WorldWideScience

Sample records for saps pedersen conductance

  1. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of Pedersen conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric conductance is very important to the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the high latitude region, since it connects the polar cap potential with the currents. Meanwhile, the altitudinal distribution of Pederson conductance gives us a rough idea about the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating at high latitudes. Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations of electron density profiles from 2009-2014, Pedersen conductivity has been calculated. A climatologic study of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities in both E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions and their ratio in different seasons, solar and geomagnetic conditions have been conducted. A significant inter-hemispheric asymmetry is identified in the seasonal variation. Meanwhile, the conductance in both regions and the conductance ratio show a strong dependence on F10.7 and Ap indices. This result will strongly help our understanding of the inter-hemispheric difference in the high-latitude electrodynamics.

  2. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  3. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  4. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the ionospheric Pedersen conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductivity on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system which is associated with the breakdown of the corotation of iogenic plasma in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. In previous studies the Pedersen conductivity has been taken to be simply a constant, while it is expected to be significantly enhanced in the regions of upward-directed auroral field-aligned current, implying downward precipitating electrons. We develop an empirical model of the modulation of the Pedersen conductivity with field-aligned current density based on the modelling results of Millward et al. and compute the currents flowing in the system with the conductivity self-consistently dependent on the auroral precipitation. In addition, we consider two simplified models of the conductivity which provide an insight into the behaviour of the solutions. We compare the results to those obtained when the conductivity is taken to be constant, and find that the empirical conductivity model helps resolve some outstanding discrepancies between theory and observation of the plasma angular velocity and current system. Specifically, we find that the field-aligned current is concentrated in a peak of magnitude ~0.25µAm-2 in the inner region of the middle magnetosphere at ~20 RJ, rather than being more uniformly distributed as found with constant conductivity models. This peak maps to ~17° in the ionosphere, and is consistent with the position of the main oval auroras. The energy flux associated with the field-aligned current is ~10mWm-2 (corresponding to a UV luminosity of ~100kR, in a region ~0.6° in width, and the Pedersen conductivity is elevated from a background of ~0.05mho to ~0.7mho. Correspondingly, the total equatorial radial current increases greatly in the region of peak field-aligned current, and plateaus with increasing

  5. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer loo...... strategies? Compared to its key competitors — Microsoft, IBM and Oracle — how was it aligning its innovation strategy with its sourcing strategy?...

  6. 49 CFR 40.293 - What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in conducting the... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.293 What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee? As a SAP, for every employee who comes to you following a DOT drug and alcohol...

  7. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter’s middle magnetosphere: dependence on the effective ionospheric Pedersen conductivity and iogenic plasma mass outflow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    Full Text Available The amplitude and spatial distribution of the coupling currents that flow between Jupiter’s ionosphere and middle magnetosphere, which enforce partial corotation on outward-flowing iogenic plasma, depend on the values of the effective Pedersen conductivity of the jovian ionosphere and the mass outflow rate of iogenic plasma. The values of these parameters are, however, very uncertain. Here we determine how the solutions for the plasma angular velocity and current components depend on these parameters over wide ranges. We consider two models of the poloidal magnetospheric magnetic field, namely the planetary dipole alone, and an empirical current sheet field based on Voyager data. Following work by Hill (2001, we obtain a complete normalized analytic solution for the dipole field, which shows in compact form how the plasma angular velocity and current components scale in space and in amplitude with the system parameters in this case. We then obtain an approximate analytic solution in similar form for a current sheet field in which the equatorial field strength varies with radial distance as a power law. A key feature of the model is that the current sheet field lines map to a narrow latitudinal strip in the ionosphere, at ≈ 15° co-latitude. The approximate current sheet solutions are compared with the results of numerical integrations using the full field model, for which a power law applies beyond ≈ 20 RJ, and are found to agree very well within their regime of applicability. A major distinction between the solutions for the dipole field and the current sheet concerns the behaviour of the field-aligned current. In the dipole model the direction of the current reverses at moderate equatorial distances, and the current system wholly closes if the model is extended to infinity in the equatorial plane and to the pole in the ionosphere. In the approximate current sheet model, however, the field-aligned current is unidirectional

  8. Drought-Induced Changes in Xylem Sap pH,ABA and Stomatal Conductance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; LIU Zi-hui; Razzaq; LI Guang-min

    2004-01-01

    Upstream signals potentially regulating evaporation and stomatal conductance were investigated using 6-8-leaf-old maize(Zea may L.)seedlings which were grown in a greenhouse.Pressure chamber was used to measure leaf water potential and to collect xylem sap.The pH of xylem sap in stems was higher than that in root,and the abscisic acid(ABA)concentration in stems was the highest in well-watered seedlings.The ABA concentration and pH of xylem sap in roots,stems and leaves increased,and the ABA concentration in leaves reached the maximum during drought stress.The treatment of roots with exogenous ABA solution(100 μmol L-1)increased xylem sap ABA concentration in all organs measured,and induced stomatal closure,but did not change ABA distribution among organs of maize seedlings.The combined effects of external pH buffer on pH,ABA of xylem sap and stomatal behavior indicated that pH,as a root-source signal to leaves under drought stress,regulated stomatal closure through accumulating ABA in leaves or guard cells.

  9. Combining sap flow meas- urement-based canopy stomatal conductance and 13C discrimination to estimate forest carbon assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; LU Ping; MA Ling; SUN Guchou; RAO Xingquan; CAI Xian; ZENG Xiaoping

    2005-01-01

    The available methods for studying C uptake of forest and their problems in practices are reviewed, and a new approach to combining sap flow and 13C techniques is proposed in this paper. This approach, obtained through strict mathematic derivation, combines sap flow measurement-based canopy stomatal conductance and 13C discrimination to estimate instantaneous carbon assimilation rate of a forest. Namely the mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) acquired from accurate measurement of sap flux density is integrated with the relationship between 13C discrimination (() and Ci/Ca (intercellular/ambient CO2 concentrations) and with that between Anet (net photosynthetic rate) and gCO2 (stomatal conductance for CO2) so that a new relation between forest C uptake and ( as well as gc is established. It is a new method of such kind for studying the C exchange between forest and atmosphere based on experimental ecology.

  10. Environmental regulation of xylem sap flow and total conductance of Larix gmelinii trees in eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Kelliher, F. M.; Bauer, G.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Byers, J. N.; Hunt, J. E.; McSeveny, T. M.; Ziegler, W.; Vygodskaya, N. N.; Milukova, I.; Sogachov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Xylem sap flow and environmental variables were measured on seven consecutive midsummer days in a 130-year-old Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. forest located 160 km south of Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, Russia (61 degrees N, 128 degrees E, 300 m asl). The site received 20 mm of rainfall during the 4 days before measurements, and soil samples indicated that the trees were well watered. The tree canopy was sparse with a one-sided leaf area index of 1.5 and a tree density of 1760 ha(-1). On a clear day when air temperature ranged from 9 to 29 degrees C, and maximum air saturation deficit was 3.4 kPa, daily xylem sap flux (F) among 13 trees varied by an order of magnitude from 7 l day(-1) for subcanopy trees (representing 55% of trees in the forest) to 67 l day(-1) for emergent trees (representing 18% of trees in the forest). However, when based on xylem sap flux density (F'), calculated by dividing F by projected tree crown area (a surrogate for the occupied ground area), there was only a fourfold range in variability among the 13 trees, from 1.0 to 4.4 mm day(-1). The calculation of F' also eliminated systematic and large differences in F among emergent, canopy and subcanopy trees. Stand-level F', estimated by combining half-hourly linear relationships between F and stem cross-sectional area with tree size distribution data, ranged between 1.8 +/- 0.4 (standard deviation) and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mm day(-1). These stand-level F' values are about 0.6-0.7 mm day(-1) (30%) larger than daily tree canopy transpiration rates calculated from forest energy balance and understory evaporation measurements. Maximum total tree conductance for water vapor transfer (G(tmax), including canopy and aerodynamic conductances), calculated from the ratio of F' and the above-canopy air saturation deficit (D) for the eight trees with continuous data sets, was 9.9 +/- 2.8 mm s(-1). This is equivalent to a leaf-scale maximum stomatal conductance (g(smax)) of 6.1 mm s(-1), when expressed on a one

  11. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Ward, Eric J; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Flikkema, Paul G; Clark, James S

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as canopy conductance and transpiration. To address this need, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian State-Space Canopy Conductance (StaCC) model linking canopy conductance and transpiration to tree sap flux density from a 4-year experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont, USA. Our model builds on existing ecophysiological knowledge, but explicitly incorporates uncertainty in canopy conductance, internal tree hydraulics and observation error to improve estimation of canopy conductance responses to atmospheric drought (i.e., vapor pressure deficit), soil drought (i.e., soil moisture) and above canopy light. Our statistical framework not only predicted sap flux observations well, but it also allowed us to simultaneously gap-fill missing data as we made inference on canopy processes, marking a substantial advance over traditional methods. The predicted and observed sap flux data were highly correlated (mean sensor-level Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.88). Variations in canopy conductance and transpiration associated with environmental variation across days to years were many times greater than the variation associated with model uncertainties. Because some variables, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture, were correlated at the scale of days to weeks, canopy conductance responses to individual environmental variables were difficult to interpret in isolation. Still, our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty in models of ecophysiological and ecosystem function where the process of interest, canopy conductance in this case, is not observed directly. The StaCC modeling

  12. Intact plant magnetic resonance imaging to study dynamics in long-distance sap flow and flow-conducting surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Heemskerk, A.M.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fragile pressure gradients present in the xylem and phloem, methods to study sap flow must be minimally invasive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) meets this condition. A dedicated MRI method to study sap flow has been applied to quantify long-distance xylem flow and hydraulics in an

  13. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  14. Use of the correct heat conduction-convection equation as basis for heat-pulse sap flow methods in anisotropic wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-05-01

    Heat-pulse methods to determine sap flux density in trees are founded on the theory of heat conduction and heat convection in an isotropic medium. However, sapwood is clearly anisotropic, implying a difference in thermal conductivity along and across the grain, and hence necessitates the theory for an anisotropic medium. This difference in thermal conductivities, which can be up to 50%, is, however, not taken into account in the key equation leading to the currently available heat-pulse methods. Despite this major flaw, the methods remain theoretically correct as they are based on derivations of the key equation, ruling out any anisotropic aspects. The importance of specifying the thermal characteristics of the sapwood according to axial, tangential or radial direction is revealed as well as referring to and using the proper anisotropic theory in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation of thermal properties when dealing with sap flux density measurements or erroneous results when modelling heat transport in sapwood.

  15. The Pedersen current carried by electrons: a non-linear response of the ionosphere to magnetospheric forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Buchert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations by the EISCAT Svalbard radar show that electron temperatures Te in the cusp electrojet reach up to about 4000 K. The heat is tapped and converted from plasma convection in the near Earth space by a Pedersen current that is carried by electrons due to the presence of irregularities and their demagnetising effect. The heat is transfered to the neutral gas by collisions. In order to enhance Te to such high temperatures the maximally possible dissipation at 50% demagnetisation must nearly be reached. The effective Pedersen conductances are found to be enhanced by up to 60% compared to classical values. Conductivities and conductances respond significantly to variations of the electric field strength E, and "Ohm's law" for the ionosphere becomes non-linear for large E.

  16. Conditions for Photospherically Driven Alfvenic Oscillations to Heat the Solar Chromosphere by Pedersen Current Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the net chromospheric net radiative loss of $\\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux $F_{Ch} \\sim 10^7 - 10^8$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$ at frequencies $\

  17. 49 CFR 40.311 - What are the requirements concerning SAP reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements concerning SAP reports... Process § 40.311 What are the requirements concerning SAP reports? (a) As the SAP conducting the required... ensure that you receive SAP written reports directly from the SAP performing the evaluation and that no...

  18. Root hydraulic conductivity and xylem sap levels of zeatin riboside and abscisic acid in ectomycorrhizal Douglas fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; Caroline S. Bledsoe; Barbara A. Smit

    1990-01-01

    Mechanistic hypotheses to explain mycorrhizal enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) suggest that phosphorus (P) nutrition, plant growth substances and/or altered morphology may be responsible. Such ideas are based on work with VA (vesicular-arbuscular) mycorrhizas. Since VA mycorrhizas and ectomycorrhizas differ in many respects, they...

  19. Dos obras de Kohn-Pedersen-Fox/EE.UU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Two works by Pedersen Fox Associates PC are described in this article. In the first one, the play of volumes and the curved curtain wall façade are the leading part defining the building. At the same time it must be pointed out the decorative use of the different cladding materials and the contrast between the base of the volume and its upper part, of a very different feature from the point of view of the design. The second work takes benefit of the site with symbolic aims as for its façade, the whole being harmonized around a gardened inner court full colored.En la primera de ellas juegan un papel decisivo el cerramiento de muro-cortina y la línea curva de la fachada, elementos ambos que definen el edificio. Asimismo hay que destacar el empleo decorativo de los diferentes materiales de revestimiento y el contraste entre la base del edificio y la parte superior, de muy distinta concepción desde el punto de vista del diseño. La segunda de ellas aprovecha con fines simbólicos el emplazamiento del edificio en cuanto a su fachada principal armonizándolo con una distribución en torno a un patio interior ajardinado, con predominio del color.

  20. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605... Assessment Plan (SAP)? (a) A SAP describes the activities (e.g., installation of meteorological towers... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your...

  1. On SAP-rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    The rings whose simple right modules are absolutely pure are called right $SAP$-rings. We give a new characterization of right $SAP$ rings, right $V$ rings, and von Neumann regular rings. We also obtain a new decomposition theory of right selfinjective von Neumann regular rings. The relationships between $SAP$-rings, $V$-rings, and von Neumann regular rings are explored. Some recent results obtained by Faith are generalized and the results of Wu-Xia are strengthened.

  2. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  3. Aplikace SAP HANA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The work is dedicated to analysis of data using ICT. It is clear that the classical way of dealing with the data is not satisfactory. Therefore, the new number of tools that changing the view of working with data has occured. An example is the SAP system HANA. The main aim of this thesis is to introduce SAP HANA platform as a tool for analytical processing of large amounts of data (especially in wide area-based marketing and customer relationship management) on the example SAP Customer Engage...

  4. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  5. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  6. (BOREAS) BOREAS TE-7 Sap Flow Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Hogg, E. H.; Hurdle, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-7 team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the sap flow of boreal vegetation. The heat pulse method was used to monitor sap flow and to estimate rates of transpiration from aspen, black spruce, and mixed wood forests at the SSAOA, MIX, SSA-OBS. and Batoche sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. Measurements were made at the various sites from May to October 1994, May to October 1995, and April to October 1996. A scaling procedure was used to estimate canopy transpiration rates from the sap flow measurements. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. Analyses to date show a tendency for sap flow in aspen to remain remarkably constant over a wide range of environmental conditions VPD from 1.0 to 4.8 kPa and solar radiation less than 400 W/sq m). For forests with high aerodynamic conductance, the results would indicate an inverse relationship between stomatal conductance and VPD, for VPD greater than 1 kPa. A possible interpretation is that stomata are operating to maintain leaf water potentials above a critical minimum value, which in turn places a maximum value on the rate of sap flow that can be sustained by the tree. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  8. Faculty perceptions of the integration of SAP in academic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Khoury

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare students for the workforce, academic programs incorporate a variety of tools that students are likely to use in their future careers. One of these tools employed by business and technology programs is the integration of live software applications such as SAP through the SAP University Alliance (SAP UA program. Since the SAP UA program has been around for only about 10 years and the available literature on the topic is limited, research is needed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the SAP UA program. A collaborative study of SAP UA faculty perceptions of their SAP UAs was conducted in the fall of 2011. Of the faculty invited to participate in the study, 31% completed the online survey. The results indicate that most faculty experienced difficulty implementing SAP into their programs and report that a need exists for more standardized curriculum and training, while a large percentage indicated that they are receiving the support they need from their schools and SAP.

  9. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maple sap. 1437.107 Section 1437.107 Agriculture... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be...

  10. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and the process…

  11. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and…

  12. 30 CFR 285.606 - What must I demonstrate in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I demonstrate in my SAP? 285.606 Section 285.606 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... demonstrate in my SAP? (a) Your SAP must demonstrate that you have planned and are prepared to conduct the...

  13. Stem sap flow in plants under low gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Ayako; Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to obtain a fundamental knowledge for plant functions in bio-regenerative life support systems in space. Stem sap flow in plants is important indicators for water transport from roots to atmosphere through leaves. In this study, stem sap flow in sweetpotato was assessed at gravity levels from 0.01 to 2 g for about 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. Stem sap flow was monitored with a heat balance method in which heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by convection with the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. Thermal images of stem surfaces near heated points were captured using infrared thermography and the internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed. In results, the sap flow in stems was suppressed more at lower gravity levels without forced air circulation. No suppression of the stem sap flow was observed with forced air circulation. Suppressed sap flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under low gravity conditions in space.

  14. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  15. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  16. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Influence of auroral streamers on rapid evolution of SAPS flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nishitani, N.

    2015-12-01

    An important manifestation of plasma transport in the ionosphere is Subauroral Polarization Streams or SAPS, which are strong westward flow lying just equatorward of the electron auroral oval and thus of enhanced ionospheric conductivities of the auroral oval. While SAPS are known to intensify due to substorm injections, recent studies showed that large variability of SAPS flow can occur well after substorm onset and even during non-substorm times. These SAPS enhancements have been suggested to occur in association with auroral streamers that propagate equatorward, a suggestion that would indicate that plasma sheet fast flows propagate into the inner magnetosphere and increase subauroral flows. We present auroral images from the THEMIS ground-based all-sky-imager array and 2-d line-of-sight flow observations from the SuperDARN radars that share fields of view with the imagers to investigate systematically the association between SAPS and auroral streamers. We surveyed events from December 2007 to April 2013 for which high or mid-latitude SuperDARN radars were available to measure the SAPS flows, and identified 60 events. For streamers observed near the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval, we find westward flow enhancements of ~200 m/s slightly equatorward of the streamers. A preliminary survey suggests that >90% of the streamers that reach close to the equatorward boundary lead to westward flow enhancements. We also characterize the SAPS flow channel width and timing relative to streamers reaching radar echo meridians. The strong influence of auroral streamers on rapid SAPS flow evolution suggests that transient fast earthward plasma sheet flows can lead to westward SAPS flow enhancements in the subauroral region, and that such enhancements are far more common than only during substorms because of the frequent occurrences of streamers under various geomagnetic conditions.

  18. OpenGGCM-RCM modeling of SAPS events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, J.; Cramer, W. D.; Jensen, J. B.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Vo, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS), also known as Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts (SAIDs), are fast westward flows in the ionosphere that occur at latitudes lower than auroral precipitation, and well separated from the high-latitude convection pattern. Although SAPS were first observed in the ionosphere, they can also be seen in the magnetosphere and are believed to be driven by a combination of region-2 currents and low ionospheric conductance. SAPS are thus governed both by magnetosphere and ionosphere processes and require self-consistently coupled models of the outer magnetosphere, the inner magnetosphere and the ring current, and the ionosphere-thermosphere system. Here, we present first results from the OpenGGCM-RCM coupled model, which includes all of the required physical processes and feedbacks. In particular, the ionospheric conductance is computed self-consistently from both magnetosphere electron precipitation, solar ionization, and ionospheric chemistry within the fully dynamical CTIM sub model of OpenGGCM. Furthermore, CTIM includes the recombination feedback of streaming ions. We focus on the GEM-CEDAR storm events of 2013-03-17, 2011-04-27, 2012-05-07, and 2012-09-02. We show that the coupled model produces SAPS that compare well with data in terms of location, extent, and magnitude. By modifying the conductances in the code we evaluate the potential positive feedback process of the ionospheric conductance on SAPS.

  19. Charles J. Pedersen: innovator in macrocyclic chemistry and co-recipient of the 1987 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Reed M

    2007-02-01

    Charles J. Pedersen began life in Korea where his father was employed as an engineer at a gold mine in a remote region of that country. He received his primary and secondary school education in Japan and university training in the United States. He was employed as an organic research chemist at DuPont for 42 years. The signal accomplishment of this unusual individual was his serendipitous discovery of macrocyclic polyethers and of their selective complexation of alkali metal cations. This discovery sparked the development of a new field of chemistry and led to his sharing the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1987. An attempt is made to understand Pedersen as a person in this article.

  20. Caspar Jørgensen & Morten Pedersen (eds., Industrial Heritage in Denmark: Landscapes, Environments and Historical Archaeology (Aarhus: Kultur Styrelsen & Aarhus University Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þóra Pétursdóttir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Caspar Jørgensen and Morten Pedersen (eds., Industrial Heritage in Denmark: Landscapes, Environments and Historical Archaeology (Aarhus: Kultur Styrelsen and Aarhus University Press, 2015, 285 pp. ISBN 978 87 7124 108 2

  1. Wireless sap flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Davis, T. W.; Tseng, C.; Cheng, C.; Liang, X.; Yu, P.

    2010-12-01

    This study exhibits a measurement system for wireless sensor networks to measure sap flow in multiple locations simultaneously. Transpiration is a major component of the land-surface system because it is indicative of the water movement between the soil and the air. Sap flow can be used to approximate transpiration. In forests, transpiration cannot be represented by the sap flow from a single tree. Multi-location sap flow measurements are required to show the heterogeneity caused by different trees or soil conditions. Traditional multi-location measurements require manpower and capital for data collection and instrument maintenance. Fortunately, multi-location measurements can be achieved by using the new technology of wireless sensor networks. With multi-hop communication protocol, data can be forwarded to the base station via multiple sensor nodes. This communication protocol can provide reliable data collection with the least power consumption. This study encountered two major problems. The first problem was signal amplification. The Crossbow IRIS mote was selected as the sensor node that receives the temperature data of the sap flow probe (thermocouple) through a MDA300 data acquisition board. However, the wireless sensor node could not directly receive any data from the thermocouples since the least significant bit value of the MDA300, 0.6 mV, is much higher than the voltage signal generated. Thus, the signal from the thermocouple must be amplified to exceed this threshold. The second problem is power management. A specific heat differential is required for the thermal dissipation method of measuring sap flow. Thus, an adjustable DC power supply is necessary for calibrating the heater's temperature settings. A circuit was designed to combine the signal amplifier and power regulator. The regulator has been designed to also provide power to the IRIS mote to extend battery life. This design enables wireless sap flow measurements in the forest. With the

  2. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  4. [Application of thermal dissipation probe in the study of Bambusa chungii sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Mei, Ting-Ting; Ni, Guang-Yan; Yu, Meng-Hao; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Based on the validation of Granier's empirical formula for calculating tree stem sap flux density, a comparative study was conducted on the measurement of Bambusa chungi sap flow by using different lengths of thermal dissipation probe (TDP), aimed to approach the applicability of TDP in measuring the sap flow of B. chungii. The difference in the daily change of the sap flow between B. chungii and nearby growing Schima superb was also analyzed. Because of the thinner bamboo wall and the heterogeneous anatomy, the sap flux density of B. chungii measured by 10 mm long probe could be underestimated, but that measured by 8 and 5 mm long probes could be relatively accurate. The comparison of the sap flow between B. chungii and nearby growing S. superba revealed that both the mean sap flux density and its daily change pattern' s skewness of B. chungii were higher than those of S. superba, but the nighttime sap flow of B. chungii was less than that of S. superba, indicating that the water recharge of B. chungii during nighttime was less active than that of S. superba. It was suggested that using TDP to investigate the sap flow of bamboo would be feasible, but careful calibration would be required before the TDP was put into application on different bamboo species.

  5. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  6. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  7. A phloem-sap feeder mixes phloem and xylem sap to regulate osmotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompon, Julien; Quiring, Dan; Goyer, Claudia; Giordanengo, Philippe; Pelletier, Yvan

    2011-09-01

    Phloem-sap feeders (Hemiptera) occasionally consume the dilute sap of xylem, a behaviour that has previously been associated with replenishing water balance following dehydration. However, a recent study reported that non-dehydrated aphids ingested xylem sap. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of xylem sap, which has a low osmolality, is a general response to osmotic stresses other than dehydration. Alate aphids were subjected to different treatments and subsequently transferred onto a plant, where electrical penetration graph (EPG) was used to estimate durations of passive phloem sap consumption and active sucking of xylem sap. The proportion of time aphids fed on xylem sap (i.e., time spent feeding on xylem sap/total time spent feeding on phloem plus xylem sap) was used as a proxy of the solute concentration of the uptake. The proportion of time alate aphids fed on xylem sap increased: (1) with the time spent imbibing an artificial diet containing a solution of sucrose, which is highly concentrated in phloem sap and is mainly responsible for the high osmotic potential of phloem sap; (2) with the osmotic potential of the artificial diet, when osmotic potential excess was not related to sucrose concentration; and (3) when aphids were deprived of primary symbionts, a condition previously shown to lead to a higher haemolymph osmotic potential. All our results converge to support the hypothesis that xylem sap consumption contributes to the regulation of the osmotic potential in phloem-sap feeders.

  8. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  9. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  10. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  11. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  12. Selection and Implementation of ERP Systems: A Comparison of SAP implementation between BIH and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Findik, Seyda; Kusakci, Ali Osman; Findik, Fehim; Kusakci, Sumeyye

    2012-01-01

    .... After the literature review of ERP implementation strategies, a survey is reviewed that was conducted among several large and mid-size companies that adopted SAP, one of the major ERP solutions...

  13. Geología del Nunatak Pedersen, Cretácico Inferior, Península Antártica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. del Valle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Pedersen (Hauteriviano alto en el nunatak homónimo forma parte de la sucesión del Mesozoico superior-Cenozoico inferior de la cuenca Larsen; está afectada por fallas inversas y pliegues producidos por fuerzas transpresivas que actuaron en forma normal a la costa oriental de la península Antártica durante la deformación ocurrida en la cuenca durante el Cretácico medio. En el nunatak Pedersen se identificaron ocho facies sedimentarias, en una sucesión que tiene un espesor máximo de 215 metros, la cual está compuesta mayormente de rocas conglomerádicas con cantidades menores de areniscas y fangolitas. Contiene restos de plantas inidentificables; la fauna marina incluye fragmoconos de belemnites y fragmentos de amonites asignados al género Favrella. Los amonites hallados confirman una edad Hauteriviano alto para estos depósitos.

  14. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B.; Sanglard, D.; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M.; Schäfer, W.; Brown, A. J.; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  15. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B.; Sanglard, D; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M; Schäfer, W.; Brown, A J; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  16. Integrating Adobe Interactive Forms in SAP Netweaver

    OpenAIRE

    Atagana, Rex Ogheneakpobo

    2013-01-01

    Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing (SAP), the leader in Enterprise Resource Planning Software (ERP) as a strategy is moving its technology into Virtualization. In light of that, this project utilized SAP Netweaver VMware edition which is licensed for developers to illustrate the integration of Adobe interactive forms. SAP as a practice has installation notes for every solution, but they are not uniformly released. Thus technical consultants encounters compatibility chal...

  17. Architecture of SAP ERP understand how successful software works

    CERN Document Server

    Boeder, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This book - compiled by software architects from SAP - is a must for consultants, developers, IT managers, and students working with SAP ERP, but also users who want to know the world behind their SAP user interface.

  18. Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water

  19. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), electrical conductivitysap), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (Kwb), leaf blade (Klb) and petiole hydraulic conductances (KP) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (TA) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on KwbKlb, KP, [K(+)] and σsap. Osm varied only with light intensity, while KB varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as TA, VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (ΨS) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, ΨS influenced also [K(+)] and σsap. The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  1. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  2. Benzilaminopurina (BAP e thidiazuron (TDZ na propagação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Benzylaminopurine (BAP and thidiazuron (TDZ on in vitro propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é muito utilizada pela medicina popular devido suas propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de concentrações de BAP e de TDZ na propagação in vitro de dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM desta espécie. Segmentos nodais, provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0, 1 e 5 μM de BAP ou TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Observou-se que a organogênese in vitro de P. glomerata é genótipo-dependente. O acesso BRA mostrou um maior potencial para a propagação in vitro em relação ao JB-UFSM. O cultivo dos segmentos nodais do acesso BRA em meio com 1 μM de TDZ, seguido pelo subcultivo dos brotos para meio isento de citocininas mostrou ser um método viável para a propagação in vitro devido à alta taxa de multiplicação e o bom desenvolvimento das plantas. No acesso JB-UFSM, o cultivo dos segmentos nodais em meio não acrescido de citocinina mostrou ser o método mais adequado para a produção de um grande número de plantas com alta qualidade.The plant Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as Brazilian ginseng, is extensively used in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of BAP and TDZ concentrations on the in vitro propagation of two sources (BRA and JB-UFSM of this species. Nodal segments originated from aseptically grown plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 5 μM BAP or TDZ. After 30 days, the plants were transferred to MS medium without cytokinin. The in vitro organogenesis of P. glomerata is genotype-dependent. The source BRA had greater potential for in vitro propagation than JB-UFSM. The culture of BRA nodal segments on medium with 1 μM TDZ, followed by subcultivation of sprouts on cytokinin

  3. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  4. Sacarose e nitrogênio na multiplicação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Sucrose and nitrogen on in vitro multiplication of Pffafia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Maldaner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor combinação de concentração da sacarose (30, 45 e 60g L-1 e do nitrogênio (50, 75, 100 e 125% da concentração padrão do meio MS para a multiplicação in vitro de P. glomerata. Aos 30 dias de cultivo, verificou-se que concentrações entre 40 e 45g L-1 de sacarose e 50% de N propiciaram maior crescimento em altura e número de segmentos nodais por plântula. O número de brotações foi maior na concentração de 55g L-1 de sacarose combinada com 70% de N. A matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e do total da plântula foi maior na concentração de 45g L-1 de sacarose associada com 50% de N. No geral, a redução da concentração de N para 50% daquela padrão do meio MS, associada a um incremento na dose de sacarose para 45g L-1, favorece o crescimento em altura, número de segmentos nodais e brotações, bem como a produção de biomassa de P. glomerata cultivada in vitro, devido ao estímulo ao uso do carbono.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as brazilian ginseng, is an extensively used plant in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to determine the best combination of sucrose (30, 45 and 60 g L-1 and nitrogen (50, 75, 100 and 125% of the strength of MS medium on micropropagation of P. glomerata. In 30 days of cultivation, sucrose ranging from 40 to 45g L-1 and nitrogen at 50% increased the height and the number of nodes. The number of shoots was greater at concentration of 55g L-1 sucrose combined with 70% N. The dry matter of roots, aerial parts, and of the whole seedling was increased on 50% N and 45g L-1 sucrose. Altogether the halved concentration of nitrogen and the increased concentration of sucrose to 45g L-1 increase the height, the number of nodes

  5. 46 CFR 16.203 - Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. 16.203 Section... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. (a) Employers...) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements...

  6. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  7. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange;

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  8. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  9. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  10. Insects Attracted to Maple Sap: Observations from Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The collection of maple sap for the production of maple syrup is a large commercial enterprise in Canada and the United States. In Canada, which produces 85% of the world’s supply, it has an annual value of over $168 million CAD. Over 38 million trees are tapped annually, 6.5% of which use traditional buckets for sap collection. These buckets attract significant numbers of insects. Despite this, there has been very little investigation of the scale of this phenomenon and the composition of insects that are attracted to this nutrient source. The present paper reports the results of a preliminary study conducted on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera were found in maple sap buckets, 19 of which are known to be attracted to saps and nectars. The physiological role of sap feeding is discussed with reference to moths of the tribe Xylenini, which are active throughout the winter, and are well documented as species that feed on sap flows. Additionally, 18 of the 28 species found in this study are newly recorded in Prince Edward Island.

  11. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  12. Plant fluid proteomics: Delving into the xylem sap, phloem sap and apoplastic fluid proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phloem sap, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid play key roles in long and short distance transport of signals and nutrients, and act as a barrier against local and systemic pathogen infection. Among other components, these plant fluids contain proteins which are likely to be important players in the...

  13. Produção de biomassa de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e Plantago major L. em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major L. biomass production in single culture and intercropped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Xavier do Nascimento

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade produtiva da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e de Plantago major L., em cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Os tratamentos em estudo foram três e quatro fileiras de plantas de tansagem por canteiro, duas fileiras de fáfia espaçadas de 36 cm ou de 54 cm, três fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (36 cm-T3F36 e quatro fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (54 cm-T4F54. Foi utilizado o delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os espaçamentos entre plantas foram de 40 cm para fáfia e de 30 cm para tansagem. O tipo de cultivo e os espaçamentos entre fileiras não influenciaram significativamente a produção de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes da fáfia. Na tansagem foi observado efeito significativo da forma de cultivo em todas as características avaliadas e do número de fileiras para o número de pendões. As alturas máximas das plantas de fáfia foram de 185 cm e 183 cm, aos 172 e 164 dias após o transplante, sob cultivo solteiro, nos espaçamentos de 54 cm e 36 cm, respectivamente. A razão de área equivalente (RAE, para o consórcio T3F36 foi de 1,07 e para o T4F54 foi de 1,50. No caso de recomendação agronômica, optar-se-ía pelo consórcio T4F54.This study aimed to evaluate the production of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major biomass in sole culture and intercropped. The treatments in study were three and four rows of plants of common plant for plat, two rows of Pfaffia glomerata spaced of 36 cm or 54 cm, three rows of common plant alternated with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (36 cm-T3F3(6 and four alternated rows of common plant with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (54 cm-T4F54. The experimental was desigm randomized blocks, with four replications. The spacing between plants was 40 cm for Pfaffia glomerata and 30 cm for common plant. The culture type and spacing between rows did not

  14. Analysis list: SAP30 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAP30 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP...30.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP...30.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP30.Pluripote

  15. Partition of nocturnal sap flow in Acacia mangium and its implication for estimating the whole-tree transpiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG; Quan WANG

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the partition of nocturnal sap flow into refilling of internal water storage and transpiration in Acacia mangium. Sap flow of trees was monitored continuously with Granier's sensors for estimating the whole-tree transpiration. Possible night transpiration and stomatal conductance at the leaf level in the canopy were measured with a LI-6400 photosynthesis measuring system. For nocturnal leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance were weak, nocturnal sap flow of mature A. mangium trees was mainly associated with water recharge in the trunk. No significant change in night water recharge of the trunk was found at both seasonal and inter-annual scales. Morphological features of trees including diameter at the breast height (DBH), tree height, and canopy size could explain variances of night water recharge. Furthermore, although the contribution of nocturnal sap flow to the total transpiration varied among seasons and DBH classes, the error caused by night water recharge on whole-tree transpiration was negligible.

