WorldWideScience

Sample records for sar signal processing

  1. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  2. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  3. Signal Processing for Digital Beamforming FMCW SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the limitations of single channel Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, Digital Beamforming (DBF technology is introduced to improve system performance. Combined with multiple receive apertures, DBF FMCW SAR can obtain high resolution in low pulse repetition frequency, which can increase the processing gain and decrease the sampling frequency. The received signal model of DBF FMCW SAR is derived. The continuous antenna motion which is the main characteristic of FMCW SAR received signal is taken into account in the whole signal processing. The detailed imaging diagram of DBF FMCW SAR is given. A reference system is also demonstrated in the paper by comparing with a single channel FMCW SAR. The validity of the presented diagram is demonstrated with a point target simulation results.

  4. Signal processing for FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) technology and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques leads to lightweight cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. One limiting factor to the use of FMCW sensors is the well-known presence of nonlinearities in the

  5. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  6. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  7. The Accuratre Signal Model and Imaging Processing in Geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application, the disadvantage of low earth orbit (LEO) SAR becomes more and more apparent. The increase of orbit altitude can shorten the revisit time and enlarge the coverage area in single look, and then satisfy the application requirement. The concept of geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) SAR system is firstly presented and deeply discussed by K.Tomiyasi and other researchers. A GEO SAR, with its fine temporal resolution, would overcome the limitations of current imaging systems, allowing dense interpretation of transient phenomena as GPS time-series analysis with a spatial density several orders of magnitude finer. Until now, the related literatures about GEO SAR are mainly focused in the system parameter design and application requirement. As for the signal characteristic, resolution calculation and imaging algorithms, it is nearly blank in the related literatures of GEO SAR. In the LEO SAR, the signal model analysis adopts the `Stop-and-Go' assumption in general, and this assumption can satisfy the imaging requirement in present advanced SAR system, such as TerraSAR, Radarsat2 and so on. However because of long propagation distance and non-negligible earth rotation, the `Stop-and-Go' assumption does not exist and will cause large propagation distance error, and then affect the image formation. Furthermore the long propagation distance will result in the long synthetic aperture time such as hundreds of seconds, therefore the linear trajectory model in LEO SAR imaging will fail in GEO imaging, and the new imaging model needs to be proposed for the GEO SAR imaging processing. In this paper, considering the relative motion between satellite and earth during signal propagation time, the accurate analysis method for propagation slant range is firstly presented. Furthermore, the difference between accurate analysis method and `Stop-and-Go' assumption is analytically obtained. Meanwhile based on the derived

  8. GNSS-based bistatic SAR: a signal processing view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Michail; Cherniakov, Mikhail

    2013-12-01

    This article presents signal processing algorithms used as a new remote sensing tool, that is passive bistatic SAR with navigation satellites (e.g. GPS, GLONASS or Galileo) as transmitters of opportunity. Signal synchronisation and image formation algorithms are described for two system variants: one where the receiver is moving and one where it is fixed on the ground. The applicability and functionality of the algorithms described is demonstrated through experimental imagery that ultimately confirms the feasibility of the overall technology.

  9. Signal Processing for High Resolution FMCW SAR and Moving Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Frequency Modulated ContinuousWave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) leads to lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. In FMCW SAR applications the conventional stop-and-go approximation used in pulse radar algorithms cannot be considered

  10. Bistatic sAR data processing algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Xiaolan; Hu, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is critical for remote sensing. It works day and night, in good weather or bad. Bistatic SAR is a new kind of SAR system, where the transmitter and receiver are placed on two separate platforms. Bistatic SAR is one of the most important trends in SAR development, as the technology renders SAR more flexible and safer when used in military environments. Imaging is one of the most difficult and important aspects of bistatic SAR data processing. Although traditional SAR signal processing is fully developed, bistatic SAR has a more complex system structure, so sign

  11. Azimuth-Variant Signal Processing in High-Altitude Platform Passive SAR with Spaceborne/Airborne Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizong Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAP or near-space vehicle offers several advantages over current low earth orbit (LEO satellite and airplane, because HAP is not constrained by orbital mechanics and fuel consumption. These advantages provide potential for some specific remote sensing applications that require persistent monitoring or fast-revisiting frequency. This paper investigates the azimuth-variant signal processing in HAP-borne bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with spaceborne or airborne transmitter for high-resolution remote sensing. The system configuration, azimuth-variant Doppler characteristics and two-dimensional echo spectrum are analyzed. Conceptual system simulation results are also provided. Since the azimuth-variant BiSAR geometry brings a challenge for developing high precision data processing algorithms, we propose an image formation algorithm using equivalent velocity and nonlinear chirp scaling (NCS to address the azimuth-variant signal processing problem. The proposed algorithm is verified by numerical simulation results.

  12. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  13. Signal processing issues for the exploitation of pulse-to-pulse encoding SAR transponders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Schiavon, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar signal processing issues related to the exploitation of a pulse-to-pulse encoding transponder using pseudorandom codes discussed analytically. Namely the focusing algorithm, the code synchronization procedure and the properties of the code induced gain against non......-encoding point scatterers and distributed ones. A time-domain processing algorithm and a code synchronization procedure are proposed and validated on simulated data and on a European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 data set containing prototypes of such a device. The interaction of the transponder signal with terrain...

  14. Development of Signal Processing Algorithms for High Resolution Airborne Millimeter Wave FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    For airborne earth observation applications, there is a special interest in lightweight, cost effective, imaging sensors of high resolution. The combination of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques can lead to such a sensor. In this paper

  15. Imaging Algorithm for Bistatic SAR Based on GNSS Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei-ming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper imaging processing method for Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR utilizing navigation satellite is investigated. Considering the special problems of using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signal to form SAR image, direct signal is used to estimate range migration parameters and range migration is corrected in azimuth time domain. Doppler sensitivity of phase-coded signal was solved by Doppler compensation. Through fitting the Doppler phase history with high-order polynomial, Doppler phase history is accurately approximated and azimuth compression is implemented by de-chirp processing. Through simulation and experimental data processing, the proposed method is verified.

  16. Interferometric SAR imaging by transmitting stepped frequency chaotic noise signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Gu, Xiang; Zhai, Wenshuai; Dong, Xiao; Shi, Xiaojin; Kang, Xueyan

    2015-10-01

    Noise radar has been applied in many fields since it was proposed more than 50 years ago. However, it has not been applied to interferometric SAR imaging yet as far as we know. This paper introduces our recent work on interferometric noise radar. An interferometric SAR system was developed which can transmit both chirp signal and chaotic noise signal (CNS) at multiple carrier frequencies. An airborne experiment with this system by transmitting both signals was carried out, and the data were processed to show the capability of interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The results shows that although the interferometric phase quality of CNS is degraded due to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is lower compared with that of chirp signal, we still can get satisfied DEM after multi-looking processing. Another work of this paper is to apply compressed sensing (CS) theory to the interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The CS theory states that if a signal is sparse, then it can be accurately reconstructed with much less sampled data than that regularly required according to Nyquist Sampling Theory. To form a structured random matrix, if the transmitted signal is of fixed waveform, then random subsampling is needed. However, if the transmitted signal is of random waveform, then only uniform subsampling is needed. This is another advantage of noise signal. Both the interferometric phase images and the DEMs by regular method and by CS method are processed with results compared. It is shown that the degradation of interferometric phases due to subsampling is larger than that of amplitude image.

  17. Scale transform algorithm used in FMCW SAR data processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhihong; Kan Huangfu; Wan Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a light-weight,cost-effective, high-resolution imaging radar, which is suitable for a small flight platform. The signal model is derived for FMCW SAR used in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) reconnaissance and remote sensing. An appropriate algorithm is proposed. The algorithm performs the range cell migration correction (RCMC) for continuous nonchirped raw data using the energy invariance of the scaling of a signal in the scale domain. The azimuth processing is based on step transform without geometric resampling operation. The complete derivation of the algorithm is presented. The algorithm performance is shown by simulation results.

  18. Modified Frequency Scaling Algorithm for FMCW SAR Data Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhihong; Huang Fukan; Wan Jianwei; Cheng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modified frequency scaling algorithm for frequency modulated continuous wave synthetic aperture radar(FMCW SAR) data processing. The relative motion between radar and target in FMCW SAR during reception and between transmission and reception will introduce serious dilation in the received signal. The dilation can cause serious distortions in the reconstructed images using conventional signal processing methods. The received signal is derived and the received signal in range-Doppler domain is given.The relation between the phase resulting from antenna motion and the azimuth frequency is analyzed. The modified frequency scaling algorithm is proposed to process the received signal with serious dilation. The algorithm can effectively eliminate the impact of the dilation. The algorithm performances are shown by the simulation results.

  19. 一种基于DSP+FPGA架构的InSAR实时信号处理平台设计%Design of InSAR Real-time Signal Processing Platform Based on DSP+FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光; 索志勇

    2015-01-01

    本文设计了一款高性能多核InSAR实时信号处理平台,包括雷达回波数据采集、InSAR 实时信号处理和1553B 总线通信.该设计采用TI 公司的最新一代多核DSP 旗舰产品TMS320C6678以及ALTERA公司的Stratix IV GX系列FPGA芯片EP4SGX230,构建了基于DSP + FPGA架构的InSAR实时信号处理平台.经仿真验证,该InSAR实时信号处理平台的运算性能和数据传输能力能够满足InSAR实时处理的要求.%A multi-core InSAR real-time signal processing platform with high performance is developed, which realizes the data acquisition of radar echo, InSAR real-time processing and 1553B bus communication. The radar signal processing platform is based on DSP+FPGA architecture, with the TI's latest high performance multi-core DSP processor TMS320C6678 and ALTERA's Stratix Ⅳ GX series FPGA chip EP4SGX230. It is proved that the processing performance and data transmission capabilities of the real-time signal processing platform InSAR can fully meet the requirements of real-time processing InSAR.

  20. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...

  1. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Deployment of SAR and GMTI Signal Processing on a Boeing 707 Aircraft Using pMatlab and a Bladed Linux Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    effectively MIT Lincoln Laboratory Slide-18 Quicklook SAR pMatlab Implementation • SAR pMatlab code fragment % Create Parallel Maps. mapA = map([1 Ncpus...0:Ncpus-1); mapB = map([Ncpus 1],0:Ncpus-1); % Prepare distributed Matrices. fd_midc=zeros(m w,TotalnumPulses, mapA ); fd_midr=zeros(m w

  3. Accelerated Scientific InSAR Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Neva Ridge Technologies proposes to develop a suite of software tools for the analysis of SAR and InSAR data, focused on having a robust and adopted capability well...

  4. Implementation of real-time SAR systems with a high-performance digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Helge; Wittenburg, Jens P.; Hinrichs, Willm; Lieske, Hanno; Pirsch, Peter

    1999-12-01

    Real-time Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image synthesis is one of the major problems to solve in the future. To achieve a fully synthesized SAR image, the raw signal must be filtered with a 2-dimensional function representing the system transfer function. These filtering operations are usually processed by multiplication in frequency domain. Therefore, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) used for transformation to/from frequency domain is the predominant algorithm in terms of processing power for SAR image synthesis. The presented HiPAR- DSP is a programmable architecture, which is optimized for FFT-dominated applications like SAR image processing. To provide the high requested processing power for these task, the HiPAR-DSP has an array of 4 (HiPAR-DSP4) respectively 16 (HiPAR-DSP16) parallel processing units (datapaths) which is controlled by a single RISC Controller. For data exchange between the processing units there is a shared memory which allows the concurrent access from all processing units in a single clock cycle. So the HiPAR-DSP16 performs a complex FFT with 1024 Samples in 32microsecond(s) . For the implemented SAR- Processing task, the Range Compression with 4096 complex samples per line we achieve a real-time performance of nearly 1500 rangelines/s.

  5. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  6. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  7. TanDEM-X Bistatic SAR Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Balss, Ulrich; Niedermeier, Andreas; Breit, Helko

    2010-01-01

    In June, 2010 the German SAR satellite TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X-Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) will be launched. Together with TerraSAR-X, launched June 15, 2007, it will form the first spaceborne bistatic SAR platform. Usually one of the satellite is transmitting (active satellite), while both are receiving. As both satellites fly in a helix orbit constellation, during a recording a satellite has to be passive, if the other one is close to the line of sight to the observation targ...

  8. MIMO-OFDM signal optimization for SAR imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudais, J.-Y.; Méric, S.; Riché, V.; Pottier, É.

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of the coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitted signal in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) context. We propose to design OFDM signals to achieve range ambiguity mitigation. Indeed, range ambiguities are well known to be a limitation for SAR systems which operates with pulsed transmitted signal. The ambiguous reflected signal corresponding to one pulse is then detected when the radar has already transmitted the next pulse. In this paper, we demonstrate that the range ambiguity mitigation is possible by using orthogonal transmitted wave as OFDM pulses. The coded OFDM signal is optimized through genetic optimization procedures based on radar image quality parameters. Moreover, we propose to design a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration to enhance the noise robustness of a radar system and this configuration is mainly efficient in the case of using orthogonal waves as OFDM pulses. The results we obtain show that OFDM signals outperform conventional radar chirps for range ambiguity suppression and for robustness enhancement in 2 ×2 MIMO configuration.

  9. RASSP signal processing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Fred; Bassett, Bob; Letellier, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    The rapid prototyping of application specific signal processors (RASSP) program is an ARPA/tri-service effort to dramatically improve the process by which complex digital systems, particularly embedded signal processors, are specified, designed, documented, manufactured, and supported. The domain of embedded signal processing was chosen because it is important to a variety of military and commercial applications as well as for the challenge it presents in terms of complexity and performance demands. The principal effort is being performed by two major contractors, Lockheed Sanders (Nashua, NH) and Martin Marietta (Camden, NJ). For both, improvements in methodology are to be exercised and refined through the performance of individual 'Demonstration' efforts. The Lockheed Sanders' Demonstration effort is to develop an infrared search and track (IRST) processor. In addition, both contractors' results are being measured by a series of externally administered (by Lincoln Labs) six-month Benchmark programs that measure process improvement as a function of time. The first two Benchmark programs are designing and implementing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor. Our demonstration team is using commercially available VME modules from Mercury Computer to assemble a multiprocessor system scalable from one to hundreds of Intel i860 microprocessors. Custom modules for the sensor interface and display driver are also being developed. This system implements either proprietary or Navy owned algorithms to perform the compute-intensive IRST function in real time in an avionics environment. Our Benchmark team is designing custom modules using commercially available processor ship sets, communication submodules, and reconfigurable logic devices. One of the modules contains multiple vector processors optimized for fast Fourier transform processing. Another module is a fiberoptic interface that accepts high-rate input data from the sensors and provides video-rate output data to a

  10. Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    34ESPIRIT Estimation of signal parameters via rotational imvariance techin+I,-- 1\\I111;1 Smith. A. Faradani "Local and ( Moba ! tomography" I’ Nitlerer and...Feb 1 - Jul 30 Friedman, Avner IMA Gader, Paul University of Wisconsin Jun 27 - Jul 24 Games , Richard MITRE Corp Jun 27 - Aug 5 Garvan, Francis U. of...Gader, Paul University of Wisconsin Jun 27 - Jul 24 Games , Richard MITRE Corp Jun 27 - Aug 5 Garvan, Francis U. of Wisconsin Jun 26 - Jul 31 Habsieger

  11. Focusing Bistatic FMCW SAR Signal by Range Migration Algorithm Based on Fresnel Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yake Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW technique has recently been employed by synthetic aperture radar (SAR to decrease the radar cost and volume. However, the operation range is limited by the direct energy leakage from the transmitting channel to receiving channel due to the operation principle of FMCW technique. Bistatic configuration is an efficient way to increase the isolation between the transmitter and receiver, which could significantly increase the radar standoff range. A bistatic FMCW SAR spectrum model is proposed by using the Fresnel approximation in this paper. This model is similar to that of a monostatic FMCW SAR spectrum, which allows the existing imaging algorithms to be used on bistatic image processing. Based on the new model and the characteristics of FMCW signal, a modified range migration algorithm (RMA for FMCW SAR is proposed to focus the image, which requires less memory and computational load than the traditional RMA. Point-target simulation is used to verify the proposed spectral model and real data processing verified the effectiveness of the proposed RMA.

  12. Focusing Bistatic FMCW SAR Signal by Range Migration Algorithm Based on Fresnel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yake; O'Young, Siu

    2015-12-21

    Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique has recently been employed by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to decrease the radar cost and volume. However, the operation range is limited by the direct energy leakage from the transmitting channel to receiving channel due to the operation principle of FMCW technique. Bistatic configuration is an efficient way to increase the isolation between the transmitter and receiver, which could significantly increase the radar standoff range. A bistatic FMCW SAR spectrum model is proposed by using the Fresnel approximation in this paper. This model is similar to that of a monostatic FMCW SAR spectrum, which allows the existing imaging algorithms to be used on bistatic image processing. Based on the new model and the characteristics of FMCW signal, a modified range migration algorithm (RMA) for FMCW SAR is proposed to focus the image, which requires less memory and computational load than the traditional RMA. Point-target simulation is used to verify the proposed spectral model and real data processing verified the effectiveness of the proposed RMA.

  13. Relating polarization phase difference of SAR signals to scene properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, Myron C.; Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Senior, Thomas B. A.; Held, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the statistical behavior of the phase difference Delta-phi between the HH-polarized and VV-polarized backscattered signals recorded by an L-band SAR over an agricultural test site in Illinois. Polarization-phase difference distributions were generated for about 200 agricultural fields for which ground information had been acquired in conjunction with the SAR mission. For the overwhelming majority of cases, the Delta-phi distribution is symmetric and has a single major lobe centered at the mean value of the distribution Delta-phi. Whereas the mean Delta-phi was found to be close to zero degrees for bare soil, cut vegetation, alfalfa, soybeans, and clover, a different pattern was observed for the corn fields; the mean Delta-phi increased with increasing incidence angle Theta = 35 deg. The explanation proposed for this variation is that the corn canopy, most of whose mass is contained in its vertical stalks, acts like a uniaxial crystal characterized by different velocities of propagation for waves with horizontal and vertical polarization. Thus, it is hypothesized that the observed backscatter is contributed by a combination of propagation delay, forward scatter by the soil surface, and specular bistatic reflection by the stalks. Model calculations based on this assumption were found to be in general agreement with the phase observations.

  14. Bistatic SAR tomography: processing and experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Biarge, Sergio; López Dekker, Francisco J.; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos; Mallorquí Franquet, Jordi Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents across-track tomography applied to a bistatic geometry with fixed receivers. This kind of geometry can overcome some of the classical monostatic tomography limitations such as temporal decorrelation and irregular baseline distribution. The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab)of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) has implemented a SAR Bistatic Receiver for INterferometric Applications,SABRINA, with 4-channels. SABRINA has been used to carry out a bistatic tomogr...

  15. High Resolution Processing with an Active Phased Array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenboer, F.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS system is a polarimetric active phased array SAR capable of performing advanced SAR modes. Advanced SAR modes that are being investigated are: spotlight SAR, sliding spotlight SAR, stepped frequency SAR and interferometric SAR. The flight experiments and automatic beam steering

  16. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first time, where inverse STOLT interpolation is used to formulate the range migration terms. The presented simulator can accommodate the translation variant bistatic SAR system compared with existing bistatic SAR simulator. And it is more efficient than the time domain one by making use of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Simulation results for point targets and a real SAR image demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

  17. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yang; Weidong Yu; Shichao Zheng; Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first t...

  18. SAR Processing Based On Two-Dimensional Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Jin, Michael Y.; Curlander, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Exact transfer function, ETF, is two-dimensional transfer function that constitutes basis of improved frequency-domain-convolution algorithm for processing synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR data. ETF incorporates terms that account for Doppler effect of motion of radar relative to scanned ground area and for antenna squint angle. Algorithm based on ETF outperforms others.

  19. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  20. ISCE: A Modular, Reusable Library for Scalable SAR/InSAR Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Lavalle, M.; Gurrola, E. M.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional community SAR/InSAR processing software tools have primarily focused on differential interferometry and Solid Earth applications. The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) was specifically designed to support the Earth Sciences user community as well as large scale operational processing tasks, thanks to its two-layered (Python+C/Fortran) architecture and modular framework. ISCE is freely distributed as a source tarball, allowing advanced users to modify and extend it for their research purposes and developing exploratory applications, while providing a relatively simple user interface for novice users to perform routine data analysis efficiently. Modular design of the ISCE library also enables easier development of applications to address the needs of Ecosystems, Cryosphere and Disaster Response communities in addition to the traditional Solid Earth applications. In this talk, we would like to emphasize the broader purview of the ISCE library and some of its unique features that sets it apart from other freely available community software like GMTSAR and DORIS, including: Support for multiple geometry regimes - Native Doppler (ALOS-1) as well Zero Doppler (ESA missions) systems. Support for data acquired by airborne platforms - e.g, JPL's UAVSAR and AirMOSS, DLR's F-SAR. Radiometric Terrain Correction - Auxiliary output layers from the geometry modules include projection angles, incidence angles, shadow-layover masks. Dense pixel offsets - Parallelized amplitude cross correlation for cryosphere / ionospheric correction applications. Rubber sheeting - Pixel-by-pixel offsets fields for resampling slave imagery for geometric co-registration/ ionospheric corrections. Preliminary Tandem-X processing support - Bistatic geometry modules. Extensibility to support other non-Solid Earth missions - Modules can be directly adopted for use with other SAR missions, e.g., SWOT. Preliminary support for multi-dimensional data products- multi-polarization, multi

  1. IMAGING AND MTI PROCESSING BASED ON DUAL-FREQUENCIES DUAL-APERTURES SPACEBORNE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jianfeng; Li Daojing; Wu Yirong

    2009-01-01

    Based on dual-frequencies dual-apertures spaceborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), a new SAR system with four receiving channels and two operation modes is presented in this paper. SAR imaging and Moving Target Indication (MTI) are studied in this system. High resolution imaging with wide swath is implemented by the Mode I, and MTI is completed by the Mode II. High azimuth resolution is achieved by the Displaced Phase Center (DPC) multibeam technique. And the Coherent Accumulation (CA) method, which combines dual channels data of different carrier frequency, is used to enhance the range resolution. For the data of different carrier frequency, the two aperture interferometric processing is executed to implement clutter cancellation, respectively. And the couple of clutter suppressed data are employed to implement Dual Carrier Frequency Conjugate Processing (DCFCP), then both slow and fast moving targets detection can be completed, followed by moving target imaging. The simulation results show the validity of the signal processing method of this new SAR system.

  2. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SARS coronavirus-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection. In this article, we summarize pulmonary fibrotic changes observed after a SARS-CoV infection, discuss the extent to which other respiratory viruses induce fibrosis, describe available animal models to study the development of SARS-CoV induced fibrosis and review evidence that pulmonary fibrosis is caused by a hyperactive host response to lung injury mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We summarize work from our group and others indicating that inhibiting EGFR signaling may prevent an excessive fibrotic response to SARS-CoV and other respiratory viral infections and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrieval of short scale geophysical signals and improved coastal data from SAR satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Buchhaupt, Christopher; Dinardo, Salvatore; Scharroo, Remko; Benveniste, Jerome; Becker, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Delay Doppler/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimeter offers a new quality of observational data in comparison to the pulse-limited low resolution mode (LRM) data collected over the past twenty years. Due to the reduced noise in the measurements an improved retrieval of the geophysical signal is expected in SAR. The goal of this study is to characterize these improvements both in open ocean and coastal zone using standard Level 2 and Level 1 data reprocessed with improved algorithms. We have carried out, from CryoSat-2 Level 1a Full Bit Rate (L1a FBR) data, a Delay-Doppler processing and waveform retracking tailored specifically for coastal zone by applying Hamming Window and Zero-Padding, using an extended vertical swath window in order to minimize tracker errors and a dedicated SAMOSA-based coastal retracker (named SAMOSA+). SAMOSA+ accepts mean square slope as free parameter and the epoch's first guess fitting value is decided according to the peak in correlation between 20 consecutive waveforms (in order to mitigate land off-ranging effect). Those products can be extracted from ESA-ESRIN GPOD service (named SARvatore). In order to quantify the improvement with respect to pulse-limited altimetry, we build 20 Hz PLRM (pseudo-LRM) data from CryoSat-1 L1a FBR and retrack them with numerical convolutional Brown-based retracker. Hence, here, PLRM is used as a proxy for real pulse-limited products (LRM), since there is no direct comparison of SAR and LRM possible otherwise. The PLRM data are built and retracked by Technical University of Darmstadt (TUDa). In the open ocean the study consists on the retrieval of short scale geophysical, as the swell signals. The selected areas are the CryoSat-2 Pacific and Atlantic Boxes in which it operated in SAR mode. In the coastal zone of the North Sea the study concentrates on the reduction of land and ships contamination by dedicated procedures including improved retracking. Effects of different options and retracking

  4. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  5. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  6. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  7. Enhanced SAR data processing for land instability forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentiero, Ilenia; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Parisi, Alessandro; Bovenga, Fabio; Pasquariello, Guido; Refice, Alberto; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring represents the main tool for carrying out evaluation procedures and criteria for spatial and temporal landslide forecast. The forecast of landslide behaviour depends on the possibility to identify either evidences of activity (displacement, velocity, volume of unstable mass, direction of displacement, and their temporal variation) or triggering parameters (rainfalls). Generally, traditional geotechnical landslide monitoring technologies permit to define, if correctly positioned and with adequate accuracy, the critical value of displacement and/or acceleration into landslide body. In most cases, they do not allow real time warning signs to be generated, due to environmental induced errors, and the information is related to few points on unstable area. Remote-sensing monitoring instruments are capable of inspecting an unstable slope with high spatial and temporal frequency, but allow solely measurements of superficial displacements and deformations. Among these latest technologies, the satellite Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR) is very useful to investigate the unstable area both in terms of space and time. Indeed, this technique allows to analyse wide areas, individuate critical unstable areas, not identifiable by means detailed in situ surveys, and study the phenomenon evolution in a long time-scale. Although this technique usually adopts, as first approximation, a linear model to describe the displacement of the detected targets, also non-linear models can be used. However, the satellite revisit time, which defines the time sampling of the detected displacement signal, limits the maximum measurable velocity and acceleration. This makes it difficult to assess in the short time any acceleration indicating a loss of equilibrium and, therefore, a probable reactivation of the landslide. The recent Sentinel-1 mission from the European Space Agency (ESA), provides a spatial resolution comparable to the previous ESA missions, but a nominal

  8. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  9. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  10. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  11. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  12. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. The capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Viet T.; Sjögren, Thomas K.; Pettersson, Mats I.

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a study of the capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing. Two typical algorithms, Bistatic Fast Backprojection (BiFBP) and Bistatic Range Doppler (BiRDA), which are both available for general bistatic geometry, are selected as the examples of time- and frequency-domain algorithms in this study. Their capability is evaluated based on some criteria such as processing time required by the algorithms to reconstruct SAR images from bistatic SAR data and the quality assessments of those SAR images.

  14. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  15. Ka-band bistatic ground-based SAR using noise signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, K.; Mogyla, A.; Vyplavin, P.; Palamarchuk, V.; Zemlyaniy, O.; Tarasenko, V.; Zaets, N.; Skretsanov, V.; Shubniy, A.; Glamazdin, V.; Natarov, M.; Nechayev, O.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, one of the actual problems is remote monitoring of technical state of large objects. Different methods can be used for that purpose. The most promising of them relies on application of ground based synthetic aperture radars (SAR) and differential interferometry. We have designed and tested Ground Based Noise Waveform SAR based on noise radar technology [1] and synthetic aperture antennas [2]. It enabled to build an instrument for precise all-weather monitoring of large objects in real-time. We describe main performance of ground-based interferometric SAR which uses continuous Ka-band noise waveform as a probe signal. Besides, results of laboratory trials and evaluation of its main performance are presented as well.

  16. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  17. The polarimetric entropy classification of SAR based on the clustering and signal noise ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Jie; Lang, Fengkai

    2009-10-01

    Usually, Wishart H/α/A classification is an effective unsupervised classification method. However, the anisotropy parameter (A) is an unstable factor in the low signal noise ration (SNR) areas; at the same time, many clusters are useless to manually recognize. In order to avoid too many clusters to affect the manual recognition and the convergence of iteration and aiming at the drawback of the Wishart classification, in this paper, an enhancive unsupervised Wishart classification scheme for POLSAR data sets is introduced. The anisotropy parameter A is used to subdivide the target after H/α classification, this parameter has the ability to subdivide the homogeneity area in high SNR condition which can not be classified by using H/α. It is very useful to enhance the adaptability in difficult areas. Yet, the target polarimetric decomposition is affected by SNR before the classification; thus, the local homogeneity area's SNR evaluation is necessary. After using the direction of the edge detection template to examine the direction of POL-SAR images, the results can be processed to estimate SNR. The SNR could turn to a powerful tool to guide H/α/A classification. This scheme is able to correct the mistake judging of using A parameter such as eliminating much insignificant spot on the road and urban aggregation, even having a good performance in the complex forest. To convenience the manual recognition, an agglomerative clustering algorithm basing on the method of deviation-class is used to consolidate some clusters which are similar in 3by3 polarimetric coherency matrix. This classification scheme is applied to full polarimetric L band SAR image of Foulum area, Denmark.

  18. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  19. The integration of Human Factors (HF) in the SAR process training course text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This text provides the technical basis for a two-day course on human factors (HF), as applied to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) process. The overall objective of this text and course is to: provide the participant with a working knowledge of human factors-related requirements, suggestions for doing a human safety analysis applying a graded approach, and an ability to demonstrate using the results of the human safety analysis, that human factors elements as defined by DOE (human factors engineering, procedures, training, oversight, staffing, qualifications), can support wherever necessary, nuclear safety commitments in the SAR. More specifically, the objectives of the text and course are: (1) To provide the SAR preparer with general guidelines for doing HE within the context of a graded approach for the SAR; (2) To sensitize DOE facility managers and staff, safety analysts and SAR preparers, independent reviewers, and DOE reviewers and regulators, to DOE Order 5480.23 requirements for HE in the SAR; (3) To provide managers, analysts, reviewers and regulators with a working knowledge of HE concepts and techniques within the context of a graded approach for the SAR, and (4) To provide SAR managers and DOE reviewers and regulators with general guidelines for monitoring and coordinating the work of preparers of HE inputs throughout the SAR process, and for making decisions regarding the safety relevance of HE inputs to the SAR. As a ready reference for implementing the human factors requirements of DOE Order 5480.22 and DOE Standard 3009-94, this course text and accompanying two-day course are intended for all persons who are involved in the SAR.

  20. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliament, Hugh A.

    1991-09-01

    The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

  1. Terrain Imaging Using a SAR System Based on Reflected GPS Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong-hong; C. Rizos; E. Donskoi; J. Homer; B. Mojarrabi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a 3D multi-static synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system which utilises reflected GPS signals from moving objects on the Earth's surface. The principle of bi-static radar is used to model the reflected GPS signals. The movement of a visible GPS satellite serves as a base for a synthetic aperture over an observation time period. As an example, a MATLAB simulation has been carried out in order to detect the movement of imaged object sunder the assumption of one static GPS receiver with two targets which move with different speeds. The influence of the visible satellite'sposition and velocity on the spatial resolution of such a SAR system isdiscussed. Simulation results show that by measuring the cross-correlation of the reflected GPS signal from the terrain and objects on it,the detection of the objects can enjoy a good spatial resolution for thecase of moving objects and a moving GPS receiver. Furthermore, thespatial resolution is also related to the selection of visible GPS satelliteswith respect to their azimuths, elevations and velocities. This systemhas the following useful features: (a) no dedicated signal transmitter is required; (b) the GPS signal frequency is reused; (c) GPS operates round-the-clock and its signals cover the entire Earth's surface; (d) low power consumption; and (e) known GPS signal structure.

  2. Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals presents the most widely used techniques in signal and system analysis. Specifically, the book is concerned with methods of characterizing signals and systems. Author Charles Lessard provides students and researchers an understanding of the time and frequency domain processes which may be used to evaluate random physiological signals such as brainwave, sleep, respiratory sounds, heart valve sounds, electromyograms, and electro-oculograms.Another aim of the book is to have the students evaluate actual mammalian data without spending most or all

  3. The effect of inhibition of PP1 and TNFα signaling on pathogenesis of SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jason E; Mitchell, Hugh D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Eisfeld, Amie J; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S; Katze, Michael G; Waters, Katrina M

    2016-09-23

    The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ anti-immune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) promote pathogenesis, presumably through excessive inflammation. The current study provides validation of network modeling approaches for identifying important players in virus infection pathogenesis, and a step forward in understanding the host response to an important infectious disease. The results presented here suggest the role of Kepi in the host response to SARS-CoV, as well as inflammatory activity driving pathogenesis through TNFα signaling in SARS-CoV infections. Though we have reported the utility of this approach in bacterial and cell culture studies previously, this is the first comprehensive study to confirm that network topology can be used to predict phenotypes in mice with experimental validation.

  4. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  5. SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.

