме, понякога, Pol. od czasu do czasu, czasem, czasami, Rus. время от времени, иногда. This ambiguity can be explained by strong and weak existential quantification. Lexical semantics did not distinguish between these two types of existentiality. Here we present a description of selected exponents of logical existential quantification in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.

  3. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  4. Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic, analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature. All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation. It is unique, and it is unavoid...

  5. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  6. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  7. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  8. CHIONANTHUS (OLEACEAE IN SULAWESI, INDONESIA, INCLUDING THREE NEW SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH KIEW

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KIEW, R. 2015. Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi, Indonesia, including three new species. Reinwardtia 14(2: 287 ‒295. ― The genus Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi is revised. Nine species are described of which C. kostermansiiKiew, C. sordidus Kiew and C. sulawesicus Kiew are new species. Four species are endemic, C. celebicus Koord., C.sordidus, C. stenurus (Merr. Kiew and C. sulawesicus. The geographic range of C. cordulatus Koord. extends to Borneoand Mollucas, while C. kostermansii also occurs in Sumbawa and Flores, and the range of C. rupicolus (Lingelsh.Kiew extends to Sumbawa, Mollucas, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.Kiew and C. ramiflorus Roxb. are both widespread species, the former from Sumatra to New Guinea and the latter fromcontinental Asia to the Solomon Islands. A key to identify the species is provided. Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord.remains incompletely known.

  9. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  10. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10-3, due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  11. Oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

  12. Preferential Biases for Texts That Include Neuroscientific Jargon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco E; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    The results of an experiment of preferential biases for texts that include neuroscientific jargon are presented. Such preferential bias has been reported even when the presented jargon is meaningless. In a variation of the well-known Weisberg et al. experiment, a group of undergraduate students (N = 150; females 48%, males 52%, other 0%; M age = 22.4 year, SD = 2.6) chose between two possible explanations for a psychological phenomenon: a correct explanation or a circular restatement of facts. Unrelated neuroscientific terms were added to one of the explanations. Participants were asked to choose the correct explanation. There was a statistically significant preference for the explanation without neuroscientific terms. These findings differ from Weisberg et al.'s experiment and a number of others. The implications of this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Parabasal theory for plane-symmetric systems including freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H.; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    An extension of paraxial theory to systems with a single plane of symmetry is provided. This parabasal model is based on the evaluation of a differential region around the reference ray that is defined by the center of the object and the center of the stop. To include freeform surfaces in this model, the local curvatures at the intersection point of the reference ray and the surface are evaluated. As an application, a generalized Scheimpflug principle is presented. The validity of the derived formulas is tested for highly tilted surfaces and is in good agreement with the exact ray tracing results. The analytical expressions are used to provide a first-order layout design of a planar imaging system.

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  15. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  16. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  17. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-12-01

    Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.

  19. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  20. OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.