  16. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  17. SAP ERP financial accounting and controlling configuration and use management

    CERN Document Server

    Okungbowa, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SAP ERP modules are notoriously hard to configure and use effectively without a lot of practice and experience. But as SAP ERP Financial Accounting and Controlling: Configuration and Use Management shows, it doesn't have to be so difficult. The book takes a systematic approach that leads SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling (FICO) users step by step through configuring and using all the program's facets. This approach makes configuration complexities manageable. The book's author-SAP expert, trainer, and accountant Andrew Okun

  18. Sap flow is Underestimated by Thermal Dissipation Sensors due to Alterations of Wood Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Wiedemann, A.; van den Bulcke, J.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.; Steppe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal dissipation technique (TD) is one of the most commonly adopted methods for sap flow measurements. However, underestimations of up to 60% of the tree transpiration have been reported with this technique, although the causes are not certainly known. The insertion of TD sensors within the stems causes damage of the wood tissue and subsequent healing reactions, changing wood anatomy and likely the sap flow path. However, the anatomical changes in response to the insertion of sap flow sensors and the effects on the measured flow have not been assessed yet. In this study, we investigate the alteration of vessel anatomy on wounds formed around TD sensors. Our main objectives were to elucidate the anatomical causes of sap flow underestimation for ring-porous and diffuse-porous species, and relate these changes to sap flow underestimations. Successive sets of TD probes were installed in early, mid and end of the growing season in Fagus sylvatica (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea (ring-porous) trees. They were logged after the growing season and additional sets of sensors were installed in the logged stems with presumably no healing reaction. The wood tissue surrounding each sensor was then excised and analysed by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray micro CT). This technique allowed the quantification of vessel anatomical characteristics and the reconstruction of the 3-D internal microstructure of the xylem vessels so that extension and shape of the altered area could be determined. Gels and tyloses clogged the conductive vessels around the sensors in both beech and oak. The extension of the affected area was larger for beech although these anatomical changes led to similar sap flow underestimations in both species. The higher vessel size in oak may explain this result and, therefore, larger sap flow underestimation per area of affected conductive tissue. The wound healing reaction likely occurred within the first weeks after sensor installation, which

  19. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  20. SAP GUI PM系统的GuiXT优化%Optimization of the SAP GUI PM module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰祎天

    2012-01-01

    GuiXT is a software client-server-based tool which provides user interface customization solution for SAP applications.With experience in the use of SAP PM Module,the author of this article optimized the established program and showed%GuiXT是一个基于用户端-服务端的工具软件,其针对SAP应用提供用户界面定制化解决方案。作者结合SAP PM模块使用经验,利用仪化SAP系统自带的GuiXT程序对既定程序做出改进,通过应用案例,对SAP GUI程序操作进行了优化介绍。

  1. Euphorbia grandicornis Sap Keratouveitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Valcárcel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia grandicornis sap, that resolved with topic steroids. Methods: We report a case presentation of a patient with keratouveitis. Results: A 70-year-old woman suffered from accidental ocular contact with E. grandicornis sap in her left eye. Two hours after the contact, she attended the clinic due to conjunctival hyperemia and pain. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/25. The toxic conjunctivitis was treated with topical lubricant and steroid. After 24 h, she presented blurred vision. BCVA was 20/80. Toxic keratouveitis was diagnosed. Topical treatment with 1% cyclopentolate t.i.d., 5% sodium chloride, 1.14% dexamethasone phosphate each hour, and 4% sodium hyaluronate each hour was continued. Complete resolution was obtained 1 week later. Euphorbia sap content analysis was performed using dissolvent extraction spectrophotometry. Its contents included flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and sesquiterpene lactones. Conclusion: Corneal exposure to E. grandicornis sap is a cause of nonvisually threatening keratouveitis when adequately treated with corticosteroids.

  2. Protein extraction from xylem and phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Julia; Rep, Martijn

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that phloem and xylem vessels transport small nutrient molecules over long distances in higher plants. The finding that proteins also occur in both transport fluids was unexpected, and the function of most of these proteins is not yet well understood. This chapter outlines how proteins can be obtained and purified from xylem and phloem saps to perform subsequent proteomic analyses.

  3. Effects of sap-feeding insect herbivores on growth and reproduction of woody plants: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena L; Lanta, Vojtech; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2010-08-01

    The majority of generalisations concerning plant responses to herbivory are based on studies of natural or simulated defoliation. However, effects caused by insects feeding on plant sap are likely to differ from the effects of folivory. We assessed the general patterns and sources of variation in the effects of sap feeding on growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction of woody plants through a meta-analysis of 272 effect sizes calculated from 52 papers. Sap-feeders significantly reduced growth (-29%), reproduction (-17%), and photosynthesis (-27%); seedlings suffered more than saplings and mature trees. Deciduous and evergreen woody plants did not differ in their abilities to tolerate damage imposed by sap-feeders. Different plant parts, in particular below- and above-ground organs, responded similarly to damage, indicating that sap-feeders did not change the resource allocation in plants. The strongest effects were caused by mesophyll and phloem feeders, and the weakest by xylem feeders. Generalist sap-feeders reduced plant performance to a greater extent than did specialists. Methodology substantially influenced the outcomes of the primary studies; experiments conducted in greenhouses yielded stronger negative effects than field experiments; shorter (<12 months) experiments showed bigger growth reduction in response to sap feeding than longer experiments; natural levels of herbivory caused weaker effects than infestation of experimental plants by sap-feeders. Studies conducted at higher temperatures yielded stronger detrimental effects of sap-feeders on their hosts. We conclude that sap-feeders impose a more severe overall negative impact on plant performance than do defoliators, mostly due to the lower abilities of woody plants to compensate for sap-feeders' damage in terms of both growth and photosynthesis.

  4. Surface Absorption Polarization Sensors (SAPS), Final Technical Report, Laser Probing of Immobilized SAPS Actuators Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph I. Cline

    2010-04-22

    A novel hypothesized detection scheme for the detection of chemical agents was proposed: SAPS ``Surface-Adsorbed Polarization Sensors''. In this technique a thin layer of molecular rotors is adsorbed to a surface. The rotors can be energized by light absorption, but are otherwise locked in position or alternatively rotate slowly. Using polarized light, the adsorbed rotors are turned as an ensemble. Chemical agent (analyte) binding that alters the rotary efficiency would be detected by sensitive polarized absorption techniques. The mechanism of the SAPS detection can be mechanical, chemical, or photochemical: only a change in rotary efficiency is required. To achieve the goal of SAPS detection, new spectroscopic technique, polarized Normal Incidence Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (polarized NICRDS), was developed. The technique employs very sensitive and general Cavity Ringdown absorption spectroscopy along with the ability to perform polarized absorption measurements. Polarized absorption offers the ability to measure the angular position of molecular chromophores. In the new experiments a thin layer of SAPS sensors (roughly corresponding to a monolayer coverage on a surface) immobilized in PMMA. The PMMA layer is less than 100~nm thick and is spin-coated onto a flat fused-silica substrate. The new technique was applied to study the photoisomerization-driven rotary motion of a family of SAPS actuators based on a family of substituted dibenzofulvene rotors based upon 9-(2,2,2- triphenylethylidene)fluorene. By varying the substitution to include moieties such as nitro, amino, and cyano the absorption spectrum and the quantum efficiency of photoisomerization can be varied. This SAPS effect was readily detected by polarized NICRDS. The amino substituted SAPS actuator binds H+ to form an ammonium species which was shown to have a much larger quantum efficiency for photoisomerization. A thin layer of immobilized amino actuators were then shown by polarized NICRDS

  5. Role of finite ionospheric conductivity on toroidal field line oscillations in the Earth's magnetosphere -- Analytic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Jayashree; Sinha, A. K.; Vichare, Geeta

    2016-06-01

    An analytic solution has been formulated to study the role of ionospheric conductivity on toroidal field line oscillations in the Earth's magnetosphere. The effect of ionospheric conductivity is addressed in two limits, viz, (a) when conductance of Alfvén wave is much different from ionospheric Pedersen conductance and (b) when conductance of Alfvén wave is close to the ionospheric Pedersen conductance. In the former case, the damping is not significant and standing wave structures are formed. However, in the latter case, the damping is significant leading to mode translation. Conventionally, "rigid-end" and "free-end" cases refer to eigenstructures for infinitely large and vanishingly small limit of ionospheric conductivity, respectively. The present work shows that when the Pedersen conductance overshoots (undershoots) the Alfvén wave conductance, a free-end (rigid-end) mode gets transformed to rigid-end (free-end) mode with an increase (decrease) in harmonic number. This transformation takes place within a small interval of ionospheric Pedersen conductance around Alfvén wave conductance, beyond which the effect of conductivity on eigenstructures of field line oscillations is small. This regime of conductivity limit (the difference between upper and lower limits of the interval) decreases with increase in harmonic number. Present paper evaluates the damping effect for density index other than the standard density index m = 6, using perturbation technique. It is found that for a small departure from m = 6, both mode frequency and damping rate become a function of Pedersen conductivity.

  6. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...... are inconclusive as regards frost resistance....

  7. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...

  8. Occurrence of free fatty acids in the phloem sap of different citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Maria Filomena; Killiny, Nabil

    2017-06-03

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a phloem restricted bacterium that causes citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), a major treat to commercial citrus production in Florida. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, a phloem sap-feeding insect. Studies conducted on the composition of citrus phloem sap revealed the presence amino acids, organic acids and sugars and of low amounts of free fatty acids. In the present study, the phloem sap of 12 citrus varieties with different degrees of tolerance to HLB were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization with boron trifluoride, a fatty acid-specific reagent. Nine free fatty acids were detected in all varieties. Of the 9 fatty acids detected, only capric acid was significantly different among varieties.

  9. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  10. Fast susceptibility-weighted imaging with three-dimensional short-axis propeller (SAP)-echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Moseley, Michael E; Skare, S

    2015-05-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of three-dimensional (3D) gradient recalled echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D short-axis propeller echo-planar imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. The 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. The 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. The 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2 mm, scan time = 5 min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2 mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52 min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  12. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior.

  13. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  14. Keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia plant sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Samar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The milky sap or latex of Euphorbia plant is highly toxic and an irritant to the skin and eye. This report illustrates the spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by accidental inoculation of latex of Euphorbia plant. Three patients presented with accidental ocular exposure to the milky sap of Euphorbia species of recent onset. The initial symptoms in all cases were severe burning sensation with blurring of vision. Visual acuity reduced from 20/60 to counting fingers. Clinical findings varied from kerato-conjunctivitis, mild to severe corneal edema, epithelial defects, anterior uveitis and secondary elevated intraocular pressure. All symptoms and signs had resolved by 10-14 days with active supportive medication. People who handle Euphorbia plants should wear eye protection. It is always advisable to ask the patient to bring a sample of the plant for identification.

  15. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO3SE model.

  16. Mathematical Modelling of Bridges with SAP2000

    OpenAIRE

    Maraž, Miha

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes a relatively new programme module, which is enhanced in the recently released versions of SAP2000 software. The new module, called Bridge Modeler, is intended for simple, parametric mathematical modelling of bridges. The modelling procedure is explained on a test case through the steps of a user-friendly Bridge Wizard. For each step, we described the basic principles and the application possibilities as well as some limitations. We also explained two types of analys...

  17. Dynamics of Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.; Huba, J.; Ridley, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Baker, J. B. H.; Wolf, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) flow structures are narrow ionospheric channels of fast (in excess of 100 m/s) westward drift just outside the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora in the dusk-to-midnight local time sector. Other terms for this phenomenon include subauroral Ion Drift (SAID) events and Polarization Jets. SAPS structures represent a striking departure from the commonly-used two-cell convection pattern. They are thought to arise from the displacement of the downward region-2 Birkeland currents on the dusk side equatorward of the low-latitude boundary of the auroral oval during times of changing high-latitude convection. In this paper, we will use several event simulations with the SAMI3-RCM numerical model (a self-consistent ionosphere-inner magnetosphere model) and RCM-GITM (a self-consistent model of the ionosphere-thermosphere-inner magnetosphere) to analyze the relative roles of changes in the IMF Bz component, ionospheric electron density depletions, and thermospheric modifications in controlling the dynamics of SAPS. Simulation results will be compared to multi-instrument ionospheric observations.

  18. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  19. Role of NuSAP in Prostate Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of NuSAP in promoting proliferation and invasion in Prostate Cancer and identify genes that upregulate NuSAP expression. Nucleolar and spindle ...extensive bundling and stabilization of spindle microtubules against depolymerization and cross-link large numbers of microtubules into aster-like...mitotic stage observed in cells where NuSAP was knocked down compared to over expressed cells which were found similar to control. Error bars: SD

  20. A model of heat transfer in sapwood and implications for sap flux density measurements using thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Childs, Kenneth W; King, Anthony W; Hanson, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    A variety of thermal approaches are used to estimate sap flux density in stems of woody plants. Models have proved valuable tools for interpreting the behavior of heat pulse, heat balance and heat field deformation techniques, but have seldom been used to describe heat transfer dynamics for the heat dissipation method. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of heat dissipation probes, a model was developed that takes into account the thermal properties of wood, the physical dimensions and thermal characteristics of the probes, and the conductive and convective heat transfer that occurs due to water flow in the sapwood. Probes were simulated as aluminum tubes 20 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, whereas sapwood, heartwood and bark each had a density and water fraction that determined their thermal properties. Base simulations assumed a constant sap flux density with sapwood depth and no wounding or physical disruption of xylem beyond the 2 mm diameter hole drilled for probe installation. Simulations across a range of sap flux densities showed that the dimensionless quantity k [defined as (ΔT(m) -ΔT)/ΔT, where ΔT(m) is the temperature differential (ΔT) between the heated and unheated probe under zero-flow conditions] was dependent on the thermal conductivity of the sapwood. The relationship between sap flux density and k was also sensitive to radial gradients in sap flux density and to xylem disruption near the probe. Monte Carlo analysis in which 1000 simulations were conducted while simultaneously varying thermal conductivity and wound diameter revealed that sap flux density and k showed considerable departure from the original calibration equation used with this technique. The departure was greatest for variation in sap flux density typical of ring-porous species. Depending on the specific combination of thermal conductivity and wound diameter, use of the original calibration equation resulted in an 81% under- to 48% overestimation of sap flux density

  1. SAP 系统接口技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖广仓

    2012-01-01

    SAP 项目实施过程中,经常会碰到与其他系统的集成问题,在 SAP 项目范围之外,企业中还有大量的遗留系统、非 SAP 系统、外部系统,SAP 并不能满足企业所有的功能需求,需要同安全与访问控制等系统相互协作,共同来实现这些系统之间的数据交互,从而确保 SAP 投入使用后,与相关系统的接口也可用。SAP 项目实施过程中的定制操作,不会改变 SAP 系统本身,但通过 ABAP/4 开发平台则可以对 SAP 系统进行扩展,也就是通过 ABAP 开发,SAP 可以与其他 R/3 系统或者非 R/3 系统集成。

  2. Selection of the best consultant for SAP ERP project using combined AHP-IBA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a combined AHP-IBA model for selecting the best SAP consultant for an SAP ERP project. The goal of the SAP Project Manager is to choose the best consultant, the one who is able to implement standard SAP functionalities with quality and on time. When making a decision on the basis of multiple criteria, the traditional Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method does not take into account the fact that attributes may correlate, assuming that there are no dependencies between them. However, the dependencies of the attributes can often be used to model important knowledge for multiple criteria decision analysis. We propose an extension to the traditional AHP method by applying Interpolative realization of Boolean algebra (IBA, using AHP to determine the criteria weights, and IBA to model the logical interactions among criteria. The research conducted on ERP consultant selection suggests that the decision making process is modelled more accurately if logical interactions between attributes are modelled before applying AHP.

  3. Nocturnal sap flow characteristics and stem water recharge of Acacia mangium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Quan WANG; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we studied the nocturnal stem water recharge of Acacia mangium. It is helpful to improve the precision of canopy transpiration estimation and canopy stomatal conductance, and to further understand the lag time of canopy transpiration to stem sap flow.In this study,the whole-tree sap flow in an A.mangium forest was measured by using Granier's thermal dissipation probe for over two years in the hilly land of South China. The environmental factors, including relative humidity (RH), precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR),and air temperature (Ta) were recorded simultaneously. The stem water recharge of A. Mangium was analyzed on both daily and monthly scales. Sap flux density was lower at night than during the day. The time range of nighttime sap flux density was longer in the dry season than in the wet season. The water recharging mainly occurred from sunset to midnight.No significant differences were observed among inter-annual nighttime water recharges. Nighttime water recharge had no significant correlation with environmen-tal factors, but was welt correlated with the diameter at breast height, tree height, and crown size. In the dry season the contribution of nighttime water recharge to total transpiration had significant correlations with daytime transpiration, total transpiration, VPD, PAR and Ta, while in the wet season it was significantly correlated with daily transpiration and total transpiration.

  4. Plant fluid proteomics: Delving into the xylem sap, phloem sap and apoplastic fluid proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge; Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2016-08-01

    The phloem sap, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid play key roles in long and short distance transport of signals and nutrients, and act as a barrier against local and systemic pathogen infection. Among other components, these plant fluids contain proteins which are likely to be important players in their functionalities. However, detailed information about their proteomes is only starting to arise due to the difficulties inherent to the collection methods. This review compiles the proteomic information available to date in these three plant fluids, and compares the proteomes obtained in different plant species in order to shed light into conserved functions in each plant fluid. Inter-species comparisons indicate that all these fluids contain the protein machinery for self-maintenance and defense, including proteins related to cell wall metabolism, pathogen defense, proteolysis, and redox response. These analyses also revealed that proteins may play more relevant roles in signaling in the phloem sap and apoplastic fluid than in the xylem sap. A comparison of the proteomes of the three fluids indicates that although functional categories are somewhat similar, proteins involved are likely to be fluid-specific, except for a small group of proteins present in the three fluids, which may have a universal role, especially in cell wall maintenance and defense. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 49 CFR 40.295 - May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? 40.295 Section 40.295 Transportation Office... seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? (a) As an employee...

  6. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of sap flow to environmental factors in the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir in subhumid North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Qiang; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yaping; Xu, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Since the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir is the main drinking water conservation area of Beijing, its water cycle is of importance for the regional water resource. Transpiration is an important component of water cycle, which can be estimated by sap flow. In this study, the dynamics of sap flow and its response to environmental factors and relationship with leaf area index (LAI) were analyzed. The field study was conducted in the Xitaizi Experimental Catchment, located in the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir in subhumid North China. The Aspen (Populus davidiana) and Epinette (Larix gmelinii) are the two dominant tree species. Sap flow in 15 Aspen (Populus davidiana) trees was monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP) during the growing season of 2013 and 2014, and sap flow in another 3 Epinette (Larix gmelinii) trees was also monitored during September and October in 2014 for comparative analysis. Physiological and biometric parameters of the selected trees and the environmental factors, including meteorological variables, soil moisture content and groundwater table depth were measured. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD), variable of transpiration (VT) and reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) were calculated using the measured environmental factors. The LAI, which is used to characterize phenophase, was calculated using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI product (MCD15A3). Correlation analysis for daily sap flow and air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, VPD, VT and ET0 under different soil moisture and groundwater table depth conditions was performed. Diurnal course and hysteresis of sap flow were analyzed as a function of air temperature, solar radiation, VPD and VT on the typical sunny, cloudy and rainy days under different soil moisture conditions. Correlation analysis between daily sap flow and LAI showed that LAI and phenophase significantly influence sap flow and restrict

  8. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  9. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  11. The Application System Integration Based on Middleware SAP Business Connector%基于中间件平台SAP Business Connector的应用系统集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘春子

    2007-01-01

    文中介绍SAP BC(SAP Business Connector)基本概念和其最新技术SAP XI(SAP Exchange Infrastructure),其次概述SAP BC技术架构,最后提出基于SAPBC平台的应用系统集成方案:基于该方案并实现了E-comlIlerce-采购交互商务系统.

  12. Assessing the ERP-SAP implementation strategy from cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Syaiful, Bakhri; Sfenrianto; Nurul, Fajar Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Implementing ERP-SAP projects in Indonesian large enterprises frequently create headaches for the consultants, since there are always be a large gap between the outcomes of the SAP with the expected results. Indonesian enterprises have experience with a huge amount of investments and ended up with minor benefits. Despite its unprecedented benefits, the SAP strategy is still considered as a mandatory enterprise system for every enterprise to compete in the marketplaces. The article examines the SAP implementation from cultural perspectives to present new horizon that commonly ignored by major Indonesian enterprises. The article applies the multiple case studies with three large Indonesia enterprises, such as KS, the largest steel producer; GEM, a subsidiary of conglomerate enterprise operates in the mining industry, and HS, a subsidiary of the largest retailer in Asia with more than 700 stores in Indonesia. The outcome of the article is expected to provide a comprehensive analysis from cultural perspectives regarding to common problems faced by SAP consultants.

  13. SAPS onset timing during substorms and the westward traveling surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, Evgeny, V.

    2016-07-01

    We present multispacecraft observations in the magnetosphere and conjugate ionosphere of the onset time of subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) and tens of keV ring current injections on the duskside in three individual substorms. This is probably the first unequivocal determination of the substorm SAPS onset timing. The time lag between the SAPS and substorm onsets is much shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of ˜10 keV ions in the plasmasphere. It seemingly depends on the propagation time of substorm-injected plasma from the dipolarization onset region to the plasmasphere, as well as on the SAPS position. These observations suggest that fast onset SAPS and ring current injections are causally related to the two-loop system of the westward traveling surge.

  14. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  15. Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.

  16. Ada Apa Dengan SAP (AADS Akrual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Findi Tresnawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides anoverview regarding SAP accrual-based and its problems. It compares information content of PP 24/2005’s cash toward accrual and PP 71/2010’s accrual-based toshow the urgency of accrual-based financial reporting requirements. The analysis borrows Abeysekara’s accounting imperialism. Discussion also involves empirical evidence and evaluation of accrual-based implementation probability in Sumenep Regency. Findings show that accrual-based information is not an urgent need and tends to be difficult to be implemented. Reflecting the evidence in Sumenep, local governments are faced with the need of human resources, the question of the use-fulness of accrual information, and technical difficulties on implementation.

  17. Evaluation of the sap flow using heat pulse method to determine transpiration of the Populus euphratica canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyou; KANG Ersi; ZHOU Maoxian

    2007-01-01

    The sap flow of the sampled Populus euphratica stems at different radial depths and directions had been studied in Ejina Oasis,in the lower reaches of the Heihe River.Based on sap flow measurements,the transpiration of the entire canopy was calculated.Results showed a linear correlation between the sap flow and the sapwood area of the P.euphratica.Through the analysis of the diameter at breast height in the sample plot,it was found that the distribution of the diameters and the corresponding sapwood area was exponentially correlated,with the coefficient of correlation being 0.976,7.The calculated transpiration of the Populus euphratica canopy was 214.9 mm based on the specific conductivity method.

  18. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.c [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sangrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Leuzinger, Sebastian [Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstr. 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO{sub 3}SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  19. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  20. Analyses of the xylem sap proteomes identified candidate Fusarium virguliforme proteinacious toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilwala S Abeysekara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden death syndrome (SDS caused by the ascomycete fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, exhibits root necrosis and leaf scorch or foliar SDS. The pathogen has never been identified from the above ground diseased foliar tissues. Foliar SDS is believed to be caused by host selective toxins, including FvTox1, secreted by the fungus. This study investigated if the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants contains secreted F. virguliforme-proteins, some of which could cause foliar SDS development. RESULTS: Xylem sap samples were collected from five biological replications of F. virguliforme-infected and uninfected soybean plants under controlled conditions. We identified five F. virguliforme proteins from the xylem sap of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants by conducting LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These five proteins were also present in the excreted proteome of the pathogen in culture filtrates. One of these proteins showed high sequence identity to cerato-platanin, a phytotoxin produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani to cause canker stain disease in the plane tree. Of over 500 soybean proteins identified in this study, 112 were present in at least 80% of the sap samples collected from F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected control plants. We have identified four soybean defense proteins from the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000873. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that a few F. virguliforme proteins travel through the xylem, some of which could be involved in foliar SDS development. We have identified five candidate proteinaceous toxins, one of which showed high similarity to a previously characterized phytotoxin. We have also shown the presence of four soybean defense proteins in the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. This study laid the foundation for studying the molecular basis of foliar SDS

  1. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  2. The installations maintenance control using SAP R/3; O controle de manutencao de instalacoes utilizando o SAP R/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges; Jorge, Kemal Vieira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A.) began their operations in 1999 and since the beginning the SAP R/3 PM module (Plant Maintenance) is used for the control of the maintenance activities and to manager the Master Maintenance and Inspection Plans. On these five years, a series of reports and SAP functionalities were developed or configured to adapt the system R/3 to the needs of TBG maintenance. Now, the whole management and control of the surface facilities maintenance (compression station, city gate, measurement station, etc) is accomplished by SAP R/3 system. (author)

  3. Sap flow sensors: construction, quality control and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler W; Kuo, Chen-Min; Liang, Xu; Yu, Pao-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a design for two types of sensors, based on the thermal dissipation and heat ratio methods of sap flow calculation, for moderate to large scale deployments for the purpose of monitoring tree transpiration. These designs include a procedure for making these sensors, a quality control method for the final products, and a complete list of components with vendors and pricing information. Both sensor designs were field tested alongside a commercial sap flow sensor to assess their performance and show the importance for quality controlling the sensor outputs. Results show that for roughly 2% of the cost of commercial sensors, self-made sap flow sensors can provide acceptable estimates of the sap flow measurements compared to the commercial sensors.

  4. Characterization of methacrylated alginate and acrylic monomers as versatile SAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Arn; Vermeulen, Jolien; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José; Dubruel, Peter; De Belie, Nele; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2017-07-15

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) based on polysaccharides, especially alginate, could offer a valuable solution in a plethora of applications going from drug delivery to self-healing concrete. This has already been proven with both calcium alginate and methacrylated alginate combined with acrylic acid. In this manuscript, the effect of varying the degree of methacrylation and use of a combination of acrylic acid and acrylamide is investigated to explore the effects on the relevant SAP characteristics. The materials showed high gel fractions and a strong swelling capacity up to 630gwater/gSAP, especially for superabsorbent polymers with a low degree of substitution. The SAPs also showed only a limited hydrolysis in aqueous and cement filtrate solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  6. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  7. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (Vh ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The performance of customised APACHE II and SAPS II in predicting mortality of mixed critically ill patients in a Thai medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, B; Bhurayanontachai, R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of customised Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation HII (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score HII (SAPS II) in predicting hospital mortality of mixed critically ill Thai patients in a medical intensive care unit. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a four-year period. The subjects were randomly divided into calibration and validation groups. Logistic regression analysis was used for customisation. The performance of the scores was evaluated by the discrimination, calibration and overall fit in the overall group and across subgroups in the validation group. Two thousand and forty consecutive intensive care unit admissions during the study period were split into two groups. Both customised models showed excellent discrimination. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the customised APACHE II was greater than the customised SAPS II (0.925 and 0.892, P APACHE II in overall populations and various subgroups but insufficient calibration for the customised SAPS II. The customised SAPS II showed good calibration in only the younger, postoperative and sepsis patients subgroups. The overall performance of the customised APACHE II was better than the customised SAPS II (Brier score 0.089 and 0.109, respectively). Our results indicate that the customised APACHE II shows better performance than the customised SAPS II in predicting hospital mortality and could be used to predict mortality and quality assessment in our unit or other intensive care units with a similar case mix.

  9. Repower: Customing China Market By Global Experience%驰骋全球,定制中国——专访REpower System AG公司CEO Per Hornung Pedersen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮

    2010-01-01

    @@ 近日,在北京朝外SOHO的办公楼内,我们专访了德国REpower System AG公司CEO Per Hornung Pedersen. 眼神深邃、温文尔雅,是记者对这位精明的丹麦人的第一印象,正是在他的领导下,REpower公司全球业绩2009年稳步增长.

  10. 49 CFR 40.299 - What is the SAP's role and what are the limits on a SAP's discretion in referring employees for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's role and what are the limits on a SAP's discretion in referring employees for education and treatment? 40.299 Section 40.299... TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.299 What is the SAP's...

  11. Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers’ management of trauma and efficiency at work.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work.Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers’ operational work.Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis.Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers’ work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended.Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers’ inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.

  12. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. A Novel Putrescine Exporter SapBCDF of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kanbe, Ayaka; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kurihara, Shin

    2016-12-16

    Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment. We observed putrescine concentration in the culture supernatant was increased from 0 to 50 μm during growth of E. coli under neutral conditions. Screening for the unidentified putrescine exporter was performed using a gene knock-out collection of E. coli, and deletion of sapBCDF significantly decreased putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Complementation of the deletion mutant with the sapBCDF genes restored putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Additionally, the ΔsapBCDF strain did not facilitate uptake of putrescine from the culture supernatant. Quantification of stable isotope-labeled putrescine derived from stable isotope-labeled arginine supplemented in the medium revealed that SapBCDF exported putrescine from E. coli cells to the culture supernatant. It was previously reported that SapABCDF of Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae conferred resistance toantimicrobial peptides; however, the E. coli ΔsapBCDF strain did not affect resistance to antimicrobial peptide LL-37. These results strongly suggest that the natural function of the SapBCDF proteins is the export of putrescine.

  14. Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms. 1. Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    to select substorms which display a typical bulge-type auroral emission pattern and to organize the position of individual DE 2 passes with respect to key features in the emission pattern. The Hall and Pedersen conductances are calculated from electron precipitation data obtained by the low altitude plasma...... instrument (LAPI) carried on DE 2 and the monoenergetic conductance model by Reiff [1984]. This method is shown to effectively minimize undesirable smearing of parameters in statistical substorm studies. Large spatial gradients in the conductance profiles are common in high-latitude part of the premidnight...

  15. CO2 uptake of a mature Acacia mangium plantation estimated from sap flow measurements and stable carbon isotope discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhao, P.; Zou, L. L.; McCarthy, H. R.; Zeng, X. P.; Ni, G. Y.; Rao, X. Q.

    2014-03-01

    A simple, nondestructive method for the estimation of canopy CO2 uptake is important for understanding the CO2 exchange between forest and atmosphere. Canopy CO2 uptake (FCO2) of a subtropical mature A. mangium plantation was estimated by combining sap flow measurements and stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in Southern China from 2004 to 2007. The mechanistic relationship linking FCO2, Δ in leaf sap, and sap flow-based canopy stomatal conductance (Gs) was applied in our study. No significant seasonal variations were observed in Δ or in the ratio of the intercellular and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ci/Ca), although diurnal Ci/Ca varied between sunlit and shaded leaves. A sensitivity analysis showed that estimates of FCO2 were more sensitive to dynamics in Gs than in Ca and Δ. By using seasonally and canopy averaged Ci/Ca values, we obtained an acceptable estimate of FCO2 compared to other estimates. FCO2 exhibited similar diurnal variation to that of Gs. Large seasonal variation in FCO2 was attributed to the responsiveness of Gs to vapor pressure deficit, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil moisture deficit. Our estimate of FCO2 for a mature A. mangium plantation (2.13 ± 0.40 gC m-2 d-1) approached the lower range of values for subtropical mixed forests, probably due to lower mean canopy stomatal conductance, higher Ci/Ca, and greater tree height than other measured forests. Our estimate was also lower than values determined by satellite-based modeling or carbon allocation studies, suggesting the necessity of stand level flux data for verification. Qualitatively, the sap flux/stable isotope results compared well with gas exchange results. Differences in results between the two approaches likely reflected variability due to leaf position and age, which should be reduced for the combined sap flux and isotope technique, as it uses canopy average values of Gs and Ci/Ca.

  16. Ionospheric conductances and currents of a morning sector auroral arc from Swarm-A electric and magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, L.; Archer, W. E.; Kauristie, K.; Burchill, J. K.; Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    We show the first ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances derived from Swarm magnetic and electric field measurements during a crossing of a morning sector auroral arc. Only Swarm-A was used, with assumptions of negligible azimuthal gradients and vanishing eastward electric field. We find upward field-aligned current, enhanced Hall and Pedersen conductances, and relatively weak electric field coincident with the arc. Poleward of the arc, the field-aligned current was downward, conductances lower, and the electric field enhanced. The arc was embedded in a westward electrojet, immediately equatorward of the peak current density. The equatorward portion of the electrojet could thus be considered conductance dominant and the poleward portion electric field dominant. Although the electric field measured by Swarm was intense, resulting in conductances lower than those typically reported, comparable electric fields have been observed earlier. These results demonstrate how Swarm data can significantly contribute to our understanding of the ionospheric electrodynamics.