  6. Spaceborne SAR Imaging Algorithm for Coherence Optimized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Qiu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes SAR imaging algorithm with largest coherence based on the existing SAR imaging algorithm. The basic idea of SAR imaging algorithm in imaging processing is that output signal can have maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by using the optimal imaging parameters. Traditional imaging algorithm can acquire the best focusing effect, but would bring the decoherence phenomenon in subsequent interference process. Algorithm proposed in this paper is that SAR echo adopts consistent imaging parameters in focusing processing. Although the SNR of the output signal is reduced slightly, their coherence is ensured greatly, and finally the interferogram with high quality is obtained. In this paper, two scenes of Envisat ASAR data in Zhangbei are employed to conduct experiment for this algorithm. Compared with the interferogram from the traditional algorithm, the results show that this algorithm is more suitable for SAR interferometry (InSAR research and application.

  7. Separating long-term deformation cycles and atmospheric signals at Mount St. Helens using PS-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since its eruption in 1980, Mount St. Helens has experienced multiple inflation-deflation cycles associated with dome building eruptions. During the most recent dome-building episode, which spanned 2004 to 2008, GPS recorded the transition from pre-eruptive inflation to co-eruptive deflation and a final transition back to inflation. Such observations provide important constraints on the timing and mechanics of cyclic magma recharge and extrusion. Currently, the subtle surface deformation signal at St Helens is monitored primarily by ground based geodetic techniques like GPS. Satellite-based InSAR has the potential to substantially augment these techniques by providing spatially continuous, precise measurements of surface displacements, and may also reveal other volcanic or surficial processes too localized to be detected by ground based methods. Traditional interferometry is challenging to apply to volcanoes in the Cascades. Widespread phase decorrelation caused by persistent snow cover and dense vegetation, combined with large, elevation dependent atmospheric phase delays, mask or make deformation signals difficult to detect. By applying StaMPS, a Persistent Scatterers (PS) technique, phase decorrelation is mitigated by utilizing only the pixels with the highest, statistically derived, signal to noise ratio. However, atmospheric water vapor, which delays the radar signal, remains problematic, particularly on the volcano edifice. To assess the bias imposed by the atmosphere, we perform a series of sensitivity tests using a suite of methods including several that rely on the linear or power-law correlation of phase delay to topography and knowledge of the spatial scale of the signal. We also apply methods that calculate wet and dry phase delay from atmospheric reanalysis datasets such as ERA-Interim provided by the ECMWF. SAR data from the ERS, Envisat, and ALOS satellites, along with newer datasets, are processed with these tools to create a time series spanning

  8. The Capability of Time- And Frequency-domain Algorithms for Bistatic SAR Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Viet; Sjögren, Thomas; Pettersson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the capability of time- And frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing. Two typical algorithms, Bistatic Fast Backprojection (BiFBP) and Bistatic Range Doppler (BiRDA), which are both available for general bistatic geometry, are selected as the examples of time- And frequency-domain algorithms in this study. Their capability is evaluated based on some criteria such as processing time required by the algorithms to reconstruct SAR images from bistatic ...

  9. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  10. Integrated Data Processing Methodology for Airborne Repeat-pass Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, C.; Guo, H.; Han, C.; Yue, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Short temporal baseline and multiple ground deformation information can be derived from the airborne differential synthetic aperture radar Interforemetry (D-InSAR). However, affected by the turbulence of the air, the aircraft would deviate from the designed flight path with high frequent vibrations and changes both in the flight trajectory and attitude. Restricted by the accuracy of the position and orientation system (POS), these high frequent deviations can not be accurately reported, which would pose great challenges in motion compensation and interferometric process. Thus, these challenges constrain its wider applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the accurate estimation and compensation of the residual motion errors in the airborne SAR imagery and time-varying baseline errors between the diffirent data acquirations, furthermore, to explore the integration data processing theory for the airborne D-InSAR system, and thus help to accomplish the correct derivation of the ground deformation by using the airborne D-InSAR measurements.

  11. Signals and processing for random signal radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. S.

    1980-06-01

    Signals and associated processing techniques are developed which improve the performance, simplify the implementation, and are more amenable to adaptive operation for radars using the random signal concept. These goals are accomplished through the use of a signal set that is composed of a deterministic spreading function, a binary random or pseudo-random noise source, and a possibly random or pseudo-random pulsing sequence. Techniques are developed for determining the parameters of the spreading function that result in signals with desirable ambiguity functions and high effective power. These techniques are based on the use of window functions for sidelobe control and the theory of chirp waveforms for effective power enhancement.

  12. Ka-band sliding spotlight SAR signal processing method based on DBF-SCORE%基于DBF-SCORE的Ka滑动聚束SAR信号处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅起; 王辉; 禹卫东

    2016-01-01

    Ka毫米波合成孔径雷达(SAR)以其图像分辨率高目标轮廓清晰的特性,得到了国内外学者的广泛关注,近几年随着Ka波段器件的发展,Ka SAR系统成为各国竞相研究的热点。数字波束合成扫描接收技术(DBF‐SCORE)可以在避免峰值发射功率过大的前提下提供足够的系统增益,很好的解决了毫米波系统损耗较大的难题,而滑动聚束模式能够不受方位向天线尺寸的限制实现方位向的高分辨率。基于此本文提出了一种基于DBF‐SCORE的滑动聚束SAR工作模式,并给出了成像处理流程,以及信号处理过程中公式的解析表达式。最后,通过仿真实验验证了处理算法的有效性。%Ka‐band millimeter‐wave SAR with high resolution and clear outline imaging characteristics has drawn great attention among researchers .With the development of Ka‐band devices ,makes Ka‐SAR system a hot research topic in many countries .Digital beam‐forming (DBF) scan‐on‐receve (SCORE) can avoid overlarge peak transmit power , meanwhile provides adequate system gain ,which efficiently solves the power consumption issue in millimeter‐wave systems .Besides ,sliding spotlight mode ensures the high azimuth resolution without restricting the size of the azimuth antenna .According to this , the paper presents a sliding spotlight SAR system based on DBF‐SCORE , and then provides the imaging flow diagrams ,as well as the analytical expressions .Finally ,the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by simulation experiments .

  13. SAR processing based on the exact two-dimensional transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Jin, M. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The two-dimensional transfer functions of several synthetic aperture radar (SAR) focusing algorithms are derived considering the spaceborne SAR environments. The formulation includes the factors of the earth rotation and the antenna squint angles. The resultant transfer functions are explicitly expressed in terms of Doppler centroid frequency and Doppler frequency rate, which can be accurately estimated from the SAR data. Point target simulation results show that the algorithm based on the two-dimensional Fourier transformation outperforms the one-dimensional one for processing data acquired from high squint angles. The two-dimensional Fourier transformation approach appears to be a viable and simple solution for the processor design of future spaceborne SAR systems.

  14. SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-12-01

    Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.

  15. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  16. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  17. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  18. Multidimensional signal processing for ultrasonic signal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ramuhalli, P.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.

    2001-04-01

    Neural network based signal classification systems are being used increasingly in the analysis of large volumes of data obtained in NDE applications. One example is in the interpretation on ultrasonic signals obtained from inspection of welds where signals can be due to porosity, slag, lack of fusion and cracks in the weld region. Standard techniques rely on differences in individual A-scans to classify the signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic signal classification technique based on the information in a group of signals and examining the statistical characteristics of the signals. The method was 2-dimensional signal processing algorithms to analyze the information in B- and B'-scan images. In this paper, 2-dimensional transform based coefficients of the images are used as features and a multilayer perceptron is used to classify them. These results are then combined to get the final classification for the inspected region. Results of applying the technique to data obtained from the inspection of welds are presented.

  19. Chaotic signal processing: information aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Y V; Efremova, E V; Anagnostopoulos, A N

    2003-01-01

    One of the features of chaotic signals that make them different of other types of signals is their special information properties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of these properties on the procedures of chaotic signal processing. On examples of cleaning chaotic signals off noise, chaotic synchronization and separation of chaotic signals we demonstrate the existence of basic limits imposed by information theory on chaotic signal processing, independent of concrete algorithms. Relations of these limits with the Second law, Shannon theorems and Landauer principle are discussed.

  20. Repeat-pass InSAR processing for Vegetation Height Calculation: Theory and a validated example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, P.; Lei, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the vegetation height for a forested region is often used as a proxy for stem volume, biomass, and for characterizing habitats of a variety of plant and animal species. For this reason, remote sensing measures available from stereography, lidar, and InSAR have been important tools for airborne and spaceborne platforms. Among these and other candidates for measuring vegetation heights, InSAR has the advantage of achieving wide coverage areas (on the order of 100 km in cross-track swath) over short time periods, thus making it practical for large-scale assessments of the global environment. The determination of forest stand height (FSH), which is an assessment made on the order of one to ten hectares of resolution, InSAR can provide measures that are proportional to FSH. These are: 1.) interferometric phase compared to a known DEM, preferably of the bald earth, 2.) interferometric correlation (polarimetric or otherwise), which is related to the volume scattering nature of the target, and 3.) interferometric correlation which is related to the temporal decorrelation of the target. Of these, while the volumetric aspect of interferometric correlation is of keen interest, because of the dominant error source of temporal decorrelation, it comes at the cost of the need to perform single-pass interferometry. While such satellite systems do exist (notably the TanDEM-X mission), for vegetation applications, lower frequency systems such as ALOS-1 and -2, and the future NASA radar mission at L-band, provides better signal returns from throughout the vegetation canopy. Hence, rather than relying on volumetric correlation to provide the desired FSH signature, repeat-pass observations of temporal decorrelation are coupled with a vegetation model for this decorrelation to determine the vegetation height. In order to demonstrate this technique, the University of Massachusetts has used 46-day repeat-pass ALOS data to estimate FSH over the US State of Maine, nearly a 10

  1. A Research on Airborne Squint Hybrid SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIANYong; ZHOUYinqing; LIChunsheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the squint mode hybrid SAR (Synthetic aperture radar) geometry. Based on the squint mode SAR geometry, the hybrid SAR signal model in squint case is derived. Based on this signal model, the hybrid SAR imaging process parameter is discussed. Aimed at the squint case, we analyze not only the relationship between the resolution and SAR system parameters, but also the relation between the time extension of the maximum azimuth signal and SAR system parameters. This research establishes the theoretical foundation for the design of squint hybrid SAR and serves as a good guide for the future work of improving the resolution of squint hybrid SAR. Based on the two-step algorithm, by considering the squint angle and cubic phase term, we are going to use the deramp SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for squint hybrid SAR imaging. This algorithm uses the deramp method for the first step processing, and the SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for the second step processing. The process procedure of this algorithm includes the squint angle, has the explicit physical meaning, therefore is convenient for analysis. The computer simulation result proves the validity of the analysis.

  2. Introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Roman

    2008-01-01

    This book approaches digital Signal Processing and filter design in a Novel way, by presenting the relevant theory and then having the Student apply it by implementing signal processing routines on a computer. This mixture of theory and application has worked successfully. With this approach, the students receive a deeper and intuitive understanding of the theory, its applications and its limitations. This text also includes projects that require students to write Computer programs to accomplish signal processing projects.

  3. Weighted LBF for spaceborne general bistatic SAR processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinshan Ding; Otmar Loffeld; Robert Wang; Holger Nies; U1-Ann Qurat; Zheng Bao

    2008-01-01

    Loffeld's bistatic formula (LBF) is the first two-dimensional analytic point target reference spectrum derived for general bistatic SAR frequency domain focusing.The phase history is expanded in Taylor series around the individual points of stationary phase of the transmitter-target and target-receiver phase histories,respectively,and thus the common bistatic stationary phase point can be obtained using the method of stationary phase.Unfortunately,it shows limitations for extreme bistatic configurations,namely the highly squinted mode and space-surface application.The weighted LBF (WLBF) is proposed in this paper based on the different contributions of total phase modulation from the transmitter and receiver.The formulae we derived are compared with that of the original literature.The extreme bistatic stripmap SAR data can be focused using WLBF,which accommodates the spaceborne squint geometry using the modified effective velocity solution.A point target simulation example is presented to verify the accuracy of the new WLBF spectrum.

  4. The Role of Feature Enhanced Processing for Automatic Target Recognition using High Resolution Polarimetric SAR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.C. van den; Steeghs, T.P.H.; Dekker, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the effect of feature enhanced processing on the discrimination of targets in highresolution polarimetric ISAR and SAR images. This is done by comparing feature-based classification results for original images and images which have been pre-processed to enhance target features. The d

  5. REALIZATION OF QUICK-LOOK IMAGING FOR SPACEBORNE SAR BASED ON PARALLEL PROCESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhi; Zhou Yinqing; Li Jingwen

    2004-01-01

    Large range cell migration is a severe challenge to imaging algorithm for spaceborne SAR. Based on design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter and Range Doppler (RD) algorithm,a realization of quick-look imaging for large range cell migration is proposed. It realized quicklook imaging of 8 times reduced resolution with parallel processing on memory shared 8 CPU SGI server. According to simulation experiment, this quick-look imaging algorithm with parallel processing can image 16384× 16384 SAR raw data within 6 seconds. It reaches the requirement of real-time imaging.

  6. Antiparallel Aspects of Airborne Dual-antenna InSAR Data Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang-fang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a powerful technique for precise topographic mapping. However, owing to the side-looking SAR imaging geometry, geometry distortions appear in mountainous scenarios. Because of phase discontinuities or the absence of a valid phase, it is difficult to recover accurate DEM in such areas with single-aspect InSAR data. Fusion of two or more different aspects of InSAR data can deal with this problem in practice. Experiments using two antiparallel aspects of airborne InSAR data are carried out based on this idea. To decrease the processing error in single-aspect data and fuse them seamlessly, a MOtion COmpensation (MOCO method using iterative DEM is used to reduce the MOCO error. Besides, phase-unwrapping methods based on terrain characteristics are proposed to avoid phase-unwrapping error owing to phase discontinuities in areas of shadow and layover. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the processing methods.

  7. Identification of residues of SARS-CoV nsp1 that differentially affect inhibition of gene expression and antiviral signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Andrew R; Savalia, Dhruti; Lowry, Virginia K; Farrell, Cara M; Wathelet, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) led to the identification of an associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV. This virus evades the host innate immune response in part through the expression of its non-structural protein (nsp) 1, which inhibits both host gene expression and virus- and interferon (IFN)-dependent signaling. Thus, nsp1 is a promising target for drugs, as inhibition of nsp1 would make SARS-CoV more susceptible to the host antiviral defenses. To gain a better understanding of nsp1 mode of action, we generated and analyzed 38 mutants of the SARS-CoV nsp1, targeting 62 solvent exposed residues out of the 180 amino acid protein. From this work, we identified six classes of mutants that abolished, attenuated or increased nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression and/or antiviral signaling. Each class of mutants clustered on SARS-CoV nsp1 surface and suggested nsp1 interacts with distinct host factors to exert its inhibitory activities. Identification of the nsp1 residues critical for its activities and the pathways involved in these activities should help in the design of drugs targeting nsp1. Significantly, several point mutants increased the inhibitory activity of nsp1, suggesting that coronaviruses could evolve a greater ability to evade the host response through mutations of such residues.

  8. Fundamentals of statistical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Steven M

    1993-01-01

    A unified presentation of parameter estimation for those involved in the design and implementation of statistical signal processing algorithms. Covers important approaches to obtaining an optimal estimator and analyzing its performance; and includes numerous examples as well as applications to real- world problems. MARKETS: For practicing engineers and scientists who design and analyze signal processing systems, i.e., to extract information from noisy signals — radar engineer, sonar engineer, geophysicist, oceanographer, biomedical engineer, communications engineer, economist, statistician, physicist, etc.

  9. Data Processing Concepts for the Integration of SAR Into Operational Volcano Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2013-05-01

    Remote Sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and despite its high performance in monitoring change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to (1) the high data costs associated with radar data, (2) the slow data processing and delivery procedures, and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar remote sensing data into operational volcano monitoring systems. The data integration concept presented here combines advanced data processing techniques with fast data access procedures in order to provide high quality radar-based volcano hazard information at improved temporal sampling rates. First performance analyses show that the integration of SAR can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  10. Parallel Computers in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsingh Deo

    1985-07-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing often requires a great deal of raw computing power for which it is important to take a look at parallel computers. The paper reviews various types of parallel computer architectures from the viewpoint of signal and image processing.

  11. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  12. A SAR Ice-Motion Processing Chain in Support of PROMICE (Programme for the Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Dall, Jørgen; Ahlstrøm, A. P.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SAR icemotion processing chain developed for the PROMICE project – a long-term program funded by the Danish ministry of Climate and Energy to monitor the mass budget of the Greenland ice sheet. The end goal of the SAR data processing is to output map...

  13. Optimized method for atmospheric signal reduction in irregular sampled InSAR time series assisted by external atmospheric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that spatio-temporal the tropospheric phase signatures complicate the interpretation and detection of smaller magnitude deformation signals or unstudied motion fields. Several advanced time-series InSAR techniques were developed in the last decade that make assumptions about the stochastic properties of the signal components in interferometric phases to reduce atmospheric delay effects on surface deformation estimates. However, their need for large datasets to successfully separate the different phase contributions limits their performance if data is scarce and irregularly sampled. Limited SAR data coverage is true for many areas affected by geophysical deformation. This is either due to their low priority in mission programming, unfavorable ground coverage condition, or turbulent seasonal weather effects. In this paper, we present new adaptive atmospheric phase filtering algorithms that are specifically designed to reconstruct surface deformation signals from atmosphere-affected and irregularly sampled InSAR time series. The filters take advantage of auxiliary atmospheric delay information that is extracted from various sources, e.g. atmospheric weather models. They are embedded into a model-free Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) approach that was selected to accommodate non-linear deformation patterns that are often observed near volcanoes and earthquake zones. Two types of adaptive phase filters were developed that operate in the time dimension and separate atmosphere from deformation based on their different temporal correlation properties. Both filter types use the fact that atmospheric models can reliably predict the spatial statistics and signal power of atmospheric phase delay fields in order to automatically optimize the filter's shape parameters. In essence, both filter types will attempt to maximize the linear correlation between a-priori and the extracted atmospheric phase information. Topography-related phase components, orbit

  14. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  15. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  16. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  17. Microsystem for signal processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, B.; Froehlich, K.-J.; Hentschel, D.; Reppe, G.

    2005-05-01

    Acoustic monitoring of technological processes requires methods that eliminate noise as much as possible. Sensor-near signal evaluation can contribute substantially. Frequently, a further necessity exists to integrate the measuring technique in the monitored structure. The solution described contains components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction, and digital communication. The core component is a digital signal processor (DSP). Digital signal processors perform the algorithms necessary for filtering, down sampling, FFT computation and correlation of spectral components particularly effective. A compact, sensor-near signal processing structure was realized. It meets the Match-X standard, which as specified by the German Association for Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA) for development of micro-technical modules, which can be combined to applicaiton specific systems. The solution is based on AL2O3 ceramic components including different signal processing modules as ADC, as well as memory and power supply. An arbitrary waveform generator has been developed and combined with a power amplifier for piezoelectric transducers in a special module. A further module interfaces to these transducers. It contains a multi-channel preamplifier, some high-pass filters for analog signal processing and an ADC-driver. A Bluetooth communication chip for wireless data transmission and a DiscOnChip module are under construction. As a first application, the combustion behavior of safety-relevant contacts is monitored. A special waveform up to 5MHz is produced and sent to the monitored object. The resulting signal form is evaluated with special algorithms, which extract significant parameters of the signal, and transmitted via CAN-bus.

  18. Terrain Measurement with SAR/InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Liao, Mingsheng; Balz, Timo; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Tianliang

    2016-08-01

    Terrain measurement and surface motion estimation are the most important applications for commercial and scientific SAR missions. In Dragon-3, we worked on these applications, especially regarding DEM generation, surface motion estimation with SAR time- series for urban subsidence monitoring and landslide motion estimation, as well as developing tomographic SAR processing methods in urban areas.

  19. SARS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Resources Related Links Clinician Registry Travelers' Health SARS Basics Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: ... 3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral ...

  20. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH

    2007-01-01

    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  1. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  2. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  3. Using Open-Source Components to Process Interferometric TerraSAR-X Spotlight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jendryke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the processing of interferometric TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X spotlight data. Processing steps necessary to derive interferograms at high spatial resolution from bi- and monostatic satellite images will be explained. The spotlight image mode is a beam steering technique focusing the antenna on a specific ground area. This results in a linear Doppler shift frequency in azimuth direction, which has to be matched to the master image. While shifting the interpolation kernel in azimuth during resampling, the frequency spectrum of the slave image is aligned to the master image. We show how to process bistatic TanDEM-X images and propose an integrated processing option for monostatic TerraSAR-X data in the Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (DORIS. The paper focuses on the implementation of this algorithm for high-resolution spotlight InSAR in a public domain tool; hence, it becomes available to a larger research community. The results are presented for three test areas: Uluru in Australia, Las Vegas in the USA, and Lüneburg in Germany.

  4. Wavelets and multiscale signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Albert

    1995-01-01

    Since their appearance in mid-1980s, wavelets and, more generally, multiscale methods have become powerful tools in mathematical analysis and in applications to numerical analysis and signal processing. This book is based on "Ondelettes et Traitement Numerique du Signal" by Albert Cohen. It has been translated from French by Robert D. Ryan and extensively updated by both Cohen and Ryan. It studies the existing relations between filter banks and wavelet decompositions and shows how these relations can be exploited in the context of digital signal processing. Throughout, the book concentrates on the fundamentals. It begins with a chapter on the concept of multiresolution analysis, which contains complete proofs of the basic results. The description of filter banks that are related to wavelet bases is elaborated in both the orthogonal case (Chapter 2), and in the biorthogonal case (Chapter 4). The regularity of wavelets, how this is related to the properties of the filters and the importance of regularity for t...

  5. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  6. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  7. Signal Processing for Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    understanding and enhancing a number of important recent wavelet-based and DCT- based image coders. We show that Shapiro’s well-known EZW scheme, Said and...comparable to Shapiro’s EZW coder (J. M. Shapiro, "Embedded image coding using zerotrees of wavelet coefficients", IEEE Trans, on Signal Processing, v. 41

  8. CMOS Nonlinear Signal Processing Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The chapter describes various nonlinear signal processing CMOS circuits, including a high reliable WTA/LTA, simple MED cell, and low-voltage arbitrary order extractor. We focus the discussion on CMOS analog circuit design with reliable, programmable capability, and low voltage operation. It is a practical problem when the multiple identical cells are required to match and realized within a single chip using a conventional process. Thus, the design of high-reliable circuit is indeed needed. Th...

  9. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  10. The Utility of SAR to Monitor Ocean Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    procedures should be followed to insure norma - lization in the digitization process? and (3) How would one use the derived relationship to infer wave... isI 1.43 cycles, the other 2 cycles long. The ratio of the frequencies is 1.4, which is closely approximated by the SCM spectrum. One of the

  11. Study on Radio Frequency Interference Signal Analysis and Suppression in P Band SAR%P波段SAR射频干扰信号分析及抑制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁斌; 梁兴东; 向茂生

    2012-01-01

    分析了实测P波段SAR静默接收数据,研究了模拟电视信号的频谱特性.针对P波段SAR回波中的模拟电视干扰信号,提出了一种新的干扰抑制方法.通过在时域拼接多个脉冲的回波数据增加模拟电视信号的观测时间以提高频率分辨率,进而在距离频域对其准确识别.根据模拟电视信号的频谱特征,在距离频域构造滤波器组滤除模拟电视信号的离散谱线,保留了谱线间SAR回波信号的频谱分量.实际回波数据的成像处理结果验证了方法的有效性.%Both P band SAR received silent data and spectrum characteristics of analog television signal are analyzed. In order to suppress analog television signals in P band SAR echoes, a novel interference suppression algorithm is proposed. By splicing multi-pulse SAR echoes in time domain, high frequency resolution of analog television signal can be obtained. Therefore the analog television signal can be identified accurately. By designing filter bank in range-frequency domain according to spectrum characteristics of analog television signals, the discrete spectrum lines of analog television signals are removed and the spectrum of SAR echoes between these discrete spectrum lines are saved. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified by processing real P band SAR data.

  12. Unsupervised DInSAR processing chain for multi-scale displacement analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observation techniques can be very helpful for the estimation of several sources of ground deformation due to their characteristics of large spatial coverage, high resolution and cost effectiveness. In this scenario, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most effective methodologies for its capability to generate spatially dense deformation maps at both global and local spatial scale, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy. DInSAR exploits the phase difference (interferogram) between SAR image pairs relevant to acquisitions gathered at different times, but with the same illumination geometry and from sufficiently close flight tracks, whose separation is typically referred to as baseline. Among several, the SBAS algorithm is one of the most used DInSAR approaches and it is aimed at generating displacement time series at a multi-scale level by exploiting a set of small baseline interferograms. SBAS, and generally DInSAR, has taken benefit from the large availability of spaceborne SAR data collected along years by several satellite systems, with particular regard to the European ERS and ENVISAT sensors, which have acquired SAR images worldwide during approximately 20 years. Moreover, since 2014 the new generation of Copernicus Sentinel satellites has started to acquire data with a short revisit time (12 days) and a global coverage policy, thus flooding the scientific EO community with an unprecedent amount of data. To efficiently manage such amount of data, proper processing facilities (as those coming from the emerging Cloud Computing technologies) have to be used, as well as novel algorithms aimed at their efficient exploitation have to be developed. In this work we present a set of results achieved by exploiting a recently proposed implementation of the SBAS algorithm, namely Parallel-SBAS (P-SBAS), which allows us to effectively process, in an unsupervised way and in a limited time frame, a huge number of SAR images

  13. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces a novel approach to programmable and low power platform design for audio signal processing, in particular hearing aids. The proposed programmable platform is a heterogeneous multiprocessor architecture consisting of small and simple instruction set processors called mini...... data addressing capabilities lead to the design of low power mini-cores. The algorithm suite also consisted of less demanding and/or irregular algorithms (LMS, compression) that required subsample rate signal processing justifying the use of a DSP/CPU-core. The thesis also contributes to the recent...... trend in the development of intellectual property based design methodologies. The actual mini-core designs are parameterized in word-size, memory-size, etc. and can be instantiated according to the needs of the application at hand. They are intended as low power programmable building blocks...

  14. Signal processing with free software practical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, François

    2014-01-01

    An ideal resource for students, industrial engineers, and researchers, Signal Processing with Free Software Practical Experiments presents practical experiments in signal processing using free software. The text introduces elementary signals through elementary waveform, signal storage files and elementary operations on signals and then presents the first tools to signal analysis such as temporal and frequency characteristics leading to Time-frequency analysis. Non-parametric spectral analysis is also discussed as well as signal processing through sampling, resampling, quantification, an

  15. Ship Classification with High Resolution TerraSAR-X Imagery Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship surveillance using space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, taking advantages of high resolution over wide swaths and all-weather working capability, has attracted worldwide attention. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of ship detection, but the classification is largely still open. In this paper, we propose a novel ship classification scheme based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP in order to achieve better performance. The main idea is to apply AHP on both feature selection and classification decision. On one hand, the AHP based feature selection constructs a selection decision problem based on several feature evaluation measures (e.g., discriminability, stability, and information measure and provides objective criteria to make comprehensive decisions for their combinations quantitatively. On the other hand, we take the selected feature sets as the input of KNN classifiers and fuse the multiple classification results based on AHP, in which the feature sets’ confidence is taken into account when the AHP based classification decision is made. We analyze the proposed classification scheme and demonstrate its results on a ship dataset that comes from TerraSAR-X SAR images.

  16. Neural Network Communications Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Technical Information Report for the Neural Network Communications Signal Processing Program, CDRL A003, 31 March 1993. Software Development Plan for...track changing jamming conditions to provide the decoder with the best log- likelihood ratio metrics at a given time. As part of our development plan we...Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN-91) Volume 2, June 24-28, 1991, pp. 1677-1680. Kohonen, Teuvo, Raivio, Kimmo, Simula, Oli, Venta , 011i, Henriksson

  17. Signal processing for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  18. The effect of inhibition of PP1 and TNFα signaling on pathogenesis of SARS coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2016-09-23

    The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ antiimmune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), promote pathogenesis through a parallel feed-forward circuit that promotes inflammation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the role of over-stimulation of the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV in pathogenesis. We conclude that the critical balance between immune response and inflammation can be manipulated to improve the outcome of the infection. Further, our study provides two potential therapeutic strategies for mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV infection, and may provide insight into treatment strategies for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

  19. Highly Parallel Modern Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    SVD to Signal Processing (NOSC,USC) ----------------------------------- 11 Parallel Kalman Filter Algorithms (Stanford and ISI [25-27...speCtLrm d kvel,’ope d by u.s *converges to the 2- maqx i -um;- entropy s t-?ect ra I S i -ivate 8Syrn PLCticIIllY. N~rrently we have beg-un...Methods for Ppectral Estimat~ion and Array Processing I t may seem tOO amnbitLious tr. compare all currently popular high1- resol’Jtion spectra

  20. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  1. Allan variance computed in space domain: Application to InSAR data to characterize noise and geophysical signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalié, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Allan variance was introduced fifty years ago for analyzing the stability of frequency standards. Beside its metrological interest, it is also an estimator of the large trends of the power spectral density (PSD) of frequency deviation. For instance, the Allan variance is able to discriminate different types of noise characterized by different power laws in the PSD. But, it was also used in other fields: accelerometry, geophysics, geodesy, astrophysics and even finances! However, it seems that up to now, it has been exclusively applied for time series analysis. We propose here to use the Allan variance onto spatial data. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is used in geophysics to image ground displacements in space (over the SAR image spatial coverage) and in time thank to the regular SAR image acquisitions by dedicated satellites. The main limitation of the technique is the atmospheric disturbances that affect the radar signal while traveling from the sensor to the ground and back. In this p...

  2. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  3. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  4. A New Tool for Intelligent Parallel Processing of Radar/SAR Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castillo Atoche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parallel tool for large-scale image enhancement/reconstruction and postprocessing of radar/SAR sensor systems is addressed. The proposed parallel tool performs the following intelligent processing steps: image formation, for the application of different system-level effects of image degradation with a particular remote sensing (RS system and simulation of random noising effects, enhancement/reconstruction by employing nonparametric robust high-resolution techniques, and image postprocessing using the fuzzy anisotropic diffusion technique which incorporates a better edge-preserving noise removal effect and faster diffusion process. This innovative tool allows the processing of high-resolution images provided with different radar/SAR sensor systems as required by RS endusers for environmental monitoring, risk prevention, and resource management. To verify the performance implementation of the proposed parallel framework, the processing steps are developed and specifically tested on graphic processing units (GPU, achieving considerable speedups compared to the serial version of the same techniques implemented in C language.

  5. A new implementation of full resolution SBAS-DInSAR processing chain for the effective monitoring of structures and infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Berardino, Paolo; Lanari, Riccardo; Zeni, Giovanni; Manunta, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm has already largely demonstrated its effectiveness to carry out multi-scale and multi-platform surface deformation analyses relevant to both natural and man-made hazards. Thanks to its capability to generate displacement maps and long-term deformation time series at both regional (low resolution analysis) and local (full resolution analysis) spatial scales, it allows to get more insights on the spatial and temporal patterns of localized displacements relevant to single buildings and infrastructures over extended urban areas, with a key role in supporting risk mitigation and preservation activities. The extensive application of the multi-scale SBAS-DInSAR approach in many scientific contexts has gone hand in hand with new SAR satellite mission development, characterized by different frequency bands, spatial resolution, revisit times and ground coverage. This brought to the generation of huge DInSAR data stacks to be efficiently handled, processed and archived, with a strong impact on both the data storage and the computational requirements needed for generating the full resolution SBAS-DInSAR results. Accordingly, innovative and effective solutions for the automatic processing of massive SAR data archives and for the operational management of the derived SBAS-DInSAR products need to be designed and implemented, by exploiting the high efficiency (in terms of portability, scalability and computing performances) of the new ICT methodologies. In this work, we present a novel parallel implementation of the full resolution SBAS-DInSAR processing chain, aimed at investigating localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures relevant to very large urban areas, relying on different granularity level parallelization strategies. The image granularity level is applied in most steps of the SBAS-DInSAR processing chain and exploits the multiprocessor systems with distributed

  6. Planned Data Products and Science Processing Paradigm for the Proposed NASA-ISRO SAR Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The proposed NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or NISAR, Mission will make global integrated measurements of the causes and consequences of land surface changes. NISAR would provide a means of disentangling highly spatial and temporally complex processes ranging from ecosystem disturbances, to ice sheet collapse and natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. The mission would capable of performing repeat-pass interferometry and collecting polarimetric data. The core of the payload would consist of an L-band SAR to meet all of the NASA science requirements. A secondary S-band SAR would be contributed by ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organisation. The instrument would comprise a large diameter deployable reflector and a dual frequency antenna feed and associated electronics to implement the fine-resolution, polarimetric, 240-km swath imaging system. Combined with an ambitious data acquisition plan that supports continuous mapping of Earth's land and ice-covered surfaces at every opportunity over the life of the mission, the mission would generate over 1 Petabyte of raw data each year, which expands to greater data volumes for higher level products. Since many of the science requirements propose time-series analysis, which often involve combinatorial manipulation of images acquired over time, it would be impractical and inadvisable to create global time-series science products. As a result, the processing plan for the mission would be for the project to create a complete set of products through Level 2, and only selected Level 3 products over extended areas of calibration and validation. These sites would be chosen to be scientifically interesting, so that the mission products would include significant scientific results. In addition, the project will develop higher-level processing software to the community that will allow scientists to apply the mission data from Level 0 to 2 to their science problems.

  7. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  8. Recent advances and plans in processing and geocoding of SAR data at the DFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, W.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the needs of future projects like ENVISAT and the experiences made with the current operational ERS-1 facilities, a radical change in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing scenarios can be predicted for the next years. At the German PAF several new developments were initialized which are driven mainly either by user needs or by system and operational constraints ('lessons learned'). At the end there will be a major simplification and uniformation of all used computer systems. Especially the following changes are likely to be implemented at the German PAF: transcription before archiving, processing of all standard products with high throughput directly at the receiving stations, processing of special 'high-valued' products at the PAF, usage of a single type of processor hardware, implementation of a large and fast on-line data archive, and improved and unified fast data network between the processing and archiving facilities. A short description of the current operational SAR facilities as well as the future implementations are given.

  9. The study of molybdenite types related to the ore processing plant of the Sar Cheshmeh mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balandeh Aminzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenite occurs in five forms in the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, namely, (1-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite, (2-veinlets with quartz-molydenite that were filled with pyrite, (3-veinlets with quartz-molybdenite-pyrite–chalcopyrite, (4-Molybdenite veinlets with very low quartz and (5-disseminated molybdenite grains. Because of their large size, the veinlet-related molybdenite grains are easily liberated from the gangue minerals, provided the grinding is properly conducted (74 micron. Because of their fine-grain size, the disseminated molybdenite grains are not liberated from the gangue and enter the tailings during the flotation process.

  10. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yan, Liang; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Furu; Long, Teng

    2016-10-12

    For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI), which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target's signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA), which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA) method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  11. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  12. Bistatic SAR/ISAR/FSR geometry, signal models and imaging algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarov, Andon Dimitrov

    2013-01-01

    Bistatic radar consists of a radar system which comprises a transmitter and receiver which are separated by a distance comparable to the expected target distance. This book provides a general theoretical description of such bistatic technology in the context of synthetic aperture, inverse synthetic aperture and forward scattering radars from the point of view of analytical geometrical and signal formation as well as processing theory. Signal formation and image reconstruction algorithms are developed with the application of high informative linear frequency and phase code modulating techniques

  13. Landslide monitoring by Terrestrial SAR Interferometry: critical analysis of different data processing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Alessandro; Crosetto, Michele; Mazzanti, Paolo; Monserrat, Oriol

    2015-04-01

    In last years, Terrestrial Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (TInSAR) became a key technology in the field of landslide and structures/infrastructures displacement monitoring. Thanks to undoubted advantages such as i) widespread information, ii) fully remote applicability over long ranges and iii) high accuracy, this technique promises to be a very effective solution for a lot of geological and engineering issues. Even if this technique was born for interferometric analyses (basing on the phase differences between SAR images collected at different time intervals), recent studies demonstrated its reliability also with non-interferometric processing approaches, based on the amplitude tracking of high-reflectivity objects (i.e. corner reflectors). Furthermore, both approaches can be used for both continuous and discontinuous monitoring, thus opening to a wide spectrum of applications for different purposes. The aim of this work is to provide information about the reliability and the accuracy of TInSAR technique in its different kind of applications. In the frame of this work, two case studies of landslides monitored with a continuous acquisition mode (about 5 minutes sampling rate) have been investigated. The first case study consists of superficial instability problems mainly related to huge rainfalls and works, leading to non-linear displacements up to 10 mm/day. In order to assess the impact of discontinuous acquisition mode, data subsampling of one data/day for an overall monitoring period of about 3 months has been performed. The comparison between discontinuous and continuous interferometric processing approach allowed the identification of some aliasing and ambiguity problems in the discontinuous approach, especially in periods when high displacement rates were affecting the slope. Nevertheless, in most of such cases, it was still possible to provide qualitative information about criticalities, even if a precise estimation of displacement entities was

  14. SAR Jammer's Trans-Reception Signal Coupling Model and Isolation Resolving Method%SAR干扰机中的收发信号耦合模型及隔离解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆富; 邢世其; 代大海; 王雪松

    2011-01-01

    收发隔离是困扰转发式干扰机研制的瓶颈问题,研究收发同时工作中的收发隔离问题对于解决SAR干扰机中方位向欺骗干扰效果以及对抗脉间波形捷变的SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar)ECCM(Electronic Counter-Counter Measures)具有重要意义.在此背景下,本文利用数学级数概念建立了同时收发体制下,干扰机收发信号的耦合模型,并结合LFM(Linear Frequency Modulation)信号的时频特性和波形补偿实现了耦合信号中有用信号和干扰分量的滤波分离.基于实测雷达数据的实验验证以及相应的仿真结果均验证了本文方法的有效性.%The isolation between the transmitted signal and the reception one of SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) jammer is a bottleneck for many DRFM(Digital Radio Frequency Memory) based jammers. This problem is especially important for SAR azimuth deceptive jamming and also for measures against waveform agile SAR ECCM( Electronic Counter-Couter Measures) where SAR jammers need to receive and transmit signal simultaneously within the same pulse. In order to get the jammer's coupling signal model caused by isolation problem, the mathematical series are employed to describe the specific working process of SAR jammer.Considering the LFM(Linear Frequency Modulation) signal's time-frequency property and its non-ideal waveform in real application,a method to decouple LFM's time-frequency coupling and also to compensate the non-ideal waveform is proposed here,which makes the harmful trans-reception coupling component and the useful received signal much easier to be 'distinguished. This suggests that the jammer's trans-reception isolation problem can be solved in a much easier way now by only employing filtering and other signal processing technologies. Finally, our method is proved both by the simulation and the data analysis to be effective.

  15. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  16. Signal processing techniques for forward imaging using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Ressler, Marc A.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a customer and mission-funded exploratory development program, has been developing a prototype of low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) forward-imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to support the U.S. Army's vision for increased mobility and survivability of unmanned ground vehicle missions. The ability of the UWB radar technology to detect objects under foilage could provide an important obstacle-avoidance capability for robotic vehicles, which could improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U.S. forces. In a recent experiment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), we exercised the UWB SAR radar in forward-looking mode and collected data to support the investigation. This paper discusses the signal processing algorithms and techniques that we developed and applied to the recent UWB SAR forward-looking data. The algorithms include motion data processing, self-interference signal (SIR) removal, radio frequency interference (RFI) signal removal, forward-looking image formation, and visualization techniques. We present forward-loking SAR imagery and also volumetric imagery of some targets.

  17. Optical time-lens signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals.......This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals....

  18. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  19. Fundamentals of adaptive signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an accessible guide to adaptive signal processing methods that equips the reader with advanced theoretical and practical tools for the study and development of circuit structures and provides robust algorithms relevant to a wide variety of application scenarios. Examples include multimodal and multimedia communications, the biological and biomedical fields, economic models, environmental sciences, acoustics, telecommunications, remote sensing, monitoring, and, in general, the modeling and prediction of complex physical phenomena. The reader will learn not only how to design and implement the algorithms but also how to evaluate their performance for specific applications utilizing the tools provided. While using a simple mathematical language, the employed approach is very rigorous. The text will be of value both for research purposes and for courses of study.

  20. X波段双站SAR实验及其处理方法的研究%Research on X-band bistatic SAR experiment and the processing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊松雅; 仇晓兰; 胡东辉; 周良将; 梁兴东; 丁赤飚

    2012-01-01

    Bistatic SAR is a new SAR system. Since it is flexible,and easy to hide,it will be helpful for national defense. The superiority also brings difficulty in synchronization error elimination and signal processing. According to the X-band one-stationary bistatic SAR experiment, this paper analyzes the design of the experiment and the origin of synchronization error and how to eliminate the synchronization error. Finally back projection algorithm is used to process the origin echo data. Simulation results and data processing results both verify the effectiveness of the design and the algorithm.%双站SAR是一种新体制SAR,它具有构型灵活多变、隐蔽性强等优点,在国防建设中具有重要的应用前景.双站SAR的同步误差和信号处理的复杂性给实际系统和成像处理都增加了困难.在X波段双站SAR一站固定模式的实验基础上,针对实际实验系统设计,对同步误差的产生和消除进行了分析,并利用BP算法对实验数据进行了处理.仿真和实际数据处理结果都证明了本次实验设计的有效性和算法的正确性.

  1. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  2. An Algorithm for Ship Wake Detection from the SAR Images Using the Radon Transform and Morphological Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the Rador transform and morphological image processing, an algorithm for ship's wake detection in the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image is developed. Being manipulated in the Radon space to invert the gray-level and binary images, the linesr texture of ship wake in oceanic clutter can be well detected. It has been applied to the automatic detection of a moving ship from the SEASAT SAR image. The results show that this algorithm is well robust in a strong noisy background and is not very sensitive to the threshold parameter and the working window size.

  3. New perspectives and advanced approaches on effectively processing Big InSAR data: from long term ERS archives to new Sentinel-1 massive data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Manunta, Michele; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Advanced differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR) usually identifies a set of algorithms, tools and methodologies for the generation of Earth's surface deformation maps and time series computed from a sequence of multi-temporal differential SAR interferograms. Such techniques found their success on the large availability of SAR data archives acquired over time by several satellite systems. Indeed, the current radar Earth Observation (EO) scenario takes advantage of the widely diffused long-term C-band ESA (e.g. ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT) and Canadian (RADARSAT-1/2) SAR data archives, which have been acquired during the last 20 years, as well as of data sequences provided by the X-band generation SAR sensors, such as the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) constellations. Moreover, a massive and ever increasing data flow will be further supplied by the recently launched (April 2014) Copernicus (European Union) SENTINEL-1A SAR satellite, which will also be paired during 2016 with the SENTINEL-1B twin system that will allow halving the constellation revisit time (from 12 to 6 days). In this context, the massive exploitation of these Big InSAR Data archives for the generation of advanced products will open new research perspectives to understand Earth's surface deformation dynamics at global scale. However, to reach this ambitious goal, Big InSAR Data has to be effectively exploited to generate accurate advanced products in short time frames. Therefore the need of new InSAR processing approaches, efficient algorithms and high performance computing facilities represents the basis for fully benefiting from such a Big Data. In this work we first present the recently proposed Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS) InSAR algorithm that has been designed to process big volumes of InSAR data in short times and unsupervised manner by exploiting High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Then, we show how the P-SBAS approach is well suitable for

  4. SArEM: A SPEM extension for software architecture extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Abboud

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain a system, it’s critical to understand its architecture. However even though every system has an architecture, not every system has a reliable representation of its architecture. To deal with this problem many researchers have engaged in software architecture extraction where the system’s architecture is recovered from its source code. While there is a plethora of approaches aiming at extracting software architectures, there is no mean or tool measurement for these approaches; which makes the comparison between the different approaches a hard task. To tackle this lack, we developed a meta-model, based on SPEM meta-model, that specifies the software architecture extraction process. Such meta-model serves as a tool to compare, analyze and evaluate research field approaches. In this paper we detail our meta-model called SArEM (Software Architecture Extraction Meta-model and clarify its concepts.

  5. A signal theoretic introduction to random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    A fresh introduction to random processes utilizing signal theory By incorporating a signal theory basis, A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes presents a unique introduction to random processes with an emphasis on the important random phenomena encountered in the electronic and communications engineering field. The strong mathematical and signal theory basis provides clarity and precision in the statement of results. The book also features:  A coherent account of the mathematical fundamentals and signal theory that underpin the presented material Unique, in-depth coverage of

  6. Optimal Approach to SAR Image Despeckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Speckle filtering of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images while preserving the spatial signal variability (texture and fine structures) still remains a challenge. Many algorithms have been proposed for the SAR imagery despeckling. However,simulated annealing (SA) method is one of excellent choices currently. A critical problem in the study on SA is to provide appropriate cooling schedules that ensure fast convergence to near-optimal solutions. This paper gives a new necessary and sufficient condition for the cooling schedule so that the algorithm state converges in all probability to the set of globally minimum cost states.Moreover, it constructs an appropriate objective function for SAR image despeckling. An experimental result of the actual SAR image processing is obtained.

  7. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed signal excision software: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliament, Hugh A.

    1992-05-01

    The Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) signal excision software is a set of programs that provide real-time processing functions for the excision of interfering tones from a live spread-spectrum signal as well as off-line functions for the analysis of the effectiveness of the excision technique. The processing functions provided by the ASPT signal excision software are real-time adaptive filtering of live data, storage to disk, and file sorting and conversion. The main off-line analysis function is bit error determination. The purpose of the software is to measure the effectiveness of an adaptive filtering algorithm to suppress interfering or jamming signals in a spread spectrum signal environment. A user manual for the software is provided, containing information on the different software components available to perform signal excision experiments: the real-time excision software, excision host program, file processing utilities, and despreading and bit error rate determination software. In addition, information is presented describing the excision algorithm implemented, the real-time processing framework, the steps required to add algorithms to the system, the processing functions used in despreading, and description of command sequences for post-run analysis of the data.

  8. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  9. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  10. Improvements on Signal Processing for HF Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongtan; SHEN Yiying

    2001-01-01

    In this paper improvements on signalprocessing are achieved to enhance the performancesof H-F radar system, being unobtainable by the con-ventional signal processing. Using the improved sig-nal processing both high range resolution and longcoherent integration time may be obtained for goodbenefit to the target resolution and weak signal de-tection. Modification to the unmatched correspon-dence between range delay samples and range resolu-tion ceils saves an additional accumulation loss in therange processing. Finally, comparisons between theimproved and the conventional signal processing aregiven by numerical simulation.

  11. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  12. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  13. Signals Intelligence - Processing - Analysis - Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Example: Language identification from audio signals. In a certain mission, a set of languages seems important beforehand. These languages will – with a...tasks to be performed. • OCR: determine the text parts in an image – language dependent approach, quality depends on the language. • Steganography

  14. A Multi-Scale Flood Monitoring System Based on Fully Automatic MODIS and TerraSAR-X Processing Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Stein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-component fully automated flood monitoring system is described and evaluated. This is a result of combining two individual flood services that are currently under development at DLR’s (German Aerospace Center Center for Satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI to rapidly support disaster management activities. A first-phase monitoring component of the system systematically detects potential flood events on a continental scale using daily-acquired medium spatial resolution optical data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. A threshold set controls the activation of the second-phase crisis component of the system, which derives flood information at higher spatial detail using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based satellite mission (TerraSAR-X. The proposed activation procedure finds use in the identification of flood situations in different spatial resolutions and in the time-critical and on demand programming of SAR satellite acquisitions at an early stage of an evolving flood situation. The automated processing chains of the MODIS (MFS and the TerraSAR-X Flood Service (TFS include data pre-processing, the computation and adaptation of global auxiliary data, thematic classification, and the subsequent dissemination of flood maps using an interactive web-client. The system is operationally demonstrated and evaluated via the monitoring two recent flood events in Russia 2013 and Albania/Montenegro 2013.

  15. SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Inhibits the TLR7 Signaling Pathway through Removing Lys63-Linked Polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wen; Wang, Ching-Ying; Jou, Yu-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Hsiao, Li-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Kung, Szu-Hao; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-05-05

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLPro) reportedly inhibits the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) pathways. The study investigated the inhibitory effect and its antagonistic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated cytokine production. TLR7 agonist (imiquimod (IMQ)) concentration-dependently induced activation of ISRE-, NF-κB- and AP-1-luciferase reporters, as well as the production of IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in human promonocyte cells. However, SARS-CoV PLPro significantly inhibited IMQ-induced cytokine production through suppressing the activation of transcription factors IRF-3, NF-κB and AP-1. Western blot analysis with anti-Lys48 and anti-Lys63 ubiquitin antibodies indicated the SARS-CoV PLPro removed Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains of TRAF3 and TRAF6, but not Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains in un-treated and treated cells. The decrease in the activated state of TRAF3 and TRAF6 correlated with the inactivation of TBK1 in response to IMQ by PLPro. The results revealed that the antagonism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated innate immunity was associated with the negative regulation of TRAF3/6-TBK1-IRF3/NF-κB/AP1 signals.

  16. Correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing

    2016-06-01

    Signal processing precision of Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) signals affects measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters directly. To improve the measurement accuracy of CMFs, a correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals is proposed, which is comprised of the correlation theory-based frequency estimation method and phase difference estimation method. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method eliminates the effect of non-integral period sampling signals on frequency and phase difference estimation. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of frequency and phase difference estimation and has better estimation performance than the adaptive notch filter, discrete Fourier transform and autocorrelation methods in terms of frequency estimation and the data extension-based correlation, Hilbert transform, quadrature delay estimator and discrete Fourier transform methods in terms of phase difference estimation, which contributes to improving the measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters.

  17. Optical Processing of High Dimensionality Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco

    signal processing, including wavelength conversion, optical phase conjugation (OPC), and signal regeneration. This project focuses precisely on the applications of OPAs for all-optical signal processing with a two-fold focus: on the one hand, processing the advanced modulation formats required......) waveguides, are investigated. The limits of parametric amplification for 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals are first characterized. The acquired knowledge is then applied to the design of a black-box OPC-device used to provide Kerr nonlinearity compensation for a 5-channel polarization......-division multiplexing (PDM) 16-QAM signal at 1.12 Tbps with significant improvements in received signal quality. Furthermore, the first demonstration of phase regeneration for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals using the silicon platform is presented. The silicon-based OPA relies on a novel design where a reverse...

  18. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  19. Digital signal processing for fiber nonlinearities [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartledge, John C.; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Kschischang, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems......This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems...

  20. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  1. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  2. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  3. Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3 eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images (interferograms processed from both spaceborne Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS-1 and aerial Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR data acquired between 31 May 2010 and 10 April 2014 were used to measure post-eruptive deformation events. Interferograms suggest three distinct deformation processes after the May 2010 eruptions, including: (1 subsidence of the area involved in the co-eruptive slope movement; (2 localized deformation near the summit; and (3 emplacement and subsequent subsidence of about a 5.4 km lava flow. The detection of several different geophysical signals emphasizes the utility of measuring volcanic deformation using remote sensing techniques with broad spatial coverage. Additionally, the high spatial resolution of UAVSAR has proven to be an excellent compliment to satellite data, particularly for constraining motion components. Measuring the rapid initiation and cessation of flank instability, followed by stabilization and subsequent influence on eruptive features, provides a rare glimpse into volcanic slope stability processes. Observing these and other deformation events contributes both to hazard assessment at Pacaya and to the study of the stability of stratovolcanoes.

  4. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  5. A modified algorithm for SAR parallel imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ju-rong; WANG Fei; CAO Ning; LU Hao

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar can provide two dimension images by converting the acquired echoed SAR signal to targets coordinate and reflectivity. With the advancement of sophisticated SAR signal processing, more and more SAR imaging methods have been proposed for synthetic aperture radar which works at near field and the Fresnel approximation is not appropriate. Time domain correlation is a kind of digital reconstruction method based on processing the synthetic aperture radar data in the two-dimensional frequency domain via Fourier transform. It reconstructs SAR image via simply correlation without any need for approximation or interpolation. But its high computational cost for correlation makes it unsuitable for real time imaging. In order to reduce the computational burden a modified algorithm about time domain correlation was given in this paper. It also can take full advantage of parallel computations of the imaging processor. Its practical implementation was proposed and the preliminary simulation results were presented. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is a computationally efficient way of implementing the reconstruction in real time SAR image processing.

  6. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao;

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  7. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...Award Number N000141110371 Title of Research Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar Principal Investigator William D. Jemison

  8. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  9. RSFQ Baseband Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Anna Yurievna

    Ultra fast switching speed of superconducting digital circuits enable realization of Digital Signal Processors with performance unattainable by any other technology. Based on rapid-single-flux technology (RSFQ) logic, these integrated circuits are capable of delivering high computation capacity up to 30 GOPS on a single processor and very short latency of 0.1ns. There are two main applications of such hardware for practical telecommunication systems: filters for superconducting ADCs operating with digital RF data and recursive filters at baseband. The later of these allows functions such as multiuser detection for 3G WCDMA, equalization and channel precoding for 4G OFDM MIMO, and general blind detection. The performance gain is an increase in the cell capacity, quality of service, and transmitted data rate. The current status of the development of the RSFQ baseband DSP is discussed. Major components with operating speed of 30GHz have been developed. Designs, test results, and future development of the complete systems including cryopackaging and CMOS interface are reviewed.

  10. Overview of independent component analysis technique with an application to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simone

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of independent component analysis, an emerging signal processing technique based on neural networks, with the aim to provide an up-to-date survey of the theoretical streams in this discipline and of the current applications in the engineering area. We also focus on a particular application, dealing with a remote sensing technique based on synthetic aperture radar imagery processing: we briefly review the features and main applications of synthetic aperture radar and show how blind signal processing by neural networks may be advantageously employed to enhance the quality of remote sensing data.

  11. A 1 V 186-μW 50-MS/s 10-bit subrange SAR ADC in 130-nm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyuan, Yu; Ting, Li; Jiaqi, Yang; Shuangshuang, Zhang; Fujiang, Lin; Lin, He

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 50-MS/s subrange successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) composed of a 4-bit SAR coarse ADC and a 6-bit SAR fine ADC. In the coarse ADC, multi-comparator SAR architecture is used to reduce the digital logic propagation delay, and a traditional asynchronous SAR ADC with monotonic switching method is used as the fine ADC. With that combination, power dissipation also can be much reduced. Meanwhile, a modified SAR control logic is adopted in the fine ADC to speed up the conversion and other techniques, such as splitting capacitors array, are borrowed to reduce the power consumption. Fabricated with 1P8M 130-nm CMOS technology, the proposed SAR ADC achieves 51.6-dB signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) and consumes 186 μW at 50 MS/s with a 1-V supply, resulting in a figure of merit (FOM) of 12 fJ/conversion-step. The core area is only 0.045 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61204033, 61331015), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. WK2100230015), and the Funds of Science and Technology on Analog Integrated Circuit Laboratory (No. 9140C090111150C09041).

  12. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  13. Processing Music Signals Using Audio Decomposition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Driedger, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Music signals are complex. When musicians play together, their instruments' sounds superimpose and form a single complex sound mixture. Furthermore, even the sound of a single instrument may already comprise sound components of harmonic, percussive, noise-like, and transient nature, among others. The complexity of music signal processing tasks such as time-scale modifcation - the task of stretching or compressing the duration of a music signal - or music source separation - the...

  14. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  15. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae G. Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above.

  16. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H.; Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A. A.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Chang, Tae. G.

    2013-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. PMID:24048337

  17. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  18. Surface electromyography signal processing and classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H; Reaz, Mamun B I; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A A; Chellappan, K; Chang, T G

    2013-09-17

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above.

  19. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  20. A special issue on photonic signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinliang ZHANG; Jianping CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Photonic signal processing has been receiving increasing attention for about fifteen years.It would be enabling technology for next generation large capacity optical networks because it can avoid electronics bottleneck and decrease power consumption greatly.There are two main areas related to photonic signal processing.One topic is all-optical signal processing for digital bit sequence in optical network,such as all-optical wavelength conversion,alloptical logic operation,all-optical 3R regeneration,all-optical clock recovery,all-optical buffer,etc.The other topic is microwave photonic signal processing,such as microwave photonic filters,arbitrary waveform generation,RF signal generation,UWB signal generation,etc.However,there are still many problems to be solved before these functions could be used in optical networks.Researchers all over the world are concentrating on realizing photonic signal processing functions with some characteristics such as high operation speed and large bandwidth,flexible and multifunctional,potential integration.

  1. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  2. Digital signal processing in communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frerking, Marvin E

    1994-01-01

    An engineer's introduction to concepts, algorithms, and advancements in Digital Signal Processing. This lucidly written resource makes extensive use of real-world examples as it covers all the important design and engineering references.

  3. Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, F; Cauchie, L; Casagli, N; Saccorotti, G

    2014-04-28

    We present the integration of seismic and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GBInSAR) displacement data at Stromboli Volcano. Ground deformation in the area of summit vents is positively correlated with both seismic tremor amplitude and cumulative amplitudes of very long period (VLP) signals associated with Strombolian explosions. Changes in VLP amplitudes precede by a few days the variations in ground deformation and seismic tremor. We propose a model where the arrival of fresh, gas-rich magma from depth enhances gas slug formation, promoting convection and gas transfer throughout the conduit system. At the shallowest portion of the conduit, an increase in volatile content causes a density decrease, expansion of the magmatic column and augmented degassing activity, which respectively induce inflation of the conduit, and increased tremor amplitudes. The temporal delay between increase of VLP and tremor amplitudes/conduit inflation can be interpreted in terms of the different timescales characterizing bulk gas transfer versus slug formation and ascent.

  4. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  5. Signal processing by the endosomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Zerial, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Cells need to decode chemical or physical signals from their environment in order to make decisions on their fate. In the case of signalling receptors, ligand binding triggers a cascade of chemical reactions but also the internalization of the activated receptors in the endocytic pathway. Here, we highlight recent studies revealing a new role of the endosomal network in signal processing. The diversity of entry pathways and endosomal compartments is exploited to regulate the kinetics of receptor trafficking, and interactions with specific signalling adaptors and effectors. By governing the spatio-temporal distribution of signalling molecules, the endosomal system functions analogously to a digital-analogue computer that regulates the specificity and robustness of the signalling response.

  6. Signal and Image Processing with Sinlets

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Alexander Y

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new family of localized orthonormal bases - sinlets - which are well suited for both signal and image processing and analysis. One-dimensional sinlets are related to specific solutions of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator equation. By construction, each sinlet is differentiable infinitely many times and has a well-defined and smoothly-varied instantaneous frequency known in analytical form. For square-integrable transient signals with infinite support, one-dimensional sinlet basis provides an advantageous alternative to the Fourier transform by rendering accurate signal representation via a countable set of real-valued coefficients. The properties of sinlets make them suitable for analyzing many real-world signals whose frequency content changes with time including radar and sonar waveforms, music, speech, biological echolocation sounds, biomedical signals, seismic acoustic waves, and signals employed in wireless communication systems. One-dimensional sinlet bases can be used to con...

  7. Imaging Formation Algorithm of the Ground and Space-Borne Hybrid BiSAR Based on Parameters Estimation from Direct Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image formation algorithm for the bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with the configuration of a noncooperative transmitter and a stationary receiver in which the traditional imaging algorithm failed because the necessary imaging parameters cannot be estimated from the limited information from the noncooperative data provider. In the new algorithm, the essential parameters for imaging, such as squint angle, Doppler centroid, and Doppler chirp-rate, will be estimated by full exploration of the recorded direct signal (direct signal is the echo from satellite to stationary receiver directly from the transmitter. The Doppler chirp-rate is retrieved by modeling the peak phase of direct signal as a quadratic polynomial. The Doppler centroid frequency and the squint angle can be derived from the image contrast optimization. Then the range focusing, the range cell migration correction (RCMC, and the azimuth focusing are implemented by secondary range compression (SRC and the range cell migration, respectively. At last, the proposed algorithm is validated by imaging of the BiSAR experiment configured with china YAOGAN 10 SAR as the transmitter and the receiver platform located on a building at a height of 109 m in Jiangsu province. The experiment image with geometric correction shows good accordance with local Google images.

  8. Subsidence history of the city of Morelia, Mexico based on InSAR images processed as time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, S. H.; Suárez, G.; López-Quiroz, P.

    2012-04-01

    The city of Morelia in central Mexico sits on lacustrine and fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Subsidence due to the extraction of water from the subsoil is evidenced by the presence of differential soil compaction, causing faulting and cracking of the ground and adjacent constructions. In order to study the subsidence history of the past nine years, twenty-eight ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired between May 2003 and September 2010 were processed using ROI_PAC. All scenes are descending orbit images. The resulting interferograms were filtered using an adaptive filter and, in order to increase coherence and signal-to-noise ratio, they were unwrapped using the "branch-cut" algorithm. A subset of the resulting interferograms was selected based on the following criteria. Only interferograms with spatial baseline of less than 400 m and a temporal baseline of less than 420 days were considered. The primary objective of our work was to determine the temporal evolution of the subsidence in different parts of the city. To this end, selected pixels are inverted in an independent manner from neighbouring pixels using a time series analysis. Preliminary results suggest that the central part of the basin, near the fault known as the "Central Camionera", the subsidence is almost constant with a value of 3 to 4 cm/yr until 2008. From this date on, the subsidence rates increase to values with an average of 7 to 8 cm/yr. This increase in the subsidence rate is clearly appreciated in the appearance of two clearly visible circular patterns from 2008 to 2010. Currently, an inversion is being conducted to obtain the overall subsidence history of the basin.

  9. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  10. Digital signal processing techniques and applications in radar image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bu-Chin

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained approach to DSP techniques and applications in radar imagingThe processing of radar images, in general, consists of three major fields: Digital Signal Processing (DSP); antenna and radar operation; and algorithms used to process the radar images. This book brings together material from these different areas to allow readers to gain a thorough understanding of how radar images are processed.The book is divided into three main parts and covers:* DSP principles and signal characteristics in both analog and digital domains, advanced signal sampling, and

  11. MULTI-TEMPORAL SAR INTERFEROMETRY FOR LANDSLIDE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dwivedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, SAR Interferometry specially InSAR and D-InSAR were extensively used for deformation monitoring related applications. Due to temporal and spatial decorrelation in dense vegetated areas, effectiveness of InSAR and D-InSAR observations were always under scrutiny. Multi-temporal InSAR methods are developed in recent times to retrieve the deformation signal from pixels with different scattering characteristics. Presently, two classes of multi-temporal InSAR algorithms are available- Persistent Scatterer (PS and Small Baseline (SB methods. This paper discusses the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer (StaMPS based PS-InSAR and the Small Baselines Subset (SBAS techniques to estimate the surface deformation in Tehri dam reservoir region in Uttarkhand, India. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS approaches used sixteen ENVISAT ASAR C-Band images for generating single master and multiple master interferograms stack respectively and their StaMPS processing resulted in time series 1D-Line of Sight (LOS mean velocity maps which are indicative of deformation in terms of movement towards and away from the satellites. From 1D LOS velocity maps, localization of landslide is evident along the reservoir rim area which was also investigated in the previous studies. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS effectively extract measurement pixels in the study region, and the general results provided by both approaches show a similar deformation pattern along the Tehri reservoir region. Further, we conclude that StaMPS based PS-InSAR method performs better in terms of extracting more number of measurement pixels and in the estimation of mean Line of Sight (LOS velocity as compared to SBAS method. It is also proposed to take up a few major landslides area in Uttarakhand for slope stability assessment.

  12. Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry for Landslide Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R.; Narayan, A. B.; Tiwari, A.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In the past few years, SAR Interferometry specially InSAR and D-InSAR were extensively used for deformation monitoring related applications. Due to temporal and spatial decorrelation in dense vegetated areas, effectiveness of InSAR and D-InSAR observations were always under scrutiny. Multi-temporal InSAR methods are developed in recent times to retrieve the deformation signal from pixels with different scattering characteristics. Presently, two classes of multi-temporal InSAR algorithms are available- Persistent Scatterer (PS) and Small Baseline (SB) methods. This paper discusses the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer (StaMPS) based PS-InSAR and the Small Baselines Subset (SBAS) techniques to estimate the surface deformation in Tehri dam reservoir region in Uttarkhand, India. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS approaches used sixteen ENVISAT ASAR C-Band images for generating single master and multiple master interferograms stack respectively and their StaMPS processing resulted in time series 1D-Line of Sight (LOS) mean velocity maps which are indicative of deformation in terms of movement towards and away from the satellites. From 1D LOS velocity maps, localization of landslide is evident along the reservoir rim area which was also investigated in the previous studies. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS effectively extract measurement pixels in the study region, and the general results provided by both approaches show a similar deformation pattern along the Tehri reservoir region. Further, we conclude that StaMPS based PS-InSAR method performs better in terms of extracting more number of measurement pixels and in the estimation of mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity as compared to SBAS method. It is also proposed to take up a few major landslides area in Uttarakhand for slope stability assessment.

  13. Sensing, Signal Processing, and Communication for WBANs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Hamed Fouladi; Ral ChvezSantiago; Pl Ander Floor; Ilangko Balasingham; Tor ARamstad

    2014-01-01

    A wireless body area network (WBAN) enables real-time monitoring of physiological signals and helps with the early detection of life-threatening diseases. WBAN nodes can be located on, inside, or in close proximity to the body in order to detect vital signals. Measurements from sensors are processed and transmitted over wireless channels. Issues in sensing, signal processing, and com-munication have to be addressed before WBAN can be implemented. In this paper, we survey recent advances in research on sig-nal processing for the sensor measurements, and we describe aspects of communication based on IEEE 802.15.6. We also discuss state-of-the-art WBAN channel modeling in all the frequencies specified by IEEE 802.15.6 as well as the need for new channel models for new different frequencies.