  17. Comparison of sap flux, moisture flux tower and MODIS enhanced vegetation index methods for estimating riparian evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.

  18. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  19. Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

  20. Auditoria fiscal previdenciária em ambiente SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre David Viva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca identificar meios para efetuar auditoria fiscal nos bancos de dados do SAP - o mais adotado ERP da atualidade (Bae e Ashcroft, 2004, 1 e 5; Khan, 2005, 5. Pretende-se concentrar no método de acesso às tabelas SAP, um dos cinco métodos de acesso aos bancos de dados de ERP (Neil Raden, 2004, 10. Em um primeiro momento, é necessário o levantamento, por empresa, de uma listagem dos cabeçalhos das tabelas com as quais ela trabalha, em bancos de dados que já alcançam os terabytes (SAP, SAP NetWeaver: 50. Como o SAP é um programa multilíngüe e multiempresarial, suas tabelas são criptografadas, isto é, os nomes das tabelas e de duas colunas não guardam a menor relação com os dados que elas registram (Saphir, 2004, 1. Em um segundo momento, então, por meio do ACL, a listagem de cabeçalhos de tabelas obtida é filtrada. As tabelas que interessam ao Fisco são solicitadas à empresa de uma forma mais precisa, de modo a não sobrecarregar nem a empresa nem do Fisco. Em um terceiro momento, ainda com auxílio do ACL, as tabelas especificadas são analisadas (Primeiros Passos, 2003, 3.

  1. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  2. SLAM family receptors and SAP adaptors in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannons, Jennifer L; Tangye, Stuart G; Schwartzberg, Pamela L

    2011-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein, SAP, was first identified as the protein affected in most cases of X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection, lymphoproliferative syndromes, and dysgammaglobulinemia. SAP consists almost entirely of a single SH2 protein domain that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of SLAM and related receptors, including 2B4, Ly108, CD84, Ly9, and potentially CRACC. SLAM family members are now recognized as important immunomodulatory receptors with roles in cytotoxicity, humoral immunity, autoimmunity, cell survival, lymphocyte development, and cell adhesion. In this review, we cover recent findings on the roles of SLAM family receptors and the SAP family of adaptors, with a focus on their regulation of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of XLP and other immune disorders.

  3. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  4. Sap flow measurements of lateral tree roots in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J. E.; Khan, A. A. H.; Ong, C. K.; Black, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful extension of agroforestry to areas of the semi-arid tropics where deep reserves of water exist requires that the tree species be complementary to the associated crops in their use of water within the crop rooting zone. However, it is difficult to identify trees suitable for dryland agroforestry because most existing techniques for determining water uptake by roots cannot distinguish between absorption by tree and crop roots. We describe a method for measuring sap flow through lateral roots using constant temperature heat balance gauges, and the application of this method in a study of complementarity of water use in agroforestry systems containing Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Sap flow gauges were attached to the trunks and roots of Grevillea with minimum disturbance to the soil. Thermal energy emanating from the soil adversely affected the accuracy of sap flow gauges attached to the roots, with the result that the uncorrected values were up to eightfold greater than the true water uptake determined gravimetrically. This overestimation was eliminated by using a calibration method in which nonconducting excised root segments, with sap flow gauges attached, were placed adjacent to the live roots. The power consumption and temperature differentials of the excised roots were used to correct for external sources and internal losses of heat within the paired live root. The fraction of the total sap flow through individual trees supplied by the lateral roots varied greatly between trees of similar canopy size. Excision of all lateral roots, except for one to which a heat balance gauge was attached, did not significantly increase sap flow through the intact root, suggesting that it was functioning at near maximum capacity.

  5. Comparative Statistical Study of Some SAP UI Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdie, Adela; Osaci, Mihaela; Dan Lemle, Ludovic

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a comparative study on some web UI (User Interface) technologies that involve the creation of web applications on the platform SAP Net Weaver AS 7.01 of the integrated SAP (System Application Products) system. The attention will be directed mainly to the ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programing) development environment and to the Web Dynpro (WD) technologies, Floor Plan Manager (FPM) and Web Client UI. Through this study, we make an assesment regarding the decision of choosing a technology for the realisation of a project which consists of a web application.

  6. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...... rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry....

  7. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...... rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry....

  8. 树干液流径向分布格局研究进展%Review of advances in radial patterns of stem sap flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 杨风亭; 王辉民; 戴晓琴

    2012-01-01

    Variability in radial patterns of sap flow is the main source of error in evaluating individual and stand transpiration using thermal techniques. Thus, it is necessary to understand and quantify radial patterns of stem sap flow before accurate estimation of forest transpiration can be conducted. We discuss the methods used to determine radial patterns of sap flow and summarize four main patterns of stem sap flow. We also review the effects of inner structure characteristics and environmental factors on radial patterns of sap flow. In addition, we present the diurnal and seasonal variability in radial patterns of sap flow. Lastly, we propose possible problems in resent research on radial patterns of stem sap flow.%树干液流径向分布的不均匀性是引起热技术估算单株乃至林分蒸腾误差的主要来源.因此,了解树干液流径向分布格局并将其定量化,成为利用热扩散和热脉冲技术准确估算森林蒸腾的必要条件.该文详细介绍了树干液流径向分布格局的研究方法,总结了目前4种常见的树干液流的径向分布格局,分析了影响树干液流径向分布格局的内部结构因素和外部环境因素,阐明了树干液流径向分布格局的时间动态特征及其影响因素,并提出目前研究中存在的问题和可能的解决方法.

  9. A comparison of methods for determining field evapotranspiration: photosynthesis system, sap flow, and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Yang, P.

    2014-03-01

    A multi-scale, multi-technique study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration and its components in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation conditions in northwestern China. Three measurement techniques at different scales were used: a photosynthesis system (leaf scale), sap flow (plant scale), and eddy covariance (field scale). The experiment was conducted from July to September 2012. To upscale the evapotranspiration from the leaf to plant scale, an approach that incorporated the canopy structure and the relationships between sunlit and shaded leaves was proposed. To upscale the evapotranspiration from the plant to field scale, an approach based on the transpiration per unit leaf area was adopted and modified to incorporate the temporal variability in the relationship between leaf areas and stem diameter. At the plant scale, the estimate of the transpiration based on the photosynthesis system with upscaling was slightly higher (18%) than that obtained by sap flow. At the field scale, the estimates of transpiration derived from sap flow with upscaling and eddy covariance showed reasonable consistency during the cotton's open-boll growth stage, during which soil evaporation can be neglected. The results indicate that the proposed upscaling approaches are reasonable and valid. Based on the measurements and upscaling approaches, evapotranspiration components were analyzed for a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation. During the two analyzed sub-periods in July and August, evapotranspiration rates were 3.94 and 4.53 m day-1, respectively. The fraction of transpiration to evapotranspiration reached 87.1% before drip irrigation and 82.3% after irrigation. The high fraction of transpiration over evapotranspiration was principally due to the mulched film above the drip pipe, low soil water content in the inter-film zone, well-closed canopy, and high water requirement of the crop.

  10. Sacarose e período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrebsky Etiane Caldeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Devido à sua baixa capacidade fotossintética, as plantas cultivadas in vitro requerem uma fonte extra de carboidratos para suprir suas necessidades metabólicas. O tempo de cultivo in vitro influencia as taxas de crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea de P. glomerata. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os efeitos da sacarose e do período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de plântulas de P. glomerata. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação bifatorial (5x2 entre cinco concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75g L-1 e dois períodos de cultivo in vitro (25 e 32 dias após a inoculação. No cultivo in vitro, a parcela experimental consistiu de um tubo de ensaio contendo 10mL de meio MS e um segmento nodal, obtidos de plântulas mantidas in vitro, de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas. O procedimento de aclimatização consistiu de quatro fases sucessivas de cultivo ex vitro: (i abertura dos tubos de ensaio e exposição das plântulas ao ambiente de câmara climatizada por três dias; (ii transplantio para substrato Plantmax e cultivo em condições de câmara climatizada por 21 dias; (iii transferência das mudas para ambiente natural parcialmente sombreado, com duração de 24 dias; e (iv transplantio para solo em condições de cultivo a campo. O maior crescimento das plantas obtido pelo aumento da disponibilidade de sacarose (concentrações entre 45 e 60g L-1 no cultivo in vitro contribuiu para a aclimatização. Independente do período de retirada das plantas do cultivo in vitro, as mudas obtiveram adequada aclimatização. O procedimento de aclimatização foi 100% eficiente na produção de mudas de P. glomerata.

  11. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  12. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  13. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  14. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.297 Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial... managed-care provider, any service agent) may change in any way the SAP's evaluation or recommendations...

  15. 49 CFR 40.289 - Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are employers required to provide SAP and... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.289 Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees? (a) As an employer, you are not required to provide a SAP evaluation or any...

  16. 49 CFR 40.285 - When is a SAP evaluation required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a SAP evaluation required? 40.285 Section... § 40.285 When is a SAP evaluation required? (a) As an employee, when you have violated DOT drug and... unless you complete the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in this...

  17. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted SAP, and additional information provided pursuant to § 285.611, to determine if it...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 40 - SAP Equivalency Requirements for Certification Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SAP Equivalency Requirements for Certification... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. E Appendix E to Part 40—SAP Equivalency... of knowledge must be of sufficient quantity to ensure a high quality of SAP evaluation and referral...

  19. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  20. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes in a forest stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, A.J. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany); Cieslik, S. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy); Metzger, U. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Dept. of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A - 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O{sub 3} flux was 33% of the total O{sub 3} flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O{sub 3} flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O{sub 3} exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O{sub 3} flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O{sub 3} risk assessment in forests from O{sub 3} exposure towards flux-based concepts. - Combined tree sap flow and eddy covariance-based methodologies yield stomatal O{sub 3} flux as 33% in total stand flux.

  1. Overexpression of OsSAP16 Regulates Photosynthesis and the Expression of a Broad Range of Stress Response Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available This study set out to identify and characterize transcription factors regulating photosynthesis in rice. Screening populations of rice T-DNA activation lines led to the identification of a T-DNA mutant with an increase in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE under well-watered conditions. Flanking sequence analysis showed that the T-DNA construct was located upstream of LOC_Os07g38240 (OsSAP16 encoding for a stress-associated protein (SAP. A second mutant identified with activation in the same gene exhibited the same phenotype; expression of OsSAP16 was shown to be enhanced in both lines. There were no differences in stomatal development or morphology in either of these mutants, although overexpression of OsSAP16 reduced stomatal conductance. This phenotype limited CO2 uptake and the rate of photosynthesis, which resulted in the accumulation of less biomass in the two mutants. Whole transcriptome analysis showed that overexpression of OsSAP16 led to global changes in gene expression consistent with the function of zinc-finger transcription factors. These results show that the gene is involved in modulating the response of rice to drought stress through regulation of the expression of a set of stress-associated genes.

  2. Overexpression of OsSAP16 Regulates Photosynthesis and the Expression of a Broad Range of Stress Response Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Coe, Robert A; Karki, Shanta; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Henry, Amelia; Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Huang, Jianliang; Peng, Shaobing; Quick, William Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to identify and characterize transcription factors regulating photosynthesis in rice. Screening populations of rice T-DNA activation lines led to the identification of a T-DNA mutant with an increase in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) under well-watered conditions. Flanking sequence analysis showed that the T-DNA construct was located upstream of LOC_Os07g38240 (OsSAP16) encoding for a stress-associated protein (SAP). A second mutant identified with activation in the same gene exhibited the same phenotype; expression of OsSAP16 was shown to be enhanced in both lines. There were no differences in stomatal development or morphology in either of these mutants, although overexpression of OsSAP16 reduced stomatal conductance. This phenotype limited CO2 uptake and the rate of photosynthesis, which resulted in the accumulation of less biomass in the two mutants. Whole transcriptome analysis showed that overexpression of OsSAP16 led to global changes in gene expression consistent with the function of zinc-finger transcription factors. These results show that the gene is involved in modulating the response of rice to drought stress through regulation of the expression of a set of stress-associated genes.

  3. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  4. SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards 4.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with a good command and knowledge of creating dashboards, but are not yet an advanced user of SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards, then this is the perfect book for you. Prerequisites include a good working knowledge of Microsoft Excel as well as knowledge of basic dashboard practices.

  5. Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in Concrete Construction State-of-the-Art Report Prepared by Technical Committee 225-SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This is the state-of-the-art report prepared by the RILEM TC “Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in concrete construction”. It gives a comprehensive overview of the properties of SAP, specific water absorption and desorption behaviour of SAP in fresh and hardening concrete, effects of the SAP addition on rheological properties of fresh concrete, changes of cement paste microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. Furthermore, the key advantages of using SAP are described in detail: the ability of this material to act as an internal curing agent to mitigate autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete, the possibility to use SAP as an alternative to air-entrainment agents in order to increase the frost resistance of concrete, and finally, the benefit of steering the rheology of fresh cement-based materials. The final chapter describes the first existing and numerous prospective applications for this new concrete additive.

  6. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, Tamiris; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Cortez, Cristian; Almeida, Igor C; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco

    2013-01-01

    To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP) comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD) responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP) and polyclonal (anti-SAP) antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs). Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE) that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP proteins and proposes a triggering role for extracellular SAP

  7. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  8. Critical factors in the limited occurrence of the Japanese tree sap mite Hericia sanukiensis (Acari: Astigmata: Algophagidae) inhabiting the sap of the oak Quercus acutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Ichikawa, Toshihide; Yasui, Yukio

    2011-08-01

    Hericia sanukiensis (Astigmata: Algophagidae) is a semi-aquatic mite inhabiting fermented sap flux of the Japanese sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and utilizes Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) as the dispersal (phoretic) carrier. Although nitidulid beetles are commonly found in sap flux, the occurrence of H. sanukiensis has been extremely limited to a few trees in Shikoku Island, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. To elucidate the critical factors limiting the occurrence of this species, we compared several physical and biological characteristics of sap-exudation points, including the structure and temperature of tree trunks, period and abundance of sap exudation, and seasonal occurrence and dispersal behavior of nitidulid beetles between environments with and without mites. During the two consecutive years of field research, we found that only sap-exudation points with obvious tree holes (ringent area >10 cm², depth >10 cm) had sustained mite populations throughout the observation period. In contrast, for the sap-exudation points lacking tree holes, H. sanukiensis temporally (from spring to autumn) colonized only when the sap production was considerably high. Thus, we suggest that the settlement of H. sanukiensis populations requires tree holes as an overwintering habitat. Nitidulid beetles also concentrated in areas with high sap production and did not disperse from such habitats during the sap flow season. This indicates that H. sanukiensis mites may only disperse and colonize new habitats at very limited opportunities, such as drastic habitat deterioration, which may promote the movement of their carrier. Taken together, these findings may explain the limited occurrence of this mite species.

  9. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  11. SAP suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report that SAP-transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant, SAP-transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However, in SAP-Knockout mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild type to SAP-transgenic mice, or transfer of SAP-transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice, induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP-transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP-transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of interleukin-2 stimulated by P-selectin and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin.

  12. SLAM-family receptors: immune regulators with or without SAP-family adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, André

    2010-03-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) family of intracellular adaptors are expressed in immune cells. By way of their cytoplasmic domain, SLAM-related receptors physically associate with SAP-related adaptors. Evidence is accumulating that the SLAM and SAP families play crucial roles in multiple immune cell types. Moreover, the prototype of the SAP family, that is SAP, is mutated in a human immunodeficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. In the presence of SAP-family adaptors, the SLAM family usually mediates stimulatory signals that promote immune cell activation or differentiation. In the absence of SAP-family adaptors, though, the SLAM family undergoes a "switch-of-function," thereby mediating inhibitory signals that suppress immune cell functions. The molecular basis and significance of this mechanism are discussed herein.

  13. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca(2+) concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  14. Electrical conductivity of the dusty plasma in the Enceladus plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Lühr, H.

    2016-11-01

    The plasma conductivity is an important issue for understanding the magnetic field structure registered by Cassini in the Enceladus proximity. We have revise the conductivity mechanism to incorporate the plume nanograins as a new plasma species and take into account the relevant collisional processes including those accounting for the momentum exchange between the charged dust and co-rotating ions. It is concluded that in the Enceladus plume the dust dynamics affects the Pedersen and Hall conductivity more efficiently than the electron depletion associated with the presence of the negatively charged dust as has been suggested by Simon et al. (Simon, S., Saur, J., Kriegel, H., Neubauer, F. M., Motschmann, U., and Dougherty, U. [2011] J. Geophys. Res., 116, A04221, doi:10.1029/2010JA016338). The electron depletion remains a decisive factor for only the parallel conductivity. In the parameter regime relevant for the Enceladus plume, one finds increase of the Pedersen and decrease of the parallel components, whereas for the Hall conductivity the charged dust changes both - its value and the sign. The associated reversed Hall effect depends significantly upon the local dust-to-plasma density ratio. An onset of the reversed Hall effect appears to be restricted to outer parts of the Enceladus plume. The results obtained can significantly modify Enceladus' Alfvén wing structure and thus be useful for interpretations of the magnetic field perturbations registered by the Cassini Magnetometer during the close Enceladus flybys.

  15. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  16. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  17. Visualization of scattering angular distributions with the SAP code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. E.; Scot, V.; Basile, S.

    2010-07-01

    SAP (Scattering Angular distribution Plot) is a graphical tool developed at the University of Bologna to compute and plot Rayleigh and Compton differential cross-sections (atomic and electronic), form-factors (FFs) and incoherent scattering functions (SFs) for single elements, compounds and mixture of compounds, for monochromatic excitation in the range of 1-1000 keV. The computation of FFs and SFs may be performed in two ways: (a) by interpolating Hubbell's data from EPDL97 library and (b) by using semi-empirical formulas as described in the text. Two kinds of normalization permit to compare the plots of different magnitudes, by imposing a similar scale. The characteristics of the code SAP are illustrated with one example.

  18. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  19. 基于中间件平台SAP Business Connector的应用系统集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘春子

    2007-01-01

    文中介绍SAP BC(SAP Business Connector)基本概念和其最新技术SAP XI(SAP Exchange Infrastructure),其次概述SAP BC技术架构,最后提出基于SAPBC平台的应用系统集成方案:基于该方案并实现了E-comlIlerce-采购交互商务系统.

  20. Role of NuSAP in Prostate Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    G2-- mitosis phase and declines rapidly following cell division. NuSAP expression is highly correlated with cell prolifera- tion during embryogenesis...transfected LNCaP and PC3 cell lines were incubated for 15min at room temperature with 20 nM of a biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probe containing a... temperature prior to adding the labeled oligonucleotide. The probe-bound nuclear extracts were separated from the free probe in a 6% DNA retardation gel

  1. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Katyuce de Souza; Auharek, Sarah Alves; Cunha-Laura, Andréa Luiza; de Souza, Jeana Mara Escher; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; de Oliveira Filiú, Wander Fernando; dos Santos, Edson dos Anjos; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population. PMID:28303155

  2. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  3. p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of pro-apoptotic SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapura, Harsha S; Salamon, Daniel; Wiman, Klas G; Lain, Sonia; Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Nagy, Noémi

    2012-12-15

    Lack of functional SAP protein, due to gene deletion or mutation, is the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), characterized by functionally impaired T and NK cells and a high risk of lymphoma development. We have demonstrated earlier that SAP has a pro-apoptotic function in T and B cells. Deficiency of this function might contribute to the pathogenesis of XLP. We have also shown that SAP is a target of p53 in B cell lines. In the present study, we show that activated primary T cells express p53, which induces SAP expression. p53 is functional as a transcription factor in activated T cells and induces the expression of p21, PUMA and MDM2. PARP cleavage in the late phase of activation indicates that T cells expressing high levels of SAP undergo apoptosis. Modifying p53 levels using Nutlin-3, which specifically dissociates the MDM2-p53 interaction, was sufficient to upregulate SAP expression, indicating that SAP is a target of p53 in T cells. We also demonstrated p53's role as a transcription factor for SAP in activated T cells by ChIP assays. Our result suggests that p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of the pro-apoptotic SAP. A high level of SAP is necessary for the activation-induced cell death that is pivotal in termination of the T cell response.

  4. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  5. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  6. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the 'correct sequence' of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress.

  7. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the ‘correct sequence’ of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress. PMID:28321232

  8. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  9. Ionospheric conductance distribution and MHD wave structure: observation and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Budnik

    Full Text Available The ionosphere influences magnetohydrodynamic waves in the magnetosphere by damping because of Joule heating and by varying the wave structure itself. There are different eigenvalues and eigensolutions of the three dimensional toroidal wave equation if the height integrated Pedersen conductivity exceeds a critical value, namely the wave conductance of the magnetosphere. As a result a jump in frequency can be observed in ULF pulsation records. This effect mainly occurs in regions with gradients in the Pedersen conductances, as in the auroral oval or the dawn and dusk areas. A pulsation event recorded by the geostationary GOES-6 satellite is presented. We explain the observed change in frequency as a change in the wave structure while crossing the terminator. Furthermore, selected results of numerical simulations in a dipole magnetosphere with realistic ionospheric conditions are discussed. These are in good agreement with the observational data.

    Key words. Ionosphere · (Ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics · Magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · MHD waves and instabilities.

  10. Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms - 2. Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Calculations of height-integrated conductivity from 31 individual Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) substorm crossings presented by Gjerloev and Hoffman [this issue] are used to compile empirical models of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities (conductances) in a bulge-type auroral substorm....... Global auroral images obtained by Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) were used to select substorms displaying a typical bulge-type emission pattern and each individual DE 2 pass was positioned with respect to key features in the observed emission pattern. The conductances were calculated for each DE 2 pass using...... electron precipitation data and a monoenergetic conductance model. All passes were divided into six different sectors, and average conductance profiles were carefully deduced for each of these sectors. Using a simple boxcar filter, smoothed average sector passes were calculated and from linear...

  11. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Ko, E-mail: etoko@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sonoda, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Jin, Yuji [School of Basic Medicine, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013 (China); Abe, Shin-ichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  12. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section 285.607... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ...

  13. SAP HR工资核算处理机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏赤

    2014-01-01

    SAP ER系统功能强大,本文以工作实践为基础,深入分析了SAP系统工资核算处理机制及工资项评估机制,帮助广大用户更好理解SAP HR工资核算的内在处理机制和使用SAP HR工资核算功能.

  14. The Serum Amyloid p Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    containing the physiological Ca2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins of which 24 were direct or indirect integration partners not previously reported. The SAP...... involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to binding to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect these against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma...

  15. dbSAP: single amino-acid polymorphism database for protein variation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruifang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shuangguan; Ma, Yimin; Chen, Jiajun; Yang, Juan; Chen, Geng; Shi, Tieliu

    2017-01-01

    Millions of human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations have been identified so far, and these variants could be strongly correlated with phenotypic variations of traits/diseases. Among these variants, non-synonymous ones can result in amino-acid changes that are called single amino-acid polymorphisms (SAPs). Although some studies have tried to investigate the SAPs, only a small fraction of SAPs have been identified due to inadequately inferred protein variation database and the low coverage of mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. Here, we present the dbSAP database for conveniently accessing the comprehensive information and relationships of spectra, peptides and proteins of SAPs, as well as related genes, pathways, diseases and drug targets. In order to fully explore human SAPs, we built a customized protein database that contained comprehensive variant proteins by integrating and annotating the human SNPs and mutations from eight distinct databases (UniProt, Protein Mutation Database, HPMD, MSIPI, MS-CanProVar, dbSNP, Ensembl and COSMIC). After a series of quality controls, a total of 16 854 SAP peptides involving in 439 537 spectra were identified with large scale MS datasets from various human tissues and cell lines. dbSAP is freely available at http://www.megabionet.org/dbSAP/index.html. PMID:27903894

  16. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  17. Biochemical and Genetic Evidence for a SAP-PKC-θ Interaction Contributing to IL-4 Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannons, Jennifer L.; Wu, Julie Z.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Zhang, Jinyi; Dong, Baoxia; Liu, Yin; Shaw, Stephen; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    SAP, an adaptor molecule that recruits Fyn to the SLAM-family of immunomodulatory receptors, is mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. CD4+ T cells from SAP-deficient mice have defective TCR-induced IL-4 production and impaired T cell-mediated help for germinal center formation; however, the downstream intermediates contributing to these defects remain unclear. We previously found that SAP-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibit decreased PKC-θ recruitment upon TCR stimulation. We demonstrate here using GST-pulldowns and co-immunoprecipitation studies that SAP constitutively associates with PKC-θ in T cells. SAP-PKC-θ interactions required R78 of SAP, a residue previously implicated in Fyn recruitment, yet SAP’s interactions with PKC-θ occurred independent of phosphotyrosine binding and Fyn. Overexpression of SAP in T cells increased and sustained PKC-θ recruitment to the immune synapse and elevated IL-4 production in response to TCR plus SLAM-mediated stimulation. Moreover, PKC-θ, like SAP, was required for SLAM-mediated increases in IL-4 production and conversely, membrane-targeted PKC-θ mutants rescued IL-4 expression in SAP−/− CD4+ T cells, providing genetic evidence that PKC-θ is a critical component of SLAM/SAP-mediated pathways that influence TCR-driven IL-4 production. PMID:20668219

  18. Crescimento de plântulas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivadas in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização Growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets on two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Maldaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivado in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização. Como fonte de explantes, utilizou-se segmentos nodais de plantas previamente estabelecidas in vitro. Foram testados dois tratamentos: 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose; e 50% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 45g L-1 sacarose. Durante as seis subculturas sucessivas, os explantes de plantas cultivadas por 30 dias em ambos os tratamentos foram transferidos, respectivamente, para a subcultura seguinte nos mesmos tratamentos. Ao final da 6ª subcultura, as plântulas foram transferidas para substrato Plantmax® Hortaliças e submetidas à aclimatização em sala de crescimento. Durante as subculturas, observou-se flutuações nas respostas de crescimento das plântulas às duas condições nutricionais testadas. A altura da maior brotação, a média da altura das brotações e o total de segmentos nodais por plântula, respectivamente em quatro, quatro e três subculturas, foram maiores em 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose do que em 50% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 45g L-1 sacarose. Por outro lado, as matérias secas de raízes, da parte aérea e do total das plântulas, respectivamente em duas, duas e três subculturas, foram maiores em 100% da concentração padrão de N do meio MS + 30g L-1 sacarose. Concluiu-se que o aumento da concentração de sacarose associado à redução da concentração do N estimula a produção de biomassa, enquanto o meio MS padrão estimula o crescimento em altura e número de segmentos nodais. As diferenças quanto à produção de biomassa observadas no cultivo in vitro não se refletiram no processo de aclimatização ex vitro, onde o meio MS padrão proporcionou maior crescimento em altura e n

  19. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  20. Modal Pushover Analysis on Bridges Using SAP2000 Software%SAP2000软件对桥梁结构的MPA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷鑫

    2011-01-01

    基于SAP2000软件的标准Pushover分析功能,进行适当改进,通过多次运算,在SAP2000软件上完成了MPA分析,并用该方法计算一座实际桥梁结构的非线性反应,与标准Pushover分析的结果进行比较,表明SAP2000对高阶振型起主要作用的结构也能得到较准确的计算结果.

  1. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server被选用于SAP HANA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SUSE公司于近日宣布,作为与SAP公司(NYSE:SAP)正在进行的合作的一部分,SUSE Linux Enterprise Server已被选用于SAP HANATM。"我们与SAP和IBM的合作已经使数千客户从SUSE Linux所提供的令人兴奋的好处中获益,其中包括操作成本的降低和性能的改进。"SUSE公司全球营销和联盟副总裁Michael Miller说。

  2. Microscopic insight into thermodynamics of conformational changes of SAP-SLAM complex in signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-04-01

    The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, associate with SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-related molecules, composed of single SH2 domain architecture. SAP activates Src-family kinase Fyn after SLAM ligation, resulting in a SLAM-SAP-Fyn complex, where, SAP binds the Fyn SH3 domain that does not involve canonical SH3 or SH2 interactions. This demands insight into this SAP mediated signalling cascade. Thermodynamics of the conformational changes are extracted from the histograms of dihedral angles obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this structurally well characterized SAP-SLAM complex. The results incorporate the binding induced thermodynamic changes of individual amino acid as well as the secondary structural elements of the protein and the solvent. Stabilization of the peptide partially comes through a strong hydrogen bonding network with the protein, while hydrophobic interactions also play a significant role where the peptide inserts itself into a hydrophobic cavity of the protein. SLAM binding widens SAP's second binding site for Fyn, which is the next step in the signal transduction cascade. The higher stabilization and less fluctuation of specific residues of SAP in the Fyn binding site, induced by SAP-SLAM complexation, emerge as the key structural elements to trigger the recognition of SAP by the SH3 domain of Fyn. The thermodynamic quantification of the protein due to complexation not only throws deeper understanding in the established mode of SAP-SLAM interaction but also assists in the recognition of the relevant residues of the protein responsible for alterations in its activity.

  3. The solar flux influence on quiet time conductances in the auroral ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, J. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway)); Brekke, A. (Univ. of Tromso (Norway))

    1993-05-21

    The authors report on measurements of the Hall and Pedersen conductances of the quiet time auroral ionosphere made using the EISCAT radar. They derive expressions for the conductances as a function of the 10.7cm solar flux (S[sub a]) between 70 and 250 ([times]10[sup [minus]22]Wm[sup [minus]2]Hz[sup [minus]1]), and the solar zenith angle [chi]. The results are consistent with the recent model results of Rasmussen et al, but at higher levels of solar activity give results higher than previous models.

  4. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  5. Handling of the demilitarized zone using service providers in SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, A.; Robu, R.

    2016-02-01

    External collaboration needs to allow data access from the Internet. In a trusted Internet collaboration scenario where the external user works on the same data like the internal user direct access to the data in the Intranet is required. The paper presents a solution to get access to certain data in the Enterprise Resource Planning system, having the User Interface on a system in the Demilitarized Zone and the database on a system which is located in the trusted area. Using the Service Provider Interface framework, connections between separate systems can be created in different areas of the network. The paper demonstrates how to connect the two systems, one in the Demilitarized Zone and one in the trusted area, using SAP ERP 6.0 with Enhancement Package 7. In order to use the Service Provider Interface SAP Business Suite Foundation component must be installed in both systems. The advantage of using the Service Provider Interface framework is that the external user works on the same data like the internal user (and not on copies). This assures data consistency and less overhead for backup and security systems.

  6. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  7. 论冶金企业 SAP 系统的二次开发技术%Secondary Development Technology for the SAP System of Metallurgical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司海霞

    2013-01-01

    The concept, functional modules, development language ABAP and develop-ment method of the management software SAP system for enterprises are briefly introduced. The technical method and its essentials for the secondary development of the SAP system are discussed through actual project examples.%  简要介绍企业管理软件 SAP 系统的概念、功能模块、开发语言 ABAP 及开发方法,通过例举项目实施中的实例详细说明了 SAP 系统二次开发的技术方法及要点。

  8. Evaluating community fishery management in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, K. B.; Elliott, V.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Hannah, L.; Bond, N.; Seng, R.; Farrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Cambodian government has reformed its fresh water fishery policy in 2012 on the Tonle Sap Great Lake. Before 2012, fishing was directly managed by the central government through fishing lot system. After 2012, lot system was abolished and a system of community fisheries (CF) was started. After the reform of fishery policy, the environment of the lake, fish resources as well as livelihoods of people dependent on the lake might have changed. In this context, using the recently conducted household survey of 800 respondents across the lake, this study assesses the impact of the reform, the differences in the involvement of inhabitants before and after the reform, and the benefits that fishers are obtaining compared to prior to reform as well as any differences in associated costs for the fishers before and after reform. The approach is to compare the differences for indicators such as lake water, lake environment including flooded forest, conservation zone, whether the inhabitants are obtaining additional socioeconomic benefits such as including more fish catch, less fishing related costs and time, more employment/engagements in fishery related activities, or social engagements. What are the limitations or whether fishers are not obtaining better than they used to get prior to fishery reform? By doing so, this study helps to quantify the environmental and economic trade-offs associated with before and after the fishery reform. This will help for the policy decision makers to plan a better fishery management system for the Tonle Sap Lake, thereby minimizing the environmental and economic impact of fishery resources management.

  9. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  10. Reconstruction of the past flow channels in the early Holocene at Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Shimoda, I.

    2013-05-01

    Lake Tonle Sap is located at the central part of Cambodia, South-East Asia. In rainy season, the water body swells with the water depth accordingly increasing from 1 up to 10 meters due to a pulsive intrusion from the Mekong River. The lake is therefore a vital reservoir that protects the region from flooding. It is paleolimnologically important to better understand how the lake has gained the function controlling water balance of this region. We undertook an extensive echo-sounding exploration at the lake in order to clarify the subsurface structure of Lake Tonle Sap. The survey was conducted in rainy seasons from 2009 to 2012. Sediment cores were collected at three sites at the middle part of the lake. Echo sounding was undertaken over the whole part of the lake using a single-channel sub-bottom profiling system (Stratabox, SyQwest Inc.). A prominent sound frequency of 10 KHz was selected in order to observe structure of reflectance planes up to the 40-m depth. In consequence, we discovered deposited valleys forming a complex network of past flow channels. The subsurface structure of the lake bed was mostly complacent showing a strongly reflecting plane observed at the depth of 1-2 meters; the sediments mainly consisted of mud. A number of valley-shaped reflecting planes were observed at the depth of 10-14 meters. Radiocarbon dates of carbonaceous materials collected at the vally bottom were around 10 ka calBP. A 3-D reconstruction presented a complex network of deposited flow channels.