  14. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  15. Recovering Seasat SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. A.; Arko, S. A.; Rosen, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observations, NASA launched Seasat on June 27th, 1978. Being the first space borne SAR mission, Seasat produced the most detailed SAR images of Earth from space ever seen to that point in time. While much of the data collected in the USA was processed optically, a mere 150 scenes had been digitally processed by March 1980. In fact, only an estimated 3% of Seasat data was ever digitally processed. Thus, for over three decades, the majority of the SAR data from this historic mission has been dormant, virtually unavailable to scientists in the 21st century. Over the last year, researchers at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) have processed the Seasat SAR archives into imagery products. A telemetry decoding system was created and the data were filtered into readily processable signal files. Due to nearly 35 years of bit rot, the bit error rate (BER) for the ASF DAAC Seasat archives was on the order of 1 out of 100 to 1 out of 100,000. This extremely high BER initially seemed to make much of the data undecodable - because the minor frame numbers are just 7 bits and no range line numbers exist in the telemetry even the 'simple' tasks of tracking the minor frame number or locating the start of each range line proved difficult. Eventually, using 5 frame numbers in sequence and a handful of heuristics, the data were successfully decoded into full range lines. Concurrently, all metadata were stored into external files. Recovery of this metadata was also problematic, the BER making the information highly suspect and, initially at least, unusable in any sort of automated fashion. Because of the BER, all of the single bit metadata fields proved unreliable. Even fields that should be constant for a data take (e.g. receiving station, day of the year) showed high variability, each requiring a median filter to be usable. The most challenging, however, were the

  16. Multivariate Analysis for the Processing of Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-world experiments are becoming increasingly more complex, needing techniques capable of tracking this complexity. Signal based measurements are often used to capture this complexity, where a signal is a record of a sample’s response to a parameter (e.g. time, displacement, voltage, wavelength that is varied over a range of values. In signals the responses at each value of the varied parameter are related to each other, depending on the composition or state sample being measured. Since signals contain multiple information points, they have rich information content but are generally complex to comprehend. Multivariate Analysis (MA has profoundly transformed their analysis by allowing gross simplification of the tangled web of variation. In addition MA has also provided the advantage of being much more robust to the influence of noise than univariate methods of analysis. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that the nature of the multivariate methods allows exploitation of its benefits for purposes other than data analysis, such as pre-processing of signals with the aim of eliminating irrelevant variations prior to analysis of the signal of interest. It has been shown that exploiting multivariate data reduction in an appropriate way can allow high fidelity denoising (removal of irreproducible non-signals, consistent and reproducible noise-insensitive correction of baseline distortions (removal of reproducible non-signals, accurate elimination of interfering signals (removal of reproducible but unwanted signals and the standardisation of signal amplitude fluctuations. At present, the field is relatively small but the possibilities for much wider application are considerable. Where signal properties are suitable for MA (such as the signal being stationary along the x-axis, these signal based corrections have the potential to be highly reproducible, and highly adaptable and are applicable in situations where the data is noisy or

  17. SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Inhibits the TLR7 Signaling Pathway through Removing Lys63-Linked Polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and TRAF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLPro reportedly inhibits the production of type I interferons (IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I pathways. The study investigated the inhibitory effect and its antagonistic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated cytokine production. TLR7 agonist (imiquimod (IMQ concentration-dependently induced activation of ISRE-, NF-κB- and AP-1-luciferase reporters, as well as the production of IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in human promonocyte cells. However, SARS-CoV PLPro significantly inhibited IMQ-induced cytokine production through suppressing the activation of transcription factors IRF-3, NF-κB and AP-1. Western blot analysis with anti-Lys48 and anti-Lys63 ubiquitin antibodies indicated the SARS-CoV PLPro removed Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains of TRAF3 and TRAF6, but not Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains in un-treated and treated cells. The decrease in the activated state of TRAF3 and TRAF6 correlated with the inactivation of TBK1 in response to IMQ by PLPro. The results revealed that the antagonism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated innate immunity was associated with the negative regulation of TRAF3/6-TBK1-IRF3/NF-κB/AP1 signals.

  18. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease up-regulates the collagen expression through non-Samd TGF-β1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Lu, Chien-Yi; Li, Shih-Wen; Lai, Chien-Chen; Hua, Chun-Hung; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Hour, Mann-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2017-05-02

    SARS coronavirus (CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) reportedly induced the production of TGF-β1 through p38 MAPK/STAT3-meidated Egr-1-dependent activation (Sci. Rep. 6, 25754). This study investigated the correlation of PLpro-induced TGF-β1 with the expression of Type I collagen in human lung epithelial cells and mouse pulmonary tissues. Specific inhibitors for TGF-βRI, p38 MAPK, MEK, and STAT3 proved that SARS-CoV PLpro induced TGF-β1-dependent up-regulation of Type I collagen in vitro and in vivo. Subcellular localization analysis of SMAD3 and SMAD7 indicated that non-SMAD pathways in TGF-β1 signaling involved in the production of Type I collagen in transfected cells with pSARS-PLpro. Comprehensive analysis of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using immunoprecipitation and nanoLC-MS/MS indicated that SARS-CoV PLpro caused the change in the ubiquitination profile of Rho GTPase family proteins, in which linked with the increase of Rho-like GTPase family proteins. Moreover, selective inhibitors TGF-βRI and STAT6 (AS1517499) ascertained that STAT6 activation was required for PLpro-induced TGF-β1-dependent up-regulation of Type I collagen in human lung epithelial cells. The results showed that SARS-CoV PLpro stimulated TGF-β1-dependent expression of Type I collagen via activating STAT6 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  20. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  1. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  2. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A) Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Reese, David H

    2016-01-01

    A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production) in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs) are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP) were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP) in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A). In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  3. Improved Algorithms for Nanopore Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2012-01-01

    Nanopore resistive pulse techniques are based on analysis of current or voltage spikes in the recorded signal. These spikes result from translocation of nanometer sized analytes through a nanopore. The most important information that needs to be extracted is the duration, amplitude and number of the translocation spikes. The recorded signal is usually considerably noisy, with a huge baseline drift and hundreds of translocation spikes. Thus, incorporation of suitable signal processing algorithms is necessary for correct and fast detection of all the translocation spikes and to accurately measure their amplitude and duration. Generally, low-pass filtering is used for denoising, averaging is used for baseline detection, and thresholding is used for spike detection and measurement. Here we present novel algorithms and specifically developed software for nanopore signal processing that are significantly improving the accuracy of the nanopore measurements. It includes an improved method for baseline removing, an op...

  4. Sparse Signal Processing with Frame Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mixon, Dustin G

    2012-01-01

    Many emerging applications involve sparse signals, and their processing is a subject of active research. We desire a large class of sensing matrices which allow the user to discern important properties of the measured sparse signal. Of particular interest are matrices with the restricted isometry property (RIP). RIP matrices are known to enable efficient and stable reconstruction of sufficiently sparse signals, but the deterministic construction of such matrices has proven very difficult. In this thesis, we discuss this matrix design problem in the context of a growing field of study known as frame theory. In the first two chapters, we build large families of equiangular tight frames and full spark frames, and we discuss their relationship to RIP matrices as well as their utility in other aspects of sparse signal processing. In Chapter 3, we pave the road to deterministic RIP matrices, evaluating various techniques to demonstrate RIP, and making interesting connections with graph theory and number theory. We ...

  5. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Gérard

    2006-01-01

    This title provides the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.

  6. Signal processing in cryogenic particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryev, Y.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Y.S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.B.; Lee, M.K. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, W.S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.H., E-mail: yhkim@kriss.re.k [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-11

    We describe a signal-processing program for a data acquisition system for cryogenic particle detectors. The program is based on an optimal-filtering method for high-resolution measurement of calorimetric signals with a significant amount of noise of unknown origin and non-stationary behavior. The program was applied to improve the energy resolution of the alpha particle spectrum of an {sup 241}Am source.

  7. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  8. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  9. Financial signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni,Sanjeev R; Dmitry M. Malioutov

    2016-01-01

    The modern financial industry has been required to deal with large and diverse portfolios in a variety of asset classes often with limited market data available. Financial Signal Processing and Machine Learning unifies a number of recent advances made in signal processing and machine learning for the design and management of investment portfolios and financial engineering. This book bridges the gap between these disciplines, offering the latest information on key topics including characterizing statistical dependence and correlation in high dimensions, constructing effective and robust risk measures, and their use in portfolio optimization and rebalancing. The book focuses on signal processing approaches to model return, momentum, and mean reversion, addressing theoretical and implementation aspects. It highlights the connections between portfolio theory, sparse learning and compressed sensing, sparse eigen-portfolios, robust optimization, non-Gaussian data-driven risk measures, graphical models, causal analy...

  10. Nonlinear filtering for LIDAR signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available LIDAR (Laser Integrated Radar is an engineering problem of great practical importance in environmental monitoring sciences. Signal processing for LIDAR applications involves highly nonlinear models and consequently nonlinear filtering. Optimal nonlinear filters, however, are practically unrealizable. In this paper, the Lainiotis's multi-model partitioning methodology and the related approximate but effective nonlinear filtering algorithms are reviewed and applied to LIDAR signal processing. Extensive simulation and performance evaluation of the multi-model partitioning approach and its application to LIDAR signal processing shows that the nonlinear partitioning methods are very effective and significantly superior to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF, which has been the standard nonlinear filter in past engineering applications.

  11. Genomic Signal Processing: The Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers key issues in the emerging field of genomic signal processing and its relationship to functional genomics. It focuses on some of the biological mechanisms driving the development of genomic signal processing, in addition to their manifestation in gene-expression-based classification and genetic network modeling. Certain problems are inherent. For instance, small-sample error estimation, variable selection, and model complexity are important issues for both phenotype classification and expression prediction used in network inference. A long-term goal is to develop intervention strategies to drive network behavior, which is briefly discussed. It is hoped that this nontechnical paper demonstrates that the field of signal processing has the potential to impact and help drive genomics research.

  12. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPATH PIXELS IN SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivitywhich determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  13. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field.

  14. Python for signal processing featuring IPython notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Unpingco, José

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental concepts in signal processing illustrated with Python code and made available via IPython Notebooks, which are live, interactive, browser-based documents that allow one to change parameters, redraw plots, and tinker with the ideas presented in the text. Everything in the text is computable in this format and thereby invites readers to ""experiment and learn"" as they read. The book focuses on the core, fundamental principles of signal processing. The code corresponding to this book uses the core functionality of the scientific Python toolchain that should remai

  15. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  16. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  17. DEM FROM SAR:PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Deren; Yang Jie

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the principle and application of generating DEM from SAR, including the principle and processing flow of generating DEM from single SAR and SAR interferometry. Afterwards, the application fields of InSAR for terrain surveying, volcanic terrain surveying and D-InSAR for monitoring ground subsiding are listed and described as well.The problem and prospect of application are also pointed out in the last part of this paper.

  18. Processing oscillatory signals by incoherent feedforward loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Carolyn; Wu, Feilun; Tsoi, Ryan; Shats, Igor; You, Lingchong

    From the timing of amoeba development to the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency,many biological signaling pathways exhibit the ability to differentiate between pulsatile and sustained signals in the regulation of downstream gene expression.While networks underlying this signal decoding are diverse,many are built around a common motif, the incoherent feedforward loop (IFFL),where an input simultaneously activates an output and an inhibitor of the output.With appropriate parameters,this motif can generate temporal adaptation,where the system is desensitized to a sustained input.This property serves as the foundation for distinguishing signals with varying temporal profiles.Here,we use quantitative modeling to examine another property of IFFLs,the ability to process oscillatory signals.Our results indicate that the system's ability to translate pulsatile dynamics is limited by two constraints.The kinetics of IFFL components dictate the input range for which the network can decode pulsatile dynamics.In addition,a match between the network parameters and signal characteristics is required for optimal ``counting''.We elucidate one potential mechanism by which information processing occurs in natural networks with implications in the design of synthetic gene circuits for this purpose. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (CZ).

  19. Electrochemical noise minimization using digital signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Smaniotto Barin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses electrochemical noise in low amplitude signals and reviews the bibliography on signal iltering methods used to reduce noise interference. One of these methods, the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, is described in detail and used to filter some signals in electrostatic deposition experiments. This study also compares results from other filtering techniques such as moving average, Stavitsky-Golay and Fourier and Wavelet, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of transforms. Results have shown that the SSA method is efficient, of easy applicability, and extremely important for the understanding of electrodeposition characteristics. In the Introduction of this work, the origin of the signals is discussed, and the advantages, problems and the noise filtering techniques related to electrical deposition through microelectrodes are presented. In the Theory section, the SSA method is described, and the reasons for using it with noisy signals are presented. In the Materials and Methods section, the equipment and software used for collecting and processing the signals are described briefly. Finally, in the Results section, the signals reconstructed through SSA, as well as those found in other filtering techniques are presented.

  20. Wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu

    This thesis presents a novel approach to RF-photonic signal processing applications based on wavelength-domain optical signal processing techniques using broadband light sources as the information carriers, such as femtosecond lasers and white light sources. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources adds an additional degree of freedom to conventional optical signal processing systems. Two novel wavelength-domain optical signal processing systems are presented and demonstrated in this thesis. The first wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system is a wavelength-compensated squint-free photonic multiple beam-forming system for wideband RF phased-array antennas. Such a photonic beam-forming system employs a new modulation scheme developed in this thesis, which uses traveling-wave tunable filters to modulate wideband RF signals onto broadband optical light sources in a frequency-mapped manner. The wavelength dimension of the broadband light sources provides an additional dimension in the wavelength-compensated Fourier beam-forming system for mapping the received RF frequencies to the linearly proportional optical frequencies, enabling true-time-delay beam forming, as well as other novel RF-photonic signal processing functions such as tunable filtering and frequency down conversion. A new slow-light mechanism, the SLUGGISH light, has also been discovered with an effective slow-light velocity of 86 m/s and a record time-bandwidth product of 20. Experimental demonstration of true-time-delay beam forming based on the SLUGGISH light effect has also been presented in this thesis. In the second wavelength-domain RF photonic signal processing system, the wavelength dimension increases the information carrying capacity by spectrally multiplexing multiple wavelength channels in a wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic communication system. A novel ultrafast all-optical 3R (Re-amplification, Retiming, Re-shaping) wavelength converter based on

  1. Stimulus Contrast and Retinogeniculate Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Daniel L; Alitto, Henry J; Warland, David K; Usrey, W Martin

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal signals conveying luminance contrast play a key role in nearly all aspects of perception, including depth perception, texture discrimination, and motion perception. Although much is known about the retinal mechanisms responsible for encoding contrast information, relatively little is known about the relationship between stimulus contrast and the processing of neuronal signals between visual structures. Here, we describe simultaneous recordings from monosynaptically connected retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in the cat to determine how stimulus contrast affects the communication of visual signals between the two structures. Our results indicate that: (1) LGN neurons typically reach their half-maximal response at lower contrasts than their individual retinal inputs and (2) LGN neurons exhibit greater contrast-dependent phase advance (CDPA) than their retinal inputs. Further analyses suggests that increased sensitivity relies on spatial convergence of multiple retinal inputs, while increased CDPA is achieved, in part, on temporal summation of arriving signals.

  2. Stimulus contrast and retinogeniculate signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Llewellyn Rathbun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal signals conveying luminance contrast play a key role in nearly all aspects of perception, including depth perception, texture discrimination, and motion perception. Although much is known about the retinal mechanisms responsible for encoding contrast information, relatively little is known about the relationship between stimulus contrast and the processing of neuronal signals between visual structures. Here we describe simultaneous recordings from monosynaptically connected retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons in the cat to determine how stimulus contrast affects the communication of visual signals between the two structures. Our results indicate that 1 LGN neurons typically reach their half-maximal response at lower contrasts than their individual retinal inputs, and 2 LGN neurons exhibit greater contrast-dependent phase advance (CDPA than their retinal inputs. Further analyses suggests that increased sensitivity relies on spatial convergence of multiple retinal inputs, while increased CDPA is achieved, in part, on temporal summation of arriving signals.

  3. Digital signal processing techniques for on-board processing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ching Chung

    1990-08-01

    In on-board processing satellite systems in which frequency division multiple access (FDMA)/signal channel per carrier (SCPC) access schemes are employed, transmultiplexers are required for the frequency demultiplexing of the SCPC signals. Digital techniques for the implementation of the transmultiplexer for such application were examined. The signal processing in the transmultiplexer operations involved many parameters which could be optimized in order to reduce the hardware complexity while satisfying the level of performance required of the system. An approach for the assessment of the relationship between the various parameters and the system performance was devised, which allowed hardware requirement of practical system specifications to be estimated. For systems involving signals of different bandwidths, a more flexible implementation of the transmultiplexer is required and two computationally efficient methods, the DFT convolution and analysis/synthesis filter bank, were investigated. These methods gave greater flexibility to the input frequency plan of the transmultiplexer, at the expense of increased computational requirements. Filters were then designed to exploit specific properties of the flexible transmultiplexer methods, resulting in considerable improvement in their efficiencies. Hardware implementation of the flexible transmultiplexer was considered and an efficient multiprocesser architecture in combination with parallel processing software algorithms for the signal processing operations were designed. Finally, an experimental model of the payload for a land-mobile satellite system proposal, T-SAT, was constructed using general-purpose digital signal processors and the merits of the on-board processing architecture were demonstrated.

  4. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  5. Research on Airborne SAR Imaging Based on Esc Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. T.; Yue, X. J.; Zhao, Y. H.; Han, C. M.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the ability of flexible, accurate, and fast obtaining abundant information, airborne SAR is significant in the field of Earth Observation and many other applications. Optimally the flight paths are straight lines, but in reality it is not the case since some portion of deviation from the ideal path is impossible to avoid. A small disturbance from the ideal line will have a major effect on the signal phase, dramatically deteriorating the quality of SAR images and data. Therefore, to get accurate echo information and radar images, it is essential to measure and compensate for nonlinear motion of antenna trajectories. By means of compensating each flying trajectory to its reference track, MOCO method corrects linear phase error and quadratic phase error caused by nonlinear antenna trajectories. Position and Orientation System (POS) data is applied to acquiring accuracy motion attitudes and spatial positions of antenna phase centre (APC). In this paper, extend chirp scaling algorithm (ECS) is used to deal with echo data of airborne SAR. An experiment is done using VV-Polarization raw data of C-band airborne SAR. The quality evaluations of compensated SAR images and uncompensated SAR images are done in the experiment. The former always performs better than the latter. After MOCO processing, azimuth ambiguity is declined, peak side lobe ratio (PSLR) effectively improves and the resolution of images is improved obviously. The result shows the validity and operability of the imaging process for airborne SAR.

  6. Fault and anthropogenic processes in central California constrained by satellite and airborne InSAR and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Lundgren, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is the primary plate boundary in California, with the central SAF (CSAF) lying adjacent to the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a vast structural trough that accounts for about one-sixth of the United Sates' irrigated land and one-fifth of its extracted groundwater. The CSAF displays a range of fault slip behavior with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends, where the fault transitions to being fully locked. At least six Mw ~6.0 events since 1857 have occurred near the Parkfield transition, most recently in 2004. Large earthquakes also occurred on secondary faults parallel to the SAF, the result of distributed deformation across the plate boundary zone. Recent studies have revealed the complex interaction between anthropogenic related groundwater depletion and the seismic activity on adjacent faults through stress interaction. Despite recent progress, many questions regarding fault and anthropogenic processes in the region still remain. For example, how is the relative plate motion accommodated between the CSAF and off-fault deformation? What is the distribution of fault creep and slip deficit at shallow depths? What are the spatiotemporal variations of fault slip? What are the spatiotemporal characteristics of anthropogenic and lithospheric processes and how do they interact with each other? To address these, we combine satellite InSAR and NASA airborne UAVSAR data to image on and off-fault deformation. The UAVSAR data cover fault perpendicular swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swaths since 2009. The much finer spatial resolution and optimized viewing geometry provide important constraints on near fault deformation and fault slip at very shallow depth. We performed a synoptic InSAR time series analysis using ERS-1/2, Envisat, ALOS and UAVSAR interferograms. The combined C-band ERS-1/2 and Envisat data provide a long time interval of SAR data over the region

  7. CMOS circuits for analog signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Design choices in CMOS analog signal processing circuits are presented. Special attention is focussed on continuous-time filter technologies. The basics of MOSFET-C continuous-time filters and CMOS Square Law Circuits are explained at the hand of a graphical MOST characteristics representation.

  8. Optimisation in signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the optimization methods most commonly encountered in signal and image processing: artificial evolution and Parisian approach; wavelets and fractals; information criteria; training and quadratic programming; Bayesian formalism; probabilistic modeling; Markovian approach; hidden Markov models; and metaheuristics (genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, cross-entropy, particle swarm optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, and artificial immune systems).

  9. A Virtual Laboratory for Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Chyi-Ren; Li, Yi-Hsung; Bai, Jin-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This work designs and implements a virtual digital signal processing laboratory, VDSPL. VDSPL consists of four parts: mobile agent execution environments, mobile agents, DSP development software, and DSP experimental platforms. The network capability of VDSPL is created by using mobile agent and wrapper techniques without modifying the source code…

  10. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  11. Distributed radiofrequency signal processing using multicore fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Gasulla, I.

    2016-11-01

    Next generation fiber-wireless communication paradigms will require new technologies to address the current limitations to massive capacity, connectivity and flexibility. Multicore optical fibers, which were conceived for high-capacity digital communications, can bring numerous advantages to fiber-wireless radio access architectures. Besides radio over fiber parallel distribution and multiple antenna connectivity, multicore fibers can implement, at the same time, a variety of broadband processing functionalities for microwave and millimeter-wave signals. This approach leads to the novel concept of "fiber-distributed signal processing". In particular, we capitalize on the spatial parallelism inherent to multicore fibers to implement a broadband tunable true time delay line, which is the basis of multiple processing applications such as signal filtering, arbitrary waveform generation and squint-free radio beamsteering. We present the design of trench-assisted heterogeneous multicore fibers composed of cores featuring individual spectral group delays and chromatic dispersion profiles. Besides fulfilling the requirements for true time delay line operation, the MCFs are optimized in terms of higher-order dispersion, crosstalk and bend sensitivity. Microwave photonics signal processing will benefit from the performance stability, 2D operation versatility and compactness brought by the reported fiberintegrated solution.

  12. Software Defined Radio for processing GNSS signals

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Gutierrez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    GPS satellites are fitted with atomic clocks, in which it relapses the main objective of this project, to recover some of their accuracy and stability on a ground based receiver. This project describes the fundamentals of GPS signals, the assembly of the installation implemented to process them in software and the corresponding experiments. In order to achieve the software processing, a USB DVB-T dongle is connected to an active antenna and to the computer. As mentioned, one of...

  13. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    CERN Document Server

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  14. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  15. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  16. Gossip Algorithms for Distributed Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Moura, Jose M F; Rabbat, Michael G; Scaglione, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Gossip algorithms are attractive for in-network processing in sensor networks because they do not require any specialized routing, there is no bottleneck or single point of failure, and they are robust to unreliable wireless network conditions. Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the computer science, control, signal processing, and information theory communities, developing faster and more robust gossip algorithms and deriving theoretical performance guarantees. This article presents an overview of recent work in the area. We describe convergence rate results, which are related to the number of transmitted messages and thus the amount of energy consumed in the network for gossiping. We discuss issues related to gossiping over wireless links, including the effects of quantization and noise, and we illustrate the use of gossip algorithms for canonical signal processing tasks including distributed estimation, source localization, and compression.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Real-time Processing System of Full Resolution Quick-look Image of HJ-1 Environmental Satellite C SAR Based on High Performance Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing-shan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the design and implementation of a real-time processing system of full resolution quick-look image of HJ-1 environmental satellite C SAR based on high-performance clusters. The system processes the first quick-look SAR image on December 9, 2012. The results show that the design and implementation of the quick-look processing system satisfies the real-time SAR image processing performance requirements at full resolution. Moreover, this system is the first real-time business system of full-resolution quick-look spaceborne SAR images in China.

  18. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  19. Variant Bistatic SAR Signal Model and EM Simulation%移变模式双站SAR信号模型及电磁仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志伟; 张月园; 陈嘉琪; 郑晴

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies variant bistatic synthetic aperture radar(SAR) imaging method and EM simulation. After analyzing spectrum variant bistatic SAR signal, based on extended Loffeld' s bistatic, point target echo signal and EM simulation are conducted. Meanwhile, bistatic echo signal of 3D target is gained through physical optics. Conventional LBF and extended Loffeld's bistatic formula (ELBF) are adopted respectively to conduct variant bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging method and EM simulation. Results of target and EM simulation show that the ELBF has better focusing property compared with the conventional LBF.%针对移变模式下的双基地合成孔径雷达成像方法及电磁仿真进行了研究.在这一模式下对双基地SAR信号频谱进行分析,结合改进的Loffeld模型进行点目标回波信号分析及成像仿真.与此同时,通过物理光学方法获得三维目标的双基地回波信号,在此基础上分别采用原始与改进的Loffeld模型进行了双站SAR电磁成像仿真实验.点目标及电磁仿真结果均表明,与传统的Loffeld模型相比,改进的Loffeld模型在双基地移变模式下具有更为优良的聚焦性能.

  20. The PHARUS Project; Real Time Digital Processing of Airborne Polarimetric Radar Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, H.; Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Snoeij, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS project aims for the developrlenÈ of a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR, to be finalized in 1994. The PHARUS systen consists of three subsystens: the radar, the subsystem for the onboard data processing and recording and the ground-based subsystem for SAR processing. PHARUS is a ver

  1. Information compression and speckle reduction for multifrequency polarimetric SAR images based on kernel PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Lei Xiaogang; Bai Bendu; Zhang Yanning

    2008-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric SAR imagery provides a very convenient approach for signal processing and acquisition of radar image. However, the amount of information is scattered in several images, and redundancies exist between different bands and polarizations. Similar to signal-polarimetric SAR image, multifrequency polarimetric SAR image is corrupted with speckle noise at the same time. A method of information compression and speckle reduction for multifrequency polarimetric SAR imagery is presented based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). KPCA is a nonlinear generalization of the linear principal component analysis using the kernel trick. The NASA/JPL polarimetric SAR imagery of P, L, and C bands quadpolarizations is used for illustration. The experimental results show that KPCA has better capability in information compression and speckle reduction as compared with linear PCA.

  2. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This new process is also valuable for many SAR image understanding tasks such as road detection, railway detection, ship wake detection, texture...Starck, and L. Boubchir, “Morphological diversity and sparse image denoising,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust . Speech Signal Process., vol. 1. Apr

  3. Interferometric SAR Persistent Scatterer Analysis of Mayon volcano, Albay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bato, M. P.; Lagmay, A. A.; Paguican, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) is a new method of interferometric processing that overcomes the limitations of conventional Synthetic Aperture Radar differential interferometry (DInSAR) and is capable of detecting millimeter scale ground displacements. PSInSAR eliminate anomalies due to atmospheric delays and temporal and geometric decorrelation eminent in tropical regions by exploiting the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar interferometric signatures derived from time-coherent point-wise targets. In this study, PSInSAR conducted in Mayon Volcano, Albay Province, Bicol, Philippines, reveal tectonic deformation passing underneath the volcano. Using 47 combined ERS and ENVISAT ascending and descending imageries, differential movement between the northern horst and graben on which Mayon volcano lies, is as much as 2.5 cm/year in terms of the line-of-sight (LOS) change in the radar signal. The northern horst moves in the northwest direction whereas the graben moves mostly downward. PSInSAR results when coupled with morphological interpretation suggest left-lateral oblique-slip movement of the northern bounding fault of the Oas graben. The PSInSAR results are validated with dGPS measurements. This work presents the functionality of PSInSAR in a humid tropical environment and highlights the probable landslide hazards associated with an oversteepened volcano that may have been further deformed by tectonic activity.

  4. Circular SAR processing using an improved omega-k type algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leilei Kou; Xiaoqing Wang; Jinsong Chong; Maosheng Xiang; Minhui Zhu

    2010-01-01

    An improved circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) imaging algorithm of omega-k (ω-k) type mainly for reconstructing an image on a cylindrical surface is proposed. In the typical CSAR ω-k algorithm, the rage trajectory is approximated by Taylor series expansion to the quadratic terms, which limits the valid synthetic aperture length and the angular reconstruction range severely. Based on the model of the CSAR echo signal, the proposed al- gorithm directly transforms the signal to the two-dimensional (2D) wavenumber domain, not using approximation processing to the range trajectory. Based on form of the signal spectrum in the wavenumber domain, the formula for the wavenumber domain in-terpolation of the ω-k algorithm is deduced, and the wavenumber spectrum of the reference point used for bulk compression is ob-tained from numerical method. The improved CSAR ω-k imaging algorithm increases the valid synthetic aperture length and the angular area greatly and hence improves the angular resolution of the cylindrical imaging. Additionally, the proposed algorithm can be repeated on different cylindrical surfaces to achieve three di-mensional (3D) image reconstruction. The 3D spatial resolution of the CSAR system is discussed, and the simulation results validate the correctness of the analysis and the feasibility of the algorithm.

  5. Signals, processes, and systems an interactive multimedia introduction to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is a very new concept for learning Signal Processing, not only from the physically-based scientific fundamentals, but also from the didactic perspective, based on modern results of brain research. The textbook together with the DVD form a learning system that provides investigative studies and enables the reader to interactively visualize even complex processes. The unique didactic concept is built on visualizing signals and processes on the one hand, and on graphical programming of signal processing systems on the other. The concept has been designed especially for microelectronics, computer technology and communication. The book allows to develop, modify, and optimize useful applications using DasyLab - a professional and globally supported software for metrology and control engineering. With the 3rd edition, the software is also suitable for 64 bit systems running on Windows 7. Real signals can be acquired, processed and played on the sound card of your computer. The book provides more than 200 pre-pr...

  6. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  7. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion and propa......The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...... and propagation loss silicon nanowires and use them to demonstrate the broadband capabilities of silicon....

  8. Haptic teleoperation systems signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-young

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the signal processing perspective in haptic teleoperation systems. This text covers the topics of prediction, estimation, architecture, data compression, and error correction that can be applied to haptic teleoperation systems. The authors begin with an overview of haptic teleoperation systems, then look at a Bayesian approach to haptic teleoperation systems. They move onto a discussion of haptic data compression, haptic data digitization and forward error correction.   ·         Presents haptic data prediction/estimation methods that compensate for unreliable networks   ·         Discusses haptic data compression that reduces haptic data size over limited network bandwidth and haptic data error correction that compensate for packet loss problem   ·         Provides signal processing techniques used with existing control architectures.

  9. Signal Detection for Pareto Renewal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    SThe Pareto distribution itself was, of course, introduced by Vilfredo Pareto (1648 - 1923). (See Reference [221). This distribution has been used and...Bull. Calcutta Statist. Assoc., 7, 115-123. 22. Pareto , Vilfredo (1897). Cours d’Economie Politique. Lausanne and Paris: Rouge and Cie. 23. Park, C...STANDARDS-193-A 0 .1 / - r- ,---------------,- 8-82 SERIES IN STATISTICS AND BIOSTATISTICS SIGNAL DETECTION FOR PARETO RENEWAL PROCESSES C.B. BELL, R

  10. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  11. Optimization of the Production Process and Characterization of the Yeast-Expressed SARS-CoV Recombinant Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD219-N1), a SARS Vaccine Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsiang; Chag, Shivali M; Poongavanam, Mohan V; Biter, Amadeo B; Ewere, Ebe A; Rezende, Wanderson; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Pollet, Jeroen; McAtee, C Patrick; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    From 2002 to 2003, a global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread to 5 continents and caused 8000 respiratory infections and 800 deaths. To ameliorate the effects of future outbreaks as well as to prepare for biodefense, a process for the production of a recombinant protein vaccine candidate is under development. Previously, we reported the 5 L scale expression and purification of a promising recombinant SARS vaccine candidate, RBD219-N1, the 218-amino acid residue receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS coronavirus expressed in yeast-Pichia pastoris X-33. When adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, this protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and high RBD-specific antibody titers. However, the yield of RBD219-N1 (60 mg RBD219-N1 per liter of fermentation supernatant; 60 mg/L FS) still required improvement to reach our target of >100 mg/L FS. In this study, we optimized the 10 L scale production process and increased the fermentation yield 6- to 7-fold to 400 mg/L FS with purification recovery >50%. A panel of characterization tests indicated that the process is reproducible and that the purified, tag-free RBD219-N1 protein has high purity and a well-defined structure and is therefore a suitable candidate for production under current Good Manufacturing Practice and future phase-1 clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  13. Contemporary Challenges for a Social Signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.T.KishoreKumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short overview of Social Signal Processing. The exploration of how we react to the world and interact with it and each other remains one of the greatest scientific challenges. Latest research trends in cognitive sciences argue that our common view of intelligence is too narrow, ignoring a crucial range of abilities that matter immensely for how people do in life. This range of abilities is called social intelligence and includes the ability to express and recognize social signals produced during social interactions like agreement, politeness, empathy, friendliness, conflict, etc., coupled with the ability to manage them in order to get along well with others while winning their cooperation. Social Signal Processing (SSP is the new research domain that aims at understanding and modeling social interactions (human-science goals, and at providing computers with similar abilities in human-computer interaction scenarios (technological goals. SSP is in its infancy and the journey towards artificial social intelligence and socially-aware computing is still long, the paper outlines its future perspectives and some of its most promising applications.