  11. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  12. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  13. Projecte d'implantació del sistema de gestió empresarial SAP R/3

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova Mateu, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Projecte d'implantació del sistema SAP R/3 que inclou les fases d'anàlisi i de disseny funcional. Proyecto de implantación del sistema SAP R/3 que incluye las fases de análisis y de diseño funcional.

  14. Distinct changes in soybean xylem sap proteome in response to pathogenic and symbiotic microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Un-Haing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant systemic signaling characterized by the long distance transport of molecules across plant organs involves the xylem and phloem conduits. Root-microbe interactions generate systemic signals that are transported to aerial organs via the xylem sap. We analyzed the xylem sap proteome of soybean seedlings in response to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions to identify systemic signaling proteins and other differentially expressed proteins. Results We observed the increase of a serine protease and peroxidase in the xylem sap in response to Phytophthora sojae elicitor treatment. The high molecular weight fraction of soybean xylem sap was found to promote the growth of Neurospora crassa in vitro at lower concentrations and inhibit growth at higher concentrations. Sap from soybean plants treated with a P. sojae elicitor had a significantly higher inhibitory effect than sap from control soybean plants. When soybean seedlings were inoculated with the symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the abundance of a xyloglucan transendoglycosyl transferase protein increased in the xylem sap. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of the corresponding gene did not significantly affect nodulation in soybean hairy root composite plants. Conclusion Our study identified a number of sap proteins from soybean that are differentially induced in response to B. japonicum and P. sojae elicitor treatments and a majority of them were secreted proteins.

  15. Optimization of dry - season sap flow measurements in an oak semi - arid open woodland in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes-Acosta, J.L.; Lubczynski, M.

    2014-01-01

    In sap flow studies, there is no method complying with high efficiency and versatility of sap flow measurements. To improve that, we propose combining two methods: (1) thermal dissipation probe (TDP) known to be efficient and cost effective and (2) heat field deformation (HFD) known to be versatile.

  16. SAP: structure, function, and its roles in immune-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dan; Luo, TianTian; Xiong, Haowei; Liu, Jichen; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Hou, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), also known as pentraxin-2, is a member of the pentraxin protein family with an established relationship to the immune response. In the last century, SAP has been used as a diagnostic marker in amyloidosis diagnosis and patient follow-up. SAP has been thought to have potential for treating and curing amyloidosis and fibrosis diseases. More recently, it has been shown that SAP may serve as both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for many immune-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, nephritic, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In the cardiovascular system, SAP has been defined as the culprit in amyloidosis in the heart. SAP may also exert a protective role during the early stage of atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. In noncardiovascular system diseases, SAP is being developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize SAP history, structure, and its roles in immune-related diseases in different systems with emphasis on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-03-30

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  18. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  19. The Analysis and Application on JCO Accessing SAP R/3 Interface%JCO访问SAP R/3接口分析与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛启光

    2011-01-01

    SAP R/3是知名的ERP软件,它提供了先进的接口技术,基于JAVA平台的管理信息系统要实现与SAP互访需要通过SAP提供的JCO组件.介绍了SAP R/3目前流行的3种接口技术,以及通过JCO如何访问R/3接口.

  20. Evaluasi Implementasi SAP Modul Material Management: Studi Kasus pada PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is a necessity for a company to help solve problems in business transactions management. SAP application is an application that is able to provide solutions to such problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the running business processes on the Material Management module;evaluate the performance of the running SAP systems associated with the implementation and maintenance of SAP applications as well as to give sugestions based on the development of evaluation results obtained, in terms of business processes, performance, and financial. Utilized for analysis is IT Balanced Scorecard method, while ASAP (Accelerated SAP method is used for the system development. This study produced an analysis of the evaluation of the enterprise business processes in implementing the SAP development of ERP system modulesMaterial Management.

  1. Diurnal and seasonal variability in radial distribution of sap flux density: Implications for estimating stand transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    Daily and seasonal patterns in radial distribution of sap flux density were monitored in six trees differing in social position in a mixed coniferous stand dominated by silver fir (Abies alba Miller) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in the Alps of northeastern Italy. Radial distribution of sap flux was measured with arrays of 1-cm-long Granier probes. The radial profiles were either Gaussian or decreased monotonically toward the tree center, and seemed to be related to social position and crown distribution of the trees. The ratio between sap flux estimated with the most external sensor and the mean flux, weighted with the corresponding annulus areas, was used as a correction factor (CF) to express diurnal and seasonal radial variation in sap flow. During sunny days, the diurnal radial profile of sap flux changed with time and accumulated photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), with an increasing contribution of sap flux in the inner sapwood during the day. Seasonally, the contribution of sap flux in the inner xylem increased with daily cumulative PAR and the variation of CF was proportional to the tree diameter, ranging from 29% for suppressed trees up to 300% for dominant trees. Two models were developed, relating CF with PAR and tree diameter at breast height (DBH), to correct daily and seasonal estimates of whole-tree and stand sap flow obtained by assuming uniform sap flux density over the sapwood. If the variability in the radial profile of sap flux density was not accounted for, total stand transpiration would be overestimated by 32% during sunny days and 40% for the entire season.

  2. Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps, an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF group (p < 0.05. Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05. The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001, while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029. It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC.

  3. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  4. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol D. von Dohlen; Usha Spaulding; Kistie B. Patch; Kathryn M. Weglarz; Robert G. Foottit; Nathan P. Havill; Gaelen R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce...

  5. 49 CFR 40.307 - What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in prescribing the... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.307 What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests? (a) As a SAP, for each employee who has committed a DOT drug or alcohol regulation violation, and...

  6. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...

  7. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  8. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You must...

  9. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed to...

  10. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) for a Renewable Energy Project on... Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) pursuant to the regulations governing renewable energy... lessee or grantee must submit a SAP or a GAP. BOEM is taking this action because the current regulations...

  11. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118 ...

  12. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... under the T-SAP, established in Notice JO 7210.807 which will be incorporated in FAA Order JO 7200.20... voluntarily provide information to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address...

  13. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  14. Mechanical behaviour analyses of sap ascent in vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis; Garcia-Prada, Juan-Carlos; Romera-Juarez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    A pure mechanical anisotropic model of a tree trunk has been developed based on the 3D finite element method. It simulates the microscopic structure of vessels in the trunk of a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in order to study and analyse its mechanical behaviour with different configurations of pressures in the conduits of xylem and phloem. The dependence of the strains at the inner bark was studied when sap pressure changed. The comparison with previously published experimental data leads to the conclusion that a great tensile stress—or ‘negative pressure’—must exist in the water column in order to achieve the measured strains if only the mechanical point of view is taken into account. Moreover, the model can help to design experiments where qualitatively knowing the strains and the purely mechanical behaviour of the tree is required. PMID:21886343

  15. Gain Real Visibility of SAP Shop Floor Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S. Muthu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main functionality and design aspects for the integration between MES and SAP r /3 systems. Massive product types, faster cycle times, smaller inventory buffers, increased customer expectations, less tolerance for errors and heightenedcompetition. More than ever, we need to manage rapid change and reduce costs at the same time. Today, the most promising way to meet these challenges is to increase coordination between enterprise and production systems. Start with existing or optional connectivity capability in our ERP systems such as SAP’s XI or xMII or usingXML or other standard protocol. Next, we create a functional specification that includes compliance with ISA/ANSI S95, GAMP and other standards, depending on our situation and preferences. Then wecreate an interface to our plant systems using proven open standard solutions.

  16. SAP推出基于Linux的SAP Business One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    7月6日,SAP公司宣布推出基于Linux操作系统的SAP Business One解决方案。这是专门为中国中小型企业量身定制的一款完整而又经济的企业管理解决方案,旨在满足中国市场上中小企业对Linux解决方案的需求。它的推出延续了SAP为用户提供灵活解决方案的承诺,可为客户使用IT平台提供一个开放而自由的选择。

  17. Assessing the thermal dissipation sap flux density method for monitoring cold season water transport in seasonally snow-covered forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R; Phillips, Nathan

    2017-07-01

    Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cloning, expression and cellular localization of Daphnia pulex senescence-associated protein, DpSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ajing; Kong, Ling; Zhang, Mingqing; Wu, Donglei; Wang, Danli; Zhao, Yunlong

    2014-01-25

    Daphnia (water fleas) are small crustaceans that undergo an unusual switch from asexual to sexual reproduction that is dependent on environmental conditions. In this study, a senescence-associated protein (SAP) from the common freshwater species Daphnia pulex was cloned using primers based on homologous sequences and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Real-time PCR was employed to quantify the expression of D. pulex SAP (DpSAP) in individual organisms. The role of DpSAP in the reproductive transformation was further investigated in both parthenogenetic and sexual females by using digoxin-labeled SAP RNA probes and RNA whole-mount in situ hybridization. DpSAP was more highly expressed in sexual females, indicating a role in growth and reproduction. Cellular localization studies using RNA whole-mount in situ hybridization showed specific expression in the second tentacle joints. These expression patterns suggest an important role for DpSAP in the reproductive transformation of D. pulex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Haemophilus ducreyi SapA contributes to cathelicidin resistance and virulence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Kristy L B; Townsend, Carisa A; Rinker, Sherri D; Gu, Xiaoping; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth W; Janowicz, Diane M; Spinola, Stanley M; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E

    2010-03-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is an extracellular pathogen of human epithelial surfaces that resists human antimicrobial peptides (APs). The organism's genome contains homologs of genes sensitive to antimicrobial peptides (sap operon) in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. In this study, we characterized the sap-containing loci of H. ducreyi 35000HP and demonstrated that sapA is expressed in broth cultures and H. ducreyi-infected tissue; sapA is also conserved among both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains. We constructed a nonpolar sapA mutant of H. ducreyi 35000HP, designated 35000HPsapA, and compared the percent survival of wild-type 35000HP and 35000HPsapA exposed to several human APs, including alpha-defensins, beta-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Unlike an H. influenzae sapA mutant, strain 35000HPsapA was not more susceptible to defensins than strain 35000HP was. However, we observed a significant decrease in the survival of strain 35000HPsapA after exposure to LL-37, which was complemented by introducing sapA in trans. Thus, the Sap transporter plays a role in resistance of H. ducreyi to LL-37. We next compared mutant strain 35000HPsapA with strain 35000HP for their ability to cause disease in human volunteers. Although both strains caused papules to form at similar rates, the pustule formation rate at sites inoculated with 35000HPsapA was significantly lower than that of sites inoculated with 35000HP (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007). Together, these data establish that SapA acts as a virulence factor and as one mechanism for H. ducreyi to resist killing by antimicrobial peptides. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanism contributes to bacterial virulence in humans.

  20. Management of setpoint information using SAP-PM; Gerenciamento das informacoes de setpoints usando o SAP-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is always a challenge to assure that the set points of field instruments and valves (e.g., transmitters, regulator valves, shut off valves, safety valves, etc) are adjusted in conformity either to the originally designed values or the ones established by the operations team, specially when multiple teams are involved in the activity. In such circumstances, keeping these values updated on proper data sheets is also a defying task. The correct information is essential to the Control Room operators and its accuracy is a step ahead towards operational availability and safety. TBG, through CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) - SAP R/3, PM Module, developed a set of automated tools to integrate data from different environments (reports, handhelds, workflows and procedures), thus allowing allow a better control over the set point adjustment process. (author)

  1. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan Peter

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  2. Parametric study of the absorption cross section for a moderately conducting thin cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Bruce, Charles W.

    1995-05-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section for a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths of the fibers considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 mu m. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  3. SAP HANA技术研究与应用实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天

    2016-01-01

    通过对SAP HANA存储结构和工作原理的分析,结合大港油田ERP系统运行实际,论述了SAP报表加速技术、方案设计与实现方法,分析利用SAP HANA实施提升重要报表访问速度,支持企业决策;SAP HANA技术改变了传统数据应用模式,为企业ERP深化应用提供了典型案例.

  4. Protein folding of the SAP domain, a naturally occurring two-helix bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charlotte A; Arbely, Eyal

    2015-07-01

    The SAP domain from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tho1 protein is comprised of just two helices and a hydrophobic core and is one of the smallest proteins whose folding has been characterised. Φ-value analysis revealed that Tho1 SAP folds through a transition state where helix 1 is the most extensively formed element of secondary structure and flickering native-like core contacts from Leu35 are also present. The contacts that contribute most to native state stability of Tho1 SAP are not formed in the transition state.

  5. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  6. Sapfluxnet: a global database of sap flow measurements to unravel the ecological factors of transpiration regulation in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Steppe, Kathy; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Plant transpiration is one of the main components of the global water cycle, it controls land energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and exerts strong feedbacks on regional and global climate. At the same time, plant productivity, growth and survival are severely constrained by water availability, which is expected to decline in many areas of the world because of global-change driven increases in drought conditions. While global surveys of drought tolerance traits at the organ level are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the diversity in plant functional strategies to cope with drought stress, a whole-plant perspective of drought vulnerability is still lacking. Sap flow measurements using thermal methods have now been applied to measure seasonal patterns in water use and the response of transpiration to environmental drivers across hundreds of species of woody plants worldwide, covering a wide range of climates, soils and stand structural characteristics. Here, we present the first effort to build a global database of sub-daily, tree-level sap flow (SAPFLUXNET) that will be used to improve our understanding of physiological and structural determinants of plant transpiration and to further investigate the role of vegetation in controlling global water balance. We already have the expression of interest of data contributors representing >115 globally distributed sites, > 185 species and > 700 trees, measured over at least one growing season. However, the potential number of available sites and species is probably much higher given that > 2500 sap flow-related papers have been identified in a Scopus literature search conducted in November 2015. We will give an overview of how data collection, harmonisation and quality control procedures are implemented within the project. We will also discuss potential analytical strategies to synthesize hydroclimatic controls on sap flow into biologically meaningful traits related to whole-plant transpiration

  7. Potencials of sap flow evaluation by means of acoustic emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with measurement techniques of water conducting system in the trees. Water conducting system (including xylem and phloem indicates its importance for related physiological processes. There are still problems how to measure its functioning (which variables and how, especially in the open field (e.g., forests and orchards in order to get maximum information about it. Simple band dendrometers measuring seasonal dynamics of stem growth have been already applied for many years, being gradually replaced by their more sophisticated electronic versions most recently. The sap flow is a suitable variable, because it links roots and crowns and provide information about transporting the largest amount of mass in plants, which can be decisive for their behavior. Following pioneering work in the last century (Huber, 1932, many types of sap flow measurement methods based on a variety of principles (e.g., thermodynamic, electric, magneto-hydrodynamic, nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. have been described. Only a few of these, particularly those based on thermodynamics, have been widely used in field-grown trees. E.g., heat pulse velocity system developed by Green (1998 and Cohen et al. (1981. Heat ratio method also works with pulses, but interpreted the data in more sophisticated way (Burgess, 2001. Widely used is a simple heat-dissipation method (Granier, 1985. Direct electric heating and internal sensing of temperature was applied in the trunk heat balance method (Čermák et al., 1973, 1976, 1982, 2004; Kučera et al., 1977; Tatarinov et al., 2005. The heat field deformation method is based on measurement of the deformation of the heat field around a needle-like linear heater (Nadezhdina et al., 1998, 2002, 2006; Čermák et al., 2004.Another important variable is water potential, which could be measured in the past only periodically on selected pieces of plant material using pressure (Scholander bomb, but most recently also continuous

  8. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP

  9. Research and Application of ERP Technology Based on SAP R/3%基于SAP R/3的ERP技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘昊; 易泽湘; 孙秀红; 易锦华; 王晓勇

    2006-01-01

    结合钢铁制造行业信息化建设的特点,介绍了客户/服务器领域标准商务应用软件SAP R/3 ,并利用SAP R/3 ERP系统自带的ABAP/4(Advanced Business Application Programming/4) 开发平台,对某钢铁公司ERP系统的物料管理、销售与分销、管理会计和财务会计四个模块进行了二次开发,使得二次开发后的ERP系统与原SAP R/3 ERP系统实现无缝结合.

  10. Nitrogen Under- and Over-supply Induces Distinct Protein Responses in Maize Xylem Sap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengsong Liao; Renyi Liu; Fusuo Zhang; Chunjian Li; Xuexian Li

    2012-01-01

    Xylem sap primarily transports water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N) from roots to shoots in vascular plants.However,it remains largely unknown how nitrogenous compounds,especially proteins in xylem sap,respond to N under- or over-supply.We found that reducing N supply increased amino-N percentage of total N in maize (Zea mays L.) xylem sap.Proteomic analysis showed that 23 proteins in the xylem sap of maize plants,including 12 newly identified ones,differentially accumulated in response to various N supplies.Fifteen of these 23 proteins were primarily involved in general abiotic or biotic stress responses,whereas the other five proteins appeared to respond largely to N under- or over-supply,suggesting distinct protein responses in maize xylem upon N under- and over-supply.Furthermore,one putative xylanase inhibitor and two putative O-glycosyl hydrolases had preferential gene expression in shoots.

  11. SAP HANA在信息处理领域应用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗保山

    2012-01-01

      SAP HANA 是一个基于“列式存储”及“内存计算技术”的软硬件结合体,通过处理在服务器主存储器上的大量实时数据,获得分析和交易的即时结果,为客户即时洞察、预计未来和行动决策间的贯通提供持续的支持。本文从 SAP HANA 的研究内容、典型应用以及发展等方面出发,对 SAP HANA 应用和发展的基本思想作了介绍,分析了 SAP HANA 应用的优势和可靠性。

  12. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  13. Nitrogen compounds in the apoplastic sap of sugarcane stem: some implications in the association with endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noel; Ortega, Eduardo; Rodes, Rosa; Lluch, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Several nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified in the apoplastic and symplastic sap of sugarcane stems. The sap of stems was composed mainly of soluble sugars, which constituted 95% of the total organic compounds detected. Sap also contained nitrogen compounds, with amino acids (50-70% of N) and proteins (20-30% of N), being the main nitrogenous substances, as well as inorganic forms as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, in low concentrations (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. The total amino acid content of apoplastic sap was six to nine times lower in non-nitrogen fertilized plants than in fertilized ones. The possible roles of these substances to regulate endophytic associations with sugarcane are also discussed.

  14. Comparison of two simplified severity scores (SAPS and APACHE II) for patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R; Soupison, T; Vauquelin, P; Derrida, S; Beaucour, H; Sicot, C

    1989-05-01

    The Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), the Acute Physiology Score (APS), and the Coronary Prognostic Index (CPI), calculated within the first 24 h of ICU admission, were compared in 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixteen (21%) patients subsequently died in the ICU. The nonsurvivors had significantly higher SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI scores than the survivors. ROC curves drawn for each severity index were in a discriminating position. There were no significant differences either between the areas under the ROC curves drawn for SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI, or between the overall accuracies of these indices. APS provided less homogeneous information. We conclude that SAPS and APACHE II, two severity indices which are easy to use, assess accurately the short-term prognosis, i.e., the ICU outcome, of patients with AMI.

  15. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  16. Mechanical properties of Concrete with SAP. Part I: Development of compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    The development of mechanical properties has been studied in a test program comprising 15 different concrete mixes with 3 different w/c ratios and different additions of superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The degree of hydration is followed for 15 corresponding paste mixes. This paper concerns...... compressive strength. It shows that results agree well with a model based on the following: 1. Concrete compressive strength is proportional to compressive strength of the paste phase 2. Paste strength depends on gel space ratio, as suggested by Powers 3. The influence of air voids created by SAP...... on compressive strength can be accounted for in the same way as when taking the air content into account in Bolomeys formula. The implication of the model is that at low w/c ratios (w/c SAP additions, SAP increases the compressive strength at later ages (from 3 days after casting and onwards...

  17. Mechanical properties of Concrete with SAP. Part I: Development of compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    The development of mechanical properties has been studied in a test program comprising 15 different concrete mixes with 3 different w/c ratios and different additions of superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The degree of hydration is followed for 15 corresponding paste mixes. This paper concerns...... compressive strength. It shows that results agree well with a model based on the following: 1. Concrete compressive strength is proportional to compressive strength of the paste phase 2. Paste strength depends on gel space ratio, as suggested by Powers 3. The influence of air voids created by SAP...... on compressive strength can be accounted for in the same way as when taking the air content into account in Bolomeys formula. The implication of the model is that at low w/c ratios (w/c SAP additions, SAP increases the compressive strength at later ages (from 3 days after casting and onwards...

  18. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of damage, food attractants and population dynamics of strawberry sap beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari,Rodrigo A; Machota Junior,Ruben; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Pastori,Patrik Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry sap beetle [Lobiopa insularis (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)] is one of the most important pests of strawberry crops. This study aimed to determine the relationship between strawberry fruit maturation stages and the feeding of sap beetle in laboratory and to evaluate food attractants and population dynamics of this species during the crop season. To evaluate the feeding preference of strawberry fruits 'Camarosa' at different maturation stages [green (G), semi-ripe (SM) a...

  20. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  1. Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M. Soledad; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Morales, Domingo

    2000-11-01

    Variations in radial patterns of xylem water content and sap flow rate were measured in five laurel forest tree species (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Myrica faya Ait., Erica arborea L. and Ilex perado Ait. ssp. platyphylla (Webb & Berth.) Tutin) growing in an experimental plot at Agua García, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Measurements were performed around midday during warm and sunny days by the heat field deformation method. In all species, water content was almost constant (around 35% by volume) over the whole xylem cross-sectional area. There were no differences in wood color over the whole cross-sectional area of the stem in most species with the exception of E. arborea, whose wood became darker in the inner layers. Radial patterns of sap flow were highly variable and did not show clear relationships with tree diameter or species. Sap flow occurred over the whole xylem cross-sectional area in some species, whereas it was limited to the outer xylem layers in others. Sap flow rate was either similar along the xylem radius or exhibited a peak in the outer part of the xylem area. Low sap flow rates with little variation in radial pattern were typical for shaded suppressed trees, whereas dominant trees exhibited high sap flow rates with a peak in the radial pattern. Stem damage resulted in a significant decrease in sap flow rate in the outer xylem layers. The outer xylem is more important for whole tree water supply than the inner xylem because of its larger size. We conclude that measurement of radial flow pattern provides a reliable method of integrating sap flow from individual measuring points to the whole tree.

  2. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1(G93A) rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; pSAP: 64±10%, n=10 vs. 60±13; n=8; p>0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alan D. (Editor); Kochel, R. Craig (Editor); Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

  4. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  5. Application of Sap2000 in Pushover Analysis of Bridge%Sap 2000在桥梁结构Pushover分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦峰; 魏翠玲

    2006-01-01

    阐述了Sap 2000程序中的Pushover方法的基本原理和方法,给出桥梁Pushover分析的实现步骤,最后用一个双柱墩结构实例予以说明.结果表明,Sap 2000程序可以较方便的实现桥梁结构的Pushover分析,且Pushover方法可以对一般桥梁结构的抗震性能做出合理的评价.

  6. Vertical foliage distribution determines the radial pattern of sap flux density in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the causes determining the radial pattern of sap flux density is important both for improving knowledge of sapwood functioning and for up-scaling sap flow measurements to canopy transpiration and ecosystem water use. To investigate the anatomical connection between whorls and annual sapwood rings, pruning-induced variation in the radial pattern of sap flux density was monitored with Granier probes in a 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst tree that was pruned from the crown bottom up. Modifications in the radial pattern of sap flux density were quantified by a shape index (SI), which varies with the relative contribution of the outer and inner sapwood to tree transpiration. The SI progressively diminished during bottom up pruning, indicating a significant reduction in sap flow contribution of the inner sapwood. Results suggest that the radial pattern of sap flux density depends mainly on the vertical distribution of foliage in the crown, with lower shaded branches hydraulically connected with inner sapwood and upper branches connected with the outer rings.

  7. Sap flow of the major tree species in the eastern mountainous region in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Huizhen; SUN Long; WANG Chuankuan; ZHOU Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on Quercus mongolica,Fraxinus mandshurica, Phellodendron amurense,Juglans mandshurica,Tilia amurensis,and Pinus koraiensis trees of the same age (12 years) and seedling origin under the same site conditions.The sap flow density,water consumption,and related environmental factors were also measured using thermal dissipation method and ICT-2000TE (Transpiration-Environment) automatic measuring system for tree transpiration and environmental factors.On clear days during the growing season,the sap flow density exhibited mono-peak diurnal patterns,mostly between 10:00 and 14:00,except for Phellodendron amurense,whose sap flow showed two peaks during the daytime three times.The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the major factors influencing diurnal changes in sap flow,which explained 60%-74% variations in sap flow density for all species except Phellodendron amurense.Maximum sap flow densities for F.mandshurica,Phellodendron amurense,Q.mongolica,J.mandshurica,T.amurensis,and Pinus koraiensis were 516.36,234.00,625.93,945.83,507.93,and 286.21 July,respectively.Water consumption during the whole growing season for J.mandshurica, T.amurensis,F.mandshurica,Pinus koraiensis,Phellodendron amurense,and Q.mongolica was 3,840,2,820,2,710,2,120,1,470,and 1,390 kg/sapling,respectively.

  8. Isolation and characterization of SAP and CRP, two pentraxins from Pangasianodon (Pangasius) hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong Giang, Duong Thi; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    From the serum of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, two proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on Sepharose and phosphorylcholine-Sepharose. Their binding on the affinity matrices critically depends on the presence of Ca2+ ions. N-terminal sequencing and sequencing of internal tryptic peptides identified the proteins as pentraxins and from their binding properties they are identified as SAP (serum amyloid P component) and CRP (C-reactive protein). Per ml serum, 36 microg SAP and 56 microg CRP was purified. Upon gel filtration, both the SAP and CRP elute as trimers of respectively 24 kDa and 28 kDa subunits. Both proteins are devoid of inter-chain disulfide bonds. Both SAP and CRP are glycosylated and agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, but not Micrococcus lysodeikticus or Escherichia coli. Haemagglutination of SAP and CRP is inhibited by galactose (MIC = 1 mM) and by phosphorylcholine (MIC = 1-2 mM), respectively. Circular dichroism studies revealed that antiparallel beta-pleated sheets are dominating the secondary structure. Upon removing the Ca(2+) ions by EDTA, slight structural changes are observed by CD spectroscopy in the near-UV region. Immunodiffusion shows that P. hypophthalmus SAP and CRP do not cross-react.

  9. Seasonal sap flow of four Salix varieties growing on the Solvay wastebeds in Syracuse, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Volk, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow of four shrub willow varieties was measured to study their potential use as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover on the Solvay wastebeds to reduce deep percolation and leaching of chloride. Stem and stand-level sap flow and crop coefficients (K(c)) were different among four willow varieties measured between early June and mid November 2006. Diameter and cross sectional area had a significant impact on stand level sap flow. Peak stand-level sap flow of 7 mm d(-1) occurred in June, due to coupling of the willow with the atmosphere, and not in July or August when peak LAI was measured. The coupling also resulted in high K(c) values of 3 in June and above 2 in October with an average of 1.1-1.3 for the entire season. Our measurements confirmed the potentials of shrub willow in ET cover applications in the northeastern USA. Total transpiration for the growing season ranged between 494 mm and 533 mm, which was about 45% of the precipitation in 2006. Our calculations showed a significant difference between peak season sap flow in June, July and August and sap flow over the course of the whole growing season, which showed the need for long-term measurements.

  10. A simple, novel and high efficiency sap inoculation method to screen for tobacco streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresha, S; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Balol, Gurupada B; Keshavareddy, G; Rangaswamy, K T; Udayakumar, M

    2012-10-01

    A rapid and efficient sap inoculation method for tobacco streak virus (TSV) was developed in sunflower. Sap from TSV-infected sunflower plants was freshly extracted in phosphate buffer and diluted serially from 10(-1) to 10(-8). Two-day old seedlings of sunflower were injured at the meristem and immersed in the sap for 10 min, maintained at 20 °C for 2-3 days and shifted to greenhouse. The surviving seedlings in the respective sap dilution were scored for symptoms of sunflower necrosis disease (SND). SND symptoms were seen in 80 % of the seedlings inoculated with a sap dilution of 10(-5). ELISA and RT-PCR analysis of coat protein and movement protein of TSV confirmed SND symptoms. The methodology was also found to be reproducible when the sap from the infected plants was inoculated onto healthy plants. The main aim of the study was to develop a primary screening strategy for the selection of transgenics developed for SND resistance. This methodology can also be extended for the analysis of resistance against other viruses.

  11. Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuge, Duncan O; Negrini, Renata; Nyakundi, Livine O; Kuate, Serge P; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Muiru, William M; Torto, Baldwyn; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.

  12. Sap flow of Castanopsis jianfengensis and its relationship with environmental factors in a tropical montane rainforest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using thermal dissipation and the ICT-2000TE equipment made in Australia,the sap flow of Castanopsis jianfengensis and various environmental factors were measured simultaneously in a mixed tropical montane rainforest at Jianfengling Nature Forest Reserve (18°36'N,108°52'E,860 m elevation) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2002.The results show that sap flow velocity of C jianfengensis exhibited a monopeak pattern on clear days and a multi-peak pattern on cloudy or rainy days.Sap flow velocity had significant positive correlations with solar radiation,air temperature,vapor pressure deficit and wind speed and a negative correlation with air relative humidity.In the dry season,sap flow velocity had a significant positive correlation with soil temperature and poor correlation with soil moisture;it was the opposite in the rainy season,indicating that precipitation clearly affected sap flow.Linear regression models between sap flow and environmental factors were established and were significant at the 0.005 level of probability.The mean transpiration rates of C.jianfengensis were 103.5 and 41.3 kg/d in our single tree and 1.94 and 0.77 mm/d in stand level in the dry and rainy season,respectively.

  13. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  14. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality.

  15. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  16. Change readiness for SAP in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Lou; Downer, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The study described in this article was designed to assess the change readiness for e-business cost management systems (particularly SAP) within the Canadian healthcare system. Previous studies and experts suggest that change readiness is an important variable in the application of e-business cost management system implementation. One hundred and fifty-four chief executive officers within the Canadian healthcare system were surveyed. The response rate was 25.9 percent. The survey included a demographic sheet, which supported a better understanding of the profile of Canadian healthcare CEOs, their operational budget responsibilities, and their feelings toward e-business cost management systems. A change readiness instrument reviewed CEOs' change readiness scores in relation to four independent variables (implementation of an e-business cost management system, healthcare restructuring, budget size and tenure of the CEO). There was a significant difference between change readiness scores and the implementation of an e-business cost management system. Given the small sample size (n = 40), findings are limited. However the study offers more information on this issue than is found in the Canadian healthcare literature to date.

  17. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  18. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  19. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B; Tangye, Stuart G

    2011-11-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  20. Non-Linear Pushover Analysis of Flatslab Building by using Sap2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soni Priya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent earthquakes in which many concrete structures have been severely damaged or collapsed, have indicated the need for evaluating the seismic adequacy of existing buildings. About 60% of the land area of our country is susceptible to damaging levels of seismic hazard. We can’t avoid future earthquakes, but preparedness and safe building construction practices can certainly reduce the extent of damage and loss. In order to strengthen and resist the buildings for future earthquakes, some procedures have to be adopted. One of the procedures is the static pushover analysis which is becoming a popular tool for seismic performance evaluation of existing and new structures. By conducting this push over analysis, we can know the weak zones in the structure and then we will decide whether the particular part is retrofitted or rehabilitated according to the requirement. In this paper we are performing the push over analysis on flat slabs by using most common software SAP2000.Many existing flat slab buildings may not have been designed for seismic forces. Hence it is important to study their response under seismic conditions and to evaluate seismic retrofit schemes. But when compared to beam-column connections, flat slabs are becoming popular and gaining importance as they are economica.

  1. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  2. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  3. Targeting and cytotoxicity of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Chu

    Full Text Available Only a small number of promising drugs target pancreatic cancer, which is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths with a 5-year survival of less than 5%. Our goal is to develop a new biotherapeutic agent in which a lysosomal protein (saposin C, SapC and a phospholipid (dioleoylphosphatidylserine, DOPS are assembled into nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS for treating pancreatic cancer. A distinguishing feature of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles is their high affinity for phosphatidylserine (PS rich microdomains, which are abnormally exposed on the membrane surface of human pancreatic tumor cells. To evaluate the role of external cell PS, in vitro assays were used to correlate PS exposure and the cytotoxic effect of SapC-DOPS in human tumor and nontumorigenic pancreatic cells. Next, pancreatic tumor xenografts (orthotopic and subcutaneous models were used for tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies with systemic SapC-DOPS treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro by inducing apoptotic death, whereas untransformed cells remained unaffected. This in vitro cytotoxic effect correlated to the surface exposure level of PS on the tumor cells. Using xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS showed clear survival benefits and their tumors shrank or disappeared. Furthermore, using a double-tracking method in live mice, we showed that the nanovesicles were specifically targeted to orthotopically-implanted, bioluminescent pancreatic tumors. These data suggest that the acidic phospholipid PS is a biomarker for pancreatic cancer that can be effectively targeted for therapy utilizing cancer-selective SapC-DOPS nanovesicles. This study provides convincing evidence in support of developing a new therapeutic approach to pancreatic cancer.