  14. Multidimensional High Spatiotemporal Resolution InSAR Time Series Assist Interdisciplinary Space- And Ground-Based Monitoring To Reveal Pre-Eruptive Signals At Nyamulagira Volcano (North Kivu, D.R.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oreye, N.; Smets, B.; Kervyn, F.; Kervyn, M.; Albino, F.; Arellano, S. R.; Arjona, A. A.; Carn, S. A.; Fernandez, J.; Galle, B.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Head, E.; Pallero, J.; Prieto, J. F.; Samsonov, S. V.; Tedesco, D.; Tiampo, K. F.; Wauthier, C.

    2013-12-01

    Interdisciplinary space- and ground-based monitoring systems allowed the quantitative and detailed study of the Nyamulagira 2010 eruption (Congo). Field observations revealed the event as 4 eruptive phases delimited by major changes in effusive activity. Signals from ground deformation, seismicity, SO2 emission and thermal flux correlate with these eruptive phases. Moreover, MSBAS InSAR time series combining data acquired under different geometries and with different satellites (Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012) allowed the detection of pre-, co- and inter-eruptive deformation in the Nyamulagira volcanic field. Using 8 years of ENVISAT, RADARSAT2 and ALOS data, the MSBAS method reveals the first unambiguous pre-eruptive ground deformations in the Virunga Volcanic Province. Precursory ground deformations are detected up to 3 weeks prior the onset of the 2010 eruption by images acquired by 3 different sensors in different geometries. These deformations took place in the main crater and along the SE flank of the volcano, where eruptive fractures will ultimately opened. Deformations coincide with small, though clear, increase of the short period seismicity and SO2 emissions.These seismic and SO2 variations alone were too small, however, to raise attention. The pre-eruptive ground deformation signals revealed by InSAR are of about the same amplitude and spatial extent as atmospheric noise and therefore cannot be identified on individual differential interferograms. Conventional time-series methods based on single acquisition geometry do not have a sufficient time resolution to discriminate such a precursory signal from an atmospheric artifact. The 3-week precursors detected at Nyamulagira contrast with the only precursory signal previously recognized so far in the Virunga, namely the increase of tremors and long period seismicity no more than few hours or days before the eruption onset. In January 2010, such short-term seismic precursors were detected less than two hours

  15. Methods of InSAR atmosphere correction for volcano activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F.; Webley, P.W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    When a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal propagates through the atmosphere on its path to and from the sensor, it is inevitably affected by atmospheric effects. In particular, the applicability and accuracy of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques for volcano monitoring is limited by atmospheric path delays. Therefore, atmospheric correction of interferograms is required to improve the performance of InSAR for detecting volcanic activity, especially in order to advance its ability to detect subtle pre-eruptive changes in deformation dynamics. In this paper, we focus on InSAR tropospheric mitigation methods and their performance in volcano deformation monitoring. Our study areas include Okmok volcano and Unimak Island located in the eastern Aleutians, AK. We explore two methods to mitigate atmospheric artifacts, namely the numerical weather model simulation and the atmospheric filtering using Persistent Scatterer processing. We investigate the capability of the proposed methods, and investigate their limitations and advantages when applied to determine volcanic processes. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  16. Ice Processes and Growth History on Arctic and Sub-Arctic Lakes Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.; Jeffries, M. O.; Weeks, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of ice growth and decay processes on a selection of shallow and deep sub-Arctic and Arctic lakes was conducted using radiometrically calibrated ERS-1 SAR images. Time series of radar backscatter data were compiled for selected sites on the lakes during the period ot ice cover (September to June) for the years 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. A variety of lake-ice processes could be observed, and significant changes in backscatter occurred from the time of initial ice formation in autumn until the onset of the spring thaw. Backscatter also varied according to the location and depth of the lakes. The spatial and temporal changes in backscatter were most constant and predictable at the shallow lakes on the North Slope of Alaska. As a consequence, they represent the most promising sites for long-term monitoring and the detection of changes related to global warming and its effects on the polar regions.

  17. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  18. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction from multistatic SAR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses reconstruction of three-dimensional surfaces from multiple bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Techniques for surface reconstruction from multiple monostatic SAR images already exist, including interferometric processing and stereo SAR. We generalize these methods to obtain algorithms for bistatic interferometric SAR and bistatic stereo SAR. We also propose a framework for predicting the performance of our multistatic stereo SAR algorithm, and, from this framework, we suggest a metric for use in planning strategic deployment of multistatic assets.

  19. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  20. Seismic signal processing on heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The processing of seismic signals - including the correlation of massive ambient noise data sets - represents an important part of a wide range of seismological applications. It is characterized by large data volumes as well as high computational input/output intensity. Development of efficient approaches towards seismic signal processing on emerging high performance computing systems is therefore essential. Heterogeneous supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years provide numerous computing nodes interconnected via high throughput networks, every node containing a mix of processing elements of different architectures, like several sequential processor cores and one or a few graphical processing units (GPU) serving as accelerators. A typical representative of such computing systems is "Piz Daint", a supercomputer of the Cray XC 30 family operated by the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS), which we used in this research. Heterogeneous supercomputers provide an opportunity for manifold application performance increase and are more energy-efficient, however they have much higher hardware complexity and are therefore much more difficult to program. The programming effort may be substantially reduced by the introduction of modular libraries of software components that can be reused for a wide class of seismology applications. The ultimate goal of this research is design of a prototype for such library suitable for implementing various seismic signal processing applications on heterogeneous systems. As a representative use case we have chosen an ambient noise correlation application. Ambient noise interferometry has developed into one of the most powerful tools to image and monitor the Earth's interior. Future applications will require the extraction of increasingly small details from noise recordings. To meet this demand, more advanced correlation techniques combined with very large data volumes are needed. This poses new computational problems that

  1. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  2. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  3. Digital signal processing for radioactive decay studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Madurga, M.; Paulauskas, S. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64220, Darmstadt (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Miernik, K.; Rykaczewski, K. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tan, H. [XIA LLC, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States)

    2011-11-30

    The use of digital acquisition system has been instrumental in the investigation of proton and alpha emitting nuclei. Recent developments extend the sensitivity and breadth of the application. The digital signal processing capabilities, used predominately by UT/ORNL for decay studies, include digitizers with decreased dead time, increased sampling rates, and new innovative firmware. Digital techniques and these improvements are furthermore applicable to a range of detector systems. Improvements in experimental sensitivity for alpha and beta-delayed neutron emitters measurements as well as the next generation of superheavy experiments are discussed.

  4. Principal Component Analysis in ECG Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of principal component analysis in the area of ECG signal processing. The fundamentals of PCA are briefly described and the relationship between PCA and Karhunen-Loève transform is explained. Aspects on PCA related to data with temporal and spatial correlations are considered as adaptive estimation of principal components is. Several ECG applications are reviewed where PCA techniques have been successfully employed, including data compression, ST-T segment analysis for the detection of myocardial ischemia and abnormalities in ventricular repolarization, extraction of atrial fibrillatory waves for detailed characterization of atrial fibrillation, and analysis of body surface potential maps.

  5. OPTIMAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHODS IN GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Karamzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, a lot of various applications of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR took place in real life. There are important challenges of this radar in civil applications and also in military applications. In this paper, the fundamentals of GPR systems will be covered and three important signal processing methods (Wavelet Transform, Matched Filter and Hilbert Huang will be compared to each other in order to get most accurate information about objects which are in subsurface or behind the wall.

  6. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  7. [A biomedical signal processing toolkit programmed by Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiyuan

    2012-09-01

    According to the biomedical signal characteristics, a new biomedical signal processing toolkit is developed. The toolkit is programmed by Java. It is used in basic digital signal processing, random signal processing and etc. All the methods in toolkit has been tested, the program is robust. The feature of the toolkit is detailed explained, easy use and good practicability.

  8. Ambiguity noise analysis of a SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haishan; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    The presence of range and azimuth (or Doppler) ambiguities in synthetic aperture radars (SARs) is well known. The ambiguity noise is related to the antenna pattern and the value of pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Because a new frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) SAR has the characters of low cost and small size, and the capacity of real-time signal processing, the antenna will likely vibrate or deform due to a lack of the stabilized platform. And the value of PRF cannot be much high because of the high computation burden for the real-time processing. The aim of this study is to access and improve the performance of a new FMCW SAR system based on the ambiguity noise. First, the quantitative analysis of the system's ambiguity noise level is performed; an antenna with low sidelobes is designed. The conclusion is that the range ambiguity noise is small; the azimuth ambiguity noise is somewhat increased, however, it is sufficiently small to have marginal influence on the image quality. Finally, the ambiguity noise level is measured using the imaging data from a Ku-band FMCW SAR. The results of this study show that the measured noise level coincides with the theoretical noise level.

  9. Design of experiments in Biomedical Signal Processing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical Signal Processing is one of the most important major subjects in Biomedical Engineering. The contents of Biomedical Signal Processing include the theories of digital signal processing, the knowledge of different biomedical signals, physiology and the ability of computer programming. Based on our past five years teaching experiences, in order to let students master the signal processing algorithm well, we found that the design of experiments following algorithm was very important. In this paper we presented the ideas and aims in designing the experiments. The results showed that our methods facilitated the study of abstractive signal processing algorithms and made understanding of biomedical signals in a simple way.

  10. Writer Identification Using Inexpensive Signal Processing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Serguei A; Suen, Ching Y

    2009-01-01

    We propose to use novel and classical audio and text signal-processing and otherwise techniques for "inexpensive" fast writer identification tasks of scanned hand-written documents "visually". The "inexpensive" refers to the efficiency of the identification process in terms of CPU cycles while preserving decent accuracy for preliminary identification. This is a comparative study of multiple algorithm combinations in a pattern recognition pipeline implemented in Java around an open-source Modular Audio Recognition Framework (MARF) that can do a lot more beyond audio. We present our preliminary experimental findings in such an identification task. We simulate "visual" identification by "looking" at the hand-written document as a whole rather than trying to extract fine-grained features out of it prior classification.

  11. Signal processing and analyzing works of art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don H.; Johnson, C. Richard, Jr.; Hendriks, Ella

    2010-08-01

    In examining paintings, art historians use a wide variety of physico-chemical methods to determine, for example, the paints, the ground (canvas primer) and any underdrawing the artist used. However, the art world has been little touched by signal processing algorithms. Our work develops algorithms to examine x-ray images of paintings, not to analyze the artist's brushstrokes but to characterize the weave of the canvas that supports the painting. The physics of radiography indicates that linear processing of the x-rays is most appropriate. Our spectral analysis algorithms have an accuracy superior to human spot-measurements and have the advantage that, through "short-space" Fourier analysis, they can be readily applied to entire x-rays. We have found that variations in the manufacturing process create a unique pattern of horizontal and vertical thread density variations in the bolts of canvas produced. In addition, we measure the thread angles, providing a way to determine the presence of cusping and to infer the location of the tacks used to stretch the canvas on a frame during the priming process. We have developed weave matching software that employs a new correlation measure to find paintings that share canvas weave characteristics. Using a corpus of over 290 paintings attributed to Vincent van Gogh, we have found several weave match cliques that we believe will refine the art historical record and provide more insight into the artist's creative processes.

  12. Digital Signal Processing in the GRETINA Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromaz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Developments in the segmentation of large-volume HPGe crystals has enabled the development of high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometers which have the ability to track the path of gamma-rays scattering through the detector volume. This technology has been successfully implemented in the GRETINA spectrometer whose high efficiency and ability to perform precise event-by-event Doppler correction has made it an important tool in nuclear spectroscopy. Tracking has required the spectrometer to employ a fully digital signal processing chain. Each of the systems 1120 channels are digitized by 100 Mhz, 14-bit flash ADCs. Filters that provide timing and high-resolution energies are implemented on local FPGAs acting on the ADC data streams while interaction point locations and tracks, derived from the trace on each detector segment, are calculated in real time on a computing cluster. In this presentation we will give a description of GRETINA's digital signal processing system, the impact of design decisions on system performance, and a discussion of possible future directions as we look towards soon developing larger spectrometers such as GRETA with full 4 π solid angle coverage. This work was supported by the Office of Science in the Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Parallel Processing with Digital Signal Processing Hardware and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Cory V.

    1995-01-01

    The assembling and testing of a parallel processing system is described which will allow a user to move a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application from the design stage to the execution/analysis stage through the use of several software tools and hardware devices. The system will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) dataflow paradigm for static multiprocessor solutions of DSP applications. The individual components comprising the system are described followed by the installation procedure, research topics, and initial program development.

  14. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  15. Validation and operational measurements with SUSIE – A sar ice motion processing chain developed within promice (Programme for monitoring of Greenland ice-sheet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Dall, Jørgen; Ahlstrøm, A. P.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of an ice-motion processing chain developed for the PROMICE project – a long-term program funded by the Danish ministry of Climate and Energy to monitor the mass budget of the Greenland ice-sheet. The processor, named SUSIE, (Scripts and Utilities for SAR Ice...

  16. Refocusing vibrating targets in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Santhanam, Balu; Pepin, Matthew; Atwood, Tom; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2012-06-01

    In synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) returned signals, ground-target vibrations introduce a phase modulation that is linearly proportional to the vibration displacement. Such modulation, termed the micro-Doppler effect, introduces ghost targets along the azimuth direction in reconstructed SAR images that prevents SAR from forming focused images of the vibrating targets. Recently, a discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) based method was developed to estimate the vibration frequencies and instantaneous vibration accelerations of the vibrating targets from SAR returned signals. In this paper, a demodulation-based algorithm is proposed to reconstruct focused SAR images of vibrating targets by exploiting the estimation results of the DFrFT-based vibration estimation method. For a single-component harmonic vibration, the history of the vibration displacement is first estimated from the estimated vibration frequency and the instantaneous vibration accelerations. Then a reference signal whose phase is modulated by the estimated vibration displacement with a delay of 180 degree is constructed. After that, the SAR phase history from the vibration target is multiplied by the reference signal and the vibration-induced phase modulation is canceled. Finally, the SAR image containing the re-focused vibration target is obtained by applying the 2-D Fourier transform to the demodulated SAR phase history. This algorithm is applied to simulated SAR data and successfully reconstructs the SAR image containing the re-focused vibrating target.

  17. Ongoing Active Deformation Processes at Fernandina Volcano (Galapagos) Detected via Multi-Orbit COSMO-SkyMed SAR Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Casu, Francesco; Tizzani, Pietro; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    . Starting from these observations, we set up a 3D time dependent numerical model in a fluid dynamic context; in particular, we consider the creeping flow approximation in order to simulate the stress temporal evolution inside the volcano conduit. The preliminary results show that the stress is concentred in the areas corresponding to the circumferential eruptive fissures mentioned above. The COSMO-SkyMed data used in this study have been processed at IREA-CNR within the SAR4Volcanoes project under Italian Space Agency agreement n. I/034/11/0.

  18. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...... for the application of SAR data in the difficult process of map revision and updating....

  19. Seismic rupture process of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Mw7.0) inferred from seismic and SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2013-04-01

    On January 12th 2010 at 21:53, the Port-au-Prince - Haiti region was struck by an Mw7 earthquake, the second most deadly of the history. The last seismic significant events in the region occurred in November 1751 and June 1770 [1]. Geodetic and geological studies, previous to the 2010 earthquake [2] have warned to the potential of the destructive seismic events in that region and this event has confirmed those warnings. Some aspects of the source of this earthquake are nonconsensual. There is no agreement in the mechanism of rupture or correlation with the fault that should have it generated [3]. In order to better understand the complexity of this rupture, we combined several techniques and data of different nature. We used teleseismic body-wave and Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR) based on the following methodology: 1) analysis of the rupture process directivity [4] to determine the velocity and direction of rupture; 2) teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the spatiotemporal fault slip distribution and a detailed rupture model; 3) near field surface deformation modeling using the calculated seismic rupture model and compared with the measured deformation field using SAR data of sensor Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR). The combined application of seismic and geodetic data reveals a complex rupture that spread during approximately 12s mainly from WNW to ESE with average velocity of 2,5km/s, on a north-dipping fault plane. Two main asperities are obtained: the first (and largest) occurs within the first ~ 5sec and extends for approximately 6km around the hypocenter; the second one, that happens in the remaining 6s, covers a near surface rectangular strip with about 12km long by 3km wide. The first asperity is compatible with a left lateral strike-slip motion with a small reverse component; the mechanism of second asperity is predominantly reverse. The obtained rupture process allows modeling a coseismic deformation

  20. A new automatic SAR-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's grid processing on demand fast access to imagery environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostache, Renaud; Chini, Marco; Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    There is a clear need for developing innovative processing chains based on earth observation (EO) data to generate products supporting emergency response and flood management at a global scale. Here an automatic flood mapping application is introduced. The latter is currently hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data in an operational framework. It is worth mentioning that the method can be applied to both medium and high resolution SAR images. The flood mapping application consists of two main blocks: 1) A set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding pre-flood "reference image" from the G-POD archive. 2) An algorithm for extracting flooded areas using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". The proposed method is a hybrid methodology, which combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. The method is based on the calibration of a statistical distribution of "open water" backscatter values inferred from SAR images of floods. Change detection with respect to a pre-flood reference image helps reducing over-detection of inundated areas. The algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements, considering as input data a flood image and a reference image. Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate pre-flood reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. Case studies of several recent high magnitude flooding events (e.g. July 2007 Severn River flood

  1. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M

    2013-10-14

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  2. Design and simulation of a 12-bit, 40 MSPS asynchronous SAR ADC for the readout of PMT signal

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Qin, Jia-Jun; Yang, Yun-Fan; Yu, Li; Liang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    High precision and large dynamic range measurement are required in the readout systems for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) in Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). This paper presents a prototype of 12-bit 40 MSPS Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed for the readout of LHAASO WCDA. Combining this ADC and the front-end ASIC finished in our previous work, high precision charge measurement can be achieved based on the digital peak detection method. This ADC is implemented based on power-efficient Successive Approximation Register (SAR) architecture, which incorporates the key parts such as Capacitive Digital-to-Analog Converter (CDAC), dynamic comparator and asynchronous SAR control logic. The simulation results indicate that the Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) with a sampling rate of 40 MSPS is better than 10 bits in an input frequency range below 20 MHz, while its core power consumption is 6.6 mW per channel. The above results are go...

  3. Design and simulation of a 12-bit, 40 MSPS asynchronous SAR ADC for the readout of PMT signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Lei; Qin, Jia-Jun; Yang, Yun-Fan; Yu, Li; Liang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-11-01

    High precision and large dynamic range measurement are required in the readout systems for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). This paper presents a prototype of a 12-bit 40 MSPS Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed for the readout of the LHAASO WCDA. Combining this ADC and the front-end ASIC finished in our previous work, high precision charge measurement can be achieved based on the digital peak detection method. This ADC is implemented based on a power-efficient Successive Approximation Register (SAR) architecture, which incorporates key parts such as a Capacitive Digital-to-Analog Converter (CDAC), dynamic comparator and asynchronous SAR control logic. The simulation results indicate that the Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) with a sampling rate of 40 MSPS is better than 10 bits in an input frequency range below 20 MHz, while its core power consumption is 6.6 mW per channel. The above results are good enough for the readout requirements of the WCDA. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  4. Silicon Photonics for Signal Processing of Tbit/s Serial Data Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent work on signal processing of terabit per second optical serial data signals using pure silicon waveguides. We employ nonlinear optical signal processing in nanoengineered silicon waveguides to perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28-Tbit....../s data signals as well as wavelength conversion of up to 320-Gbit/s data signals. We demonstrate that the silicon waveguides are equally useful for amplitude and phase-modulated data signals....

  5. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...... in connection with parameter estimation. Next, a realistic framework for interference whitening is presented, allowing flexibility in the selection of whether interference is accounted for via a discrete or a Gaussian distribution. The approximate method of sphere detection and decoding is outlined and various...... suggestions for improvements are presented. In addition, methods for using generalized BP to perform approximate joint detection and decoding in systems with convolutional codes are outlined. One such method is a natural generalization of the traditional Turbo principle and a generalized Turbo principle can...

  6. Quantum optical signal processing in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Kent A G; Maclean, Jean-Phillipe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the properties of single photons is essential for a wide array of emerging optical quantum technologies spanning quantum sensing, quantum computing, and quantum communications. Essential components for these technologies include single photon sources, quantum memories, waveguides, and detectors. The ideal spectral operating parameters (wavelength and bandwidth) of these components are rarely similar; thus, frequency conversion and spectral control are key enabling steps for component hybridization. Here we perform signal processing of single photons by coherently manipulating their spectra via a modified quantum memory. We store 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, in a room-temperature diamond crystal; upon retrieval we demonstrate centre frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 to 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, to be an integrated platform for photon storage ...

  7. A New Approach to Adaptive Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Raza Anjum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A unified linear algebraic approach to adaptive signal processing (ASP is presented. Starting from just Ax=b, key ASP algorithms are derived in a simple, systematic, and integrated manner without requiring any background knowledge to the field.  Algorithms covered are Steepest Descent, LMS, Normalized LMS, Kaczmarz, Affine Projection, RLS, Kalman filter, and MMSE/Least Square Wiener filters. By following this approach, readers will discover a synthesis; they will learn that one and only one equation is involved in all these algorithms. They will also learn that this one equation forms the basis of more advanced algorithms like reduced rank adaptive filters, extended Kalman filter, particle filters, multigrid methods, preconditioning methods, Krylov subspace methods and conjugate gradients. This will enable them to enter many sophisticated realms of modern research and development. Eventually, this one equation will not only become their passport to ASP but also to many highly specialized areas of computational science and engineering.

  8. Ultrasound perfusion signal processing for tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinWoo; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced blood perfusion in a tissue mass is an indication of neo-vascularity and a sign of a potential malignancy. Ultrasonic pulsed-Doppler imaging is a preferred modality for noninvasive monitoring of blood flow. However, the weak blood echoes and disorganized slow flow make it difficult to detect perfusion using standard methods without the expense and risk of contrast enhancement. Our research measures the efficiency of conventional power-Doppler (PD) methods at discriminating flow states by comparing measurement performance to that of an ideal discriminator. ROC analysis applied to the experimental results shows that power Doppler methods are just 30-50 % efficient at perfusion flows less than 1ml/min, suggesting an opportunity to improve perfusion assessment through signal processing. A new perfusion estimator is proposed by extending the statistical discriminator approach. We show that 2-D perfusion color imaging may be enhanced using this approach.

  9. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  10. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A.; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O’Shea, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with “programmable” signal processing functions. PMID:23349292

  11. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  12. Diversity of optical signal processing led by optical signal form conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: konishi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    This paper reviews opportunities of optical signal form conversion as typified by time-space conversion in optical signal processing. Several examples of typical ultra-fast optical signal processing using optical signal form conversion are described and their applications are introduced in respect to photonic networks, ultra-fast measurement, and so on.

  13. Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qilian; Pi, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    The Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. The conference covered such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, signal processing for communications. This book is a collection of contributions coming out of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held September 2013 in Tianjin, China.

  14. Analysis of the Effect of Radio Frequency Interference on Repeat Track Airborne InSAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Bin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The SAR system operating at low frequency is susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI from television station, radio station, and some other civil electronic facilities. The presence of RFI degrades the SAR image quality, and obscures the targets in the scene. Furthermore, RFI can cause interferometric phase error in repeat track InSAR system. In order to analyze the effect of RFI on interferometric phase of InSAR, real measured RFI signal are added on cone simulated SAR echoes. The imaging and interferometric processing results of both the RFI-contaminated and raw data are given. The effect of real measured RFI signal on repeat track InSAR system is analyzed. Finally, the imaging and interferometric processing results of both with and without RFI suppressed of the P band airborne repeat track InSAR real data are presented, which demonstrates the efficiency of the RFI suppression method in terms of decreasing the interferometric phase errors caused by RFI.

  15. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  16. 3rd International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Qilian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of communications, signal processing, and systems. This book is a collection of contributions from the conference and covers such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, and signal processing for communications. The conference was held July 2014 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

  17. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  18. Sensor Signal Processing for Ultrasonic Sensors Using Delta-Sigma Modulated Single-Bit Digital Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S.; Kurosawa, M. K.; Katagiri, T.

    Ultrasonic distance measurement is based on determining the time of flight of ultrasonic wave. The pulse compression technique that obtains the cross-correlation function between the received signal and the reference signal is used to improve the resolution of distance measurement. The cross-correlation method requires high-cost digital signal processing. This paper presents a cross-correlation method using a delta-sigma modulated single-bit digital signal. Sensor signal processing composed of the cross-correlation between two single-bit signals and a post-moving average filter is proposed and enables reducing the cost of digital signal processing.

  19. Hydrodynamics of the groundwater-fed Sian Ka'an Wetlands, Mexico, From InSAR and SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2008-01-01

    to understand, quantify and predict the wetland dynamics. Remotely sensed Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data offer new opportunities to get hydrodynamic information, which is useful for wetland management. InSAR data produces temporal phase......-changes of the backscattered radar signal, which can be related to the water level changes in vegetated wetlands. SAR data reveals information of surface properties such as the degree of flooding through the amplitude of the backscattered signal. We used RADARSAT-1 InSAR and SAR data to form 36 interferograms and 13 flooding...

  20. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Janos [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra, VA (Italy); Dufour, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Holzleitner, Ludwig [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Huszti, Joseph [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Looman, Marc [Consulenze Tecniche-Cocquio Trevisago (Italy); Marin Ferrer, Montserrat [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Lambert, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.it; Rackham, Jamie [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom); Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve [N-1, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, LANL-Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Wilson, Mark [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will

  1. Coherent signal processing in optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manish Dinkarrao

    1999-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method for non-invasive sub-surface imaging of biological tissue micro-structures. OCT achieves high spatial resolution ( ~ 15 m m in three dimensions) using a fiber-optically integrated system which is suitable for application in minimally invasive diagnostics, including endoscopy. OCT uses an optical heterodyne detection technique based on white light interferometry. Therefore extremely faint reflections ( ~ 10 fW) are routinely detected with high spatial localization. The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first is to present a theoretical model for describing image formation in OCT, and attempt to enhance the current level of understanding of this new modality. The second objective is to present signal processing methods for improving OCT image quality. We present deconvolution algorithms to obtain improved longitudinal resolution in OCT. This technique may be implemented without increasing system complexity as compared to current clinical OCT systems. Since the spectrum of the light backscattered from bio-scatterers is closely associated with ultrastructural variations in tissue, we propose a new technique for measuring spectra as a function of depth. This advance may assist OCT in differentiating various tissue types and detecting abnormalities within a tissue. In addition to depth resolved spectroscopy, Doppler processing of OCT signals can also improve OCT image contrast. We present a new technique, termed color Doppler OCT (CDOCT). It is an innovative extension of OCT for performing spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry. Micron-resolution imaging of blood flow in sub-surface vessels in living tissue using CDOCT is demonstrated. The fundamental issues regarding the trade- off between the velocity estimation precision and image acquisition rate are presented. We also present novel algorithms for high accuracy velocity estimation. In many blood vessels velocities tend to be on the order of a few cm

  2. Dynamic range control of audio signals by digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    It is often necessary to reduce the dynamic range of musical programs, particularly those comprising orchestral and choral music, for them to be received satisfactorily by listeners to conventional FM and AM broadcasts. With the arrival of DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) a much wider dynamic range will become available for radio broadcasting, although some listeners may prefer to have a signal with a reduced dynamic range. This report describes a digital processor developed by the BBC to control the dynamic range of musical programs in a manner similar to that of a trained Studio Manager. It may be used prior to transmission in conventional broadcasting, replacing limiters or other compression equipment. In DAB, it offers the possibility of providing a dynamic range control signal to be sent to the receiver via an ancillary data channel, simultaneously with the uncompressed audio, giving the listener the option of the full dynamic range or a reduced dynamic range.

  3. Adaptive noise radar for simultaneous bistatic SAR and GMTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D.

    2005-05-01

    The adaptive noise radar algorithm allows computation of compressed pseudo-pulses from a received noise radar signal at the receiver ADC rate. This is accomplished through use of LMS channel identification algorithms commonly exploited in wireless communications. This paper shows how having access to compressed pseudo-pulses at the ADC rate may be exploited to simultaneously implement SAR and GMTI modes in two parallel Doppler-processing chains. Simultaneous SAR and GMTI will aid in tracking of alternately moving and stationary targets.

  4. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  5. A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a CMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Chi; Guo Dongming; Jin Zhuji; Kang Renke, E-mail: xuchi_dut@163.com [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is presented. The signal process method uses the wavelet threshold denoising method to reduce the noise contained in the measured original signal, extracts the Kalman filter innovation from the denoised signal as the feature signal, and judges the CMP endpoint based on the feature of the Kalman filter innovation sequence during the CMP process. Applying the signal processing method, the endpoint detection experiments of the Cu CMP process were carried out. The results show that the signal processing method can judge the endpoint of the Cu CMP process. (semiconductor technology)

  6. Development of DC-TOP Signal Processing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The PSD panel of the DC-TOF consists of 32 PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and its signal processing part. Each signal processing part can communicate with Data Acquisition PC with TCP/IP protocol. By such a way, total 352 PSD(l1 paneD can be used in DC-TOF. In panel, 1 DSP, 8 PML and 64 PAM are installed as signal processing part, and control neutron detecting signal from 32 PSDs

  7. A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance Daniel Gartenberg1, Bella Veksler2, Glenn Gunzelmann2, J. Gregory Trafton3...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance 5a...with shorter signal durations (see Figure 1). There is currently no process model that explains the signal duration effect found in vigilance

  8. Optimal Hamiltonian Simulation by Quantum Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    The physics of quantum mechanics is the inspiration for, and underlies, quantum computation. As such, one expects physical intuition to be highly influential in the understanding and design of many quantum algorithms, particularly simulation of physical systems. Surprisingly, this has been challenging, with current Hamiltonian simulation algorithms remaining abstract and often the result of sophisticated but unintuitive constructions. We contend that physical intuition can lead to optimal simulation methods by showing that a focus on simple single-qubit rotations elegantly furnishes an optimal algorithm for Hamiltonian simulation, a universal problem that encapsulates all the power of quantum computation. Specifically, we show that the query complexity of implementing time evolution by a d -sparse Hamiltonian H ^ for time-interval t with error ɛ is O [t d ∥H ^ ∥max+log (1 /ɛ ) /log log (1 /ɛ ) ] , which matches lower bounds in all parameters. This connection is made through general three-step "quantum signal processing" methodology, comprised of (i) transducing eigenvalues of H ^ into a single ancilla qubit, (ii) transforming these eigenvalues through an optimal-length sequence of single-qubit rotations, and (iii) projecting this ancilla with near unity success probability.

  9. RNS Applications in Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been adopted in DSP as an alternative to the traditional two’s complement number system (TCS) because of the high speed of the obtained architectures and the savings in area and power dissipation. However, with the shrinking of device featu......-offs, and we identify some trends for implementing DSP on ASIC and FPGA platforms.......In the past decades, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been adopted in DSP as an alternative to the traditional two’s complement number system (TCS) because of the high speed of the obtained architectures and the savings in area and power dissipation. However, with the shrinking of device...... features and the advent of powerful design tools, the advantages offered by RNS are diminishing.In this chapter, we analyze the state-of-the-art RNS implementation for a number of common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications, we compare performance with respect to the TCS and consider trade...

  10. Microwave photonic delay line signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, John F; Singley, Joseph M; Sunderman, Christopher E; Urick, Vincent J

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a path for the design of state-of-the-art fiber-optic delay lines for signal processing. The theoretical forms for various radio-frequency system performance metrics are derived for four modulation types: X- and Z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators, a phase modulator with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a polarization modulator with control waveplate and polarizing beam splitter. Each modulation type is considered to cover the current and future needs for ideal system designs. System gain, compression point, and third-order output intercept point are derived from the transfer matrices for each modulation type. A discussion of optical amplifier placement and fiber-effect mitigation is offered. The paper concludes by detailing two high-performance delay lines, built for unique applications, that exhibit performance levels an order of magnitude better than commercial delay lines. This paper should serve as a guide to maximizing the performance of future systems and offer a look into current and future research being done to further improve photonics technologies.

  11. Signal Processing Model for Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H

    2008-07-28

    This note describes the design of a simplified gamma ray transport model for use in designing a sequential Bayesian signal processor for low-count detection and classification. It uses a simple one-dimensional geometry to describe the emitting source, shield effects, and detector (see Fig. 1). At present, only Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are implemented for the shield and the detector. Other effects may be incorporated in the future by revising the expressions for the probabilities of escape and absorption. Pair production would require a redesign of the simulator to incorporate photon correlation effects. The initial design incorporates the physical effects that were present in the previous event mode sequence simulator created by Alan Meyer. The main difference is that this simulator transports the rate distributions instead of single photons. Event mode sequences and other time-dependent photon flux sequences are assumed to be marked Poisson processes that are entirely described by their rate distributions. Individual realizations can be constructed from the rate distribution using a random Poisson point sequence generator.

  12. Noise Removal in SAR Images using Orthonormal Ridgelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development in the field of image processing for reducing speckle noise from digital images/satellite images is a challenging task for image processing applications. Previously many algorithms were proposed to de-speckle the noise in digital images. Here in this article we are presenting experimental results on de-speckling of Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR images. SAR images have wide applications in remote sensing and mapping the surfaces of all planets. SAR can also be implemented as "inverse SAR" by observing a moving target over a substantial time with a stationary antenna. Hence denoising of SAR images is an essential task for viewing the information. Here we introduce a transformation technique called ―Ridgelet‖, which is an extension level of wavelet. Ridgelet analysis can be done in the similar way how wavelet analysis was done in the Radon domain as it translates singularities along lines into point singularities under different frequencies. Simulation results were show cased for proving that proposed work is more reliable than compared to other despeckling processes, and the quality of de-speckled image is measured in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Mean Square Error.

  13. 基于TS101的SAR回波信号模拟器设计与实现%Design and Implement of SAR Echo Signal Simulator Based on TS101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇先

    2011-01-01

    To meet the testing requirements of SAR system, a SAR echo signal simularor based on TS101 was designed.The standard compact PCI 6U board is adopted in the simujator. The human-computcr interaction is realizcd with compt7ct PCI bus tecnology. The SAR echo data can be generated according to the target echoparameters. Moreover, the simulator can output two orthogonal echo signals through link ports of TS101. The test results show that the quality of the echo signal generated by the simulator is good and can meet the requirements of the SAR system testing.%针对SAR系统的测试要求,设计了一套基于DSP处理器TS101的SAR回波模拟器.该模拟器采用标准的CPCI 6U板.利用CPCI总线技术实现人机交互,能够根据目标回波参数生成所需的SAR回波数据,并通过DSP的链路口输出两路正交回波信号.测试结果表明,该模拟器生成的回波信号质量高,实时性强,能够满足SAR系统测试的需求,具有很高的工程应用价值.

  14. Block floating-point notation for signal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    The development and application of a notation for use with block floating-point (BFP) mathematical operations in real-time signal processes is described. The notation has been extensively used in developing perimeter security signal processors such as the Magnetic Intrusion Line Sensor (MILES) Adaptive Digital Processor (MADP) and its forerunner, the Signal Processing Development Unit (SSPDU).

  15. Automatization techniques for processing biomedical signals using machine learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Artés Rodríguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Signal Processing Group (Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University Carlos III, Madrid, Spain) offers the expertise of its members in the automatic processing of biomedical signals. The main advantages in this technology are the decreased cost, the time saved and the increased reliability of the results. Technical cooperation for the research and development with internal and external funding is sought.

  16. Generation of High Range Resolution in MIMO SAR via Stepped Frequency Up-and-Down Chirp Signal%步进正负调频信号实现MIMO SAR距离高分辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喜乐; 董臻; 孙造宇

    2011-01-01

    带宽合成技术通过多子带步进调频信号的数据融合实现距离向超高分辨.单相位中心顺序收发的模式对系统PRF要求较高,在星载条件下不利于实现高分大测绘带成像.文章对基于多发多收(MIMO)SAR系统的子带并发体制进行研究,详细阐述该体制下子带信号合成的方法,指出带宽合成前必须对相位中心的位置差异进行校正,针对子带串扰带来的虚像问题,首先对其出现机理进行详细分析,最后提出应用步进正负调频信号的方法,在距离压缩后进行子带合成,在实现距离高分辨的同时进一步抑制虚像峰值,仿真结果验证了方法的有效性.%Synthetic bandwidth technology realizes super range resolution by fusing multi-band stepped chirp signal. The mode that transmitting and receiving sub-band signal in consequence with single phase center imposes strict request on pulse repetition frequency (PRF) , which means that this mode is not suit for high resolution wide swath imaging of space-born SAR. This thesis focuses on muluple-input multiple-output ( MIMO) SAR based concurrent-sub-band system, interprets the principal of signal processing,pointes out the indispensability of correction of azimuth positions. Because of the overlap between neighboring sub-band, unwanted virtual image is unavoidable. the mechanism of the virtual image is interpreted in detail, stepped frequency up-and-down chirp signal based approach is put forward to suppress the peak level of the unwanted profile, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by simulation results.

  17. Knee joint vibroarthrographic signal processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the cutting-edge technologies of knee joint vibroarthrographic signal analysis for the screening and detection of knee joint injuries. It describes a number of effective computer-aided methods for analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary biomedical signals generated by complex physiological mechanics. This book also introduces several popular machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms for biomedical signal classifications. The book is well-suited for all researchers looking to better understand knee joint biomechanics and the advanced technology for vibration arthrometry. Dr. Yunfeng Wu is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

  18. Wavelet Transform Signal Processing Applied to Ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    THE WAVELET TRANSFORM IS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC WAVES FOR IMPROVED SIGNAL DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNALS. In instances where...the mother wavelet is well defined, the wavelet transform has relative insensitivity to noise and does not need windowing. Peak detection of...ultrasonic pulses using the wavelet transform is described and results show good detection even when large white noise was added. The use of the wavelet

  19. Electrical measurement, signal processing, and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, John G

    2003-01-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC VARIABLES MEASUREMENTVoltage MeasurementCurrent Measurement Power Measurement Power Factor Measurement Phase Measurement Energy Measurement Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity Charge Measurement Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements Permittivity Measurement Electric Field Strength Magnetic Field Measurement Permeability and Hysteresis MeasurementInductance Measurement Immittance MeasurementQ Factor Measurement Distortion Measurement Noise Measurement.Microwave Measurement SIGNAL PROCESSINGAmplifiers and Signal ConditionersModulation Filters Spectrum Analysis and Correlat

  20. Neural Networks for Signal Processing and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselroth, Ted Daniel

    cortex by the application of lateral interactions during the learning phase. The organization of the mature network is compared to that found in the macaque monkey by several analytical tests. The capacity of the network to process images is investigated. By a method of reconstructing the input images in terms of V1 activities, the simulations show that images can be faithfully represented in V1 by the proposed network. The signal-to-noise ratio of the image is improved by the representation, and compression ratios of well over two-hundred are possible. Lateral interactions between V1 neurons sharpen their orientational tuning. We further study the dynamics of the processing, showing that the rate of decrease of the error of the reconstruction is maximized for the receptive fields used. Lastly, we employ a Fokker-Planck equation for a more detailed prediction of the error value vs. time. The Fokker-Planck equation for an underdamped system with a driving force is derived, yielding an energy-dependent diffusion coefficient which is the integral of the spectral densities of the force and the velocity of the system. The theory is applied to correlated noise activation and resonant activation. Simulation results for the error of the network vs time are compared to the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.

  1. Integrated Time and Phase Synchronization Strategy for a Multichannel Spaceborne-Stationary Bistatic SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial separation of the transmitter and receiver in Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR makes it a promising and useful supplement to a classical Monostatic SAR system (MonoSAR. This paper proposes a novel integrated time and phase synchronization strategy for a multichannel spaceborne-stationary BiSAR system. Firstly, the time synchronization strategy is proposed, which includes Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF generation under noisy conditions, multichannel calibration and the alignment of the recorded data with the orbital data. Furthermore, the phase synchronization strategy, which fully considers the deteriorative factors in the BiSAR configuration, is well studied. The contribution of the phase synchronization strategy includes two aspects: it not only compensates the phase error, but also improves the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR of the obtained signals. Specifically, all direct signals on different PRF time can be reconstructed with the shift and phase compensation operation using a reference signal. Besides, since the parameters of the reference signal can be estimated only once using the selected practical direct signal and a priori information, the processing complexity is well reduced. Final imaging results with and without compensation for real data are presented to validate the proposed synchronization strategy.

  2. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...

  3. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...

  4. Energy-Efficient Optical Signal Processing Using Optical Time Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes advanced functionalities for optical signal processing using optical time lenses. A special focus is devoted to functionalities that allow for energy-savings. In particular, we find that optical signal processing, where the processing is broadband and capable of handling ma...

  5. Optical Wavelet Signals Processing and Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    We present compact integrable architectures to perform the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the wavelet packet (WP) decomposition of an optical digital signal, and we show that the combined use of planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology and multiresolution analysis (MRA) can add flexibility to current multiple access optical networks. We furnish the design guidelines to synthesize wavelet filters as two-port lattice-form planar devices, and we give some examples of optical signal denoising and compression/decompression techniques in the wavelet domain. Finally, we present a fully optical wavelet packet division multiplexing (WPDM) scheme where data signals are waveform-coded onto wavelet atom functions for transmission, and numerically evaluate its performances.

  6. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  7. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from...... Sentinels 3. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure...

  8. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved alongtrack resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from...... Sentinels 3. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure...

  9. Polarization Filtering of SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of polarization filtering of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) returns provide hybrid method applied to either (1) maximize signal-to-noise ratio of return from given target or (2) enhance contrast between targets of two different types (that have different polarization properties). Method valid for both point and extended targets and for both monostatic and bistatic radars as well as SAR. Polarization information in return signals provides more complete description of radar-scattering properties of targets and used to obtain additional information about targets for use in classifying them, discriminating between them, or enhancing features of radar images.

  10. A dense medium electromagnetic scattering model for the InSAR correlation of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Siqueira, Paul; Treuhaft, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Snow characteristics, such as snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow grain size, are important characteristics for the monitoring of the global hydrological cycle and as indicators of climate change. This paper derives an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) scattering model for dense media, such as snow, which takes into account multiple scattering effects through the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation. The result of this derivation is a simplified version of the InSAR correlation model derived for relating the InSAR correlation measurements to the snowpack characteristics of grain size, volume fraction, and layer depth as well as those aspects of the volume-ground interaction that affects the interferometric observation (i.e., the surface topography and the ratio of ground-to-volume scattering). Based on the model, the sensitivity of the InSAR correlation measurements to the snow characteristics is explored by simulation. Through this process, it is shown that Ka-band InSAR phase has a good sensitivity to snow grain size and volume fraction, while for lower frequency signals (Ku-band to L-band), the InSAR correlation magnitude and phase have a sensitivity to snow depth. Since the formulation depends, in part, on the pair distribution function, three functional forms of the pair distribution function are implemented and their effects on InSAR phase measurements compared. The InSAR scattering model described in this paper is intended to be an observational prototype for future Ka-band and L-band InSAR missions, such as NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography and NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar missions, planned for launch in the 2020-2021 time frame. This formulation also enables further investigation of the InSAR-based snow retrieval approaches.

  11. Robust Signal Processing in Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Ralf; Waldherr, Steffen; Sourjik, Victor; Kollmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Cellular signaling networks have evolved an astonishing ability to function reliably and with high fidelity in uncertain environments. A crucial prerequisite for the high precision exhibited by many signaling circuits is their ability to keep the concentrations of active signaling compounds within tightly defined bounds, despite strong stochastic fluctuations in copy numbers and other detrimental influences. Based on a simple mathematical formalism, we identify topological organizing principles that facilitate such robust control of intracellular concentrations in the face of multifarious perturbations. Our framework allows us to judge whether a multiple-input-multiple-output reaction network is robust against large perturbations of network parameters and enables the predictive design of perfectly robust synthetic network architectures. Utilizing the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway as a hallmark example, we provide experimental evidence that our framework indeed allows us to unravel the topological organization of robust signaling. We demonstrate that the specific organization of the pathway allows the system to maintain global concentration robustness of the diffusible response regulator CheY with respect to several dominant perturbations. Our framework provides a counterpoint to the hypothesis that cellular function relies on an extensive machinery to fine-tune or control intracellular parameters. Rather, we suggest that for a large class of perturbations, there exists an appropriate topology that renders the network output invariant to the respective perturbations. PMID:22215991

  12. Laser heterodyne interferometric signal processing method based on rising edge locking with high frequency clock signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enzheng; Chen, Benyong; Yan, Liping; Yang, Tao; Hao, Qun; Dong, Wenjun; Li, Chaorong

    2013-02-25

    A novel phase measurement method composed of the rising-edge locked signal processing and the digital frequency mixing is proposed for laser heterodyne interferometer. The rising-edge locked signal processing, which employs a high frequency clock signal to lock the rising-edges of the reference and measurement signals, not only can improve the steepness of the rising-edge, but also can eliminate the error counting caused by multi-rising-edge phenomenon in fringe counting. The digital frequency mixing is realized by mixing the digital interference signal with a digital base signal that is different from conventional frequency mixing with analogue signals. These signal processing can improve the measurement accuracy and enhance anti-interference and measurement stability. The principle and implementation of the method are described in detail. An experimental setup was constructed and a series of experiments verified the feasibility of the method in large displacement measurement with high speed and nanometer resolution.

  13. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  14. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land SAR Altimetry Processing for Copernicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik

    2014-01-01

    The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative GMES products and applications that are not considered or implemented in the Copernicus services yet. To utilize the full...... potential of the new data source, new methods and processing chains need to be developed. Also, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need...... to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. A smooth transition from old to new products is important to ensure existing services. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure that they will be used...

  15. 一种基于GPU的SAR高效成像处理算法%Efficient Algorithm for Processing SAR Data Based on GPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟大地; 胡玉新; 丁赤飚

    2013-01-01

      Data processing is time-consuming in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have tremendous float-point computational ability and a very high memory bandwidth, and the developing Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology has enabled the application of GPUs to general-purpose parallel computing. A new method for processing SAR data using GPUs is presented in this paper. Compared with the nominal GPU-based SAR processing method, the number of data transfers between the CPUs and a GPU is reduced from 4 to 1, and the CPUs are exploited to cooperate with the GPU synchronously. By using the proposed method, we can speed up the data processing by 2.3 times, which is verified by the testing with simulated SAR data.%  合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像处理是一项需要进行大量计算的处理任务。图形处理器(GPU)具有数十倍于CPU的浮点计算能力以及传输带宽,而CUDA技术的发展使得GPU能够方便地进行通用计算。该文提出了一种在GPU上进行SAR成像的高效方法。与一般GPU处理方法相比,该方法使得处理过程中的CPU-GPU往返数据传输由4次减少到1次,而且同时利用了工作站上的CPU与GPU计算资源。实验结果表明,该方法能够带来相对一般GPU处理方法2.3倍的处理效率提升,从而验证了该方法的有效性。

  16. Error analysis in spaceborne InSAR elevation extraction processing%星载InSAR高程提取过程中的误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长军; 郭际明; 周命端; 袁长征

    2013-01-01

    DEM的提取是InSAR数据处理中的一项重要的内容,而高程的精度对DEM的提取有着重要影响.本文根据斜距、基线、相位以及高度等量之间的几何构形以及存在的函数关系,推导出了InSAR高程误差公式,分析了影响InSAR测高精度因素的相关性及高程误差;并分别对垂直基线和水平基线对高程精度的影响进行了详细的分析.最后,针对星载InSAR高程提取的特点,提出了一些提高测量精度的参考和建议.%DEM extraction is one of the most important content of InSAR data processing, and the elevation accuracy has an important influence on DEM extraction. This paper analyzed the relevance influence factors of the high precision by InSAR and elevation errors, deduced InSAR elevation error formulas based on the geometric configuration of the slant range, the baseline, the phase and the height. In addition, the impact of elevation accuracy of the vertical baseline and the horizontal baseline are respectively analyzed in detail. At last, aiming at characteristics of effects with Spaceborne InSAR elevation extraction, some schemes and advices are recommended for increasing accuracy in DEM extraction process.

  17. Development of an Ontology-Directed Signal Processing Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen W. Lang

    2011-05-27

    This project was focused on the development of tools for the automatic configuration of signal processing systems. The goal is to develop tools that will be useful in a variety of Government and commercial areas and useable by people who are not signal processing experts. In order to get the most benefit from signal processing techniques, deep technical expertise is often required in order to select appropriate algorithms, combine them into a processing chain, and tune algorithm parameters for best performance on a specific problem. Therefore a significant benefit would result from the assembly of a toolbox of processing algorithms that has been selected for their effectiveness in a group of related problem areas, along with the means to allow people who are not signal processing experts to reliably select, combine, and tune these algorithms to solve specific problems. Defining a vocabulary for problem domain experts that is sufficiently expressive to drive the configuration of signal processing functions will allow the expertise of signal processing experts to be captured in rules for automated configuration. In order to test the feasibility of this approach, we addressed a lightning classification problem, which was proposed by DOE as a surrogate for problems encountered in nuclear nonproliferation data processing. We coded a toolbox of low-level signal processing algorithms for extracting features of RF waveforms, and demonstrated a prototype tool for screening data. We showed examples of using the tool for expediting the generation of ground-truth metadata, for training a signal recognizer, and for searching for signals with particular characteristics. The public benefits of this approach, if successful, will accrue to Government and commercial activities that face the same general problem - the development of sensor systems for complex environments. It will enable problem domain experts (e.g. analysts) to construct signal and image processing chains without

  18. Low sampling frequency processing for ultra-wideband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yonglun; Si, Qiang; Lu, Youxin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xuegang

    2005-11-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals are widely used in radar, navigation and satellite communications. It is rather difficult to process UWB signals. In this paper we adopt dechirp pulse compression method to process the received UWB linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals. UWB signals are converted into signals with frequency components that are proportional to the relative range between the target and the reference target. It means to select low-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADC) for sampling UWB signals. The simulation results show that LFM signal with 600MHz center frequency, 200MHz bandwidth and 30usec pulse width can be processed under 70MHz sampling frequency by means of the method.

  19. Signal Conditioning An Introduction to Continuous Wave Communication and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    "Signal Conditioning” is a comprehensive introduction to electronic signal processing. The book presents the mathematical basics including the implications of various transformed domain representations in signal synthesis and analysis in an understandable and lucid fashion and illustrates the theory through many applications and examples from communication systems. The ease to learn is supported by well-chosen exercises which give readers the flavor of the subject. Supplementary electronic materials available on http://extras.springer.com including MATLAB codes illuminating applications in the domain of one dimensional electrical signal processing, image processing and speech processing. The book is an introduction for students with a basic understanding in engineering or natural sciences.

  20. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  1. SIGNAL PROCESSING UTILIZING RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    OEO version above, a master laser is used to lock the phase of a slave laser. The two laser outputs are then beat at a photodiode, generating an RF...and stability are just some examples of these advantages. All of the above functions can be accomplished by photonics. An example of an RF oscillator...of LO and RF sidebands. The LO and RF sidebands will be detected at the photodiode to an IF signal. The photonic downconverter does have the advantage

  2. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-04-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods.

  3. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sts@star.le.ac.uk; Whitford, Chris H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fraser, George W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods.

  4. Control and signal processing by transcriptional interference

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A transcriptional activator can suppress gene expression by interfering with transcription initiated by another activator. Transcriptional interference has been increasingly recognized as a regulatory mechanism of gene expression. The signals received by the two antagonistically acting activators are combined by the polymerase trafficking along the DNA. We have designed a dual-control genetic system in yeast to explore this antagonism systematically. Antagonism by an upstream activator bears ...

  5. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  6. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  7. Control and signal processing by transcriptional interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Ungricht, Rosemarie; Kelemen, János Z; Shetty, Chetak; Ratna, Prasuna; Becskei, Attila

    2009-01-01

    A transcriptional activator can suppress gene expression by interfering with transcription initiated by another activator. Transcriptional interference has been increasingly recognized as a regulatory mechanism of gene expression. The signals received by the two antagonistically acting activators are combined by the polymerase trafficking along the DNA. We have designed a dual-control genetic system in yeast to explore this antagonism systematically. Antagonism by an upstream activator bears the hallmarks of competitive inhibition, whereas a downstream activator inhibits gene expression non-competitively. When gene expression is induced weakly, the antagonistic activator can have a positive effect and can even trigger paradoxical activation. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium models of transcription shed light on the mechanism by which interference converts signals, and reveals that self-antagonism of activators imitates the behavior of feed-forward loops. Indeed, a synthetic circuit generates a bell-shaped response, so that the induction of expression is limited to a narrow range of the input signal. The identification of conserved regulatory principles of interference will help to predict the transcriptional response of genes in their genomic context. PMID:19690569

  8. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Sensor Coarse Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As with the development of computer technology and informatization, network technique, sensor technique and communication technology become three necessary components of information industry. As the core technique of sensor application, signal processing mainly determines the sensor performances. For this reason, study on signal processing mode is very important to sensors and the application of sensor network. In this paper, we introduce a new sensor coarse signal processing mode based on adaptive genetic algorithm. This algorithm selects crossover, mutation probability adaptively and compensates multiple operators commutatively to optimize the search process, so that we can obtain the global optimum solution. Based on the proposed algorithm, using auto-correlative characteristic parameter extraction method, it achieves smaller test error in sensor coarse signal processing mode of processing interference signal. We evaluate the proposed approach on a set of data. The experimental results show that, the proposed approach is able to improve the performance in different experimental setting

  9. Proceedings of the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing XVII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and two papers from the winners of the Data Analysis Competition. The program included papers in the following areas: genomic signal processing, pattern recognition and classification, image and video processing, blind signal processing, models, learning algorithms, and applications of machine learning......The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has....... The program featured a Special Session on Genomic Signal Processing, chaired by Prof. Man-Wai Mak from Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. The session included four refereed papers by leading experts in the field. We also continued the tradition of the Data Analysis Competition thanks to the efforts...

  10. Fractional Order Signal Processing Introductory Concepts and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi

    2012-01-01

    The book tries to briefly introduce the diverse literatures in the field of fractional order signal processing which is becoming an emerging topic among an interdisciplinary community of researchers. This book is aimed at postgraduate and beginning level research scholars who would like to work in the field of Fractional Order Signal processing (FOSP). The readers should have preliminary knowledge about basic signal processing techniques. Prerequisite knowledge of fractional calculus is not essential and is exposited at relevant places in connection to the appropriate signal processing topics. Basic signal processing techniques like filtering, estimation, system identification, etc. in the light of fractional order calculus are presented along with relevant application areas. The readers can easily extend these concepts to varied disciplines like image or speech processing, pattern recognition, time series forecasting, financial data analysis and modeling, traffic modeling in communication channels, optics, b...

  11. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  12. Effects of residual motion compensation errors on the performance of airborne along-track interferometric SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHANG; Jun HONG; Xiao-lan QIU; Ji-chuan LI; Fang-fang LI; Feng MING

    2016-01-01

    Two approximations, center-beam approximation and reference digital elevation model (DEM) approximation, are used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation procedures. They usually introduce residual motion compensation errors for airborne single-antenna SAR imaging and SAR interferometry. In this paper, we investigate the effects of residual uncompensated motion errors, which are caused by the above two approximations, on the performance of airborne along-track interferometric SAR (ATI-SAR). The residual uncompensated errors caused by center-beam approximation in the absence and in the presence of elevation errors are derived, respectively. Airborne simulation parameters are used to verify the correctness of the analysis and to show the impacts of residual uncompensated errors on the interferometric phase errors for ATI-SAR. It is shown that the interferometric phase errors caused by the center-beam approximation with an accurate DEM could be neglected, while the interferometric phase errors caused by the center-beam approximation with an inaccurate DEM cannot be neglected when the elevation errors exceed a threshold. This research provides theoretical bases for the error source analysis and signal processing of airborne ATI-SAR.

  13. Application of Mellin Transform in Wideband Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the features of the wideband underwater acoustic signals, an algorithm for the wideband ambiguity function is put forward based on Mellin transform. The wideband acoustic signal processing using the fast Mellin transform is also explored. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm has not only high computation efficiency but also good concentration in wideband ambiguity domain. It suits for the wideband underwater acoustic signal processing.

  14. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  15. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  16. Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers for optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Uskov, A. V.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum dot semiconductor amplifiers are investigated theoretically with respect to the potential for ultrafast signal processing. The high-speed signal processing capacity of these devices is found to be limited by the wetting layer dynamics in case of electrical pumping, while...

  17. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Marten Derk van der

    1995-01-01

    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of

  18. Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers for optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Uskov, A. V.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum dot semiconductor amplifiers are investigated theoretically with respect to the potential for ultrafast signal processing. The high-speed signal processing capacity of these devices is found to be limited by the wetting layer dynamics in case of electrical pumping, while...

  19. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Marten Derk van der

    1995-01-01

    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of major importance for the overall performance of a system. ... Zie: Summary

  20. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Marten Derk van der

    1995-01-01

    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of ma

  1. Proceedings of the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing XVII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has...

  2. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  3. Signal processing for on-chip space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide.......Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide....

  4. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  5. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease inhibits the type I interferon signaling pathway through interaction with the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xingxing; Zheng, Yang; Yang, Yudong; Xing, Yaling; Chen, Zhongbin

    2014-05-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) develops an antagonistic mechanism by which to evade the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN). Previous studies suggested that SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway, which would normally elicit a robust IFN response, but the mechanism(s) used by SARS PLpro to inhibit activation of the IRF3 pathway is not fully known. In this study, we uncovered a novel mechanism that may explain how SARS PLpro efficiently inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway. We found that expression of the membrane-anchored PLpro domain (PLpro-TM) from SARS-CoV inhibits STING/TBK1/IKKε-mediated activation of type I IFNs and disrupts the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3, which are activated by STING and TBK1. Meanwhile, we showed that PLpro-TM physically interacts with TRAF3, TBK1, IKKε, STING, and IRF3, the key components that assemble the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex for activation of IFN expression. However, the interaction between the components in STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex is disrupted by PLpro-TM. Furthermore, SARS PLpro-TM reduces the levels of ubiquitinated forms of RIG-I, STING, TRAF3, TBK1, and IRF3 in the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex. These results collectively point to a new mechanism used by SARS-CoV through which PLpro negatively regulates IRF3 activation by interaction with STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex, yielding a SARS-CoV countermeasure against host innate immunity.

  6. Efficient simulation for fixed-receiver bistatic SAR with time and frequency synchronization errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    Raw signal simulation is a useful tool for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system design, mission planning, processing algorithm testing, and inversion algorithm design. Time and frequency synchronization is the key technique of bistatic SAR (BiSAR) system, and raw data simulation is an effective tool for verifying the time and frequency synchronization techniques. According to the two-dimensional (2-D) frequency spectrum of fixed-receiver BiSAR, a rapid raw data simulation approach with time and frequency synchronization errors is proposed in this paper. Through 2-D inverse Stolt transform in 2-D frequency domain and phase compensation in range-Doppler frequency domain, this method can significantly improve the efficiency of scene raw data simulation. Simulation results of point targets and extended scene are presented to validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed simulation approach.

  7. Linearity analysis of single-ended SAR ADC with split capacitive DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Dmitry; Malankin, Evgeny; Shumikhin, Vitaly

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes the design of a 6-bit single-ended SAR ADC with a variable sampling rate at a maximum achievable speed of 50 MS/s. The SAR ADC utilizes the split capacitor array DAC with a non-conventional split-capacitor value. The influence of switches in the capacitive DAC on the ADC's non-linearity is analysed. According to the fulfilled analysis the recommendations for switches and capacitor array dimensioning are given to provide a minimum differential non-linearity (DNL). At a sampling rate of 50 MS/s, the SAR ADC achieves an ENOB of 5.4 bit at an input signal frequency of 1 MHz and consumes 1.2 mW at a 1.8 V power supply, resulting in an energy efficiency of 568 fJ/conv.-step. The SAR ADC was simulated with parasitics in a standard 180nm CMOS process.

  8. Signal Processing in Large Systems: a New Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Couillet, Romain

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, signal processing applications, and most particularly detection and parameter estimation methods, have relied on the limiting behaviour of test statistics and estimators, as the number n of observations of a population grows large comparatively to the population size N, i.e. n>>N. Modern technological and societal advances now demand the study of sometimes extremely large populations, while simultaneously requiring fast signal processing due to accelerated system dynamics; this results in not-so-large practical ratios n/N, sometimes even smaller than one. A disruptive change in classical signal processing methods has therefore been initiated in the past ten years, mostly spurred by the field of large dimensional random matrix theory. The early literature in random matrix theory for signal processing applications is however scarce and highly technical. This tutorial proposes an accessible methodological introduction to the modern tools of random matrix theory and to the signal processing metho...

  9. Signal Processing and Electronic Noise in LZ

    CERN Document Server

    Khaitan, Dev Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, the 10-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), consists of low-noise dual-gain amplifiers and a 100-MHz, 14-bit data acquisition system for the TPC PMTs. Pre-prototypes of the analog amplifiers and the 32-channel digitizers were tested extensively with simulated pulses that are similar to the prompt scintillation light and the electroluminescence signals expected in LZ. These studies are used to characterize the noise and to measure the linearity of the system. By increasing the amplitude of the test signals, the effect of saturating the amplifier and the digitizers was studied. The RMS ADC noise of the digitizer channels was measured to be 1.19 $\\pm$ 0.01 ADCC. When a high-energy channel of the amplifier is connected to the digitizer, the measured noise remained virtually unchanged, while the noise added by a low-energy channel was estimated to be 0.38 $\\pm$ 0.02 ADCC (46 $\\pm$ 2$\\mu$V). A test facility...

  10. Signal processing and electronic noise in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitan, D.

    2016-03-01

    The electronics of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, the 10-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), consists of low-noise dual-gain amplifiers and a 100-MHz, 14-bit data acquisition system for the TPC PMTs. Pre-prototypes of the analog amplifiers and the 32-channel digitizers were tested extensively with simulated pulses that are similar to the prompt scintillation light and the electroluminescence signals expected in LZ. These studies are used to characterize the noise and to measure the linearity of the system. By increasing the amplitude of the test signals, the effect of saturating the amplifier and the digitizers was studied. The RMS ADC noise of the digitizer channels was measured to be 1.19± 0.01 ADCC. When a high-energy channel of the amplifier is connected to the digitizer, the measured noise remained virtually unchanged, while the noise added by a low-energy channel was estimated to be 0.38 ± 0.02 ADCC (46 ± 2 μV). A test facility is under construction to study saturation, mitigate noise and measure the performance of the LZ electronics and data acquisition chain.

  11. Is complex signal processing for bone conduction hearing aids useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Kurz, Anja; Pfiffner, Flurin; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas; Caversaccio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    To establish whether complex signal processing is beneficial for users of bone anchored hearing aids. Review and analysis of two studies from our own group, each comparing a speech processor with basic digital signal processing (either Baha Divino or Baha Intenso) and a processor with complex digital signal processing (either Baha BP100 or Baha BP110 power). The main differences between basic and complex signal processing are the number of audiologist accessible frequency channels and the availability and complexity of the directional multi-microphone noise reduction and loudness compression systems. Both studies show a small, statistically non-significant improvement of speech understanding in quiet with the complex digital signal processing. The average improvement for speech in noise is +0.9 dB, if speech and noise are emitted both from the front of the listener. If noise is emitted from the rear and speech from the front of the listener, the advantage of the devices with complex digital signal processing as opposed to those with basic signal processing increases, on average, to +3.2 dB (range +2.3 … +5.1 dB, p ≤ 0.0032). Complex digital signal processing does indeed improve speech understanding, especially in noise coming from the rear. This finding has been supported by another study, which has been published recently by a different research group. When compared to basic digital signal processing, complex digital signal processing can increase speech understanding of users of bone anchored hearing aids. The benefit is most significant for speech understanding in noise.

  12. The signal selection and processing method for polarization measurement radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG YuLiang; WANG XueSong; LI YongZhen; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the ambiguity function, a novel signal processing method for the polarization measurement radar is developed. One advantage of this method is that the two orthogonal polarized signals do not have to be perpendicular to each other, which is required by traditional methods. The error due to the correlation of the two transmitting signals in the traditional method, can be reduced by this new approach. A concept called ambiguity function matrix (AFM) is introduced based on this method. AFM is a promising tool for the signal selection and design in the polarization scattering matrix measurement. The waveforms of the polarimetric radar are categorized and analyzed based on AFM in this paper. The signal processing flow of this method is explained. And the polarization scattering matrix measurement performance is testified by simulation. Furthermore, this signal processing method can be used in the inter-pulse interval measurement technique as well as in the instantaneous measurement technique.

  13. Multi-Core DSP Based Parallel Architecture for FMCW SAR Real-Time Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient parallel processing architecture using multi-core Digital Signal Processor (DSP to improve the capability of real-time imaging for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar (FMCW SAR. With the application of the proposed processing architecture, the imaging algorithm is modularized, and each module is efficiently realized by the proposed processing architecture. In each module, the data processing of different cores is executed in parallel, also the data transmission and data processing of each core are synchronously carried out, so that the processing time for SAR imaging is reduced significantly. Specifically, the time of corner turning operation, which is very time-consuming, is ignored under computationally intensive case. The proposed parallel architecture is applied to a compact Ku-band FMCW SAR prototype to achieve real-time imageries with 34 cm x 51 cm (range x azimuth resolution.