  4. 49 CFR 40.301 - What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in the follow-up... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.301 What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee? (a) As a SAP, after you have prescribed assistance under § 40.293, you must re-evaluate the...

  5. How to Realize the Flexible Customization of SAP ERP Financial Statements%如何实现SAP ERP财务报表的灵活定制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成红伦; 裴奇; 范瑞辉

    2014-01-01

    如何使得一个不具备ABAP编程语言基础的财务用户能在SAP系统中快速有效地配置财务报表,并灵活定义输出格式,是许多实施SAP ERP系统的公司都会遇到的问题。本文介绍的财务模块报表定制功能旨在SAP ERP中构建一个可视化图形界面,在这个界面中定义报表、报表版本,以及每个版本的输出布局、报表行、报表列、报表单元格的取数逻辑等要素,使得用户在不使用编程工具的前提下实现报表的灵活定制。%Many companies will encounter such a problem in the implementation of SAP ERP system:how to make the financial users collocate financial statements in the SAP system quickly and effectively without ABAP programming language, and define the output format flexibly. This paper introduces the financial statement customization function to construct a visual interface in SAP ERP, which can define the statement, versions, output layout, statement line, statement column and statement cell, allowing the users to customize statement flexibly without programming.

  6. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  7. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (As(V)) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under As(V) stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. As(V) exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by As(V) exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, As(V) exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) As(V). No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high As(V) exposure. These results show that As(V) has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  8. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1(-/-)), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1(-/-) mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  10. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-07-05

    One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.

  11. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  12. Relationship between effective solar radiation and sap flow process during an entire growing season in Western Mountains of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jun-jiang; Ma Lv-yi

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between the time processes of solar radiation and sap flow, sap flow velocity (SFV) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,effective solar radiation (ESR) and other environmental factors wore synchronously monitored for one year in the Beijing Western Mountains by using a thermal dissipation probe (TDP) system and an automatic weather station. Results showed significant differences between changes in diurnal characteristics of ESR and sap flow in sunny days during three seasons. Starting times of sap flow occurred generally 1. 5-3 hours later than those of solar radiation and there were small differences between Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis. But peak times and stopping times of sap flow varied considerably with large contrasts in ESR. The duration of sap flow showed clear differences among the seasons owing to the variable rhythms of climate factors in Beijing. Fluctuation amplitude in the duration of sap flow remained relatively stable during the autumn but changed greatly during spring and summer. Changes in diurnal sap flow velocity of both Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were about 0-3 hours later than those of ESR but with the same configuration. The start of sap flow was mainly induced by the sudden intensification of ESR (sunrise effect). Seasonal models of SFV indicated that a cubic equation had the best fit. It Was more practical to simulate seasonal water consumption models of trees with ESR. In further investigations,these models should be optimized.

  13. SAP(E) - A cell-penetrating polyproline helix at lipid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short membrane-permeating amino acid sequences that can be used to deliver cargoes, e.g. drugs, into cells. The mechanism for CPP internalization is still subject of ongoing research. An interesting family of CPPs is the sweet arrow peptides - SAP(E) - which are known to adopt a polyproline II helical secondary structure. SAP(E) peptides stand out among CPPs because they carry a net negative charge while most CPPs are positively charged, the latter being conducive to electrostatic interaction with generally negatively charged membranes. For SAP(E)s, an internalization mechanism has been proposed, based on polypeptide aggregation on the cell surface, followed by an endocytic uptake. However, this process has not yet been observed directly - since peptide-membrane interactions are inherently difficult to monitor on a molecular scale. Here, we use sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy to investigate molecular interactions of SAP(E) with differently charged model membranes, in both mono- and bi-layer configurations. The data suggest that the initial binding mechanism is accompanied by structural changes of the peptide. Also, the peptide-model membrane interaction depends on the charge of the lipid headgroup with phosphocholine being a favorable binding site. Moreover, while direct penetration has also been observed for some CPPs, the spectroscopy reveals that for SAP(E), its interaction with model membranes remains limited to the headgroup region, and insertion into the hydrophobic core of the lipid layer does not occur.

  14. [Analysis of sap flow characteristics of the Chinese pine in typical Loess Plateau Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-dan; Wei, Wei; Chen, Li-ding; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lei; Jia, Fu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Transpiration is one of the major processes of water consumption. It is significant for nutrients transportation, plant development, drought stress alleviation and micro-climate amelioration. In this study, the artificially planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) was selected as an example to explore its transpiration characteristics, water-use strategies and the adaptability of the living environment in a typical loess hilly area of China. The results showed that: the sap flow rates of Chinese pine varied obviously in different seasons. The minimum sap flow rate occurred in April, followed by October, September and August, which was 0.024, 0.057, 0.062 and 0.071 mL x (cm2 x min)(-1), respectively. The rule of the diurnal variation of sap flow rate was regular, higher in daytime than at night. The flow rate was low during nighttime, but not zero. In rainfall events, the proportion of sap flow during nighttime was significantly increased, which was 3.9 times of that on sunny days, with 31.8% decrease in daytime. Chinese pine had great adaptability to unexpected climates. The variation trend of flow rate in the clod was similar to that on rainy days. The sap flow velocity was in great relevance with meteorological factors, with a declining order of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity, and atmospheric temperature.

  15. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods.

  16. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  17. SAP-MEDIATED INHIBITION OF DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE ALPHA REGULATES TCR-INDUCED DIACYLGLYCEROL SIGNALING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Pighini, Andrea; Bettio, Valentina; Rainero, Elena; Traini, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Song, Shuping; Schweighoffer, Tamas; Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Nichols, Kim E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Parolini, Ornella; Graziani, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) metabolize diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In T lymphocytes, DGKα acts as a negative regulator of TCR signaling by decreasing diacylglycerol levels and inducing anergy. Here, we show that upon co-stimulation of the TCR with CD28 or SLAM, DGKα, but not DGKζ, exit from the nucleus and undergoes rapid negative regulation of its enzymatic activity. Inhibition of DGKα is dependent on the expression of SAP, an adaptor protein mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is essential for SLAM-mediated signaling and contributes to TCR/CD28-induced signaling and T cell activation. Accordingly, over-expression of SAP is sufficient to inhibit DGKα, while SAP mutants unable to bind either phospho-tyrosine residues or SH3 domain are ineffective. Moreover phospholipase C activity and calcium, but not Src-family tyrosine kinases, are also required for negative regulation of DGKα. Finally, inhibition of DGKα in SAP-deficient cells partially rescues defective TCR/CD28 signaling, including Ras and ERK-1/2 activation, PKCθ membrane recruitment, induction of NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 production. Thus SAP-mediated inhibition of DGKα sustains diacylglycerol signaling, thereby regulating T cell activation and may represent a novel pharmacological strategy for XLP treatment. PMID:22048771

  18. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  19. De novo transcriptome assemblies of four xylem sap-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Erica E; Cowden, Charles C; Castle, S J

    2017-02-24

    Spittle bugs and sharpshooters are well-known xylem sap-feeding insects and vectors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells), a causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and other crop diseases. Specialized feeding on nutrient-deficient xylem sap is relatively rare among insect herbivores, and only limited genomic and transcriptomic information has been generated for xylem-sap feeders. To develop a more comprehensive understanding of biochemical adaptations and symbiotic relationships that support survival on a nutritionally austere dietary source, transcriptome assemblies for three sharpshooter species and one spittlebug species were produced. Trinity-based de novo transcriptome assemblies were generated for all four xylem-sap feeders using raw sequencing data originating from whole-insect preps. Total transcripts for each species ranged from 91,384 for Cuerna arida to 106,998 for Homalodisca liturata with transcript totals for Graphocephala atropunctata and the spittlebug Clastoptera arizonana falling in between. The percentage of transcripts comprising complete open reading frames ranged from 60 % for H. liturata to 82 % for C. arizonana . BUSCO analyses for each dataset indicated quality assemblies and a high degree of completeness for all four species. These four transcriptomes represent a significant expansion of data for insect herbivores that feed exclusively on xylem sap, a nutritionally deficient dietary source relative to other plant tissues and fluids. Comparison of transcriptome data with insect herbivores that utilize other dietary sources may illuminate fundamental differences in the biochemistry of dietary specialization.

  20. Dissolved atmospheric gas in xylem sap measured with membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K

    2016-04-01

    A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples.

  1. The correlation of virulence, pathogenicity, and itraconazole resistance with SAP activity in Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenli; Yang, Jing; Pan, Yanwei; Xi, Zhiqin; Qiao, Zusha; Ma, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between SAP2 activity and drug resistance in Candida albicans was investigated by using itraconazole-resistant and itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates. The precipitation zones were measured to analyze SAP2 activity. Mice were classified into itraconazole-resistant and -sensitive C. albicans isolate groups, and a control group, with their survival and mortality rate being observed over 30 days. The relative expression levels of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and SAP2 were measured using RT-PCR. It was found that the secreted aspartyl proteinase activity of itraconazole-resistant C. albicans strains was significantly higher than that of itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans strains (P albicans than for mice treated with itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans. In regards to the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups of mice. Positive correlations between SAP2 and MDR1 and between CDR1 and CDR2 were found. The high expression level of SAP2 may relate to the virulence, pathogenicity, and resistance of C. albicans.

  2. Dieldrin-dissolving abilities of the xylem saps of several plant families, particularly Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu

    2010-10-01

    The uptake ability of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plants and the nature of xylem sap of the plants were studied. The plants were grown in soil contaminated with dieldrin. High amounts of dieldrin were detected in the shoots of Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus, but little was seen in the shoots of Brassica oleracea var. italica, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Helianthus annuus. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus leached dieldrin adsorbed on C8 granules, but those of the other plants did not. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus eluted high amounts of dieldrin from the size-exclusion chromatography column near the fractions of RNase A (13.7 kDa) after Aprotinin (6.5 kDa), which has a larger molecular weight than dieldrin (381). The enhancement of dieldrin solubility by xylem sap was reduced by proteinase and heating. It was suspected that the protein-like materials in the xylem sap delivered dieldrin from the roots to the shoots. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2269-2277. © 2010 SETAC.

  3. Influências da variação sazonal e tipos de secagem nas características da droga vegetal - raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.S. Vigo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a variação sazonal e a influência de diferentes tipos de secagem (sol, sombra e estufa no teor de saponinas e nas características físico-químicas da droga vegetal - raízes de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae. A avaliação sazonal apontou a ocorrência de diferenças significativas nos teores de extrativos (maior no inverno: 61,1%±1,9, saponinas totais (maior no inverno: 17,1±0,2%, e entre cinzas totais (maiores no inverno e primavera: 6,5±0,4 e 6,5±1,0%, respectivamente e cinzas insolúveis em ácido(maiores no verão e outono: 0,57±0,11 e 0,44±0,18%, repectivamente. Quanto à variação sazonal do teor de saponinas, o valor do lote colhido no inverno foi maior do que nas outras estações, confirmando o conceito geral de maior ocorrência de ativos em órgãos subterrâneos no inverno. Quanto à influência dos métodos de secagem, o lote seco ao sol forneceu maior teor de extrativos (61,2±2,3% do que os lotes secos na sombra e em estufa, contradizendo a regra geral de que a radiação solar degrada os ativos vegetais. Esse mesmo perfil de dados ocorreu com relação ao teor de saponinas, pois o lote seco ao sol mostrou maior valor(15,4% do que daqueles secos na sombra ou em estufa (14,4 e 11,6%, respectivamente. Desta forma, verificou-se que, de fato, ocorre variação sazonal nas raízes de P. glomerata, particularmente, no que diz respeito aos teoes de extrativos, cinzas e saponinas totais, sendo que essas variações indicam maior concentração de ativos nos períodos de inverno e primavera. Dentre os métodos de secagem testados, o emprego do sol parece favorecer os teores de saponinas e de extrativos, embora tal conclusão mereça ser melhor investigada.

  4. Measurement and modelling of sap flow in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Florian; Biernath, Christian; Hoffmann, Peter; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change as well as the changing composition of the atmosphere will have an impact on future yield of agricultural plants. In order to better estimate these impacts new, mechanistic plant growth models are needed. These models should be able to dynamically reproduce the plants' reactions to modified climate state variables like temperature, atmospheric CO2-concentration and water availability. In particular, to better describe the crop response to more strongly changing water availability the simulation of plant-internal water and solute transport processes in xylem and phloem needs to be improved. Our existing water transport model consists of two coupled 1-D Richards equations to calculate water transport in the soil and in the plants. This model has already been successfully applied to single Fagus sylvatica L. trees. At present it is adapted to agricultural plants such as maize. To simulate the water transport within the plants a representation of the flow paths, i.e. the plant architecture, is required. Aboveground plant structures are obtained from terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements at different development stages. These TLSs have been executed at the lysimeter facilities of Helmholtz Zentrum München and at the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) research farm Scheyern. Additionally, an L-system model is used to simulate aboveground and belowground plant architectures. In a further step, the quality of the explicit water flow model has to be tested using measurements. The Heat-Ratio-Method has been employed to directly measure sap flow in larger maize plants during a two-months-period in summer 2013 with a resolution of 10 minutes and thus, the plants' transpiration can be assessed. Water losses from the soil are determined by measuring the weight of lysimeters. From this evapotranspiration can be calculated. Transpiration and evapotranspiration are also simulated by application of the modelling system Expert-N. This framework

  5. In vitro Candida albicans biofilm induced proteinase activity and SAP8 expression correlates with in vivo denture stomatitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Gordon; Coco, Brent; Sherry, Leighann; Bagg, Jeremy; Lappin, David F

    2012-07-01

    Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory disorder of the palatal mucosa amongst denture wearers. The pathological changes are induced by Candida albicans biofilm on the fitting surface of the upper denture, and different individuals experience different levels of disease. C. albicans is known to produce secreted aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) to aid adhesion, invasion and tissue destruction. We hypothesised that differential expression and activity of SAPs from denture stomatitis isolates results in different levels of disease amongst denture wearers. We selected C. albicans isolates from asymptomatic controls and three different severities of disease [Newton’s type (NT) 0, I, II and III]. We assessed biofilm formation and proteinase activity for each biofilm and investigated the transcriptional profile of SAPs 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8 from early (12 h) and mature (24 h) biofilms. There were no significant differences between isolates with respect to biofilm formation, whereas proteinase activity normalised to biofilm growth was significantly increased in the diseased groups (p < 0.0001). Proteinase activity correlated strongly with SAP expression (p < 0.0001). SAP8 expression was the greatest, followed by SAP5, 6, 2 and 1. The diseased groups showed the greatest levels of SAP expression, with significant differences also observed between the groups (p < 0.005). All SAPs except SAP5 were expressed in greater amounts in the mature biofilms compared to early biofilms. Overall, this study suggests that SAP activity in biofilms determined in vitro may help to explain differences in disease severity. SAP8 has been shown for the first time to play a prominent role in biofilms.

  6. A two-scale Stefan problem arising in a model for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Konrad, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2016-01-01

    The study of tree sap exudation, in which a (leafless) tree generates elevated stem pressure in response to repeated daily freeze-thaw cycles, gives rise to an interesting multi-scale problem involving heat and multiphase liquid/gas transport. The pressure generation mechanism is a cellular-level process that is governed by differential equations for sap transport through porous cell membranes, phase change, heat transport, and generation of osmotic pressure. By assuming a periodic cellular structure based on an appropriate reference cell, we derive an homogenized heat equation governing the global temperature on the scale of the tree stem, with all the remaining physics relegated to equations defined on the reference cell. We derive a corresponding strong formulation of the limit problem and use it to design an efficient numerical solution algorithm. Numerical simulations are then performed to validate the results and draw conclusions regarding the phenomenon of sap exudation, which is of great importance in...

  7. Logistic Core Operations with SAP Inventory Management, Warehousing, Transportation, and Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Kappauf, Jens; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    “Logistic Core Operations with SAP” not only provides an overview of core logistics processes and functionality—it also shows how SAP’s Business Suite covers logistic core operations, what features are supported, and which systems can be used to implement end-to-end processes in the following logistic core disciplines: Procurement, Distribution, Transportation, Warehouse Logistics and Inventory Management, and Compliance and Reporting. In this context the authors not only explain their integration, the organizational set-up, and master data, but also which solution fits best for a particular business need.   This book serves as a solid foundation for understanding SAP software. No matter whether you are a student or a manager involved in an SAP implementation, the authors go far beyond traditional function and feature descriptions, helping you ask the right questions, providing answers, and making recommendations. The book assists you in understanding SAP terminology, concepts and technological compo...

  8. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  9. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  10. Evaluation of staphylococcus aureus class C non-specific acid phosphatase (SapS) as a reporter for gene expression and protein secretion in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, EM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available using a cost-effective plate screen, quantitatively measured by a simple enzyme assay and detected with zymography, its potential use as a reporter system was investigated. The S. aureus acid phosphatase (sapS) gene has been cloned and expressed from its...

  11. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  12. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J.; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions. PMID:26870056

  13. Sap flow measurement in a street and park of a hot and arid city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Potchter, O.; Yaakov, Y.; Bar-Kutiel, P.; Tanny, J.

    2012-04-01

    Urban trees mitigate hot climate by shading, but also through transpirational cooling. Transpiration from urban trees can be a significant part of the urban energy budget, but is difficult to quantify. A direct method for measuring tree transpiration is through the use of sap flow sensors. Several methods have been developed for this, where the most common use heat as a tracer of sap flow. The most popular method among plant environmental ecologists is the thermal dissipation or 'Granier' method, the latter name for its inventor. In this method continuously heated and unheated sensors are inserted into the tree stem and the temperature difference between the two is roughly inversely proportional to sap flux density. Although the method can be accurate, sap flux density can be highly variable in the stem, depending on depth in the stem and azimuth. Inter-tree variation is also large, so a number of sensors per tree and a number of trees need to be monitored for accurate determinations. Finally, it is a good idea to calibrate the sensors for the configuration and species being monitored. We measured sap flow in a tree covered open mall and a city park in Beer Sheva, Israel - a hot and arid city. Trees that shaded the open mall were of the Delonix regia species while those in the park were Prosopis and Tamarix sp. Individual tree sap flux for large trees exceeded 100 liters on many of the days, equivalent to over 100 W m-2 at mid-day. This paper will discuss methodological issues as well as some of the results.

  14. External validation of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caler, C; García-Delgado, M; Carpio-Sanz, J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J; Aguilar-Alonso, E; Castillo-Lorente, E; Barrueco-Francioni, J E; Rivera-Fernández, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate SAPS 3 performance in Spain, assessing discrimination and calibration in a multicenter study. A prospective, multicenter study was carried out. A prospective cohort study was performed in Spanish hospitals between 2006 and 2011. A total of 2171 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 61.4±16.09 years, the ICU mortality was 11.6%, and hospital mortality 16.03%. The SAPS 3 score was 46.29±14.34 points, with a probability of death for our geographical area of 18.57%, and 17.97% for the general equation. The differences between observed-to-predicted mortality were analyzed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, which yielded H=31.71 (p<0.05) for our geographical area and H=20.05 (p<0.05) for the general equation. SAPS 3 discrimination with regard to hospital mortality, tested using the area under the ROC curve, was 0.845 (0.821-0.869). Our study shows good discrimination of the SAPS 3 system in Spain, but also inadequate calibration, with differences between predicted and observed mortality. There are more similarities with regard to the general equation than with respect to our geographical area equation, and in both cases the SAPS 3 system overestimates mortality. According to our results, Spanish ICU mortality is lower than in other hospitals included in the multicenter study that developed the SAPS 3 system, in patients with similar characteristics and severity of illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  16. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving.

  17. 服务全球,SAP HANA全面上市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小白

    2011-01-01

    近日.SAP宣布SAP HANA应用软件正式开始提供给全球客户使用。这预示着基于SAP内存计算技术的新一代商务分析、业务应用和IT简化时代的到来。与此同时,世界最大的综合贸易公司之一日本三井(Mitsui)公司已经确定选用SAP HANA。

  18. The density of the cell sap and endoplasm of Nitellopsis and Chara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    We measured the densities of the cell sap, endoplasm and cell wall of Nitellopsis obtusa and Chara corallina using interference microscopy, refractometry, immersion refractometry, equilibrium sedimentation and chemical microanalysis techniques. These values are important for the determination of many rheological properties of the cytoplasm as well as for understanding buoyancy regulation, dispersal mechanisms and how cells respond to gravity. The average densities of the cell sap, endoplasm and cell wall are 1,006.9, 1,016.7 and 1,371 kg m-3 for Nitellopsis and 1,005.0, 1,013.9, and 1,355.3 kg m-3 for Chara.

  19. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  20. SAP R/3账号权限管理方法及应用浅谈%SAP R/3 Account Authority Management Method and Application Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩翔

    2013-01-01

    Introduction SAP R/3 system account authority control concept, implementation method: including ABAP program check authority object, account authority configuration. Involving combine role, single role, authority object profile, account pa-rameter,correlation between them. And a reasonable way to give account authority.%  介绍SAP R/3系统的账号权限控制概念,实现方法:包括ABAP程序检核“权限对象”,账号权限配置。涉及复合角色,单角色,权限对象,参数文件,账号参数之间的关系,以及合理赋予账号权限的方法。

  1. 木柱木梁结构基于Sap2000的Pushover分析%#The pushover analysis of the timber frame based on the sap2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏延芬; 苏经宇; 王铭勇

    2008-01-01

    Pushover分析方法是一种逐渐得到广泛应用的评价结构在罕遇地震作用下,抗震性能的简化方法,已被引入我国抗震规范.本文介绍了Pushover分析在Sap2000程序中的实施步骤,举出农村木柱木梁结构Pushover分析实例,表明Sap2000程序可以较方便的实现木结构的Pushover分析,Pushover方法也可以对农村木柱木梁结构在罕遇地震作用下的抗震性能作出合理的评价.

  2. The SapA Protein Is Involved in Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptide PR-39 and Virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Wang, Yalei; Li, Gang; Liu, Shuanghong; Cui, Ning; Liu, Siguo; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are essential to the innate immune defense of the mammal against bacterial infection. However, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to resist and evade antimicrobial peptides, which is vital to bacterial survival and colonization in hosts. PR-39 is a linear porcine antimicrobial peptide containing 39 amino acid residues with a high proline content. Resistance to antimicrobial peptide PR-39 has been observed in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. However, little is known about the factors required for this resistance. In the present study, PR-39 exposure increased the expression of the sapA gene in A. pleuropneumoniae. The sapA gene, which encodes a putative peptide transport periplasmic protein, was deleted from this bacterium. The ΔsapA mutant showed increased sensitivity to PR-39 compared to the wild-type MD12 and complemented PΔsapA strains. However, the ΔsapA mutant did not exhibit any alterations in outer membrane integrity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ΔsapA mutant displayed morphological defects, as indicated by a deformed and sunken shape after PR-39 treatment. In addition, disruption of the SapA protein led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. Collectively, these data suggest that SapA acts as one mechanism for A. pleuropneumoniae to counteract PR-39-mediated killing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a mechanism underlying antimicrobial peptide resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  3. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (pdragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (pdragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  4. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  5. Genetic variability of the phloem sap metabolite content of maize (Zea mays L.) during the kernel-filling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Dinant, Sylvie; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Quilleré, Isabelle; Armengaud, Patrick; Monfalet, Priscilla; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Using a metabolomic approach, we have quantified the metabolite composition of the phloem sap exudate of seventeen European and American lines of maize that had been previously classified into five main groups on the basis of molecular marker polymorphisms. In addition to sucrose, glutamate and aspartate, which are abundant in the phloem sap of many plant species, large quantities of aconitate and alanine were also found in the phloem sap exudates of maize. Genetic variability of the phloem sap composition was observed in the different maize lines, although there was no obvious relationship between the phloem sap composition and the five previously classified groups. However, following hierarchical clustering analysis there was a clear relationship between two of the subclusters of lines defined on the basis of the composition of the phloem sap exudate and the earliness of silking date. A comparison between the metabolite contents of the ear leaves and the phloem sap exudates of each genotype, revealed that the relative content of most of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing metabolites was similar. Correlation studies performed between the metabolite content of the phloem sap exudates and yield-related traits also revealed that for some carbohydrates such as arabitol and sucrose there was a negative or positive correlation with kernel yield and kernel weight respectively. A posititive correlation was also found between kernel number and soluble histidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply with the Clean Air Act...

  7.  Sarbanes-Oxley compliance, internal control and ERP systems: Automation and the case of mySAP ERP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Best, Peter; Juhl-Christensen, Claus

    of an ERP system both in local and global implementations. It examines a solution (mySAP ERP) offered by one specific vendor (SAP) and what functionalities are relevant to global SOX compliance. Based on this, the chapter discusses likely developments regarding compliance functionalities in future releases...

  8. A comparison of methods for determining the cotton field evapotranspiration and its components under mulched drip irrigation conditions: photosynthesis system, sap flow, and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-scale, multi-technique study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration and its components in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation conditions in northwestern China. Three measurement techniques at different scales were used: photosynthesis system (leaf scale), sap flow (plant scale), and eddy covariance (field scale). The experiment was conducted from July to September 2012. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the leaf to the plant scale, an approach that incorporated the canopy structure and the relationships between sunlit and shaded leaves was proposed. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the plant to the field scale, an approach based on the transpiration per unit leaf area was adopted and modified to incorporate the temporal variability in the relationships between the leaf area and the stem diameter. At the plant scale, the estimate of the transpiration based on the photosynthesis system with upscaling is slightly higher (18%) than that obtained by sap flow. At the field scale, the estimate of the transpiration obtained by upscaling the estimate based on sap flow measurements is also systematically higher (10%) compared to that obtained through eddy covariance during the cotton open boll growth stage when soil evaporation can be neglected. Nevertheless, the results derived from these three distinct methods show reasonable consistency at the field scale, which indicates that the upscaling approaches are reasonable and valid. Based on the measurements and the upscaling approaches, the evapotranspiration components were analyzed under mulched drip irrigation. During the cotton flower and bolling stages in July and August, the evapotranspiration are 3.94 and 4.53 mm day-1, respectively. The proportion of transpiration to evapotranspiration reaches 87.1% before drip irrigation and 82.3% after irrigation. The high water use efficiency is principally due to the mulched film above the drip pipe, the low soil water content in the inter

  9. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L Ruby; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  10. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  11. Adoption of standard ERP solution in health care sector: is SAP ERP all-in-one capable to meet specific requirements?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraljic, Adnan; Kraljic, Tarik; Delismajlović, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Objective of this experience report is to address specific issues regarding standard SAP ERP implementation in a medical institution. Target Company is a state owned health care institution from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Report will treat selected issues which could trouble standard SAP ERP implementation trough predefined ERP implementation methodology for SAP ERP. This report presents observations/ remarks based on experience of authors in particular SAP ERP implementation project in health c...

  12. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  13. Phylogeny and expression analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-P (SAP) like genes reveal two distinct groups in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P T; Bird, S; Zou, J; Martin, S A M

    2017-06-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II). Salmon CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b and CRP/SAP-1c and CRP/SAP-2 belong to the group I family whilst salmon CRP/SAP-3 is a member of group II. Gene expression analysis showed that the salmon CRP/SAP-1a as well as serum amyloid A-5 (SAA-5), one of the major acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated by recombinant cytokines (rIL-1β and rIFNγ) in primary head kidney cells whilst the other four CRP/SAPs remained refractory. Furthermore, SAA-5 was produced as the main acute phase protein (APP) in Atlantic salmon challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida (aroA(-) strain) whilst salmon CRP/SAPs remained unaltered. Overall, these data illustrate the potential different functions of expanded salmon CRP/SAPs to their mammalian homologues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was performed approximately yearly; FDT every other year. First and last visit had to contain both tests. Using linear regression, progression velocities were calculated for SAP (Humphrey Field Analyzer) mean deviation (MD) and FDT MD and the number of test locations with a total deviation probability below p SAP and FDT classifications were made using a Mantel Haenszel chi-square test. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratios (LSNRs) were calculated, per patient and per technique, defined as progression velocity divided by the standard deviation of the residuals. Mean (SD) follow-up was 6.4 (1.7) years; median (interquartile range [IQR]) baseline SAP MD -6.6 (-14.2 to -3.6) dB. On average 8.2 and 4.5 tests were performed for SAP and FDT, respectively. Median (IQR) MD slope was -0.16 (-0.46 to +0.02) dB/year for SAP and -0.05 (-0.39 to +0.17) dB/year for FDT. Mantel Haenszel chi-squares of SAP MD vs FDT MD and TD were 12.5 (p SAP MD (median -0.17 yr(-1) ) were better than those for FDT MD (-0.04 yr(-1) ; p = 0.010). FDT may be a useful technique for monitoring glaucoma progression in patients who cannot perform SAP reliably. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*].

  16. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform safety...

  17. 30 CFR 285.700 - What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.700 Section 285.700 Mineral Resources... § 285.700 What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP... in your approved COP (§ 285.632(a)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (§ 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  18. 49 CFR 40.313 - Where is other information on SAP functions and the return-to-duty process found in this regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where is other information on SAP functions and... on SAP functions and the return-to-duty process found in this regulation? You can find other information on the role and functions of SAPs in the following sections of this part: § 40.3—Definition. § 40...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [psap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, psap in trees with bamboo (psap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (psap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

  20. 30 CFR 285.611 - What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I submit with my SAP to... Assessment Plan § 285.611 What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other relevant laws? (a) You must submit with your SAP detailed information to assist MMS in complying...

  1. 49 CFR 40.291 - What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation, referral, and treatment process of an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation... Process § 40.291 What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation, referral, and treatment process of an employee who has violated DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations? (a) As a SAP, you are charged...

  2. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  3. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove;

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  4. TRACC: an open source software for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Ward; Jean-Christophe Domec; John King; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Asko Noormets

    2017-01-01

    Key message TRACC is an open-source software for standardizing the cleaning, conversion, and calibration of sap flux density data from thermal dissipation probes, which addresses issues of nighttime transpiration and water storage. Abstract Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) have become a widely used method of monitoring plant water use in recent years. The use of TDPs...

  5. Critical Care Nurses Inadequately Assess SAPS II Scores of Very Ill Patients in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Perren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable ICU severity scores have been achieved by various healthcare workers but nothing is known regarding the accuracy in real life of severity scores registered by untrained nurses. Methods. In this retrospective multicentre audit, three reviewers independently reassessed 120 SAPS II scores. Correlation and agreement of the sum-scores/variables among reviewers and between nurses and the reviewers’ gold standard were assessed globally and for tertiles. Bland and Altman (gold standard—nurses of sum scores and regression of the difference were determined. A logistic regression model identifying risk factors for erroneous assessments was calculated. Results. Correlation for sum scores among reviewers was almost perfect (mean ICC = 0.985. The mean (±SD nurse-registered SAPS II sum score was 40.3±20.2 versus 44.2±24.9 of the gold standard (32 points scores. The lowest agreement was found in high SAPS II tertiles for haemodynamics (k = 0.45–0.51. Conclusions. In real life, nurse-registered SAPS II scores of very ill patients are inaccurate. Accuracy of scores was not associated with nurses’ characteristics.

  6. Free amino acids in the xylem sap of pear trees during dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Storage and remobilization are considered key processes for the effective use of nitrogen in temperate fruit trees. As dormancy begins, storage proteins are synthesized, coinciding with a reduction in the levels of free amino acids. Consequently, as dormancy breaks, these storage proteins are degraded, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acids occurs, in order to support new growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate water content of different vegetative tissues (buds, bark, and bole wood, volume of xylem sap, and free amino acid concentrations of xylem sap, during winter dormancy of Hosui Japanese pear trees (VL. Plant material was obtained from the Embrapa Temperate Climate experimental orchard at Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Xylem sap was extracted from the branches with the aid of a vacuum pump, and the free amino acids were determined by gas chromatography, using the EZ kit: Faast GC/FID (Phenomenex. Water content of buds, as well as the volume of sap and concentrations of both aspartic acid and asparagine, substantially increased over time, reaching maximum values in the phase preceding sprouting.

  7. Impact of the Mekong River flow alteration on the Tonle Sap flood pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; Sarkkula, Juha

    2008-05-01

    Rapid development in the upper reaches of the Mekong River, in the form of construction of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, large irrigation schemes, and rapid urban development, is putting water resources under stress. Recent studies have concluded that these developments will lead to flow alterations in the Mekong River. These flow alterations would threaten the sensitive ecosystems downstream, particularly Tonle Sap River, Tonle Sap Lake, its floodplain, and its gallery forest and protected areas, by changing the flood-pulse system of the lake. This article estimates the changes in parameters of the Tonle Sap flood pulse due to the aforementioned flow alterations. The impacts on the flooded area and loss of gallery forest and protected areas were analyzed using geographic information system-based methods. Relatively small rises in the dry-season lake water level would permanently inundate disproportionately large areas of floodplain, rendering it inaccessible to floodplain vegetation and eroding the productivity basis of the ecosystem. It is highly important to maintain the natural hydrological pattern of the Mekong River, particularly the dry-season water levels, to preserve Tonle Sap Lake's ecosystem productivity.