  14. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    . Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency...... range of 1-100 gigahertz. Our simulations reveal the role of ultrafast intradot carrier dynamics in enhancing modulation bandwidth of quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers. Moreover, the corresponding coherent gain response also provides rich dispersion contents over a broad bandwidth. One...... important implementation is recently boosted by the research in slow light. The idea is to migrate such dynamical gain knowledge for the investigation of microwave phase shifter based on semiconductor optical waveguide. Our study reveals that phase shifting based on the conventional semiconductor optical...

  15. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

    2011-09-01

    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  16. Neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuits for optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeira, B.; Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S.; Piro, O.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, J. M. L.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to produce narrow optical pulses has been extensively investigated in laser systems with promising applications in photonics such as clock recovery, pulse reshaping, and recently in photonics artificial neural networks using spiking signal processing. Here, we investigate a neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuit (NOEIC) comprising a semiconductor laser driven by a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector operating at telecommunication (1550 nm) wavelengths capable of excitable spiking signal generation in response to optical and electrical control signals. The RTD-NOEIC mimics biologically inspired neuronal phenomena and possesses high-speed response and potential for monolithic integration for optical signal processing applications.

  17. Signal Acquisition and Processing Method Using Sector SSPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kai-hua; HUANG Zuo-hua; YAN Kuang

    2005-01-01

    Self scanning photodiode array (SSPA) is a kind of solid state imaging sensor. The signal processing method using a special sector SSPA was investigated. Based on the principle and characteristics of SSPA, a signal acquisition and processing method controlled by computer was introduced. The amplification of weak signal, the matching of time sequence, the fast peak holding with low leakage, the high speed A/D conversion and nonlinear correction were discussed. This method can acquire the peak signal of every ring of sector SSPA with high accuracy and in real time. It can be used to detect the distribution of space light energy.

  18. New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ricaud, B. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CPT UMR 6207, Campus de Luminy, case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Briolle, F. [CPT UMR 6207, Campus de Luminy, case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); CReA, BA 701, F-13306 Salon de Provence (France); Heuraux, S. [IJL-P2M, UMR-CNRS 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2011-08-15

    Reflectometry profile measurement requires an accurate determination of the plasma reflected signal. Along with a good resolution and a high signal to noise ratio of the phase measurement, adequate data analysis is required. A new data processing based on time-frequency tomographic representation is used. It provides a clearer separation between multiple components and improves isolation of the relevant signals. In this paper, this data processing technique is applied to two sets of signals coming from two different reflectometer devices used on the Tore Supra tokamak. For the standard density profile reflectometry, it improves the initialization process and its reliability, providing a more accurate profile determination in the far scrape-off layer with density measurements as low as 10{sup 16} m{sup -1}. For a second reflectometer, which provides measurements in front of a lower hybrid launcher, this method improves the separation of the relevant plasma signal from multi-reflection processes due to the proximity of the plasma.

  19. Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3): A cloud-based infrastructure for generic processing of SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, K.; Arko, S. A.; Buechler, B.; Hogenson, R.; Herrmann, J.; Geiger, A.

    2016-12-01

    A problem often faced by Earth science researchers is how to scale algorithms that were developed against few datasets and take them to regional or global scales. One significant hurdle can be the processing and storage resources available for such a task, not to mention the administration of those resources. As a processing environment, the cloud offers nearly unlimited potential for compute and storage, with limited administration required. The goal of the Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3) project was to demonstrate the utility of the Amazon cloud to process large amounts of data quickly and cost effectively, while remaining generic enough to incorporate new algorithms with limited administration time or expense. Principally built by three undergraduate students at the ASF DAAC, the HyP3 system relies on core Amazon services such as Lambda, the Simple Notification Service (SNS), Relational Database Service (RDS), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Storage Service (S3), and Elastic Beanstalk. The HyP3 user interface was written using elastic beanstalk, and the system uses SNS and Lamdba to handle creating, instantiating, executing, and terminating EC2 instances automatically. Data are sent to S3 for delivery to customers and removed using standard data lifecycle management rules. In HyP3 all data processing is ephemeral; there are no persistent processes taking compute and storage resources or generating added cost. When complete, HyP3 will leverage the automatic scaling up and down of EC2 compute power to respond to event-driven demand surges correlated with natural disaster or reprocessing efforts. Massive simultaneous processing within EC2 will be able match the demand spike in ways conventional physical computing power never could, and then tail off incurring no costs when not needed. This presentation will focus on the development techniques and technologies that were used in developing the HyP3 system. Data and process flow will be shown

  20. Versatile architectures for onboard payload signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Karel Hubertus Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a hardware fused-multiply-add floating point unit, called Sabrewing, which has properties that satisfy the needs for payload processing units. Sabrewing is BSD licensed and made in Europe such that it bypasses the export regulations of the USA. It combines floating-point and fix

  1. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Effect of Atmospheric Delay Error on InSAR Data Processing%大气延迟误差对InSAR数据处理影响的定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余景波; 刘国林; 曹振坦; 崔娟; 刘会

    2012-01-01

    从重复轨道InSAR测量基本原理出发,详细给出了相位测量误差对InSAR测高、双轨法D—InSAR形变测量、三轨法D.InSAR形变测量、四轨法D-InSAR形变测量影响的近似关系式以及大气延迟误差对相位测量影响的近似关系式;以此为基础分别推导出了大气延迟误差对InSAR测高、双轨法D-InSAR形变测量、三轨法D.InSAR形变测量和四轨法D—InSAR形变测量影响的近似关系式,同时以ERS-1星载系统为例进行模拟实验,分析讨论了大气延迟误差对InSAR测高、双轨法D—InSAR形变测量、三轨法D-InSAR形变测量以及四轨法D—InSAR形变测量的影响,从而得出了大气延迟误差对InSAR数据处理影响的结论.%The effect approximate relationship formulas of the phase measurement error on height measurement by InSAR and deformation measurement by two-pass, three-pass and four-pass differential InSAR and the effect formulas of atmospheric delay error on the interferometric phase are put forward respectively, taking simultaneously into account the basic principles of the repeat track InSAR measurements. Then, the effect approximate relationship formulas of the atmospheric delay error on height measurement by InSAR and deformation measurement by two-pass differential InSAR, three-pass differential InSAR, four-pass differential InSAR are deduced respectively based on the above formulas. In the last error on InSAR data processing are place, the useful conclusions of the effect of atmospheric delay drawn by taking ERS-1 satellite system simulation experimentsas an example and by talking over and analyzing the effect of atmospheric delay error on height measurement by InSAR and deformation measurement by two-pass differential InSAR, three-pass differential InSAR and four-pass differential InSAR etc.

  3. Signal quality and Bayesian signal processing in neurofeedback based on real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koush, Yury; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Dyck, Miriam; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Real-time fMRI allows analysis and visualization of the brain activity online, i.e. within one repetition time. It can be used in neurofeedback applications where subjects attempt to control an activation level in a specified region of interest (ROI) of their brain. The signal derived from the ROI is contaminated with noise and artifacts, namely with physiological noise from breathing and heart beat, scanner drift, motion-related artifacts and measurement noise. We developed a Bayesian approach to reduce noise and to remove artifacts in real-time using a modified Kalman filter. The system performs several signal processing operations: subtraction of constant and low-frequency signal components, spike removal and signal smoothing. Quantitative feedback signal quality analysis was used to estimate the quality of the neurofeedback time series and performance of the applied signal processing on different ROIs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across the entire time series and the group event-related SNR (eSNR) were significantly higher for the processed time series in comparison to the raw data. Applied signal processing improved the t-statistic increasing the significance of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Accordingly, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the feedback time series was improved as well. In addition, the data revealed increase of localized self-control across feedback sessions. The new signal processing approach provided reliable neurofeedback, performed precise artifacts removal, reduced noise, and required minimal manual adjustments of parameters. Advanced and fast online signal processing algorithms considerably increased the quality as well as the information content of the control signal which in turn resulted in higher contingency in the neurofeedback loop.

  4. Empirical wind retrieval model based on SAR spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, Maria; Karaev, Vladimir; Balandina, Galina; Kanevsky, Mikhail; Portabella, Marcos; Stoffelen, Ad

    ambiguity from polarimetric SAR. A criterion based on the complex correlation coefficient between the VV and VH signals sign is applied to select the wind direction. An additional quality control on the wind speed value retrieved with the spectral method is applied. Here, we use the direction obtained with the spectral method and the backscattered signal for CMOD wind speed estimate. The algorithm described above may be refined by the use of numerous SAR data and wind measurements. In the present preliminary work the first results of SAR images combined with in situ data processing are presented. Our results are compared to the results obtained using previously developed models CMOD, C-2PO for VH polarization and statistical wind retrieval approaches [1]. Acknowledgments. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (grants 13-05-00852-a). [1] M. Portabella, A. Stoffelen, J. A. Johannessen, Toward an optimal inversion method for synthetic aperture radar wind retrieval, Journal of geophysical research, V. 107, N C8, 2002

  5. A comb filter based signal processing method to effectively reduce motion artifacts from photoplethysmographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fulai; Liu, Hongyun; Wang, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    A photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal can provide very useful information about a subject's cardiovascular status. Motion artifacts (MAs), which usually deteriorate the waveform of a PPG signal, severely obstruct its applications in the clinical diagnosis and healthcare area. To reduce the MAs from a PPG signal, in the present study we present a comb filter based signal processing method. Firstly, wavelet de-noising was implemented to preliminarily suppress a part of the MAs. Then, the PPG signal in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain by a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Thirdly, the PPG signal period was estimated from the frequency domain by tracking the fundamental frequency peak of the PPG signal. Lastly, the MAs were removed by the comb filter which was designed based on the obtained PPG signal period. Experiments with synthetic and real-world datasets were implemented to validate the performance of the method. Results show that the proposed method can effectively restore the PPG signals from the MA corrupted signals. Also, the accuracy of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), calculated from red and infrared PPG signals, was significantly improved after the MA reduction by the proposed method. Our study demonstrates that the comb filter can effectively reduce the MAs from a PPG signal provided that the PPG signal period is obtained.

  6. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  7. Grating geophone signal processing based on wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Zhang, Huan; Tao, Zhifei

    2008-12-01

    Grating digital geophone is designed based on grating measurement technique benefiting averaging-error effect and wide dynamic range to improve weak signal detected precision. This paper introduced the principle of grating digital geophone and its post signal processing system. The signal acquisition circuit use Atmega 32 chip as core part and display the waveform on the Labwindows through the RS232 data link. Wavelet transform is adopted this paper to filter the grating digital geophone' output signal since the signal is unstable. This data processing method is compared with the FIR filter that widespread use in current domestic. The result indicates that the wavelet algorithm has more advantages and the SNR of seismic signal improve obviously.

  8. Dynamic deformation of Seguam Island, Alaska, 1992--2008, from multi-interferogram InSAR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Won, Joong-Sun; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We generated a time-series of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images to study ground surface deformation at Seguam Island from 1992 to 2008. We used the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique to reduce artifacts associated with baseline uncertainties and atmospheric delay anomalies, and processed images from two adjacent tracks to validate our results. Seguam Island comprises the remnants of two late Quaternary calderas, one in the western caldera of the island and one in the eastern part of the island. The western caldera subsided at a constant rate of ~ 1.6 cm/yr throughout the study period, while the eastern caldera experienced alternating periods of subsidence and uplift: ~ 5 cm/year uplift during January 1993–October 1993 (stage 1), ~ 1.6 cm/year subsidence during October 1993–November 1998 (stage 2), ~ 2.0 cm/year uplift during November 1998–September 2000 (stage 3), ~ 1.4 cm/year subsidence during September 2000–November 2005 (stage 4), and ~ 0.8 cm/year uplift during November 2005– July 2007 (stage 5). Source modeling indicates a deflationary source less than 2 km below sea level (BSL) beneath the western caldera and two sources beneath the eastern caldera: an inflationary source 2.5–6.0 km BSL and a deflationary source less than 2 km BSL. We suggest that uplift of the eastern caldera is driven by episodic intrusions of basaltic magma into a poroelastic reservoir 2.5–6.0 km BSL beneath the caldera. Cooling and degassing of the reservoir between intrusions results in steady subsidence of the overlying surface. Although we found no evidence of magma intrusion beneath the western caldera during the study period, it is the site (Pyre Peak) of all historical eruptions on the island and therefore cooling and degassing of intrusions presumably contributes to subsidence there as well. Another likely subsidence mechanism in the western caldera is thermoelastic contraction of lava flows emplaced near Pyre Peak during

  9. Assess Sleep Stage by Modern Signal Processing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hau-tieng; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, Empirical Intrinsic Geometry and Synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification -- the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2 and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy $81.7\\%$ (resp. $89.3\\%$) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory s...

  10. Fundamentals of Signal Processing for Sound and Vibration Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Kihong

    2008-01-01

    Fundamentals of Signal Processing for Sound and Vibration Engineers is based on Joe Hammond's many years of teaching experience at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton. Whilst the applications presented emphasise sound and vibration, the book focusses on the basic essentials of signal processing that ensures its appeal as a reference text to students and practitioners in all areas of mechanical, automotive, aerospace and civil engineering.  Offers an excellent introduction to signal processing for students and professionals in th

  11. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    relying on the phase of the optical field. Topics covered include all-optical switching of 640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s serial data, wavelength conversion at 640 Gbit/s, optical amplitude regeneration of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, as well as midspan spectral inversion for differential 8......We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...

  12. Discrete random signal processing and filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2013-01-01

    Engineers in all fields will appreciate a practical guide that combines several new effective MATLAB® problem-solving approaches and the very latest in discrete random signal processing and filtering.Numerous Useful Examples, Problems, and Solutions - An Extensive and Powerful ReviewWritten for practicing engineers seeking to strengthen their practical grasp of random signal processing, Discrete Random Signal Processing and Filtering Primer with MATLAB provides the opportunity to doubly enhance their skills. The author, a leading expert in the field of electrical and computer engineering, offe

  13. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP...... with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started three years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees the proceeding in a CDROM electronic format, which maintains...

  14. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP...... with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started three years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees the proceeding in a CDROM electronic format, which maintains...

  15. Features of Channel and Signal Processing of Fuze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper simply discusses the outer channels and their characteristics of information communication between the fuze and outer environments based on the view that the fuze is an information system,and deeply analyzes the information features of high frequency signal processing that mainly recovers the echo signals and controls the noises instead of picking up the required btarget information.But it can reduce the uncertainty of the signal caused by noise.The information processing of fuze is mainly completed by the low frequency information processing system.

  16. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  17. Radar Array Signal Processing in the Presence of Scattering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Final INov . 2004 - Oct. 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CON RACT NUMBER Radar Array Signal Processing in the Presence of Scattering Effects N/A 5b. GRANT...polarization. Hence, we considered models depicting how the features of this signal are affected by the medium materials through which the signal propagates. We...security (e.g., for nuclear materials ), and particle communications. We assume Poisson distribution for each detectors measurement within the

  18. A system for pulsed NQR spectrometer control and signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, M.; Péneau, A.

    The system described was built at the IEF around a HP-21OOA computer and is presently used with a nitrogen-14 pulsed NQR spectrometer. Two main functions are provided: spectrometer control (radio-frequency, pulse sequence repetition rate, sample temperature settings) and signal processing (accumulation of the NQR signals, Fourier transform). Results are presented which show typical uses of the system for the observation of complex signals.

  19. Processing of physiological signals in automotive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambier, Michael; Altmüller, Tobias; Ladstätter, Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    The development of innovative driver assistance systems requires the evaluation of the predisposed hypotheses such as acceptance and driving safety. For this purpose, the conduction of experiments with end-users as subjects is necessary. Analysis and evaluation are based on the recording of numerous sensor values and system variables. Video, gaze and physiological data are recorded for the analysis of gaze distraction and emotional reactions of subjects to system behaviour. In this paper, a modular data streaming and processing architecture is suggested and a concept for this architecture is defined for consistent data evaluation, which integrates off-the-shelf products for data analysis and evaluation.

  20. Signal processing method of a novel polarized array radar seeker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhong Song; Xiaolin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel polarized radar seeker based on the polarized antenna array. A ful y polarized signal processing method for the proposed radar seeker is studied un-der the environments with electromagnetic interferences. A dual polarized antenna array is employed to transmit and receive the radar signals. The instantaneous polarization signal processing technique is used to detect and recognize the targets. The di-rection of arrival (DOA) of the target is measured through the spatial spectrum with high resolution for the polarized array radar seeker system. The ful y polarized signal model of the polarized array radar seeker is formulated and a specific signal processing algorithm is expounded. The theoretical research and numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed radar seeker has good performances in target detection and electronic warfare. The research results can provide an effective technical approach to develop and research the new generation radar seeker.

  1. Modeling laser velocimeter signals as triply stochastic Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Previous models of laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) systems have not adequately described dual-scatter signals in a manner useful for analysis and simulation of low-level photon-limited signals. At low photon rates, an LDV signal at the output of a photomultiplier tube is a compound nonhomogeneous filtered Poisson process, whose intensity function is another (slower) Poisson process with the nonstationary rate and frequency parameters controlled by a random flow (slowest) process. In the present paper, generalized Poisson shot noise models are developed for low-level LDV signals. Theoretical results useful in detection error analysis and simulation are presented, along with measurements of burst amplitude statistics. Computer generated simulations illustrate the difference between Gaussian and Poisson models of low-level signals.

  2. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FPGA BASED SIGNAL PROCESSING CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gupta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of FPGA based signal processing card. An on board real time digital signal processing system is designed using FPGA. The platform can decode process of various kinds of digital and analog signals simultaneously. The design trend in this card is towards small size, high integration and fast real time processing. For the optimum performance a 16 bit 1 MSPS ADC is used which is interfaced with FPGA to make all the data processing on board in real time. This card can be used in many signal processing based applications like audio signal processing, audio compression, digital image processing, video compression, speech processing, speech recognition, digital communications by interfacing several separate board using inbuilt I/O’s, each with a number of input channels that will communicate with each other in real time over a high speed communication link. The resulting images can be displayed directly on LCD or OLED panel displays using I/O’s peripherals. The project introduces many challenging issues, which are being addressed in turn with different prototype designs. These issues are the ADC performance, interfacing the ADCs to the FPGA, implementing the flexible processing algorithms and high speed interconnection between the boards.

  3. Multiwavelength micropulse lidar in atmospheric aerosol study: signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posyniak, Michal; Malinowski, Szymon P.; Stacewicz, Tadeusz; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    Multiwavelength micropulse lidar (MML) designed for continuous optical sounding of the atmosphere is presented. A specific signal processing technique applying two directional Kalman filtering is introduced in order to enhance signal to noise ratio. Application of this technique is illustrated with profiles collected in course of COAST 2009 and WRNP 2010 research campaigns.

  4. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao;

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  5. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao;

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  6. Comparison of SAR-derived wind speed with the wind energy simulation toolkit (WEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucage, P.; Lafrance, G.; Bernier, M. [Quebec Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement; Glazer, A.; Benoit, R.; Yu, W. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Wind power increases with air density, wind speed, and the surface area of wind turbine blades. Wind speed increases with altitude and topographic effects such as lower surface roughness, and high pressure gradient forcing. A comparative evaluation of a mesoscale compressible community numerical model (MC2) and synthetic aperture radar satellites (SAR) was presented. Wind speed predictions were presented, and details of both models were reviewed. Features of the MC2 included non hydrostatic Euler equations; a 3-D Lagrangian advection; full physical processes; resolution to a few km; self-nesting capabilities; topography adjustable at start-up; and open sourcing. Inputs included climatological fields; geophysical fields; initial and boundary atmospheric conditions; and dynamical and physical simulation settings. Outputs included wind speed vectors, pressure, temperature and humidity. Wind measurements from SAR satellites is conducted by observing wind friction in water. Radar signals are related to sea waves by Bragg resonant scattering. A geophysical model function establishes a semi-empirical relationship between the radar signal and wind vector. Several sources of wind direction inputs for SAR included scatterometer data; FFT of wind streaks on SAR images; local gradient filters on SAR images; NWP data; offshore coastal buoys and masts data. It was noted that with SAR, wind patterns were well represented and wind accuracy was improved. Micro-scale resolution is available and further improvements are expected with the launch of new satellites. Results of various studies comparing the use of MC2 and SAR in coastal waters were presented. It was concluded that wind features are well resolved by SAR and MC2 methods. A fusion of both methods was recommended to improve coastal and offshore wind assessments. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Software for biomedical engineering signal processing laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Willis J; Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990's we developed a special computer program called UW DigiScope to provide a mechanism for anyone interested in biomedical digital signal processing to study the field without requiring any other instrument except a personal computer. There are many digital filtering and pattern recognition algorithms used in processing biomedical signals. In general, students have very limited opportunity to have hands-on access to the mechanisms of digital signal processing. In a typical course, the filters are designed non-interactively, which does not provide the student with significant understanding of the design constraints of such filters nor their actual performance characteristics. UW DigiScope 3.0 is the first major update since version 2.0 was released in 1994. This paper provides details on how the new version based on MATLAB! works with signals, including the filter design tool that is the programming interface between UW DigiScope and processing algorithms.

  8. Signal processing techniques for synchronization of wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehan; Wu, Yik-Chung; Chaudhari, Qasim; Qaraqe, Khalid; Serpedin, Erchin

    2010-11-01

    Clock synchronization is a critical component in wireless sensor networks, as it provides a common time frame to different nodes. It supports functions such as fusing voice and video data from different sensor nodes, time-based channel sharing, and sleep wake-up scheduling, etc. Early studies on clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks mainly focus on protocol design. However, clock synchronization problem is inherently related to parameter estimation, and recently, studies of clock synchronization from the signal processing viewpoint started to emerge. In this article, a survey of latest advances on clock synchronization is provided by adopting a signal processing viewpoint. We demonstrate that many existing and intuitive clock synchronization protocols can be interpreted by common statistical signal processing methods. Furthermore, the use of advanced signal processing techniques for deriving optimal clock synchronization algorithms under challenging scenarios will be illustrated.

  9. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  10. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozański, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  11. An algorithm for signal processing in multibeam antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevskii, L. N.; Domanov, Iu. A.; Korobko, O. V.

    1980-09-01

    A signal processing method for multibeam antenna arrays is presented which can be used to effectively reduce discrete-phasing sidelobes. Calculations of an 11-element array are presented as an example.

  12. Array signal processing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Jongeling, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the benefits of arraying and past as well as expected future use of this application. The signal processing aspects of array system are described. Field measurements via actual tracking spacecraft are also presented.

  13. Optical signal processing using electro-absorption modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Romstad, Francis Pascal; Højfeldt, Sune

    2003-01-01

    Reverse-biased semiconductor waveguides are efficient saturable absorbers and have a number of promising all-optical signal processing applications. Results on ultrafast modulator dynamics as well as demonstrations and investigations of wavelength conversion and regeneration are presented....

  14. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan;

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  15. Mathematical summary for digital signal processing applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical Summary for Digital Signal Processing Applications with Matlab consists of Mathematics which is not usually dealt with in the DSP core subject, but used in DSP applications. It gives Matlab programs with illustrations.

  16. Comparative analysis of genomic signal processing for microarray data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert S H; Sungoor, Ala; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Genomic signal processing is a new area of research that combines advanced digital signal processing methodologies for enhanced genetic data analysis. It has many promising applications in bioinformatics and next generation of healthcare systems, in particular, in the field of microarray data clustering. In this paper we present a comparative performance analysis of enhanced digital spectral analysis methods for robust clustering of gene expression across multiple microarray data samples. Three digital signal processing methods: linear predictive coding, wavelet decomposition, and fractal dimension are studied to provide a comparative evaluation of the clustering performance of these methods on several microarray datasets. The results of this study show that the fractal approach provides the best clustering accuracy compared to other digital signal processing and well known statistical methods.

  17. Ionosphere correction algorithm for spaceborne SAR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yang; Mengdao Xing; Guangcai Sun

    2016-01-01

    For spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ima-ging, the dispersive ionosphere has significant effects on the pro-pagation of the low frequency (especial y P-band) radar signal. The ionospheric effects can be a significant source of the phase error in the radar signal, which causes a degeneration of the image quality in spaceborne SAR imaging system. The background ionospheric effects on spaceborne SAR through modeling and simulation are analyzed, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the spatio-temporal variability of the ionosphere is given. A novel ionosphere correction algorithm (ICA) is proposed to deal with the ionospheric effects on the low frequency spaceborne SAR radar signal. With the proposed algorithm, the degradation of the image quality caused by the ionosphere is corrected. The simulation re-sults show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on the Alpha-stable Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an improved Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR ship detection algorithm in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR image based on Alphastable distribution model. Typically, the CFAR algorithm uses the Gaussian distribution model to describe statistical characteristics of a SAR image background clutter. However, the Gaussian distribution is only valid for multilook SAR images when several radar looks are averaged. As sea clutter in SAR images shows spiky or heavy-tailed characteristics, the Gaussian distribution often fails to describe background sea clutter. In this study, we replace the Gaussian distribution with the Alpha-stable distribution, which is widely used in impulsive or spiky signal processing, to describe the background sea clutter in SAR images. In our proposed algorithm, an initial step for detecting possible ship targets is employed. Then, similar to the typical two-parameter CFAR algorithm, a local process is applied to the pixel identified as possible target. A RADARSAT-1 image is used to validate this Alpha-stable distribution based algorithm. Meanwhile, known ship location data during the time of RADARSAT-1 SAR image acquisition is used to validate ship detection results. Validation results show improvements of the new CFAR algorithm based on the Alpha-stable distribution over the CFAR algorithm based on the Gaussian distribution.

  19. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  20. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  1. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 landmine Detection, Signal...310 Jesse Hall Columbia, MO 65211 -1230 654808 633606 ABSTRACT Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR Report

  2. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  3. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  4. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  5. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu;

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  6. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159

  7. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  8. The Signal Processing Firmware for the Low Frequency Aperture Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoretto, Gianni; Chiello, Riccardo; Roberts, Matt; Halsall, Rob; Adami, Kristian Zarb; Alderighi, Monica; Aminaei, Amin; Baker, Jeremy; Belli, Carolina; Chiarucci, Simone; D'Angelo, Sergio; De Marco, Andrea; Mura, Gabriele Dalle; Magro, Alessio; Mattana, Andrea; Monari, Jader; Naldi, Giovanni; Pastore, Sandro; Perini, Federico; Poloni, Marco; Pupillo, Giuseppe; Rusticelli, Simone; Schiaffino, Marco; Schillirò, Francesco; Zaccaro, Emanuele

    The signal processing firmware that has been developed for the Low Frequency Aperture Array component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is described. The firmware is implemented on a dual FPGA board, that is capable of processing the streams from 16 dual polarization antennas. Data processing includes channelization of the sampled data for each antenna, correction for instrumental response and for geometric delays and formation of one or more beams by combining the aligned streams. The channelizer uses an oversampling polyphase filterbank architecture, allowing a frequency continuous processing of the input signal without discontinuities between spectral channels. Each board processes the streams from 16 antennas, as part of larger beamforming system, linked by standard Ethernet interconnections. These are envisaged to be 8192 of these signal processing platforms in the first phase of the SKA so particular attention has been devoted to ensure the design is low cost and low power.

  9. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of serial data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist;

    2012-01-01

    To ensure that ultra high-speed serial data signals can be utilised in future optical communication networks, it is indispensable to have all-optical signal processing elements at our disposal. In this paper, the most recent advances in our use of non-linear materials incorporated in different...

  10. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of Tbaud data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2010-01-01

    We describe methods to generate and optically signal process Tbaud serial optical data signals. We present sub-systems making serial optical Tbit/s systems compatible with standard Ethernet data for data centre applications, and present Tbit/s results using a.o. silicon nanowires....

  11. A Study on Signal Group Processing of AUTOSAR COM Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Han, Tae Man; Ahn, Yong Hak

    2013-06-01

    In vehicle, there are many ECU(Electronic Control Unit)s, and ECUs are connected to networks such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and so on. AUTOSAR COM(Communication) which is a software platform of AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) in the international industry standards of automotive electronic software processes signals and signal groups for data communications between ECUs. Real-time and reliability are very important for data communications in the vehicle. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze functions of signals and signal groups used in COM, and represent that functions of signal group are more efficient than signals in real-time data synchronization and network resource usage between the sender and receiver.

  12. Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M.S.; Mohd-Yasin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. PMID:16799694

  13. Variable-time-delay optical coherent transient signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K D; Babbitt, W R; Anderson, K E; Wagner, K H

    1999-10-15

    A technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated that achieves simultaneous optical pattern waveform storage and programmable time delay for continuous real-time signal processing by use of optical coherent transient technology. We achieve variable-time-delay and broadband signal processing by frequency shifting of two chirped programming pulses, the chirp rate of one being twice that of the other, without using brief reference pulses and without changing the timing of the programming sequence. We demonstrate the technique experimentally in Tm(3+): YAG at 5 K for 40-MHz chirps by performing temporal signal convolution with true-time delays that vary over a 250-ns range.

  14. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  15. Conjugate spectrum filters for eddy current signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Maszi, N. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Technology.)

    1993-07-01

    The paper addresses the problem of detection and classification of material defects during eddy current inspection. Digital signal processing algorithms for detection and characterization of flaws are considered and a new type of filter for classification of eddy current data is proposed. In the first part of the paper the signal processing blocks used in modern eddy current instruments are presented and analyzed in terms of information transmission. The processing usually consists of two steps: detection by means of amplitude-phase detectors and filtering of the detector output signals by means of analog signal filters. Distortion introduced by the signal filters is considered and illustrated using real eddy current responses. The nature of the distortion is explained and the way to avoid it is indicated. A novel method for processing the eddy current responses is presented in the second part of the paper. The method employs two-dimensional conjugate spectrum filters (CSFs) that are sensitive both to the phase angle and the shape of the eddy current responses. First the theoretical background of the CSF is presented and then two different ways of application, matched filters and orthogonal conjugate spectrum filters, are considered. The matched CSFs can be used for attenuation of all signals with the phase angle different from the selected prototype. The orthogonal filters are able to suppress completely a specific interference, e.g. the response of supporting plate when testing heat exchanger tubes. The performance of the CSFs is illustrated by means of real and simulated eddy current signals.

  16. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  17. Serial optical communications and ultra-fast optical signal processing of Tbit/s data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology......This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology...

  18. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Arredondo, Luis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de ValparaIso, Casilla 123-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Gonzalez, AgustIn [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home.

  19. Mathematical principles of signal processing Fourier and wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brémaud, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools in many applied sciences. The recent developments of wavelet analysis indicates that in spite of its long history and well-established applications, the field is still one of active research. This text bridges the gap between engineering and mathematics, providing a rigorously mathematical introduction of Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and related mathematical methods, while emphasizing their uses in signal processing and other applications in communications engineering. The interplay between Fourier series and Fourier transforms is at the heart of signal processing, which is couched most naturally in terms of the Dirac delta function and Lebesgue integrals. The exposition is organized into four parts. The first is a discussion of one-dimensional Fourier theory, including the classical results on convergence and the Poisson sum formula. The second part is devoted to the mathematical foundations of signal processing - sampling, filtering, digital signal proc...

  20. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in array signal processing which achieve accurate signal reconstruction from limited observations resulting in high-resolution imaging. The focus is on underwater acoustic applications and sonar signal processing both in active (transmit and receive...... in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering......) and passive (only receive) mode. The study addresses the limitations of existing methods and shows that, in many cases, the proposed methods overcome these limitations and outperform traditional methods for acoustic imaging. The project comprises two parts; The first part deals with computational methods...

  1. Interface Design Of Digital Platform For Bio Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsik; Park; Moonsu; Jang; Seongoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>Bio-sensor arrays for multi-channel recording have been developed recently and signal processing platforms for those signals have been studied actively.But it’s thereal situation which these technologies are generally developed and studied respectively.So the interface design between recording array and signal processing platform is also an important issue to make bio-sensor signal processing system.In this paper,we proposed interface which has unique protocols to control sensor array and operate platform.There are two types of protocols in the interface.One is between sensor array and MCU in platform and the other is between MCU and board for wireless communication.Basically,each protocol has two kinds of modes(single,frame)and it can be extended if needed.

  2. High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiqi; Shi Guohua; Zhang Yudong, E-mail: lixiqi@yahoo.cn [Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The signal processing speed of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a bottleneck in many medical applications. Recently, a time-domain interpolation method was proposed. This method not only gets a better signal-to noise ratio (SNR) but also gets a faster signal processing time for the SD-OCT than the widely used zero-padding interpolation method. Furthermore, the re-sampled data is obtained by convoluting the acquired data and the coefficients in time domain. Thus, a lot of interpolations can be performed concurrently. So, this interpolation method is suitable for parallel computing. An ultra-high optical coherence tomography signal processing can be realized by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This paper will introduce the signal processing steps of SD-OCT on GPU. An experiment is performed to acquire a frame SD-OCT data (400A-linesx2048 pixel per A-line) and real-time processed the data on GPU. The results show that it can be finished in 6.208 milliseconds, which is 37 times faster than that on Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  3. Cascades of InSAR in the Cascades - outlook for the use of InSAR and space-based imaging catalogues in a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has long demonstrated its utility to studies of subduction zone earthquakes, crustal events and volcanic processes, particularly in regions with very good temporal data coverage (e.g., Japan), or arid regions where the timescale of surface change is long compared to the repeat time of the available SAR imagery (e.g., portions of South America). Recently launched and future SAR missions with open data access will increase the temporal sampling rates further over many areas of the globe, resulting in a new ability to lower the detection threshold for earthquakes and, potentially, interseismic motion and transients associated with subduction zone settings. Here we describe some of the anticipated detection abilities for events ranging from earthquakes and slow slip along the subduction zone interface up to landslides, and examine the variations in land use around the circum-Pacific and how that and its changes over time will affect the use of InSAR. We will show the results of an effort to combine Landsat and other optical imagery with SAR data catalogues in the Pacific Northwest to improve the characterization of ground deformation signals, including the identification of "spurious" signals that are not related to true ground deformation. We also describe prospects for working with other communities that are interested in variations in soil moisture and vegetation structure over the same terrain.