  8. Time lags between crown and basal sap flows in tropical lianas and co-occurring trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ya Jun; Bongers, Frans; Tomlinson, Kyle; Fan, Ze Xin; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Shu Bin; Zheng, Yu Long; Li, Yang Ping; Cao, Kun Fang; Zhang, Jiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Water storage in the stems of woody plants contributes to their responses to short-term water shortages. To estimate the contribution of water storage to the daily water budget of trees, time lags of sap flow between different positions of trunk are used as a proxy of stem water storage. In

  9. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  10. Evapotranspiration components determined by stable isotope, sap flow and eddy covariance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D.G.; Cable, W.; Hultine, K.; Hoedjes, J.C.B.; Yepez, E.A.; Simonneaux, V.; Er-Raki, S.; Boulet, G.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Chehbouni, A.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Timouk, F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and modeling water exchange in and and semiarid ecosystems is complicated by the very heterogeneous distribution of vegetation and moisture inputs, and the difficulty of measuring and validating component fluxes at a common scale. We combined eddy covariance (EC), sap flow, and stable

  11. Whole body amyloid deposition imaging by 123I-SAP scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor; Hazenberg, Bouke

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the name of a group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Deposition of amyloid can be localized or systemic. The 123I-SAP-scan can be used to image extent and distribution of amyloid deposition in patients with systemic AA, AL and ATTR amyloidosis.

  12. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  13. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  14. SAP Screen Personas 3.0 ABAP izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Ķirsis, Hardijs

    2016-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā izstrādātais produkts ir SAP Screen Personas 3.0 administrācijas un ABAP izstrādātāju rīku paplašinājums, kas nodrošina papildus funkcionalitāti. Produkta galvenais mērķis ir vienkāršot problēmu konstatēšanu un atkļūdošanu SAP Screen Personas 3.0 izstrādes laikā, laicīgi ziņojot un attēlojot informāciju par konstatētajām problēmām. Programmatūras produkts ir izstrādāts ABAP programmēšanas valodā. Atslēgas vārdi: SAP, ABAP, SAP Screen Personas 3.0...

  15. Automatic measurement of water uptake and weeping sap excretion by root system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is described which allows continuous recording of water uptake by a plant. The elements of this apparatus serve at the same time for measurement of root pressure. The size of the recorded portion of uptaken water and of weeping sap excreted by the plant root can be regulated.

  16. Evaluation of the heat pulse velocity method for measuring sap flow in Pinus patula

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available , and has been shown to measure sap flows accurately in a variety of hardwood trees. This method has not been sufficiently verified for pine trees where the presence of a strongly-defined ring structure in the sapwood gives rise to a complex radial pattern...

  17. Realizing block planning concepts in make-and-pack production using MILP modelling and SAP APO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, H.O.; Grunow, M.; Neuhaus, U.

    2006-01-01

    of a major producer of hair dyes as a case study. We present two different implementations of the block planning concept. One utilizes the Production Planning/Detailed Scheduling module of the SAP APO© software. The other approach is based on a mixed-integer linear programming formulation. In contrast...

  18. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  19. Interactive Forms by Adobe Base on SAP%基于SAP的Adobe交互式表单

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 李彤; 孙大嵬

    2012-01-01

    SAP与Adobe公司的合作,在SAP NetWeaver平台上引入Adobe表单,无疑为双方都带来了巨大的优势.首先,介绍SAP与Adobe公司的合作背景以及远景规划,介绍交互式表单的几大优势.接下来,研究交互式表单的原理以及工作模式.最后,通过一个具体的实现来说明交互式表单的应用.%Adobe's partnership with SAP, in the SAP NetWeaver platforms into that form, no doubt has brought a huge advantage to both sides. First, the paper introduces the cooperation between SAP and Adobe's background and perspective planning, and the advantages of interactive form of. Next, it studies the interactive form of principles and patterns. Finally, it illustrates a specific implementation of interactive application form.

  20. Outcome prediction in a surgical ICU using automatically calculated SAPS II scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J M; Junger, A; Bottger, S; Benson, M; Michel, A; Rohrig, R; Jost, A; Hempelmann, G

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a complete computerized calculation of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II within 24 hours after admission to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) based only on routine data recorded with a patient data management system (PDMS) without any additional manual data entry. Score calculation programs were developed using SQL scripts (Structured Query Language) to retrospectively compute the SAPS II scores of 524 patients who stayed in ICU for at least 24 hours between April 1, 1999 and March 31, 2000 out of the PDMS database. The main outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Score evaluation was modified in registering missing data as being not pathological and using surrogates of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Computerized score calculation was possible for all investigated patients. The 459 (87.6%) survivors had a median SAPS II of 28 (interquartile range (IQR) 13) whereas the 65 (12.4%) decreased patients had a median score of 43 (IQR 16; P calculation, bilirubin was missing in 84%, followed by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (34%), and neurological status (34%). Using neurological diagnoses and examinations as surrogates for the GCS, a pathological finding was seen in only 8.8% of all results. The discriminative power of the computerized SAPS II checked with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.87). The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics showed good calibration (H = 5.55, P = 0.59, 7 degrees of freedom; C = 5.55, P = 0.68, 8 degrees of freedom). The technique used in this study for complete automatic data sampling of the SAPS II score seems to be suitable for predicting mortality rate during stay in a surgical ICU. The advantage of the described method is that no additional manual data recording is required for score calculation.

  1. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  2. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Small Mesh Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information about shrimp surveys conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in the Gulf of...

  3. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  4. Produção de β-ecdisona em Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen em função da adubação orgânica em 6 épocas de crescimento β-ecdysone production by Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen under organic fertilization in 6 growth periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.V. Guerreiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência da adubação orgânica em 6 épocas de crescimento na produção de β-ecdisona por plantas de Pfaffia glomerata. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Santo Antonio do Araquá, distrito de Catâneo Ângelo, município de São Manuel, São Paulo, Brasil. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 5x6, com quatro repetições, considerando-se 8 plantas úteis por parcela. Os blocos foram constituídos de 6 épocas de crescimento (60, 120, 180, 240, 300 e 360 dias após a germinação e de 5 doses de esterco de galinha curtido [testemunha (sem adubação, 15, 30, 45 e 60 t ha-1]. Após cada colheita, as raízes das plantas foram secas em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 40ºC e pesadas para posterior extração do β-ecdisona, seguindo metodologia desenvolvida por Magalhães (2000. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de separação de médias de Scott Knott, todos a 5% de probabilidade. Quando ocorreu interação os resultados foram avaliados usando-se análise de regressão polinominal. O teor de β-ecdisona não foi influenciado pelas doses de adubo e nem pela época do crescimento das plantas. Porém a quantidade total de β-ecdisona por raiz foi influenciada pela época de crescimento, sendo que aos 360 dias após a emergência ocorreu uma maior quantidade do princípio ativo em todos os tratamentos. Apesar de não diferir estatisticamente dos demais tratamentos, aos 360 dias após a emergência das plantas, o tratamento 30 t ha-1 foi o que proporcionou maior quantidade de β-ecdisona.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of organic fertilization in 6 growth periods on β-ecdysone production by Pfaffia glomerata plants. The field work was conducted in "Santo Antonio do Araquá" Farm, Catâneo Ângelo District, São Manuel, São Paulo State, Brazil. The adopted design was in randomized blocks, in a 5x6 factorial

  5. La proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP regula la expresión de IFN-g en lepra The SLAM-associated protein (SAP regulates IFN-g expression in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Quiroga

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La inmunidad protectora contra Mycobacterium leprae requiere IFN-g. Los pacientes con lepra tuberculoide producen localmente citoquinas Th1, mientras que los pacientes lepromatosos producen citoquinas Th2. La molécula linfocitaria activadora de señales (SLAM y la proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP participan en la diferenciación celular que conduce a producción de patrones específicos de citoquinas. A fin de investigar la vía SLAM/SAP en la infección por M. leprae, determinamos expresión de ARN mensajero (ARNm de SAP, IFN-g y SLAM en pacientes con lepra. Observamos que la expresión de SLAM correlacionó en forma directa con la expresión de IFN-g, mientras que la expresión de SAP correlacionó inversamente con la expresión de ambas proteínas. Así, nuestros resultados indican que SAP interferiría con las respuestas de citoquinas Th1 mientras que SLAM contribuiría con la respuesta Th1 en lepra, señalando a la vía SLAM/SAP como potencial blanco modulador de citoquinas en enfermedades con respuestas Th2 disfuncionales.Tuberculoid leprosy patients locally produce Th1 cytokines, while lepromatous patients produce Th2 cytokines. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP participate in the differentiation process that leads to the production of specific patterns of cytokines by activated T cells. To investigate the SLAM/SAP pathway in M. leprae infection, we determined the expression of SAP, IFN-g and SLAM RNA messenger in leprosy patients. We found a direct correlation of SLAM expression with IFN-g expression, whereas the expression of SAP was inversely correlated with the expression of both SLAM and IFN-g. Therefore, our data indicate that SAP might interfere with Th1 cytokine responses while SLAM expression may contribute to Th1 responses in leprosy. This study further suggests that the SLAM/SAP pathway might be a focal point for therapeutic modulation of T cell cytokine responses in diseases

  6. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  7. The Inter-Rater Reliability of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS3 among Intensive Care Unit Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Background: Simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3 was developed in 2005 to evaluate intensive care unit (ICU performance and to predict patient mortality or disease severity. The score is usually calculated by doctors, but it requires substantial human resources. And many nurse-lead studies use this scoring system. In the present study, we examined the inter-rater reliability of SAPS3 among nurses in an ICU. Methods: Five ICU nurses who worked in an ICU for a mean length of 7.8 years were educated for 2 hours about SAPS3 score and its components. Each nurse scored 26 patients, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of the total scores and each subset were evaluated. Results: The ICC (95% confidence interval of SAPS3 score was 0.89 (0.82-0.95, that of subset I was 0.90 (0.82-0.95, subset II was 0.54 (0.35-0.73, and subset III was 0.95 (0.91-0.97. The ICC of predicted mortality was 0.91 (0.85-0.96. Conclusions: The ICC of SAPS3 score and predicted mortality among ICU nurses were reliable. According to these ICC values, SAPS3 score is a reliable scale to be used by nurses. The ICC of subset II was lower than those of the other subsets, suggesting that education of SAPS3 should focus on the definition of each subset II component.

  8. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Luc; Charron, Carmen; Sadiki, Mustapha

    2017-05-01

    A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone). These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems.

  9. Decreased SAP expression in T cells from patients with SLE contributes to early signaling abnormalities and reduced IL-2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P.; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of functions including increased early signaling events following engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating immune response. Here we present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and 3 men with SLE independently of disease activity. In SLE T cells the SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by a caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells simultaneously heightened IL-2 production, calcium (Ca2+) responses and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR antibodies, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  10. SAP gene transfer restores cellular and humoral immune function in a murine model of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivat, Christine; Booth, Claire; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria; Blundell, Michael; Sebire, Neil J; Thrasher, Adrian J; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2013-02-14

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) arises from mutations in the gene encoding SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and leads to abnormalities of NKT-cell development, NK-cell cytotoxicity, and T-dependent humoral function. Curative treatment is limited to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. We tested whether HSC gene therapy could correct the multilineage defects seen in SAP(-/-) mice. SAP(-/-) murine HSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing either SAP or reporter gene before transplantation into irradiated recipients. NKT-cell development was significantly higher and NK-cell cytotoxicity restored to wild-type levels in mice receiving the SAP vector in comparison to control mice. Baseline immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased and T-dependent humoral responses to NP-CGG, including germinal center formation, were restored in SAP-transduced mice.We demonstrate for the first time that HSC gene transfer corrects the cellular and humoral defects in SAP(-/-) mice providing proof of concept for gene therapy in XLP1.

  11. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove;

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  12. Heat dissipation sensors of variable length for the measurement of sap flow in trees with deep sapwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelley A; Clearwater, Michael J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2002-03-01

    Robust thermal dissipation sensors of variable length (3 to 30 cm) were developed to overcome limitations to the measurement of radial profiles of sap flow in large-diameter tropical trees with deep sapwood. The effective measuring length of the custom-made sensors was reduced to 1 cm at the tip of a thermally nonconducting shaft, thereby minimizing the influence of nonuniform sap flux density profiles across the sapwood. Sap flow was measured at different depths and circumferential positions in the trunks of four trees at the Parque Natural Metropolitano canopy crane site, Panama City, Republic of Panama. Sap flow was detected to a depth of 24 cm in the trunks of a 1-m-diameter Anacardium excelsum (Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth) Skeels tree and a 0.65-m-diameter Ficus insipida Willd. tree, and to depths of 7 cm in a 0.34-m-diameter Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham. trunk, and 17 cm in a 0.47-m-diameter Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin trunk. Sap flux density was maximal in the outermost 4 cm of sapwood and declined with increasing sapwood depth. Considerable variation in sap flux density profiles was observed both within and among the trees. In S. morototoni, radial variation in sap flux density was associated with radial variation in wood properties, particularly vessel lumen area and distribution. High variability in radial and circumferential sap flux density resulted in large errors when measurements of sap flow at a single depth, or a single radial profile, were used to estimate whole-plant water use. Diurnal water use ranged from 750 kg H2O day-1 for A. excelsum to 37 kg H2O day-1 for C. alliodora.

  13. Predictive value of SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems for patient outcome in a medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Godinjak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim is to determine SAPS II and APACHE II scores in medical intensive care unit (MICU patients, to compare them for prediction of patient outcome, and to compare with actual hospital mortality rates for different subgroups of patients. Methods. One hundred and seventy-four patients were included in this analysis over a oneyear period in the MICU, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The following patient data were obtained: demographics, admission diagnosis, SAPS II, APACHE II scores and final outcome. Results. Out of 174 patients, 70 patients (40.2% died. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores in all patients were 48.4±17.0 and 21.6±10.3 respectively, and they were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. SAPS II >50.5 and APACHE II >27.5 can predict the risk of mortality in these patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II vs APACHE II (p=0.501. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the values of SAPS II and APACHE II (r=0.708; p=0.001. Patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock had the highest values of both SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and also the highest hospital mortality rate of 55.1%. Conclusion. Both APACHE II and SAPS II had an excellent ability to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II and APACHE II. A positive correlation was established between them. Sepsis/septic shock patients had the highest predicted and observed hospital mortality rate.

  14. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  15. Drag Forces, Neutral Wind and Electric Conductivity Changes in the Ionospheric E Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nenovski, Petko

    2014-01-01

    The neutrals in the Earth environment are in fact free and subjected to drag forces (by ions). In this study we show that drag or friction forces in the ionosphere-thermosphere system initiate changes in the plasma flow, neutral wind, and the conductivity, as well. Ions and electrons embedded in neutral wind field of velocity u acquire drifts perpendicular both to the initial neutral wind velocity and to the ambient magnetic field producing a perpendicular electric current. This perpendicular electric current is defined by a conductivity derived previously and the polarization electric field u x B. Self-consistently, the free neutrals acquires an additional neutral velocity component perpendicular to the initial neutral wind velocity u. The Pedersen and Hall currents wane within a specific time inversely proportional to neutral-ion collision frequency. These findings are relevant to a better understanding of electric current generation, distribution and closure in weakly ionized plasmas where charged particle...

  16. Curios relationship revealed by looking at long term data sets-The geometry and allometric scaling of diel xylem sap flux in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Norbert

    2016-10-20

    Daily xylem sap flux values (daily Js) and maximum xylem sap flux values (max Js) from 125 tropical trees from different study sites in the Neotropics were compared. A cross species and study site relationship was found between daily and maximum values. The relationship can be expressed as daily Js=6.5x max Js. The geometrical relationship between the maximum xylem sap flux of a given day is thus defining the daily xylem sap flux rates. Assuming a bell-shaped diurnal sap flux course and a relatively constant day length the maximum xylem sap flux is the only possible changing variable to define daily fluxes. Further, this relationship is showing the inertia of the xylem sap flux as a physical object and highlights the delayed response to environmental changes and its subsequent inevitable susceptibility under environmental stress to hydraulic failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. An Empirical Study of the Wound Effects on Sap Flow Measured with Thermal Dissipation Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Herbst, M.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.

    2014-12-01

    Sap flow sensors are common to assess the contribution of tree transpiration to ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). Thermal dissipation (TD) is one of the most popular methods for sap measurements but the insertion of TD probes in the tree stems imply wounding of the wood tissue and a consequent alteration of the sap flow. But the determination of sap flux density (SFD) is based on an empirical function developed for freshly drilled holes and it does hence not account for the wound effect. Here we investigate the effect of wound healing on sap flow measurements with TD probes. Our objectives were (1) the establishment of correction factors to account for the wound effect and (2) the determination of the point in time after installation when the correction factors become applicable. For that we performed an experiment in which TD probes were installed successively in diffuse- and ring-porous trees (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, resp.) during the growing season. The trees were logged in fall and additional sensors were installed afterwards in the logged stems. SFDs measured by the different TD sensors were compared with gravimetric estimates in the laboratory. Gravimetric flow compared well with SFD estimates from freshly installed sensors without wound formation, with only a slight underestimation by the TDs. In contrast, older sensors, submitted to wound reactions, underestimated SFD by up to 40%. However, sensors with 5, 11 and 22 week old wounds showed no significant differences, which implies that wound healing occurs in the first weeks after scission. Similar sap flow underestimations due to wound effects were observed in both species, oak and beech. This study highlights the relevance of accounting for tree wound reactions for accurate estimation of tree transpiration based on thermal dissipation sensors. We provide a correction factor for the classical Granier TD sensors that can be used from the first weeks after installation in similar species. This

  18. Proteomic analysis of Chelidonium majus milky sap using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Kalinowski, Andrzej; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna

    2007-06-01

    Milky sap, a milky-like orange fluid, isolated from the Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus L.), family Papaveraceae, serves as a rich source of various biologically active substances such as alkaloids, several flavonoids, phenolic acids and proteins. The objective of this study was to separate Ch. majus milky sap extract proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to demonstrate for the first time the protein composition in the sap and to identify them using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS). It was possible to identify 21 proteins, which comprise disease/defence-related, signalling, Krebs cycle, nucleic acid binding and other proteins. The majority of the identified proteins can be linked to direct and indirect stress and defence reactions, e.g. against different pathogens. The specific protein composition of the milky sap suggests an important role of these proteins for the whole plant physiology and development.

  19. SAP aitas Politsei- ja Piirivalveameti finantstöötajate arvu vähendada ligi kolm korda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võttis kasutusele SAP tarkvara, mis on võimeline muutma asutuse finantsjuhtimise, personali-, palgaarvestuse ja logistika valdkondade tööprotsessid efektiivsemaks ja automatiseeritumaks

  20. SAP aitas Politsei- ja Piirivalveameti finantstöötajate arvu vähendada ligi kolm korda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võttis kasutusele SAP tarkvara, mis on võimeline muutma asutuse finantsjuhtimise, personali-, palgaarvestuse ja logistika valdkondade tööprotsessid efektiivsemaks ja automatiseeritumaks

  1. PEMBELAJARAN MANDIRI APLIKASI ENTERPRISE RESOURCE SYSTEM: STUDI KASUS PADA APLIKASI SAP MODUL SALES AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ERP (enterprise resource planning is a solution needed by companies to assist the integration of all functional areas. A self-learning media of ERP system is needed for the successful use which is highly depended on the users mastery. The learning media must be flexible to time and place. Therefore, this research creates a self-learning application for ERP system based on a case study on SAP application. SAP is an ERP-based solution widely used by medium to large companies. The method used are data collection, analysis on running business processes and the identification of information needs, followed by the application design. Identification of system requirements uses Flash CS5 Action Script 3.0. The result achieved in this research is a multimedia based learning tool which assists training for trainers and trainee and facilitates trainee supervision during training. The learning tool is found helpful in self learning process.

  2. Improving sap flux density measurements by correctly determining thermal diffusivity, differentiating between bound and unbound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-07-01

    Several heat-based sap flow methods, such as the heat field deformation method and the heat ratio method, include the thermal diffusivity D of the sapwood as a crucial parameter. Despite its importance, little attention has been paid to determine D in a plant physiological context. Therefore, D is mostly set as a constant, calculated during zero flow conditions or from a method of mixtures, taking into account wood density and moisture content. In this latter method, however, the meaning of the moisture content is misinterpreted, making it theoretically incorrect for D calculations in sapwood. A correction to this method, which includes the correct application of the moisture content, is proposed. This correction was tested for European and American beech and Eucalyptus caliginosa Blakely & McKie. Depending on the dry wood density and moisture content, the original approach over- or underestimates D and, hence, sap flux density by 10% and more.

  3. 利用SAP HANA实现ERP系统查询优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 肖峰

    2013-01-01

      HANA是一个软硬件结合体,提供高性能的数据查询功能,用户可以直接对大量实时业务数据进行查询和分析,而不需要对业务数据进行重新建模、聚合等。本文以作者实际应用为例,对SAP HANA技术实现的SAP ERP系统的查询优化,用户体验提升进行分析,同时,就采用的实施方案进行介绍。

  4. 基于SAP HANA的业务运营实时分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁汀; 窦文琦

    2013-01-01

    随着企业业务的扩大,信息化的深入,能否快速处理海量数据并有效进行实时分析,将决定企业是否可以迅速应对市场行情变化、做出决策.企业需要实时洞察业务运营状态,以便迅速应对不断变化的市场形势.本文通过引入SAP内存计算和基于HANA数据库的SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse组件,分析了基于SAP HANA在业务分析领域的新变革.

  5. Intronic SH2D1A mutation with impaired SAP expression and agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recher, Mike; Fried, Ari J; Massaad, Michel J; Kim, Hye Young; Rizzini, Michela; Frugoni, Francesco; Walter, Jolan E; Mathew, Divij; Eibel, Hermann; Hess, Christoph; Giliani, Silvia; Umetsu, Dale T; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Geha, Raif S

    2013-02-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome associated with the inability to control Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), lymphoma, and hypogammaglobulinemia. XLP is caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the SLAM-associated protein (SAP), or in the BIRC4 gene, which encodes the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Here we report a patient with recurrent respiratory tract infections and early onset agammaglobulinemia who carried a unique disease-causing intronic loss-of-function mutation in SH2D1A. The intronic mutation affected SH2D1A gene transcription but not mRNA splicing, and led to markedly reduced level of SAP protein. Despite undetectable serum immunoglobulins, the patient's B cells replicated and differentiated into antibody producing cells normally in vitro.

  6. Start-to-end global imaging as a sunward propagating, SAPS-associated giant undulation event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Donovan, Eric F [U OF CALGARY; Foster, John C [MIT; Mann, Ian R [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Immel, Thomas J [UC/BERKELEY; Mende, Stephen B [UN/BERKELEY; Sigwarth, John B [NASA/GSFC

    2009-01-01

    We present high-time resolution global imaging of a sunward propagating giant undulation event from start to finish. The event occurred on November 24, 2001 during a very disturbed storm interval. The giant undulations began to develop at around 13UT and persisted for approximately 2 hours. The sunward propagation speed was on the order of 0.6 km/s (relative to SM coordinate system). The undulations had a wavelength of {approx} 750 km, amplitudes of {approx} 890 km and produced ULF pulsations on the ground with a period of {approx} 1108s. We show that the undulations were associated with SAPs flows that were caused by the proton plasma sheet penetrating substantially farther Earthward than the electron plasma sheet on the duskside. The observations appear to be consistent with the development of a shear flow and/or ballooning type of instability at the plasmapause driven by intense SAPS-associated shear flows.

  7. Layerless Manufacturing & SAP - Creating Responsive Shop Floor in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S. Muthu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shall explore the fundamental science behind the ever changing global supply chain. An analogous view of supply chain evolution to that of organic survival theory yields philosophies andmethods for achieving strategic advantage and tactical superiority. Manufacturing execution systems (MES are helping manufacturers bridge the gaps between the shop floor, the supply chain and the ERPsystem. By doing this, these systems are giving manufacturers more visibility and the control they need to make their production rocesses more efficient. Many businesses find it difficult to trulymaximize Supply Chain or Manufacturing efficiency from back office to mobile worker and maintain real time visibility of what happens on the shop floor. We have successfully implemented true real-time mobileintegration for major production sites across globe. SAP investment by reducing critical errors and enhancing customer service. We utilize standard Windows interfaces and WLAN technology to makeit easy for shop floor personnel to interact with SAP in real time, using standard automation system.

  8. Pembelajaran Mandiri Aplikasi Enterprise Resource System: Studi Kasus pada Aplikasi SAP – Modul Sales and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Johan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ERP (enterprise resource planning is a solution needed by companies to assist the integration of all functional areas. A self-learning media of ERP system is needed for the successful use which is highly depended on the users mastery. The learning media must be flexible to time and place. Therefore, this research creates a self-learning application for ERP system based on a case study on SAP application. SAP is an ERP-based solution widely used by medium to large companies. The method used are data collection, analysis on running business processes and the identification of information needs, followed by the application design. Identificationof system requirements uses Flash CS5 Action Script 3.0. The result achieved in this research is a multimediabased learning tool which assists training for trainers and trainee and facilitates trainee supervision during training. The learning tool is found helpful in self learning process.

  9. Strategi Perencanaan Pengembangan Sistem Sap pada Human Capital and Legal di Institusi Pendidikan Xyz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Ekawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of processes and operational functions cause arises the need for an integrated information system across all functional areas to reach the highest point of effectiveness and efficiency, and relying on the information in making decisions, ie ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning. The objective of writing this journal is to analyze and determine a SAP system development strategy planning at Human Capital and Legal of Education Institution XYZ. In collecting data, the author collected the datas by making an interview with the sources, data observation, and SAP system exploration. Current architecture datas that were collected and anylized to design the planning strategy in developing system architecture. The conclusion of this journal writing is that planning with some methodologies could maximize the using of IS or IT in an organization and can achieve its goals.

  10. Assessing Leading ERP-SAP Implementation in Leading Firms in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, B.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) enables to bring critical capabilities to an organisation, however, the implementation of such capabilities is often surrounded with problems. The implementing ERP-SAP in Indonesian enterprises are still facing tremendous challenges with the failure rate can reach more than 80% of the cases. The article examines the common problems faced by the consultants whenever they deal with their clients, from the practical perspectives. The article takes the multiple case studies of the leading enterprises in Indonesia, such as: KS (largest steel producer), GEM (large mining producer), and HS (large retailer), with the aim to identify the root of problems of SAP implementation. The outcome of the study is expected to provide the consultants with the guideline to understand the ERP implementation process in their clients and effective solutions to cope with it.

  11. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  12. 基于SAP2000的进水塔结构静力弹塑性分析%Pushover Analysis of Intake Tower Based on SAP2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏战; 谭杰骥; 马震岳

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the project examples,the Pushover analyses are used for analying and comparing an intake tower by using the frame element and layered shell element in SAP2000 respectively.The results indicate that both models could simulate the elastic-plastic properties of intake towers properly.Comparing the results of Pushover analysis with those of nonlinear time-history analysis,it is found that the results of these two methods could agree well mutually.So the reasonable evaluation on the aseismatic capacity of intake towers could be achieved by Pushover analysis.%结合工程实例,采用SAP2000中的框架单元和分层壳单元对进水塔结构进行Pushover分析和比较,表明两种单元均能较好的模拟结构的弹塑性特性;通过对Pushover分析与非线性时程分析结果的对比,发现两种方法的计算结果能吻合较好,所以Pushover方法可以对进水塔结构在罕遇地震作用下的抗震性能做出合理的评价。

  13. The SapA Protein Is Involved in Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptide PR-39 and Virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are essential to the innate immune defense of the mammal against bacterial infection. However, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to resist and evade antimicrobial peptides, which is vital to bacterial survival and colonization in hosts. PR-39 is a linear porcine antimicrobial peptide containing 39 amino acid residues with a high proline content. Resistance to antimicrobial peptide PR-39 has been observed in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. However, little is known about the factors required for this resistance. In the present study, PR-39 exposure increased the expression of the sapA gene in A. pleuropneumoniae. The sapA gene, which encodes a putative peptide transport periplasmic protein, was deleted from this bacterium. The ΔsapA mutant showed increased sensitivity to PR-39 compared to the wild-type MD12 and complemented PΔsapA strains. However, the ΔsapA mutant did not exhibit any alterations in outer membrane integrity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ΔsapA mutant displayed morphological defects, as indicated by a deformed and sunken shape after PR-39 treatment. In addition, disruption of the SapA protein led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. Collectively, these data suggest that SapA acts as one mechanism for A. pleuropneumoniae to counteract PR-39-mediated killing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a mechanism underlying antimicrobial peptide resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  14. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Christine Men [UNESP; Hamanaka,Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida,Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; HIDALGO Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira,Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional a...

  15. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  16. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  17. SAP R/3 plant maintenance making it work for your business

    CERN Document Server

    Stengl, Britta

    2001-01-01

    SAP R/3 Plant Maintenance offers a clear introduction to this small but sophisticated component and provides a highly practical guide to implementing PM. Beginning with a examination of the key business processes underlying PM functionality, the book goes on to cover all the crucial aspects of maintenance planning and execution in R/3. Particular attention is given to integrating plant maintenance with a company's natural process flow.

  18. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  19. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T; Mussone, Paolo G

    2011-04-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus aucuparia over 3 months. We measured the instantaneous surface tension and followed changes over a period of 0.5-5 h using the pendant drop technique. In all three species the instantaneous surface tension was equal to or within a few percent of that of pure water. Further, in B. papyrifera and S. aucuparia the change over time following drop establishment, although significant, was very small. In P. tremuloides, however, there was a steep decline in surface tension over time that leveled off towards values 21-27% lower than that of pure water. This indicated the presence of surfactants. The values were lower for thinner distal branch segments than for proximal ones closer to the trunk. In some species it appears valid to assume that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of water. However, in branch segments of P. tremuloides close to the terminal bud and hence potentially in other species as well, it may be necessary to take into account the presence of surfactants that reduce the surface tension over time.

  20. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of Brassica napus phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Albacete, Alfonso; Rios, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2DE (IEF-SDS-PAGE). The experiment was repeated thrice and two technical replicates per treatment were done. Phloem sap purity was assessed by measuring sugar concentrations. Two hundred sixty-three spots were consistently detected and 15.6% (41) of them showed significant changes in relative abundance (22 decreasing and 19 increasing) as a result of Fe deficiency. Among them, 85% (35 spots), were unambiguously identified. Functional categories containing the largest number of protein species showing changes as a consequence of Fe deficiency were signaling and regulation (32%), and stress and redox homeostasis (17%). The Phloem sap showed a higher oxidative stress and significant changes in the hormonal profile as a result of Fe deficiency. Results indicate that Fe deficiency elicits major changes in signaling pathways involving Ca and hormones, which are generally associated with flowering and developmental processes, causes an alteration in ROS homeostasis processes, and induces decreases in the abundances of proteins involved in sieve element repair, suggesting that Fe-deficient plants may have an impaired capacity to heal sieve elements upon injury.

  1. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  2. The concentration and efflux of tree stem CO2 and the role of xylem sap flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHAO; Dirk H(O)LSCHER

    2009-01-01

    The accurate assessment of actual tree stem respiration and its relation with temperature plays a considerable role in investigating the forest carbon cycle.An increasing number of research reports have indicated that tree stem respiration determined with the commonlyapplied chamber gas exchange measuring system does not follow expectations regarding temperature relationships.theory that the respired CO2 in a tree stem would all diffuse outward into the atmosphere,However,it neglects partial CO2 that is dissolved in the xylem sap and is carried away by the transpirational stream.Scientists have started to realize that the respired CO2 measured with the chamber gas exchange method is only a portion of the total stem respiration (CO2 efflux),while the other portion,which is sometimes very substantial in quantity (thought to occupy maybe 15%-75% of the total stem respiration),is transported to the upper part of the stem and to the canopy by sap flow.This suggests that the CO2 produced by respiration is re-allocated within the stem.Accordingly,the change in CO2 efflux could be reflected in the rates of sap flow in addition to its dependence on temperature.Proper methods and instruments are required to quantify the internal and external CO2 fluxes in the trunk and their interaction with related environmental factors.

  3. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  4. [A new embolic material: super absorbent polymer (SAP) microsphere and its embolic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Y; Hori, S; Minamitani, K; Hashimoto, T; Yoshimura, H; Nomura, N; Ishida, T; Fukuda, H; Tomoda, K; Nakamura, H

    1996-01-01

    SAP-Microsphere (sodium acrylic acid-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has the ability to absorb fluids within a few minutes and increase its diameter. Its diameter can also be calibrated. The diameters in ionic contrast material and human serum are 2.1 and 3.5 times larger, respectively, than the original size. It can pass through a microcatheter with an ionic contrast material, and swells at the occluding point into the desired size. It can be recognized under fluoroscopy due to its absorption of contrast material. A total of 10 rabbit kidney embolizations were done followed by resection in 1-14 weeks. Recanalization was absent in all cases. No adhesion to the perirenal tissue was found. Limited reactive change in endothelial cells was found at one week. No changes in the smooth muscle layer were found at any time during the study. Limited infiltration of neutrophil cells was found in perivascular tissue within a period of one week. SAP-Microspheres maintained their spherical shape during a 14-week period. Extensive fibrosis and calcification were found after 4 weeks. SAP-Microspheres are promising as an embolic agent to obtain satisfactory results of embolization therapy.