  4. 一种平行航线双基聚束式FMCWSAR的两步处理方法%A Two-Step Processing Approach for Parallel Bistatic Spotlight FMCW SAR Focusing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅; 李燕平; 邢孟道; 保铮

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes the received signal model of parallel bistatic spotlight SAR adopting frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW ) ,and analyzes the affect of doppler frequency shift introduced by platform′s continuous motion while radar transmitting and receiving signals .Then using the concept of instantaneous frequency and through introducing the parameters , i .e .the sum and difference of the closest slant range ,and the half quasi bistatic angle ,the received signal expression in two dimen-sional wave-number domain is deduced .Based on this ,a two-step processing approach for parallel bistatic spotlight FMCW SAR fo-cusing is presented ,which uses azimuth pre-filtering step to overcome azimuth spectral folding phenomenon first .Following this op-eration ,a second residual focusing step is applied to carry out doppler frequency shift compensation and the bistatic frequency scaling processing .Meanwhile ,the time frequency relations changing from each stage of azimuth pre-filtering are analyzed in detail .Simula-tion data processing verifies the analysis and the proposed algorithm .%本文首先对基于调频连续波(FMCW )的平行航线双基聚束式SAR回波信号进行了建模,分析了雷达发射信号过程中载机连续运动带来的多普勒频移的影响。之后利用瞬时频率的概念,通过引入最近距离和、最近距离差以及半类双基角等变量,推导出平行航线双基聚束式FMCW SAR回波信号的二维波数域表达式,在此基础上提出了一种针对平行航线双基聚束式FMCW SAR数据的两步处理方法。两步处理方法首先通过方位预滤波处理实现方位谱解模糊,然后通过残余聚焦实现多普勒频移补偿以及双基的频率变标处理,同时,对方位预滤波处理各步操作引起的数据时频关系变化进行了分析。仿真数据处理验证了本文分析的正确性和算法的有效性。

  5. Integration of InSAR and GIS in the Study of Surface Faults Caused by Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Olivera, Jorge A.; Farina, Paolo; Garduño-Monroy, Victor H.

    2008-05-01

    In Celaya city, Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes (SCFP) began to become visible at the beginning of the 1980s with the sprouting of the crackings that gave rise to the surface faults "Oriente" and "Poniente". At the present time, the city is being affected by five surface faults that display a preferential NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the regional faulting system "Taxco-San Miguel de Allende". In order to study the SCFP in the city, the first step was to obtain a map of surface faults, by integrating in a GIS field survey and an urban city plan. The following step was to create a map of the current phreatic level decline in city with the information of deep wells and using the "kriging" method in order to obtain a continuous surface. Finally the interferograms maps resulted of an InSAR analysis of 9 SAR images covering the time interval between July 12 of 2003 and May 27 of 2006 were integrated to a GIS. All the maps generated, show how the surface faults divide the city from North to South, in two zones that behave in a different way. The difference of the phreatic level decline between these two zones is 60 m; and the InSAR study revealed that the Western zone practically remains stable, while sinkings between the surface faults "Oriente" and "Universidad Pedagógica" are present, as well as in portions NE and SE of the city, all of these sinkings between 7 and 10 cm/year.

  6. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  7. A SIFT Algorithm for Bistatic SAR Imaging in Spaceborne Constant-offset Configuration (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shi-chao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the problem of the space-variance of the range cell migration term for bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, a Scaled Inverse Fourier Transform (SIFT based imaging algorithm for constant-offset configuration bistatic SAR data processing is proposed in this article. Range cell migration correction is realized through two times phase multiplies and one time convolution operation. Since the imaging algorithm is based on an exact precise spectrum which is deduced from the Geometry-Based Formula (GBF algorithm, the proposed algorithm can handle the bistatic SAR data which are obtained with a large baseline to ratio. The advantages and effectiveness of the proposed imaging method have been verified by simulated and comparable experiments. Moreover, unlike the other scaling imaging algorithms which are dependent on the frequency modulated characteristics of the signal, the SIFT imaging algorithm is also suitable for phase-coded signal, which has a wider application areas.

  8. Assess sleep stage by modern signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-tieng; Talmon, Ronen; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, empirical intrinsic geometry and synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification-the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2, and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy 81.7% (resp. 89.3%) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory signal consists of ample sleep information, which supplements to the information stored in the electroencephalographic signal.

  9. Analysis and simulation of brain signal data by EEG signal processing technique using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasikumar Gurumurthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EEG is brain signal processing technique that allows gaining the understanding of the complex inner mechanisms of the brain and abnormal brain waves have shown to be associated with particular brain disorders. The analysis of brain waves plays an important role in diagnosis of different brain disorders. MATLAB provides an interactive graphic user interface (GUI allowing users to flexiblyand interactively process their high-density EEG dataset and other brain signal data different techniques such as independent component analysis (ICA and/or time/frequency analysis (TFA, as well as standard averaging methods. We will be showing different brain signals by comparing, analysing and simulating datasets which is already loaded in the MATLAB software to process the EEG signals.

  10. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  11. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  12. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (Frorr) - To) 6/2011 to 9/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report describes the technical progress towards the development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve...detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar

  13. All-Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Pu, Minhao; Ding, Yunhong;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent wo rk on the use of silicon waveguides for processing optical data signals. We will describe ultra-fast, ultra-broadband, polarisation-insensitive and phase-sensitive applications including processing of spectrally-efficient data formats and optical phase...

  14. Signal Processing Techniques for 5G:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa Long Luo

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an outline of the algorithms and implementation of the main signal processing techniques being developed for 5G wireless communication. The first part contains a review and comparison of six orthogonal and non⁃orthogonal waveform⁃generation and modulation schemes: generalized frequency⁃division multiplexing (GFDM), filter⁃bank multicarrier (FBMC), universal filtered multicarrier (UFMC), bi⁃orthogonal frequency⁃division multiplexing (BFDM), sparse⁃code multiple⁃access (SCMA), and non⁃orthogo⁃nal multiple access (NOMA). The second part discusses spatial signal processing algorithms and implementations for massive mul⁃tiple⁃input multiple⁃output (massive⁃MIMO), 3D beamforming and diversity, and orbital angular momentum (OAM) based multi⁃plexing. The last part gives an overview of signal processing aspects of other emerging techniques in 5G, such as millimeter⁃wave, cloud radio access networks, full duplex mode, and digital radio⁃frequency processing.

  15. Advances in signal processing and intelligent recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbukh, Alexander; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2014), March 13-15, 2014, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 134 submissions from 11 countries. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 52 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Knowledge-Based Systems; Signal and Speech Processing; Image and Video Processing; Mobile Computing and Applications and Computer Vision. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas.  

  16. SAR imaging method based on coprime sampling and nested sparse sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyin Shi; Baojing Jia

    2015-01-01

    As the signal bandwidth and the number of channels increase, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system pro-duces huge amount of data according to the Shannon-Nyquist theorem, causing a huge burden for data transmission. This pa-per concerns the coprime sampling and nested sparse sampling, which are proposed recently but have never been applied to real world for target detection, and proposes a novel way which uti-lizes these new sub-Nyquist sampling structures for SAR sam-pling in azimuth and reconstructs the data of SAR sampling by compressive sensing (CS). Both the simulated and real data are processed to test the algorithm, and the results indicate the way which combines these new undersampling structures and CS is able to achieve the SAR imaging effectively with much less data than regularly ways required. Final y, the influence of a little sam-pling jitter to SAR imaging is analyzed by theoretical analysis and experimental analysis, and then it concludes a little sampling jitter have no effect on image quality of SAR.

  17. Bistatic Experiment Using TerraSAR-X and DLR’s new F-SAR System

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Rodriguez-Cassolà, Marc; Nottensteiner, Anton; Horn, Ralf; Scheiber, Rolf; Steinbrecher, Ulrich; Metzig, Robert; Limbach, Markus; Mittermayer, Josef; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto; Schwerdt, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A bistatic X-band experiment was successfully performed early November 2007. TerraSAR-X was used as transmitter and DLR’s new airborne radar system F-SAR, which was programmed to acquire data in a quasi-continuous mode to avoid echo window synchronization issues, was used as bistatic receiver. Precise phase and time referencing between both systems, which is essential for obtaining high resolution SAR images, was derived during the bistatic processing. Hardware setup and performance analyses ...

  18. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  19. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  20. Analysis of Resolution of Bistatic SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial resolutions at different directions of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR) have been derived from the ambiguity function. Compared with monostatic signal to noise ratio, BiSAR's resolutions of a fixed point target are varying with slow time since BiSAR system is space-variant. Constraints for the assumption of space-invariant bistatic topology are proposed in the paper. Moreover, under the assumption of invariance, the change of resolutions at different point in the image scene is taken into account, and we have specified two key parameters that affect resolutions directly and analyzed the way how they influence on the resolutions.

  1. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  2. Signal processing techniques for atrial fibrillation source detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambadkar, Minal; Leonelli, Fabio M; Sankar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common and critical cardiac arrhythmia encountered. The treatment that can ensure permanent AF removal is catheter ablation, where cardiologists destroy the affected cardiac muscle cells with RF or Laser. In this procedure it is necessary to know exactly from which part of the heart AF triggers are originated. Various signal processing algorithms provide a strong tool to track AF sources. This study proposes, signal processing techniques that can be exploited for characterization, analysis and source detection of AF signals. These algorithms are implemented on Electrocardiogram (ECG) and intracardiac signals which contain important information that allows the analysis of anatomic and physiologic aspects of the whole cardiac muscle.

  3. Space-Time Coding and Signal Processing for MIMO Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inaki Berenguer; Xiaodong Wang

    2003-01-01

    Rapid growth in mobile computing and other wireless multimedia services is inspiring many research and development activities on high-speed wireless communication systems.Main challenges in this area include the development of efficient coding and modulation signal processing techniques for improving the quality and spectral efficiency of wireless systems. The recently emerged space-time coding and signal processing techniques for wireless communication systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas offer a powerful paradigm for meeting these challenges. This paper provides an overview on the recent development in space-time coding and signal processing techniques for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems. We first review the information theoretic results on the capacities of wireless systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas. We then describe two representative categories of space-time systems, namely, the BLAST system and the space-time block coding system, both of which have been proposed for next-generation high-speed wireless system. Signal processing techniques for channel estimation and decoding in space-time systems are also discussed. Finally, some other coding and signal processing techniques for wireless systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas that are currently under intensive research are also briefly touched upon.

  4. Signal processing of heart signals for the quantification of non-deterministic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddour Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart signals represent an important way to evaluate cardiovascular function and often what is desired is to quantify the level of some signal of interest against the louder backdrop of the beating of the heart itself. An example of this type of application is the quantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients. Methods An algorithm is presented for the quantification of high-frequency, non-deterministic events such as cavitation from recorded signals. A closed-form mathematical analysis of the algorithm investigates its capabilities. The algorithm is implemented on real heart signals to investigate usability and implementation issues. Improvements are suggested to the base algorithm including aligning heart sounds, and the implementation of the Short-Time Fourier Transform to study the time evolution of the energy in the signal. Results The improvements result in better heart beat alignment and better detection and measurement of the random events in the heart signals, so that they may provide a method to quantify nondeterministic events in heart signals. The use of the Short-Time Fourier Transform allows the examination of the random events in both time and frequency allowing for further investigation and interpretation of the signal. Conclusions The presented algorithm does allow for the quantification of nondeterministic events but proper care in signal acquisition and processing must be taken to obtain meaningful results.

  5. All Optical Signal-Processing Techniques Utilizing Four Wave Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Kibria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four Wave Mixing (FWM based optical signal-processing techniques are reviewed. The use of FWM in arithmetical operation like subtraction, wavelength conversion and pattern recognition are three key parts discussed in this paper after a brief introduction on FWM and its comparison with other nonlinear mixings. Two different approaches to achieve correlation are discussed, as well as a novel technique to realize all optical subtraction of two optical signals.

  6. Processing of Communication Signal Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.; Ghosh, K.; Mondal, S; Ray, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a signal processing methodology of communication system and realized that circuits using operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). Two important classes of communication circuit, delta modulator and compander have been designed using that procedure. In the first implementation coded pulse modulation system is demonstrated which employ sampling, quantizing and coding to convert analog waveforms to digital signals while the second gives data compression and expansion in ...

  7. Radar signal design problem with neural network processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Krishnamohan Rao; P S Moharir

    2001-06-01

    Binary and ternary sequences with peaky autocorrelation, measured in terms of high discrimination and merit factor have been searched earlier, using optimization techniques. It is shown that the use of neural network processing of the return signal is much more advantageous. It opens up a new signal design problem, which is solved by an optimization technique called Hamming scan, for both binary and ternary sequences.

  8. Passive silicon photonic devices for microwave photonic signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayang; Peng, Jizong; Liu, Boyu; Pan, Ting; Zhou, Huanying; Mao, Junming; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Su, Yikai

    2016-08-01

    We present our recent progress on microwave signal processing (MSP) using on-chip passive silicon photonic devices, including tunable microwave notch filtering/millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation based on self-coupled micro-resonators (SCMRs), and tunable radio-frequency (RF) phase shifting implemented by a micro-disk resonator (MDR). These schemes can provide improved flexibility and performances of MSP. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  9. Modelling coloured residual noise in gravitational-wave signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roever, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Renate [Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Christensen, Nelson, E-mail: christian.roever@aei.mpg.de [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States)

    2011-01-07

    We introduce a signal processing model for signals in non-white noise, where the exact noise spectrum is a priori unknown. The model is based on a Student's t distribution and constitutes a natural generalization of the widely used normal (Gaussian) model. This way, it allows for uncertainty in the noise spectrum, or more generally is also able to accommodate outliers (heavy-tailed noise) in the data. Examples are given pertaining to data from gravitational-wave detectors.

  10. Adaptive digital signal processing for X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, T.

    1990-05-01

    A real-time fully digital signal processing and analyzing system based on a new concept has been developed for high count rate high resolution spectrometry. The principle has been realized with digital filtering of the preamplifier output signals. The system's unique features are the maximum theoretically possible throughput rate with high resolution, and the adaptive noise filtering for nearly loss-free measurements. In adaptive mode the maximum output rate is about 20 times higher than in the case of the semi-Gaussian shaping, with low degradation of energy resolution. All parameters of the signal processor are software controllable.

  11. Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Zaved

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation represents a key aspect of signal transduction, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is presently unclear. For example, a key unanswered question is that of how phosphatase-mediated regulation of phosphorylation at the individual nodes of the signaling network translates into modulation of the net signal output and, thereby, the cellular phenotypic response. Results To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors. Conclusion Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile.

  12. Deformation history of Mauna Loa (Hawaii) from 2003 to 2014 through InSAR data: understanding the shorter-term processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.; Acocella, Valerio; Battaglia, Maurizio; Miklius, Asta

    2016-04-01

    Geodesy allows detecting the deformation of volcanoes, thus understanding magmatic processes. This becomes particularly efficient when time series are available and volcanoes can be monitored on the mean-term (decades), and not only during a specific event. Here we exploit the SBAS technique, using SAR images from ENVISAT (descending and ascending orbits; 2003 - 2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (descending and ascending orbits; 2012 - 2014), to study a decade of deformation at Mauna Loa (Hawaii). These data are merged time series data from 24 continuously operating GPS stations, which allows us to calibrate the InSAR time series. Our results show a long-term inflation of the volcano from 2003 to 2014, reaching a peak of ~11 cm/yr on the summit area between mid-2004 to mid-2005 and then slowing down. Within this frame, we were able to identify five main periods with approximately linear deformation behavior. The inversion of the deformation data in the first four periods suggests the repeated, though not constant, intrusion of one or more dikes below the summit caldera and the upper Southwest Rift Zone. Moreover, the dike intrusion coincides with minor acceleration of flank slip. Such a behavior is distinctive and, with the exception of the nearby Kilauea, has not been observed at any other volcano on the mean term. It is proposed that continuous, even though not constant flank instability of the SE flank may promote semi-continuous intrusions in a volcano with a ready magma supply.

  13. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  14. Research on mud pulse signal data processing in MWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bing; Li, De Sheng; Lin, En Huai; Ji, Miao Miao

    2012-12-01

    Wireless measure while drilling (MWD) transmits data by using mud pulse signal ; the ground decoding system collects the mud pulse signal and then decodes and displays the parameters under the down-hole according to the designed encoding rules and the correct detection and recognition of the ground decoding system towards the received mud pulse signal is one kind of the key technology of MWD. This paper introduces digit of Manchester encoding that transmits data and the format of the wireless transmission of data under the down-hole and develops a set of ground decoding systems. The ground decoding algorithm uses FIR (Finite impulse response) digital filtering to make de-noising on the mud pulse signal, then adopts the related base value modulating algorithm to eliminate the pump pulse base value of the denoised mud pulse signal, finally analyzes the mud pulse signal waveform shape of the selected Manchester encoding in three bits cycles, and applies the pattern similarity recognition algorithm to the mud pulse signal recognition. The field experiment results show that the developed device can make correctly extraction and recognition for the mud pulse signal with simple and practical decoding process and meet the requirements of engineering application.

  15. Digital Signal Processing Filtering Algorithm : Audio Equalization Using Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Chaguaro Aldaz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary domain of Digital Signal Processing is in constant influx and trying to find new applications that will benefit the everyday life of ordinary people. In modern technology, most of the electronic processes use DSP algorithms in order to collect analogue information that is continually present all around us and convert it into a digital form. The need of understanding the basics of how these processes occur, has inspired to implement a DSP application for educational and testin...

  16. Sentinel-1 data massive processing for large scale DInSAR analyses within Cloud Computing environments through the P-SBAS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Riccardo; Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Fusco, Adele; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    The SENTINEL-1 (S1) mission is designed to provide operational capability for continuous mapping of the Earth thanks to its two polar-orbiting satellites (SENTINEL-1A and B) performing C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. It is, indeed, characterized by enhanced revisit frequency, coverage and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long SAR data time series. Moreover, SENTINEL-1 is specifically oriented to interferometry applications with stringent requirements based on attitude and orbit accuracy and it is intrinsically characterized by small spatial and temporal baselines. Consequently, SENTINEL-1 data are particularly suitable to be exploited through advanced interferometric techniques such as the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), which allows the generation of deformation time series and displacement velocity maps. In this work we present an advanced interferometric processing chain, based on the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, for the massive processing of S1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) data aimed at generating deformation time series in efficient, automatic and systematic way. Such a DInSAR chain is designed to exploit distributed computing infrastructures, and more specifically Cloud Computing environments, to properly deal with the storage and the processing of huge S1 datasets. In particular, since S1 IWS data are acquired with the innovative Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode, we could benefit from the structure of S1 data, which are composed by bursts that can be considered as separate acquisitions. Indeed, the processing is intrinsically parallelizable with respect to such independent input data and therefore we basically exploited this coarse granularity parallelization strategy in the majority of the steps of the SBAS processing chain. Moreover, we also implemented more sophisticated parallelization approaches, exploiting both multi-node and multi

  17. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2016-01-01

    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  19. 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Wai; Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Saat, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This book presents important research findings and recent innovations in the field of machine learning and signal processing. A wide range of topics relating to machine learning and signal processing techniques and their applications are addressed in order to provide both researchers and practitioners with a valuable resource documenting the latest advances and trends. The book comprises a careful selection of the papers submitted to the 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing (MALSIP 2015), which was held on 15–17 December 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with the aim of offering researchers, academicians, and practitioners an ideal opportunity to disseminate their findings and achievements. All of the included contributions were chosen by expert peer reviewers from across the world on the basis of their interest to the community. In addition to presenting the latest in design, development, and research, the book provides access to numerous new algorithms for machine learni...

  20. Spotlight SAR sparse sampling and imaging method based on compressive sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU HuaPing; YOU YaNan; LI ChunSheng; ZHANG LvQian

    2012-01-01

    Spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) emits a chirp signal and the echo bandwidth can be reduced through dechirp processing,where the A/D sampling rate decreases accordingly at the receiver.Compressive sensing allows the compressible signal to be reconstructed with a high probability using only a few samples by solving a linear program problem.This paper presents a novel signal sampling and imaging method for application to spotlight SAR based on compressive sensing.The signal is randomly sampled after dechirp processing to form a low-dimensional sample set,and the dechirp basis is imported to reconstruct the dechirp signal.Matching pursuit (MP) is used as a reconstruction algorithm.The reconstructed signal uses polar format algorithm (PFA) for imaging.Although our novel mechanism increases the system complexity to an extent,the data storage requirements can be compressed considerably. Several simulations verify the feasibility and accuracy of spotlight SAR signal processing via compressive sensing,and the method still obtains acceptable imaging results with 10% of the original echo data.

  1. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zara Ghodsi; Emmanuel Sirimal Silva; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  2. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  3. Distributed Signal Processing for Wireless EEG Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by ongoing evolutions in the field of wireless body area networks (WBANs), this tutorial paper presents a conceptual and exploratory study of wireless electroencephalography (EEG) sensor networks (WESNs), with an emphasis on distributed signal processing aspects. A WESN is conceived as a modular neuromonitoring platform for high-density EEG recordings, in which each node is equipped with an electrode array, a signal processing unit, and facilities for wireless communication. We first address the advantages of such a modular approach, and we explain how distributed signal processing algorithms make WESNs more power-efficient, in particular by avoiding data centralization. We provide an overview of distributed signal processing algorithms that are potentially applicable in WESNs, and for illustration purposes, we also provide a more detailed case study of a distributed eye blink artifact removal algorithm. Finally, we study the power efficiency of these distributed algorithms in comparison to their centralized counterparts in which all the raw sensor signals are centralized in a near-end or far-end fusion center.

  4. An implementation of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology, Circuits and Systems

    1994-12-31

    Probability of detection flaws during ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using laboratory experiments during the last decade. The authors have performed recently a limited scale evaluation of various SSP techniques for ultrasonic signals acquired during the inspection of welds in austenitic steel. They have obtained very encouraging results that indicate promising capabilities of the SSP for inspection of nuclear power plants. Thus, a more extensive investigation of the technique using large amounts of ultrasonic data is motivated. This analysis should employ different combinations of materials, flaws and transducers. Due to the considerable number of ultrasonic signals required to verify the technique for future practical use, a custom-made computer software is necessary. At the request of the Swedish nuclear power industry the authors have developed such a program package. The program provides a user-friendly graphical interface and is intended for processing of B-scan data in a flexible way. Assembled in the program are a number of signal processing algorithms including traditional Split Spectrum Processing and the more recent Cut Spectrum Processing algorithm developed by them. The program and some results obtained using the various algorithms are presented in the paper.

  5. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  6. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  7. Communication theory and signal processing for transform coding

    CERN Document Server

    El-Shennawy, Khamies Mohammed Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book is tailored to fulfil the requirements in the area of the signal processing in communication systems. The book contains numerous examples, solved problems and exercises to explain the methodology of Fourier Series, Fourier Analysis, Fourier Transform and properties, Fast Fourier Transform FFT, Discrete Fourier Transform DFT and properties, Discrete Cosine Transform DCT, Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT and Contourlet Transform CT. The book is characterized by three directions, the communication theory and signal processing point of view, the mathematical point of view and utility compu

  8. Signal processing in magnetic resonance spectroscopy with biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belkic, Dzevad

    2010-01-01

    ""a useful addition to the fields of both magnetic resonance (MR) as well as signal processing. … immensely useful as a practical resource handbook to dip into from time to time and to find specific advice on issues faced during the course of work in MR techniques for cancer research. … the best feature of this book is how it positions the very practical area of digital signal processing in the contextual framework of a much more esoteric and fundamental field-that of quantum mechanics. The direct link between quantum-mechanical spectral analysis and rational response functions and the gene

  9. Ultra-broadband and ultra-fast optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    We have recently seen that nanowires can provide unparalleled optical signal processing (OSP) bandwidth and provide ultra-fast operation as well. Utilising the ultra-broad OSP bandwidth for e.g. optical time lenses allows for energy-efficient optical switching. © 2015 OSA.......We have recently seen that nanowires can provide unparalleled optical signal processing (OSP) bandwidth and provide ultra-fast operation as well. Utilising the ultra-broad OSP bandwidth for e.g. optical time lenses allows for energy-efficient optical switching. © 2015 OSA....

  10. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  11. Using image processing techniques on proximity probe signals in rotordynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Dawie; Heyns, Stephan; Oberholster, Abrie

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to process proximity probe signals in rotordynamic applications. It is argued that the signal be interpreted as a one dimensional image. Existing image processing techniques can then be used to gain information about the object being measured. Some results from one application is presented. Rotor blade tip deflections can be calculated through localizing phase information in this one dimensional image. It is experimentally shown that the newly proposed method performs more accurately than standard techniques, especially where the sampling rate of the data acquisition system is inadequate by conventional standards.

  12. The Savant Hypothesis: is autism a signal-processing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Autism is being investigated through many different approaches. This paper suggests the genetic, perceptual, cognitive, and histological findings ultimately manifest themselves as variations of the same signal-processing problem of defective compression. The Savant Hypothesis is formulated from first principles of both mathematical signal-processing and primary neuroscience to reflect the failure of compression. The Savant Hypothesis is applied to the problem of autism in a surprisingly straightforward application. The enigma of the autistic savant becomes intuitive when observed from this approach.

  13. Phosphorelays Provide Tunable Signal Processing Capabilities for the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothamachu, Varun B.; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten; Cardelli, Luca; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving a complete understanding of cellular signal transduction requires deciphering the relation between structural and biochemical features of a signaling system and the shape of the signal-response relationship it embeds. Using explicit analytical expressions and numerical simulations, we present here this relation for four-layered phosphorelays, which are signaling systems that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and also found in lower eukaryotes and plants. We derive an analytical expression that relates the shape of the signal-response relationship in a relay to the kinetic rates of forward, reverse phosphorylation and hydrolysis reactions. This reveals a set of mathematical conditions which, when satisfied, dictate the shape of the signal-response relationship. We find that a specific topology also observed in nature can satisfy these conditions in such a way to allow plasticity among hyperbolic and sigmoidal signal-response relationships. Particularly, the shape of the signal-response relationship of this relay topology can be tuned by altering kinetic rates and total protein levels at different parts of the relay. These findings provide an important step towards predicting response dynamics of phosphorelays, and the nature of subsequent physiological responses that they mediate, solely from topological features and few composite measurements; measuring the ratio of reverse and forward phosphorylation rate constants could be sufficient to determine the shape of the signal-response relationship the relay exhibits. Furthermore, they highlight the potential ways in which selective pressures on signal processing could have played a role in the evolution of the observed structural and biochemical characteristic in phosphorelays. PMID:24244132

  14. Crosstalk between Wnt Signaling and RNA Processing in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bordonaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA processing involves a variety of processes affecting gene expression, including the removal of introns through RNA splicing, as well as 3' end processing (cleavage and polyadenylation. Alternative RNA processing is fundamentally important for gene regulation, and aberrant processing is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Deregulated Wnt signaling, which is the initiating event in the development of most cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC, has been linked to modified RNA processing, which may contribute to Wnt-mediated colonic carcinogenesis. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and alternative RNA splicing with relevance to CRC includes effects on the expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced gene associated with tumorigenesis, which exhibits alternative RNA splicing that is influenced by Wnt activity. In addition, Tcf4, a crucial component of Wnt signaling, also exhibits alternative splicing, which is likely involved in colonic tumorigenesis. Modulation of 3' end formation, including of the Wnt target gene COX-2, also can influence the neoplastic process, with implications for CRC. While many human genes are dependent on introns and splicing for normal levels of gene expression, naturally intronless genes exist with a unique metabolism that allows for intron-independent gene expression. Effects of Wnt activity on the RNA metabolism of the intronless Wnt-target gene c-jun is a likely contributor to cancer development. Further, butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates Wnt activity in CRC cells, and also modulates RNA processing; therefore, the interplay between Wnt activity, the modulation of this activity by butyrate, and differential RNA metabolism in colonic cells can significantly influence tumorigenesis. Determining the role played by altered RNA processing in Wnt-mediated neoplasia may lead to novel interventions aimed at restoring normal RNA metabolism for

  15. Does Signal Degradation Affect Top-Down Processing of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anita; Pals, Carina; de Blecourt, Charlotte M; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is formed based on both the acoustic signal and listeners' knowledge of the world and semantic context. Access to semantic information can facilitate interpretation of degraded speech, such as speech in background noise or the speech signal transmitted via cochlear implants (CIs). This paper focuses on the latter, and investigates the time course of understanding words, and how sentential context reduces listeners' dependency on the acoustic signal for natural and degraded speech via an acoustic CI simulation.In an eye-tracking experiment we combined recordings of listeners' gaze fixations with pupillometry, to capture effects of semantic information on both the time course and effort of speech processing. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with sentences with or without a semantically constraining verb (e.g., crawl) preceding the target (baby), and their ocular responses were recorded to four pictures, including the target, a phonological (bay) competitor and a semantic (worm) and an unrelated distractor.The results show that in natural speech, listeners' gazes reflect their uptake of acoustic information, and integration of preceding semantic context. Degradation of the signal leads to a later disambiguation of phonologically similar words, and to a delay in integration of semantic information. Complementary to this, the pupil dilation data show that early semantic integration reduces the effort in disambiguating phonologically similar words. Processing degraded speech comes with increased effort due to the impoverished nature of the signal. Delayed integration of semantic information further constrains listeners' ability to compensate for inaudible signals.

  16. An Optimal Method For Wake Detection In SAR Images Using Radon Transformation Combined With Wavelet Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaveni, M; Subashini, P

    2009-01-01

    A new fangled method for ship wake detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is explored here. Most of the detection procedure applies the Radon transform as its properties outfit more than any other transformation for the detection purpose. But still it holds problems when the transform is applied to an image with a high level of noise. Here this paper articulates the combination between the radon transformation and the shrinkage methods which increase the mode of wake detection process. The latter shrinkage method with RT maximize the signal to noise ratio hence it leads to most optimal detection of lines in the SAR images. The originality mainly works on the denoising segment of the proposed algorithm. Experimental work outs are carried over both in simulated and real SAR images. The detection process is more adequate with the proposed method and improves better than the conventional methods.

  17. Signal-oriented processing in a speed independent environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Katkow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of a simulation system that uses signal-oriented inte-grators. The simulation environment is based on SIC (Speed Independent Circuits. The ar-ticle first examines the implementation of arithmetical operations, which have been inspired by the natural world, in environments lacking global synchronization of computational pro-cesses. The article then describes the process used to calculate the Riemann integral using the signal oriented integrator and develops integration algorithms (rectangles and trape-zoids for use in such environments. It includes pseudo-code that implements these algo-rithms. A method is then discussed for fixing the duration of transients in combinational logic circuits and for a signal-oriented implementation of the integration process. It also considers the mapping of the signal oriented integration process as a fuzzy integration pro-cess. Finally, the article presents the results of a computer simulation of a system with sig-nal-oriented integrators for solving differential equations of partial derivatives.

  18. Controlled processing of signal stored in metamaterial with tripod structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zielińska-Raczyńska, S

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have discussed in detail electromagnetically induced transparency and signal storing in the case of one signal pulses propagating in a classical electric medium resembling this of four-level atoms in the tripod configuration. Our theoretical results confirm recently observed dependence of transparency windows position on coupling parameters. In the process of storing the pulse energy is confined inside the metamaterial as electric charge oscillations and after required time it is possible to switch the control fields on again and to release the trapped signal. By manipulating the driving fields one can thus control the parameters of the released signal and even to divide it on demand into arbitrary parts.

  19. Signal processing technique for randomly discontinuous spectra HF radar waveforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东坡; 刘兴钊

    2004-01-01

    A major problem with all high frequency (HF) radars is a relatively poor range resolution available due to many interference sources. To avoid the interferences in frequency domain and operate with wideband, the randomly discontinuous spectra (RDS) signal is employed. However, it results in high range sidelobes when matching the reflected echo, which is much more difficult for target detection. A new signal processing technique that is radically different from the conventional technique to lower range sidelobes is introduced. This method is based on suppressing the selfclutter of the radar range ambiguity function (AF) by mismatched filtering. An effective algorithm is adopted to solve the filter coefficients. Simulation results show that the peak sidelobe level can be reduced to -30dB and the achievable system bandwidth is about 400KHz. The technique is adaptable to practical radar systems and applicable for other realtime signal processing.

  20. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.