  5. Measured Sap Flow and Estimated Evapotranspiration of Tropical Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUGuo-Yi; YINGuang-Cai; JimMORRIS; BAIJia-Yu; CHENShao-Xiong; CHUGuo-Wei; ZHANGNing-Nan

    2004-01-01

    During the period of September 12, 1999 to September 24, 2000, we measured sap flow ofeucalyptus (Euca/yptus urophylla S.T. Blake) plantations using heat pulse technique, and the relevantenvironmental vaiables, such as soil evaporation and canopy interception, etc, at Hetou and Jijia sites,Leizhou Peninsula, Guangdong Province. Based on the measurements of sap flow and estimates ofevapotranspiration, the following can be concluded: (1) the maximum of diurnal xylem sap flux density (SFD)at Hetou, where covered with coarse-textured soils formed on Quaternary sediments, was almost twice ofthat at Jijia, where located on clay-rich soils derived from basalt; (2) SFD was highly correlated to watervapor pressure deficit (VPD) of ambient air near the canopy layer, (3) the correlation between SFD and airtemperature also depends on soil properties and soil water potential; (4) the relative differences betweenmeasured and modeled evapotranspiration were small, being 5.26% at Hetou and 6.14% at Jijia; (5) theplantation transpiration accounted for 62.2% and 51.3% of the evapotranspiration at Hetou and Jijia,respectively; and (6) the averaged SFD per unit leaf area (ASPULA) was a good index to estimate theamount of water consumption of tree species.

  6. The pentraxins PTX3 and SAP in innate immunity, regulation of inflammation and tissue remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Inforzato, Antonio; Messa, Massimo; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Magrini, Elena; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Pentraxins are a superfamily of fluid phase pattern recognition molecules conserved in evolution and characterized by a cyclic multimeric structure. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) constitute the short pentraxin arm of the superfamily. CRP and SAP are produced in the liver in response to IL-6 and are acute phase reactants in humans and mice respectively. In addition SAP has been shown to affect tissue remodelling and fibrosis by stabilizing all types of amyloid fibrils and by regulating monocyte to fibrocyte differentiation. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the prototype of the long pentraxin arm. Gene targeted mice and genetic and epigenetic studies in humans suggest that PTX3 plays essential non-redundant roles in innate immunity and inflammation as well as in tissue remodelling. Recent studies have revealed the role of PTX3 as extrinsic oncosuppressor, able to tune cancer-related inflammation. In addition, at acidic pH PTX3 can interact with provisional matrix components promoting inflammatory matrix remodelling. Thus acidification during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodelling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sap flow in response to rainfall pulses for two shrub species in the semiarid Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shengqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall pulses can significantly drive the evolution of the structure and function of semiarid ecosystems, and understanding the mechanisms that underlie the response of semiarid plants to rainfall is the key to understanding the responses of semi–arid ecosystems to global climatic change. We measured sap flow in the branches and stems of shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom. and Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. using sap flow gauges, and studied the response of sap flow density to rainfall pulses using the “threshold–delay” model in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results showed that the sap flow began about 1 h earlier, and increased twofold after rainfall, compared to its pre-rainfall value. The sap flow increased significantly with increasing rainfall classes, then gradually decreased. The response of sap flow was different among rainfall, species, position (branch and stem during the pulse period, and the interactive effects also differed significantly (P < 0.0001. The response pattern followed the threshold–delay model, with lower rainfall thresholds of 5.2, 5.5 mm and 0.7, 0.8 mm of stem and branch for C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, demonstrating the importance of small rainfall events for plant growth and survival in semi–arid regions.

  8. Differential localization of SAP102 and PSD-95 is revealed in hippocampal spines using super-resolution light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chan-Ying; Wang, Ya-Xia; Kachar, Bechara; Petralia, Ronald S

    2011-01-01

    Synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) are two major cytoskeleton proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Both of them belong to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, which clusters and anchors glutamate receptors and other proteins at synapses. In our previous study, we found that SAP102 and PSD-95 have different distributions, using combined light/electron microscopy (LM/EM) methods.1 Here, we double labeled endogenous SAP102 and PSD-95 in mature hippocampal neurons, and then took images by two different kinds of super resolution microscopy-Stimulated Emission Depletion microscopy (STED) and DeltaVision OMX 3D super resolution microscopy. We found that our 2D and 3D super resolution data were consistent with our previous LM/EM data, showing significant differences in the localization of SAP102 and PSD-95 in spines: SAP102 is distributed in both the PSD and cytoplasm of spines, while PSD-95 is concentrated only in the PSD area. These results indicate functional differences between SAP102 and PSD-95 in synaptic organization and plasticity.

  9. Assessment of Combined Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) on Facial Skin Sebum Control in Female Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2017-01-01

    The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care. Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP (in oil phase) and SAP (in aqueous phase) via multiple emulsion (ME1) for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. FTIR analysis of AP and SAP was performed for identification. Multiple emulsions (ME1 and control) were prepared and analyzed for physical stability. Antioxidant activities of AP, SAP as well as ME1 (with combination of these compounds) were determined by DPPH method. 11 female volunteers were included in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative study. Volunteers were instructed to apply ME1 on left cheek while control (without AP and SAP) on right cheek, for a period of 90 days. A non-invasive photometric device (Sebumeter(®)) was used for the measurement of sebum secretions on both sides of the face with subsequent time intervals. A good antioxidant activity of ME1 was observed. ME1 treatments reduced significant facial sebum secretions as compared with control/placebo treatments. It was concluded that combined AP and SAP supplementations to skin proved a promising choice for controlling facial sebum secretions and could be evaluated for undesired oily skin and acne reductions for beautifying the facial appearance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SAP-1 protects against colitis through regulation of CEACAM20 in the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoji; Kotani, Takenori; Supriatna, Yana; Kitamura, Yasuaki; Imada, Shinya; Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishio, Miki; Daniwijaya, Edwin Widyanto; Sadakata, Hisanobu; Kusakari, Shinya; Mori, Munemasa; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Saito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Katsuya; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Okazawa, Hideki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akira; Matozaki, Takashi

    2015-08-04

    Intestinal epithelial cells contribute to regulation of intestinal immunity in mammals, but the detailed molecular mechanisms of such regulation have remained largely unknown. Stomach-cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1, also known as PTPRH) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is localized specifically at microvilli of the brush border in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that SAP-1 ablation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a model of inflammatory bowel disease, resulted in a marked increase in the severity of colitis in association with up-regulation of mRNAs for various cytokines and chemokines in the colon. Tyrosine phosphorylation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 20, an intestinal microvillus-specific transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily, was greatly increased in the intestinal epithelium of the SAP-1-deficient animals, suggesting that this protein is a substrate for SAP-1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM20 by the protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the consequent association of CEACAM20 with spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) promoted the production of IL-8 in cultured cells through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, SAP-1 and CEACAM20 were found to form a complex through interaction of their ectodomains. SAP-1 and CEACAM20 thus constitute a regulatory system through which the intestinal epithelium contributes to intestinal immunity.

  12. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  13. Antifungal and cytotoxicity activities of the fresh xylem sap of Hymenaea courbaril L. and its major constituent fisetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Maysa Paula; Bozinis, Marize Campos Valadares; Andrade, Wanessa Machado; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues; da Silva, Alessandro Lopes; Alves de Oliveira, Cecília Maria; Kato, Lucília; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Souza, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2014-07-16

    The great potential of plants as Hymenaea courbaril L (jatoba) has not yet been throughly explored scientifically and therefore it is very important to investigate their pharmacological and toxicological activities to establish their real efficacy and safety. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of xylem sap of Hymenaea courbaril L and its bioactivity against the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans species complex and dermatophytes. The fresh xylem sap of H. courbaril was filtered resulting in an insoluble brown color precipitate and was identified as fisetin. In the filtrate was identified the mixture of fisetinediol, fustin, 3-O-methyl-2,3-trans-fustin and taxifolin, which were evaluated by broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing against C. neoformans species complex and dermatophytes. The fresh xylem sap and fisetin were screened for cytotoxicity against the 3T3-A31 cells of Balb/c using neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. The fresh xylem sap and the fisetin showed higher in vitro activity than the filtrate. The xylem sap of H. courbaril inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and of C. neoformans with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) fisetin showed MIC Fisetin showed lower toxicity (IC50 = 158 μg/mL) than the fresh xylem sap (IC50 = 109 μg/mL). Naturally occurring fisetin can provide excellent starting points for clinical application and can certainly represent a therapeutic potential against fungal infections, because it showed in vitro antifungal activity and low toxicity on animal cells.

  14. 探析 SAP 咨询顾问在项目管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉悦

    2015-01-01

    随着互联网信息化时代的到来,精细化、信息化的运作方式在项目管理中显得越来越重要,基于 ERP 系统的 SAP 软件成为了众多企业在项目管理中的首要选择。SAP 咨询顾问作为 SAP 软件与项目管理之间的桥梁,扮演着承上启下的关键角色,在项目管理过程中发挥着十分显著的作用。本文深入解读了 SAP 软件的特点,并阐述了 SAP 咨询顾问在项目管理中所扮演的角色,最后详尽分析了SAP 咨询顾问在项目管理中的作用。

  15. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  17. Sap Flow of Populus euphratica in a Desert Riparian Forest in an Extreme Arid Region During the Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Si; Qi Feng; Xiao-You Zhang; Zong-Qiang Chang; Yong-Hong Su; Hai-Yang Xi

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the heat pulse technique was applied to investigate the stem sap flow of Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest in an extreme arid region from April to October 2003 and from May to October 2004. The experimental sites were in Qidaoqiao (101 °10'E, 41°59'N) and Bayantaolai farm (101°14'E, 42°01'N) in Ejina county, in the Iow reaches of the Heihe River, China. The results indicated that the diurnal change in the velocity of sap flow showed minor fluctuations. At night, the rising of sap flow could be observed in the main tree species because of root pressure. During the growing season, the maximum average velocity was observed in July, followed by August, and the same velocity was observed in September and May; the minimum velocity was observed in October. The transpiration from June to August during the growing season accounted for approximately 70% of the annual total transpiration. The sap flow velocity of P. euphratica trees of different ages could be arranged in the order: 15 yr > 25 yr > 50 yr. Sap flow velocity was closely related to changes in micrometeorological factors, with average sap flow velocity showing a significant linear correlation with net radiation, air temperature and relative humidity.

  18. [Expression of PARP/NF-κB and intervention effect of 5-AIQ/PDTC in SAP rats with adrenal damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Guo, Wen-Yi; Yu, Jia; Zhao, Kai-liang; Shi, Qiao; Zuo, Teng; Wang, Wei-xing

    2013-10-15

    To explore the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase/nuclear factor-κB (PARP/NF-κB) and intervention effect of 5-aminoisoquinolinone/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (5-AIQ/PDTC) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats with adrenal damage. The primarily cultured adrenocortical cells were quantitatively divided into control group (SO), pancreatitis group (SAP), PDTC drug control group (SO+PDTC), PDTC intervention group (SAP+PDTC), 5-AIQ drug control group (SO+ 5-AIQ) and 5-AIQ intervention group (SAP+5-AIQ). The SAP and 2 intervention groups were stimulated with the sera of SAP rats. Then corresponding drugs were added and culture continued for 12 hours. The corticosterone levels and PARP/NF-κB expression were observed for each group. Adrenal cells in vitro cultured were round or oval, had secretory granules and could be stained by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase antibody. The adherence rate was 60% after 48-hour culturing. The corticosterone level of SAP group was significantly lower than that of SO group [ (216.4 ± 15.7) vs (294.8 ± 16.3) µg/L, P SAP group (P SAP and PDTC intervention groups were higher than SO group while 5-AIQ intervention group was significantly lower than SAP and PDTC intervention groups, but higher than SO and drug control groups. The expression of NF-κB in SAP group was higher than that in SO group. Two intervention groups were lower than SAP group, but higher than SO and drug control groups. The pathway of PARP/NF-κB participates in adrenal damage of SAP rats. To a certain extent, the uses of 5-AIQ and PDTC may alleviate adrenal damage.

  19. SAP-independent and -dependent regulation of innate T cell development involving SLAMF receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime eDe Calisto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein (SAP plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive (DP thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8+ T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1+6]-/- and Slamf[1+5+6]-/- B6 mice have an approximately 70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type (WT B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8+ T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1+5+6]-/-, but not in the Slamf[1+6]-/- strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5-/- B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8+ T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7-/- strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3-/- BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic PLZFhi NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significatively increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8-/- BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8+ T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8+ T cells.

  20. SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Calisto, Jaime; Wang, Ninghai; Wang, Guoxing; Yigit, Burcu; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2014-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) and Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells.

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly:Juvenile blue king crab cannibalism experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying prey densities (year-0 blue king crabs) and habitat type (shell and sand) affect the...

  2. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    As Verticillium stem striping of oilseed rape (OSR), a vascular disease caused by Verticillium longisporum, is extending into new geographic regions and no control with fungicides exists, the demand for understanding mechanisms of quantitative resistance increases. Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role of soluble constituents and nutritional conditions in xylem sap as determinants of cultivar resistance of OSR to V. longisporum. Assessment of biometric and molecular genetic parameters applied to describe V. longisporum resistance (net area under disease progress curve, stunting, stem thickness, plant biomass, and V. longisporum DNA content) showed consistent susceptibility of cultivar 'Falcon' in contrast to two resistant genotypes, 'SEM' and 'Aviso'. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed a consistently stronger in vitro growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap extracted from OSR compared with the water control. Further comparisons of fungal growth in xylem sap of different cultivars revealed the absence of constitutive or V. longisporum induced antifungal activity in the xylem sap of resistant versus susceptible genotypes. The similar growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap, irrespective of cultivar, infection with V. longisporum and xylem sap filtration, was correlated with about equal amounts of total soluble proteins in xylem sap from these treatments. Interestingly, compared with younger plants, xylem sap from older plants induced significantly stronger fungal growth. Growth enhancement of V. longisporum in xylem sap of aging plants was reflected by increased contents of carbohydrates, which was consistent in mock or V. longisporum-infected plants and independent from cultivar resistance. The improved nutritional conditions in the xylem of more mature plants may explain the late appearance of disease symptoms, which are observed only in

  3. Interhemispheric asymmetry of ionospheric conductance and neutral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Sheng, C.; Yue, X.; Huang, Y.; Wu, Q.; Noto, J.; Drob, D. P.; Kerr, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Interhemispheric asymmetry has been identified in a number of studies with hemispheric power (HP) and convection pattern between the two hemispheres. The asymmetry of geomagnetic forcing in the two hemispheres can strongly influence the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. Subsequently the responses of the thermospheric dynamics and density to geomagnetic storms between the two hemispheres were reported to be different as well. In our study, the asymmetry has been examined in both ionosphere and thermosphere. First, the Pedersen conductance at high latitudes has been estimated from the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites observations during 2008 to 2011. The ratio of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities between E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions has been calculated. The analysis shows that the ratio reaches maximum in local winter and minimum in local summer, but the variation of the ratio from local summer to local winter in the southern hemisphere is larger than that in the northern hemisphere, which indicates that the energy partition between the E and F regions in the southern hemisphere changes more significantly than that in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, the seasonal variation of F region neutral wind from the mid-latitude conjugate Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observations has been studied. The neutral winds from Palmer station (64◦S, 64◦W) have been compared with those from the geomagnetic conjugate location, Millstone Hill (MH). At equinox, the local
time variation of neutral wind shows a very good conjugacy between these two locations. But at June solstice, the similarity in the zonal wind becomes less clear. The annual variation of daily average neutral wind from Palmer and MH has also been compared. The annual variation of neutral wind, especially the zonal component, is much less symmetric between the two

  4. 保水剂对水分胁迫下辣椒生长及光合作用的影响%Effects of Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) on Growth and Photosynthesis of Pepper Plants under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉玲; 徐刚; 高文瑞; 郭世荣; 刘涛; 李德翠

    2012-01-01

    Effect of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) on the growth and chlorophyll content of leaves,as well as the photosynthesis was conducted with pepper variety 'Chaoyue No. 5'in flowering stage under 10 days and 20 days medium water stress and the subsequent recovery process. The results showed that: (1)Water stress inhibit the growth mass,chlorophyll content and photosynthesis. (2) Adding 2‰ of SAP significantly decreased L,,WUE, significantly increased the plant height, stem diameter, dry fresh weight, chlorophyll content,and Pn,Ci ,G,,Tr under the water stress. (3)Under moderate water stress SAP can significant mitigate this damage in a short period of time, while the effect of SAP is limited with the time. (4) When resumed the normal water supply,the plant growth,chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters were significantly higher with SAP than that without SAP,while the recovery effect under short time stress was significantly better than that under long time stress. It indicates that SAP treatment could increase photo-synthetic parameters,improve the growth and relieve the water stress of damage on pepper by increasing the content of chlorophyll,and with the shorter time of water stress,the better effect of the SAP.%以‘超越5号’辣椒品种为试材,研究了中度水分胁迫10 d和20 d及随后分别复水的过程中保水剂对始花期辣椒植株的生长量、叶绿素以及光合特性的影响.结果显示:(1)水分胁迫显著抑制了辣椒植株的生长、叶绿素含量以及光合作用.(2)添加2‰的保水剂显著提高了水分胁迫下植株的株高、茎粗、干鲜重、叶绿素含量以及净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度和蒸腾速率等光合参数,降低了气孔限制值和水分利用率.(3)保水剂能够显著缓解短时间内中度水分胁迫造成的伤害.但随着胁迫时间的延长保水剂缓解的效果有限.(4)复水后,添加保水剂的植株生长量、叶绿素含量以及光合参数

  5. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander; Kragh, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II...... compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores....... Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS: AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0...

  6. Variable coupling between sap-flow and transpiration in pine trees under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grunzweig, Jose M.; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Changes in diurnal patterns in water transport and physiological activities in response to changes in environmental conditions are important adjustments of trees to drought. The rate of sap flow (SF) in trees is expected to be in agreement with the rate of tree-scale transpiration (T) and provides a powerful measure of water transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The aim of this five-years study was to investigate the temporal links between SF and T in Pinus halepensis exposed to extreme seasonal drought in the Yatir forest in Israel. We continuously measured SF (20 trees), the daily variations in stem diameter (ΔDBH, determined with high precision dendrometers; 8 trees), and ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET; eddy covariance), which were complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of H2O and CO2 gas exchange, water potentials, and hydraulic conductivity. During the rainy season, tree SF was well synchronized with ecosystem ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees. However, during the dry season, the daily SF trends greatly varied among trees, allowing a classification of trees into three classes: 1) Trees that remain with SF maximum at midday, 2) trees that advanced their SF peak to early morning, and 3) trees that delayed their SF peak to late afternoon hours. This classification remained valid for the entire study period (2010-2015), and strongly correlated with tree height and DBH, and to a lower degree with crown size and competition index. In the dry season, class 3 trees (large) tended to delay the timing of SF maximum to the afternoon, and to advance their maximum diurnal DBH to early morning, while class 2 trees (smaller) advanced their SF maximum to early morning and had maximum daily DBH during midday and afternoon. Leaf-scale transpiration (T), measurements showed a typical morning peak in all trees, irrespective of classification, and a secondary peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Water potential and

  7. SAP R/3 ERP系统上的轮胎理赔管理系统%Managing system of tire compensation in SAP R/3 ERP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张知程

    2005-01-01

    SAP R/3 ERP系统基础上开发了轮胎理赔管理系统.该系统采用ERP系统自带的ABAP/4开发平台开发,包括报赔管理、理赔管理和报表3个模块,与原ERP系统无缝结合.使用该系统在大大减小操作人员录入数据量的同时,可即时有效地分析和统计市场信息,使企业及时掌握市场反馈信息,为企业决策提供数据支持.

  8. Anaysis and Research of SAP JCO(JAVA) Component%SAP JCO(JAVA)组件的分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雪芬; 梅发凯; 钟华

    2009-01-01

    SAP是当今社会的主流ERP软件,大部分世界500强公司都是用SAP ERP软件,而JAVA是如今的主流开发语言,许多WEB程序和上层应用系统都用JAVA语言开发.如何使两个系统之间实现及时通信,成为当今要解决的问题.SAP提供了JCO组件,实现了SAP系统同JAVA系统的及时通信,为SAP和JAVA的更广泛的应用提供了技术保证.

  9. The Adaptor Protein SAP Directly Associates with CD3ζ Chain and Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Mutations altering the gene encoding the SLAM associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or XLP1. Its absence is correlated with a defective NKT cells development, a decrease in B cell functions and a reduced T cells and NK cells cytotoxic activities, thus leading to an immunodeficiency syndrome. SAP is a small 128 amino-acid long protein that is almost exclusively composed of an SH2 domain. It has been shown to interact with the CD150/SLAM family of receptors, and in a non-canonical manner with SH3 containing proteins such as Fyn, βPIX, PKCθ and Nck1. It would thus play the role of a minimal adaptor protein. It has been shown that SAP plays an important function in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the SLAM family of receptors. Therefore SAP defective T cells display a reduced activation of signaling events downstream of the TCR-CD3 complex triggering. In the present work, we evidence that SAP is a direct interactor of the CD3ζ chain. This direct interaction occurs through the first ITAM of CD3ζ, proximal to the membrane. Additionally, we show that, in the context of the TCR-CD3 signaling, an Sh-RNA mediated silencing of SAP is responsible for a decrease of several canonical T cell signaling pathways including Erk, Akt and PLCγ1 and to a reduced induction of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA. Altogether, we show that SAP plays a central function in the T cell activation processes through a direct association with the CD3 complex. PMID:22912825

  10. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems.

  11. Measurement of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) dust by ethanol derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul; Lemmo, John S; Macomber, Margaret; Holcomb, Mark L; Lieckfield, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) is an important industrial chemical manufactured primarily as sodium polyacrylate but occasionally as potassium salt. It has many applications owing to its intrinsic physical property of very high water absorption, which can be more than 100 times it own weight. SAP is commonly used in disposable diapers and feminine hygiene products and is known by a number of synonyms-sodium polyacrylate, superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP), polyacrylate absorbent (PA), and superabsorbent material (SAM). Germany and The Netherlands have adopted a nonbinding scientific guideline value 0.05 mg/m³ (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA) as the maximum allowable workplace concentration for the respirable dust of SAP (polyacrylate dust collected on filter cassettes in the workplace environment. This method is an alternative to the commonly used sodium-based method, which is limited owing to potential interference by other sources of sodium from the workplace and laboratory environments. The alcohol derivatization method effectively eliminates sodium interference from several classes of sodium compounds, as shown by their purposeful introduction at two and six times the equivalent amount of SAP present in reference samples. The accuracy of the method, as determined by comparison with sodium analysis of known reference samples, was greater than 80% over the study range of 5-50 μg of SAP dust. The lower reporting limit of the method is 3.0 μg of SAP per sample, which is equivalent to 3 (μg/m³) for an 8-hr sampling period at the recommended flow rate of 2.2 L/min.

  12. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  13. Missense mutations in SH2D1A identified in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease differentially affect the expression and function of SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Nathan J; Ma, Cindy S; Alvaro, Frank; Nichols, Kim E; Tangye, Stuart G

    2006-07-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in SH2D1A, which encodes signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). In addition to SLAM, SAP associates with several other cell-surface receptors including 2B4 (CD244), Ly9 (CD229), CD84 and NTB-A. SAP contains a single src-homology-2 domain and acts as an intracellular adaptor protein by recruiting the protein tyrosine kinase FynT to the cytoplasmic domains of some of these receptors, which results in the initiation of specific downstream signal transduction pathways. XLP is likely to result from perturbed signalling through one or more of these SAP-associating receptors. In this study, we identified missense (Y54C, I84T and F87S) and insertion (fs82 --> X103) mutations in four different kindreds affected by XLP. Each mutation dramatically reduced the half-life of SAP, thus diminishing its expression in primary lymphocytes as well as in transfected cell lines. Interestingly, although the Y54C and F87S mutations compromised the ability of SAP to associate with different receptors, the I84T mutation had no effect on the ability of SAP to bind SLAM, CD84 or 2B4. However, signalling downstream of SLAM was reduced in the presence of SAP bearing the I84T mutation. These findings indicate that, irrespective of the type of mutation, signalling through SAP-associating receptors in XLP can be impaired by reducing the expression of SAP, the ability of SAP to bind surface receptors and/or its ability to activate signal transduction downstream of the SLAM-SAP complex.

  14. Association between SAP and FynT: Inducible SH3 domain-mediated interaction controlled by engagement of the SLAM receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Riyan; Latour, Sylvain; Shi, Xiaochu; Veillette, André

    2006-08-01

    SAP is an intracellular adaptor molecule composed almost exclusively of an SH2 domain. It is mutated in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. Several immune abnormalities were also identified in SAP-deficient mice. By way of its SH2 domain, SAP interacts with tyrosine-based motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of SLAM family receptors. SAP promotes SLAM family receptor-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, due to its capacity to recruit the Src-related kinase FynT. This unusual property relies on the existence of a second binding surface in the SAP SH2 domain, centered on arginine 78 of SAP, that binds directly to the FynT SH3 domain. Herein, we wanted to further understand the mechanisms controlling the interaction between SLAM-SAP and FynT. Our experiments showed that, unlike conventional associations mediated by SH3 domains, the interaction of the FynT SH3 domain with SLAM-SAP was strictly inducible. It was absolutely dependent on engagement of SLAM by extracellular ligands. We obtained evidence that this inducibility was not due to increased binding of SLAM to SAP following SLAM engagement. Furthermore, it could occur independently of any appreciable SLAM-dependent biochemical signal. In fact, our data indicated that the induced association of the FynT SH3 domain with SLAM-SAP was triggered by a change in the conformation of SLAM-associated SAP caused by SLAM engagement. Together, these data elucidate further the events initiating SLAM-SAP signaling in immune cells. Moreover, they identify a strictly inducible interaction mediated by an SH3 domain.

  15. Mutually exclusive distribution of the sap and eag S-layer genes and the lytB/lytA cell wall hydrolase genes in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Brahim; Sirois, Marc; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Recently, two Bacillus thuringiensis strains were reported to synthesize parasporal inclusion bodies made not of the expected crystal (Cry) proteins but rather of the surface layer proteins (SLP) Sap (encoded by sap) and EA1 (encoded by eag), respectively. Whether the presence of the sap and eag genes is restricted to these two B. thuringiensis strains or ubiquitous in B. thuringiensis is unknown. We report here the distribution of the sap and eag genes in B. thuringiensis. Strains in the Bacillus cereus group were added for comparison purposes. We show that sap and eag are either present in tandem in 35% of the B. thuringiensis strains analysed and absent in 65% of the strains. When absent, a different tandem, the lytB/lytA cell wall hydrolase genes, is present. The distribution of the sap and eag S-layer and the lytB/lytA cell wall hydrolase genes is not species-specific in B. thuringiensis, B. cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus mycoides harbor sap and eag but not lytB/lytA. The sap, eag and lytB/lytA genes were absent in Bacillus pseudomycoides. Clearly, the distribution of the sap and eag S-layer and the lytB/lytA cell wall hydrolase genes in B. thuringiensis and in the Bacillus cereus group is mutually exclusive. We also showed that two genes involved in cell wall metabolism, csaA and csaB, are present not only upstream of the sap and eag S-layer genes, but also upstream of the lytB/lytA tandem in strains where sap and eag are absent. Bootstrapped neighbor-joining trees were inferred from the translated amino acid sequences of sap, eag and the tandem lytB/lytA, respectively.

  16. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  17. Reduced cathepsins B and D cause impaired autophagic degradation that can be almost completely restored by overexpression of these two proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Massimo; Motta, Marialetizia; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Scarpa, Susanna; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Cecconi, Francesco; Salvioli, Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Saposin (Sap) C deficiency, a rare variant form of Gaucher disease, is due to mutations in the Sap C coding region of the prosaposin (PSAP) gene. Sap C is required as an activator of the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase), which catalyzes glucosylceramide (GC) degradation. Deficit of either GCase or Sap C leads to the accumulation of undegraded GC and other lipids in lysosomes of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, we reported that Sap C mutations affecting a cysteine residue result in increased autophagy. Here, we characterized the basis for the autophagic dysfunction. We analyzed Sap C-deficient and GCase-deficient fibroblasts and observed that autophagic disturbance was only associated with lack of Sap C. By a combined fluorescence microscopy and biochemical studies, we demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts is not due to enhanced autophagosome formation but to delayed degradation of autolysosomes caused, in part, to decreased amount and reduced enzymatic activity of cathepsins B and D. On the contrary, in GCase-deficient fibroblasts, the protein level and enzymatic activity of cathepsin D were comparable with control fibroblasts, whereas those of cathepsin B were almost doubled. Moreover, the enhanced expression of both these lysosomal proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts resulted in close to functional autophagic degradation. Our data provide a novel example of altered autophagy as secondary event resulting from insufficient lysosomal function.

  18. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  19. Accumulation characteristics of soluble algal products (SAP) by a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. LX1 during batch cultivation for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Xue; Jia, Sheng-Lan

    2012-04-01

    Algae cultivation is the essential basis for microalgal biofuel production. Soluble algal products (SAP) are significant obstacle to large-scale, high-cell-density cultivation processes. SAP accumulation during batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 (a unique strain accumulating lipid substantially while growing fast under low-nutrient conditions) with different initial nitrogen concentrations (7.4-34.0mgNL(-1)) was investigated. The SAP content varied in the range of 3.4-17.4mgDOCL(-1) at stationary phase, with average yield per cell of 0.5-2.5pgDOCcell(-1). High SAP accumulation up to 15.2-17.4mgDOCL(-1) were observed with initial nitrogen above 20.2mgNL(-1). The maximum SAP production rate per unit culture volume (r(SAP)) was 2.6mgDOC(Ld)(-1) and that per cell (ν(SAP)) was 1.5pgDOC(celld)(-1). The r(SAP) increased with cell growth rate and decreased with cell density linearly. The SAP accumulation was majorly due to the release of growth-associated products.

  20. Serum amyloid-P component of the Armenian hamster: gene structure and comparison with structure and expression of the SAP gene from Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B

    1993-11-01

    Serum amyloid P (SAP), a phylogenetically conserved pentraxin, is an integral component of all amyloid deposits. Regulation of expression of SAP gene expression is quite different in two related hamster species. In Syrian hamsters, the resting serum levels of SAP are determined by gender, and the direction of alteration following inflammation is divergent. In Armenian hamsters, SAP is not a prominent acute-phase reactant and there is no gender dimorphism of expression. The structure and expression of the SAP gene of the Armenian hamsters was investigated by isolation of genomic clones, nucleotide sequence analysis, and RNA studies. The gene structure of Armenian hamster SAP is similar to the genes of all other pentraxins studied. While the upstream regions of the SAP genes of Syrian and Armenian hamsters are quite similar, important differences in potential enhancer sites have been recognized by comparing the corresponding sequences of SAP genes from both species. Little alteration in hepatic levels of transcripts encoding SAP or CRP, the other pentraxin, were noted following administration of lipopolysaccharide to Armenian hamsters. This relative lack of response occurred despite a marked acute phase reaction documented for serum amyloid A mRNA levels.

  1. Explaining spatial patterns of sap flow: day-to-day shifts in relevance of site- and tree-specific controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle K.; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration is essential for management decisions and for hydrological and climatological modelling. To assess transpiration at the tree scale sap flow velocity is commonly measured. Besides atmospheric conditions and soil moisture state, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status control sap flow of individual trees. Within forest stands, properties such as species composition, basal area or stem number also affect sap flow via competition or facilitation mechanisms. Finally, sap flow patterns might also be influenced by landscape-scale characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect because they affect water and energy availability; however, so far little is known about these larger-scale controls. We studied the relative importance of various tree- and site-specific characteristics with linear statistical models for daily sap velocity observations on 38 trees at 12 locations in mixed beech and oak forests in a catchment in Luxemburg. The temporal variation of the predictors' importance for sap velocity patterns was then related to hydro-meteorological conditions. Results indicate that a combination of tree- and site-specific controls influence sap velocity patterns, namely tree species, tree diameter, stand basal area, geology and aspect. The temporal dynamics of these controls are related to hydro-meteorological conditions, with tree-specific controls dominating when the atmospheric gradient is strong, i.e. the vapour pressure deficit is large, leading to higher sap velocities, whereas landscape-scale site characteristics are more important during weak atmospheric gradients. The importance of individual predictors also varies between spring and summer, probably due to different soil moisture and atmospheric conditions of the two periods. We conclude that both tree- and site-specific characteristics control sap velocity

  2. [Time lag effect between stem sap flow and photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit of Acacia mangium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Ma, Ling; Rao, Xing-Quan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Based on the measurement of the stem sap flow of Acacia mangium with Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, and the cross-correlation and time serial analysis of the sap flow and corresponding photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit, this paper studied the time lag effect between the stem sap flow of A. mangium and the driving factors of the tree canopy transpiration. The results indicated that the main driving factors of the transpiration were photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Sap flux density (Js) was more dependent on PAR than on VPD, and the dependence was more significant in dry season than in wet season. Sap flow lagged behind PAR but advanced than VPD in both dry and wet seasons. The time lag did not show any significant variation across different size tree individuals, but showed significant variation in different seasons. Time lag effect was not correlated with tree height, diameter at the breast, and canopy size. The time lag between Js and VPD was significantly related to nighttime water recharge in dry season, but reversed in wet season.

  3. Studying Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) During the March 17, 2013 Magnetic Storm: Comparison between RAM Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.; Zou, S.

    2013-12-01

    The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is one of the most important features in characterizing the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes in the inner magnetosphere/subauroral region. In this study, we simulate one SAPS event during the March 17, 2013 magnetic storm using the Ring Current -Atmosphere Interaction Model (RAM) two-way coupled with the global MHD model BATS-R-US. Both ionospheric and magnetospheric signatures are analyzed and compared to observations including global convection maps from SuperDARN, cross-track ion drift from DMSP, field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and in-situ observations from the recently launched Van Allen Probes (RBSP). Parametric study of the boundary conditions for the inner magnetosphere RAM is also carried out to demonstrate the effect on the strength and evolution of SAPS. Results indicate that the model can reasonably capture the global feature of SAPS but their spatial distribution (e.g., latitudinal location and width) is influenced by model parameters. The self-consistent electric field coupling between the inner magnetosphere model and the ionospheric solver seems to be an important controlling factor in reproducing the correct interplay between the Region 2 field-aligned current and the SAPS.

  4. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  5. QT dispersion and prognostication of the outcome in acute cardiotoxicities: A comparison with SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Amiri, Hassan; Zamani, Nasim; Rahimi, Mitra; Shadnia, Shahin; Taherkhani, Maryam

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of QT dispersion (QTD) in determining the outcome of the patients poisoned by cardiotoxic medications and toxins. Patients who referred to our emergency department (ED) due to acute toxicity with any cardiotoxic medication or toxin and were admitted to medical toxicology intensive care unit (MTICU) were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire containing the demographic characteristics, vital signs, laboratory tests, electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters of the first ECG taken on MTICU or ED admission, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS), and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) score was filled for every single patient. QTD was manually calculated. The patients were divided into two groups of survivors and non-survivors and compared. Although QTD was not significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors (P = 0.8), SAPS II and APACHE II score were so. SAPS and APACHE had the highest sensitivity and specificity in determining the patients' mortality, respectively. SAPS had the highest sensitivity, and QTD had the highest specificity in predicting the later development of the complications. SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems are the best systems for prognostication of death in patients with acute cardiotoxic medication-induced poisonings. QTD can be successfully used for the prediction of complications.

  6. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  7. Characteristic Profiles of an Original Drink Sap from Male and Female Deglet Nour Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. during Collection Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of a typical natural drink from male and female Deglet Nour (DN date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. during the collection period. Dry matter, protein, amino acids, and sugar profiles were determined using AFNOR norm, Kjeldahl method, HPLC, and HPAEC-PAD, respectively. The male sap dry matter content was higher than that of the female. It decreased significantly through the tapping period. During the harvest, the male sap protein content decreased but increased significantly in the female sap. Finally, sugar fraction, for both male and female DN sap, was dominated by sucrose, glucose, fructose, and a small amount of myo-inositol. During the collection time, sugar content is affected by the sex especially for myo-inositol content that increased significantly in the female date sap, unlike that of the male one. This may be related to the fact that the male palm is more resistant to physiological stress, inducing myo-inositol formation during tapping.

  8. SAP ERP应用监控平台的意义及优化方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁波; 丁翔; 项松

    2012-01-01

    ERP全称是“企业资源计划”(Enterprise Resource Planning),它既是一种管理思想,也是一种企业应用软件,作为管理思想,ERP体现“集成管理、共享数据、最优化资源利用”等的思想;作为软件,它实际上就是一种管理信息系统,但是这种管理信息系统是基于统一平台,具有高度集成性的.SAP作为全球最著名的ERP解决方案提供者,在全世界拥有众多客户.但是,SAP官方并没有提供一个简单易用的平台统一监控SAP ERP的一些技术指标,这给ERP日常的运维工作带来了不便.本文介绍了一种基于JAVA EE平台,以SAP ERP作为数据源的应用监控平台的设计方案及意义,并对其日后随着数据量的增加可能产生的问题提出了解决方案,应用SAP HANA对海量数据的检索进行优化.

  9. SAP ERP应用监控平台的意义及优化方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁波; 丁翔; 项松

    2012-01-01

    ERP全称是“企业资源计划”(Enterprise Resource Planning),它既是一种管理思想,也是一种企业应用软件,作为管理思想,ERP体现“集成管理、共享数据、最优化资源利用”等的思想;作为软件,它实际上就是一种管理信息系统,但是这种管理信息系统是基于统一平台,具有高度集成性的、SAP作为全球最著名的ERP解决方案提供者,在全世界拥有众多客户.但是,SAP官方并没有提供一个简单易用的平台统一监控SAP ERP的一些技术指标,这给ERP日常的运维工作带来了不便。本文介绍了一种基于JAVAEE平台,以SAP ERP作为数据源的应用监控平台的设计方案及意义.并对其日后随着数据量的增加可能产生的问题提出了解决方案.应用SAP HANA对海量数据的检索进行优化.

  10. Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froldi, G; Zagotto, G; Filippini, R; Montopoli, M; Dorigo, P; Caparrotta, L

    2009-08-01

    The effects of red sap from Croton lechleri (SdD), Euphorbiaceae, on vascular and gastric smooth muscles were investigated. SdD, from 10 to 1000 microg/ml, induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in rat caudal arteries, which was endothelium-independent. In arterial preparations pre-constricted by phenylephrine (0.1 microM) or KCl (30 mM), SdD also produced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction. To study the mechanisms implicated in this effect we used selective inhibitors such as prazosin (0.1 microM), an antagonist of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, atropine (0.1 microM), an antagonist of muscarinic receptors, and ritanserin (50 nM), a 5-HT(2A) antagonist; none of these influenced vasoconstriction caused by SdD. Likewise, nifedipine (50 nM), an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, did not modify the action of SdD. Capsaicin (100 nM), an agonist of vanilloid receptors, also did not affect vasoconstriction by SdD. We also investigated the action of SdD (10-1000 microg/ml) on rat gastric fundus; per se the sap slightly increased contractile tension. When the gastric fundus was pre-treated with SdD (100 microg/ml) the contraction induced by carbachol (1 microM) was increased, whereas that by KCl (60mM) or capsaicin (100 nM) were unchanged. The data shows that SdD increased contractile tension in a concentration-dependent way, both on vascular and gastric smooth muscles. The vasoconstriction is unrelated to alpha(1), M, 5-HT(2A) and vanilloid receptors as well as L-type calcium channels. SdD increased also contraction by carbachol on rat gastric fundus. Thus for the first time, experimental data provides evidence that sap from C. lechleri owns constricting activity on smooth muscles.

  11. Effects of combination of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) with nitrogen fertilizer on growth and photosynthesis of pepper plants%保水剂与氮肥结合对辣椒生长及光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 韩玉玲; 高文瑞; 李德翠; 韩冰; 孙艳军

    2012-01-01

    Pepper variety Chaoyue No. 5 was selected as material to study the effects of combination of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) with nitrogen fertilizer on growth and photosynthesis of pepper during flowering using SAP absorbing carbamide. The combination of SAP with nitrogen fertiliser significantly increased the height, stem diameter, fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll content of leaves, as well as the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) , stomatal conduct (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) , but decreased the stomata limitation (Ls) and water efficiency ( WUE) under the same nitrogen application condition. The growth, chlorophyll content, Pn, Ci, Gs and Tr of pepper with the treatment of SAP combining nitrogen of 0. 75 times as many as standard application level were significantly higher than those with the treatment of applying nitrogen at standard level. It indicated that using SAP to absorb urea increased the fertiliser use efficiency, and reduced the loss of fertilizer.%以辣椒品种超越5号为试验材料,采用保水剂吸收尿素溶液的方法,探讨了保水剂与氮肥结合对辣椒开花坐果期植株生长及光合特性的影响.结果表明:在相同的氮肥条件下,保水剂与氮肥结合提高了植株的株高、茎粗、干鲜重、叶绿素含量以及净光合速率(Pn)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)等光合参数,降低了气孔限制值(Ls)和水分利用效率(WUE);同时保水剂+0.75倍标准氮肥用量处理的叶片生长量、叶绿素含量、Pn、Ci、Gs和Tr都显著高子1倍标准氮肥用量的处理,表明采用保水剂吸收尿素溶液的方式能够提高肥料利用率,降低肥料损失.

  12. Deflation and Flexible SAP-Preconditioning of GMRES in Lattice QCD Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Frommer, Andreas; Zingler, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The simulation of lattice QCD on massively parallel computers stimulated the development of scalable algorithms for the solution of sparse linear systems. We tackle the problem of the Wilson-Dirac operator inversion by combining a Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) in multiplicative form with a flexible variant of the GMRES-DR algorithm. We show that restarted GMRES is not able to converge when the system is poorly conditioned. By adding deflation in the form of the FGMRES-DR algorithm, an important fraction of the information produced by the iterates is kept between successive restarts leading to convergence in cases in which FGMRES stagnates.

  13. Ensuring Data Protection in the SAP Business Information Warehouse: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria Stefanache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business environment is highly vulnerable to private data disclosure considering the permanently increasing amounts of data used in the business and decision-making processes. Ever more measures for data protection are applied by companies regardless of their activity area or size, some of them implying great costs and efforts. This article presents a series of protection measures available in the SAP Business Intelligence and operational systems, in form of authentication and authorizations procedures implemented for an application designed for the efficient management of employees’ data and time scheduling.

  14. A novel extracellular peroxidase and nucleases from a milky sap of Chelidonium majus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Lesniewicz, Krzysztof; Pienkowska, Joanna; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna

    2007-12-01

    Using affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE, peroxidase activity assay and mass spectrometry data, a new extracellular peroxidase (CMP) from Chelidonium majus milky sap was isolated and characterized. The protein has a molecular weight of about 40 kDa and belongs to secretory class III plant peroxidases. The peroxidase activity is also accompanied by DN-ase activities. A novel CMP combined with other proteins is probably involved in development and differentiation of the plant and defence against different pathogens. It suggests that the biological activity of C. majus whole plants and extracts may depend not only on its alkaloidal content but also on the presence of biologically active proteins.

  15. Modal seismic analysis of a nuclear power plant control panel and comparison with SAP 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, M. R.; Pamidi, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of NASTRAN to seismic analysis by considering the example of a nuclear power plant control panel was considered. A modal analysis of a three-dimensional model of the panel, consisting of beam and quadri-lateral membrane elements, is performed. Using the results of this analysis and a typical response spectrum of an earthquake, the seismic response of the structure is obtained. ALTERs required to the program in order to compute the maximum modal responses as well as the resultant response are given. The results are compared with those obtained by using the SAP IV computer program.

  16. 基于SAP2000的钢框架pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英杰

    2014-01-01

    pushover属于非线性静力分析方法,是实现基于性能抗震设计的重要方法。本文主要阐述了pushover分析的基本原理、实施步骤及其优缺点,最后利用SAP2000对一榀钢框架进行pushover分析,并对结构的性能进行评价。分析结果表明pushover方法是目前对结构进行弹塑性分析的有效方法。

  17. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  18. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  19. Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Morino, K.; Bush, S.E.; Burtch, K.G.; Dennison, P.E.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the saltcedar beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has resulted in the periodic defoliation of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along more than 1000 river km in the upper Colorado River Basin and is expected to spread along many other river reaches throughout the upper basin, and possibly into the lower Colorado River Basin. Identifying the impacts of these release programs on tamarisk water use and subsequent water cycling in arid riparian systems are largely unknown, due in part to the difficulty of measuring water fluxes in these systems. We used lab-calibrated, modified heat-dissipation sap flux sensors to monitor tamarisk water use (n=20 trees) before, during and after defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons (May-October) in southeastern Utah. We incorporated a simple model that related mean stem sap flux density (Js) with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (vpd) before the onset of defoliation in 2008. The model was used to calculate differences between predicted Js and Js measured throughout the two growing seasons. Episodic defoliation resulted in a 16% reduction in mean annual rates of Js in both 2008 and 2009, with decreases occurring only during the periods in which the trees were defoliated (about 6-8 weeks per growing season). In other words, rates of Js rebounded to values predicted by the model when the trees produced new leaves after defoliation. Sap flux data were scaled to stand water use by constructing a tamarisk-specific allometric equation to relate conducting sapwood area to stem diameter, and by measuring the size distribution of stems within the stand. Total water use in both years was 0.224m, representing a reduction of about 0.04myr-1. Results showed that repeated defoliation/refoliation cycles did not result in a progressive decrease in either leaf production or water use over the duration of the study. This investigation improves ground-based estimates of tamarisk water use, and will support

  20. Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Kerry E; Linklater, Wayne L

    2013-08-16

    The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

  1. Plastic Hinge Modification of SAP2000 in Nonlinear Static Analysis%SAP2000在静力弹塑性分析时塑性铰的修改

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙广璟; 何若全

    2007-01-01

    介绍了SAP2000在静力弹塑性分析(Pushover)时的规范背景.当采用中国规范,运用SAP2000进行Pushover分析时,需对塑性铰进行修改.提出了修改建议,通过算例对中心支撑钢框架采用两种塑性铰进行Pushover分析,并对结果进行比较,表明塑性铰的修改是必要的.

  2. SAP R/3系统客户化接口程序的开发方法及实现%Method and implementation of SAP R/3 system's customized interface program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关宇平

    2007-01-01

    对应用SAP ERP系统中的ABAP开发语言、RFC、BAPI、BDC等技术实现SAP客户化接口程序的开发方法进行了探讨,通过案例展示了相关技术在实践中的具体应用,为SAP ERP的用户及从事ABAP开发的人员进行SAP客户化接口需求分析及开发提供指导作用.

  3. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six Laur

  4. 30 CFR 285.600 - What plans and information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant? You must submit a SAP, COP... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit to MMS before I conduct activities on my lease or grant? 285.600 Section 285.600 Mineral Resources...

  5. SAP2000桥梁结构抗震性能评价——基于Pushover原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷京

    2011-01-01

    介绍了SAP2000程序中的Pushover方法的基本原理和方法,阐述了利用SAP2000程序进行桥梁结构Pushover分析的计算步骤,结合桥梁破损极限状态的定量准则进行桥梁抗震性能评价,并给出了一个应用实例.结果表明,SAP2000程序可以较方便地实现桥梁结构的Pushover分析,并且可以对一般桥梁结构的抗震性能做出合理的评价.

  6. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Conduction apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochipa, C; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1994-01-01

    A left hemisphere damaged patient with ideomotor apraxia is described, whose performance on pantomime to verbal command was superior to pantomime imitation. His reception of these same gestures (gesture naming) was spared. This syndrome has been named conduction apraxia. To account for this selective impaired performance on gesture imitation, a separation of the representations for gesture production and reception is proposed and a non-lexical gesture processing route for gesture imitation is suggested. Images PMID:7931387

  8. Conduction apraxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochipa, C; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1994-01-01

    A left hemisphere damaged patient with ideomotor apraxia is described, whose performance on pantomime to verbal command was superior to pantomime imitation. His reception of these same gestures (gesture naming) was spared. This syndrome has been named conduction apraxia. To account for this selective impaired performance on gesture imitation, a separation of the representations for gesture production and reception is proposed and a non-lexical gesture processing route for gesture imitation is...

  9. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  10. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.

    2012-12-01

    Femtocells are promising techniques employed in cellular systems to enhance the indoor coverage, especially in areas with high density and high traffic rates. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource utilization protocol, named shared access protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed system model, we obtain, in closed-form, the main signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) characteristics, including the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF). In addition, these expressions are further used to derive several performance metrics in closed-form, such as, the average bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and the average channel capacity for the proposed SAP herein. Furthermore, Monte-carlo simulations as well as numerical results are provided showing a good match that ensures and confirms the correctness of the derived expressions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A. Christopher; Hawthorne, David A.; Oren, Ram

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or "baseline", which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  12. SAP ERP系统性能监控解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 刘宁波; 项松

    2013-01-01

      企业资源计划(Enterprise Resource Planning,ERP)作为当今最为主流的企业管理思想,提出了一整套企业管理系统体系标准,体现了集成管理、业务规范、资源利用最优化等先进思想,也成为了现代企业在信息时代的主要运行模式。SAP是全球最著名的ERP解决方案提供者,其ERP软件就是IT技术与管理思想的完美融合,为世界各大企业带来了新生命。SAP ERP作为企业管理工具,在业务流程、基础数据上体现的非常规范、全面,但在系统性能指标监控上缺少汇总分析、数据信息化、预警等功能,本文旨在根据SAP ERP系统性能监控问题提出一些解决方案。

  13. Zavedení SAP HANA a SLT do firmy pro akceleraci analýzy ziskovosti

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Podstatou této bakalářské práce je dokončení zadaného projektu zavedení SAP HANA technologie v roli akcelerátoru pro podnikový ERP systém, konkrétně pro modul CO-PA. Součástí je i základní teorie z oblasti databázových systémů a popis SAP HANA a SLT technologií. Díky nim by měla firma být schopná rychlé analýzy vlastních financí a na základě jejich výsledků pružně reagovat změnami firemní struktury nebo strategie. The main purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to complete the given project ...

  14. Sourcing strategies to keep up with competition: the case of SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Antero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic of competition. The case study reveals that (a organizations are adaptive systems and capable of learning to make strategic changes pertaining to sourcing arrangements; (b organizations select the terms on which they want to compete by developing certain capabilities within the firm; (c organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes.

  15. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-09-30

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].

  16. p38γ regulates the localisation of SAP97 in the cytoskeleton by modulating its interaction with GKAP

    OpenAIRE

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Arthur, James Simon Campbell; Kuma, Yvonne; Peggie, Mark; Carr, Julia; Murray-Tait, Vicky; Centeno, Francisco; Goedert, Michel; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Cuenda, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathways is crucial for the adaptation of mammalian cells to changes in the osmolarity of the environment. Here we identify SAP97/hDlg, the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila tumour suppressor Dlg, as a physiological substrate for the p38γ MAP kinase (SAPK3/p38γ) isoform. SAP97/hDlg is a scaffold protein that forms multiprotein complexes with a variety of proteins and is targeted to the cytoskeleton by its association with the protein guanylate kinase-assoc...

  17. Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V; Söderman, Guy; Labina, Eugenia S; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. We used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. We used a replicated sampling design and quantitatively collected and identified all sap-feeding insects from four species of forest trees along five latitudinal gradients (750-1300 km in length, ten sites in each gradient) in northern Europe (59 to 70°N and 10 to 60°E) during 2008-2011. Similar decreases in diversity of sap-feeding insects with latitude were observed in all gradients during all study years. The sap-feeder load (i.e. insect biomass per unit of foliar biomass) decreased with latitude in typical summers, but increased in an exceptionally hot summer and was independent of latitude during a warm summer. Analysis of combined data from all sites and years revealed dome-shaped relationships between the loads of sap-feeders and midsummer temperatures, peaking at 17 °C in Picea abies, at 19.5 °C in Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens and at 22 °C in B. pendula. From these relationships, we predict that the losses of forest trees to sap-feeders will increase by 0-45% of the current level in southern boreal forests and by 65-210% in subarctic forests with a 1 °C increase in summer temperatures. The observed relationships between temperatures and the loads of sap-feeders differ between the coniferous and deciduous tree species. We conclude that climate warming will not only increase plant losses to sap-feeding insects, especially in subarctic forests, but can also alter plant-plant interactions, thereby affecting both the productivity and the structure of future forest ecosystems. © 2014

  18. Granier's Thermal Dissipation Probe (TDP) Method for Measuring Sap Flow in Trees:Theory and Practice%应用Granier热消散探针(TDP)法测定树木的木质部液流:理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆平; Laurent URBAB; 赵平

    2004-01-01

    Granier热消散探针法是目前研究树木生理生态和森林水文最常用的测定整树水分利用的方法之一.然而,已有的相关综述文献中,还没有专门介绍利用Granier热消散探针研究木质部液流的综述文章.本文重点介绍了Granier热消散探针测定系统的理论基础,对有关该探针的校准和改进的最新研究进展进行了综述,并还深入探讨了零液流信号值的确定、自然热梯度、损伤效应、液流的逆格型和将木质部液流密度外推至整树蒸腾耗水量等重要的实际问题.%Granier sap flow system is one of the most commonly used techniques for measurements of whole-tree water use in ecophysiological and forest hydrological studies. However, in the literature there is not one paper that exclusively reviews the Granier method. In this paper, we recapitulate the theoretical basis of the Granier sap flow system and review recent developments in calibration and modification of the sensor probes. Practical issues, such as the determination of the non-flow signal values, natural thermal gradient, wounding effect, reversed sap flow pattern and extrapolation of individual measurement of sap flux density to whole-tree sap flow, are discussed in detail. In the perspectives, new approaches are put forward to use the strong coupling between photosynthesis and transpiration or canopy conductance, via the measurement of 13C discrimination, to estimate whole-canopy carbon assimilation.

  19. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceaeseaweed sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiya Anil S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both the culture ponds. Good survival rate (89.70%, average daily growth (0.277, total biomass(2007.48 kg and less Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR (1.26:1 were obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii(Doty Doty ex P. C. Silva, 1996 sap incorporated in pellet fed shrimps of pond 2, compare to control pond survival rate (73.70%, average daily growth (0.242, total biomass (1476.9 and high FCR(1.52:1 from control pellet fed shrimps of pond 1. There was no significant differences in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity, whereas micro-nutrients in water parameter vary during last month of culture period. The present investigation concluded that used ofK. alvarezii sap to the shrimp feed has enhanced growth in term of survival rate from 73.70% to 89.70%, average daily growth from0.242 to 0.277 and total biomass weight from 1476.9 kg to 2007.48 kg when compare to control pond shrimps and is economically viable approach in terms of profit. K. alvarezii is rich in micro nutrient, which can boost up the tiger shrimp growth in fewer days of culture.

  20. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  1. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroefl, Christof, E-mail: christof.schroefl@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Mechtcherine, Viktor [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen/AG (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1.

  2. A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant-heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. McCulloh; K. Winter; F.C. Meinzer; M. Garcia; J. Aranda; Lachenbruch B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of Granier-style heat dissipation sensors to measure sap flow is common in plant physiology, ecology, and hydrology. There has been concern that any change to the original Granier design invalidates the empirical relationship between sap flux density and the temperature difference between the probes. We compared daily water use estimates from gravimetric...

  3. Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-01-01

    SAP-1 is a 113 amino acid long single-chain protein which belongs to the type 2 cystatin gene family. In our previous study, we have purified SAP-1 from human seminal plasma and observed its cross-class inhibitory property. At this time, we report the interaction of SAP-1 with diverse proteases and its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the conformation of SAP-1 is changed after its complexation with proteases, and the alterations in protein secondary structure are quantitatively calculated with increase of α-helices and reduction of β-strand content. To get insight into the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases, we make an effort to model the three-dimensional structure of SAP-1 by molecular modeling and verify its stability and viability through molecular dynamics simulations and finally complexed with different proteases using ClusPro 2.0 Server. A high degree of shape complementarity is examined within the complexes, stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) and hydrophobic interactions. Using HB analyses in different protein complexes, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases. These findings will assist to understand the mechanism of inhibition of SAP-1 for different proteases and provide intimation for further research.

  4. The annual pattern of sap flow in tow Eucalyptus species established in the vicinity of gold-mine tailings dams in central South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available of contaminants. The annual pattern of hourly sap flow in four contiguous Eucalyptus dunnii trees (aged three years) was followed over a full year in a species trial situated near Carltonville. The annual pattern of hourly sap flow was also recorded in four...

  5. Switching the light off: A break in photosynthesis and sap flow of forest trees under total solar eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Häberle

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In mature trees of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur, photosynthesis and transpiration were assessed in response to the total solar eclipse that occurred in Central Europe during the late morning hours of August 11, 1999, a day with changing cloudiness. Measurements were conducted at three forest sites located in the totality zone and the 99% area of the eclipse within a radius of about 100 km around the city of Munich (southern Germany. The eclipse lasting 164 minutes lowered the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD to about 1 μmol m-2 s-1 during the 2-minute totality period, when the sky was clear. During totality, photosynthesis was reduced to an extent that allowed CO2 release to dominate the gas exchange of leaves. Effects on transpiration were less pronounced as the totality was apparently too short to induce distinct stomatal closure in response to low PPFD. Transpiration was strongly reduced, however, by increased air humidity and wet leaf surfaces during sporadic rain showers which preceded or succeeded the eclipse during the same day, whereas low PPFD through intermittent cloudiness during rain only moderately reduced photosynthesis. Although transpiration was lowered to a minor extent only by the eclipse, the latter affected the water transport through the whole tree, as reflected in a decline in the sap flow rate through the basal stem part with a time delay depending on the species. Nevertheless, trees responded in a synchronous way, regardless of the site, species or the percent degree of the eclipse.

  6. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. SAP软件系统传输功能分析和应用%SAP software system transmission function analysis and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伟; 丁建华; 杨正平

    2013-01-01

    主要分析 SAP 系统底层软件传输架构,通过了解 SAP 系统底层传输机制,达到能够清楚分析传输故障的目的,并扩展传输使用范围,通过传输系统进行 SAP 系统补丁升级和实现手动传输的具体方法。%This thesis mainly introduces and analyzes the underlying software transport management system architecture of the SAP system.In this way, it is achieved that we can clearly analyze the transport error, and extend it′s using range to the SAP system′s patches upgrading and implementation of manual transmission.

  8. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. 'Two root-one shoot' grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Psisoil) during PRD. Although Psisoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Psisoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Psisoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Psisoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed.

  9. Conducted Vasoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A Y; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    , the underlying mechanisms are debated. Here, we focus on dynamical aspects of the problem hypothesizing the existence of a bistability-powered mechanism for regenerative pulse transmission along the endothelium. Bistability implies that the cell can have two different stable resting potentials and can switch......Conducted vasodilation is part of the physiological response to increasing metabolic demand of the tissue. Similar responses can be elicited by focal electrical or chemical stimulation. Some evidence suggests an endothelial pathway for nondecremental transmission of hyperpolarizing pulses. However...... a theoretical analysis as well as numerical simulations of both single- and multiunit bistable systems mimicking endothelial cells to investigate the self-consistence and stability of the proposed mechanism. We find that the individual cell may switch readily between two stable potentials. An array of coupled...

  10. Detection of Buried Objects by Means of a SAP Technique: Comparing MUSIC- and SVR-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Schettini, G.

    2012-04-01

    This work is focused on the application of a Sub-Array Processing (SAP) technique to the detection of metallic cylindrical objects embedded in a dielectric half-space. The identification of buried cables, pipes, conduits, and other cylindrical utilities, is an important problem that has been extensively studied in the last years. Most commonly used approaches are based on the use of electromagnetic sensing: a set of antennas illuminates the ground and the collected echo is analyzed in order to extract information about the scenario and to localize the sought objects [1]. In a SAP approach, algorithms for the estimation of Directions of Arrival (DOAs) are employed [2]: they assume that the sources (in this paper, currents induced on buried targets) are in the far-field region of the receiving array, so that the received wavefront can be considered as planar, and the main angular direction of the field can be estimated. However, in electromagnetic sensing of buried objects, the scatterers are usually quite near to the antennas. Nevertheless, by dividing the whole receiving array in a suitable number of sub-arrays, and by finding a dominant DOA for each one, it is possible to localize objects that are in the far-field of the sub-array, although being in the near-field of the array. The DOAs found by the sub-arrays can be triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. In this work, the performances of two different DOA algorithms are compared. In particular, a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-type method [3] and Support Vector Regression (SVR) based approach [4] are employed. The results of a Cylindrical-Wave Approach forward solver are used as input data of the detection procedure [5]. To process the crossing pattern, the region of interest is divided in small windows, and a Poisson model is adopted for the statistical distribution of intersections in the windows. Hypothesis testing procedures are used (imposing

  11. 0.7 and 3 T MRI and sap flow in intact trees: xylem and phloem in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Windt, C.W.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware is described that allows imaging of sap flow in intact trees with a maximal trunk diameter of 4 cm and height of several meters. This setup is used to investigate xylem and phloem flow in an intact tree quantitatively. Due to the fragile gradients

  12. Combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches helps to unravel the protein composition of Chelidonium majus L. milky sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Lippmann, Rico; Altschmied, Lothar; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    A novel annotated Chelidonium majus L. transcriptome database composed of 23,004 unique coding sequences allowed to significantly improve the sensitivity of proteomic C. majus assessments, which showed novel defense-related proteins characteristic to its latex. To date, the composition of Chelidonium majus L. milky sap and biosynthesis of its components are poorly characterized. We, therefore, performed de novo sequencing and assembly of C. majus transcriptome using Illumina technology. Approximately, 119 Mb of raw sequence data was obtained. Assembly resulted in 107,088 contigs, with N50 of 1913 bp and N90 of 450 bp. Among 34,965 unique coding sequences (CDS), 23,004 obtained CDS database served as a basis for further proteomic analyses. The database was then used for the identification of proteins from C. majus milky sap, and whole plant extracts analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) approach. Of about 334 different putative proteins were identified in C. majus milky sap and 1155 in C. majus whole plant extract. The quantitative comparative analysis confirmed that C. majus latex contains proteins connected with response to stress conditions and generation of precursor metabolites and energy. Notable proteins characteristic to latex include major latex protein (MLP, presumably belonging to Bet v1-like superfamily), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, which could be responsible for browning of the sap after exposure to air), and enzymes responsible for anthocyanidin, phenylpropanoid, and alkaloid biosynthesis.

  13. Evaluating secretion and surface attachment of SapA, an S-layer-associated metalloprotease of Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Lyngrace; Nomellini, John F; Smit, John

    2012-10-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is used to display foreign peptides at high density as insertions into the surface (S)-layer protein (RsaA). Many recombinant RsaA proteins, however, are cleaved by SapA, a 71-kDa metalloprotease, suggesting a role in maintaining S-layer integrity. When overexpressed on a multicopy plasmid SapA was detected on the surface by fluorescent antibody only if RsaA and the O-side chain of LPS that mediates S-layer attachment were removed by mutation, indicating an outer membrane location beneath the S-layer. Secretion was mediated by the RsaA type 1 transporter since secretion was eliminated in transporter deficient strains or by C-terminal deletions in SapA (the presumed location of type 1 secretion signals). Secretion was required to become an active protease; mass spectrometry suggested this might be due to N-terminal processing during secretion, a feature shared with other type 1-secreted proteases. Overexpression leads to additional processing C-terminal to the protease domain, producing a 45-kDa protein. This was demonstrated to be self-processing. Deletion analysis revealed the C-terminal 100 amino acids were sufficient for anchoring and secretion. When protein G was fused to the last 238 amino acids of SapA it was secreted, surface attached and bound immunoglobulin, indicating potential for foreign protein display.

  14. Sap flow in Searsia pendulina and Searsia lancea trees established on gold mining sites in central South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available of the heat pulse velocity technique. Plot sap flow was estimated by scaling up according to the number and size of stems, and utilizing functions relating leaf dry mass and leaf area to stem diameter. The deciduous species S. pendulina was found to use 591 mm...

  15. The role of the SLAM-SAP signaling pathway in the modulation of CD4+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, M L L V; Frutuoso, M S; Arruda, S M; Lima, D M; Bezerra, C S; Pompeu, M M L

    2011-04-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), present on the surface of hematopoietic cells, can regulate some events of the immune responses. This modulatory action is associated with the capacity of SLAM to interact with an intracytoplasmic adapter, such as SLAM-associated protein (SAP). SLAM is constitutively expressed in most of these cells, is rapidly induced after antigenic or inflammatory stimuli, and participates in the immunological synapse. Defects in the function of the SLAM-SAP pathway contribute to immunological abnormalities, resulting in autoimmune diseases, tumors of the lymphoid tissues and inadequate responses to infectious agents. Initially, the role of SLAM was investigated using an anti-SLAM monoclonal antibody (α-SLAM mAb) identified as an agonist of the SLAM-SAP pathway, which could induce the production of interferon-γ and could redirect the immune response to a T helper 1 (Th1) cell profile. However, in this review we postulate that the SLAM-SAP pathway primarily induces a Th2 response and secondarily suppresses the Th1 response.

  16. DLG3/SAP102 protein expression in malformations of cortical development: a study of human epileptic cortex by tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingqi; Aronica, Eleonora; Boer, Karin; Fällmar, David; Kumlien, Eva; Nistér, Monica; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Smits, Anja

    2009-03-01

    The human DLG3 gene encodes the synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102), which is concentrated in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses and involved in receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via binding to the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. In this study, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of the DLG3/SAP102 protein in human epileptic cortex. Tissue microarrays of a large number of specimens from patients operated for medically intractable epilepsy were used for immunohistochemical screening with anti-DLG3 antibody. The cellular distribution of the protein was further investigated in samples of malformations of cortical development, and the amount of DLG3 protein in the total homogenate and in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of these samples was quantified by Western blot. We found a strictly neuronal expression of DLG3/SAP102 in epileptogenic cortex as well as in non-epileptic human cortex used for control. In focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex, the protein was expressed in most neurons including dysplastic neurons, but not in giant cells. Increased expression of DLG3 protein was observed in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of patients with focal cortical dysplasia. Double-labeling experiments confirmed the exclusive neuronal character of the DLG3 expressing cells and the co-localization of the DLG3 protein with the NR2B subunit. Our results suggest a putative role for DLG3/SAP102 in cortical hyperexcitability and epileptogenicity of malformations of cortical development.

  17. Hodnocení efektivnosti restrukturalizace organizační architektury ve společnosti SAP

    OpenAIRE

    Mikula, Václav

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with organizational structures, emphasizing a flexibility of their forms, and reorganization. In the theoretical part there were explained reasons of modern organization, types of organizational forms, incentives and way of reorganization as well as corporate control mechanisms. The practical part applies these findings to restructuring of SAP corporation by a design of a control process of the newly formed organizational structure.

  18. 0.7 and 3 T MRI and sap flow in intact trees: xylem and phloem in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Windt, C.W.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware is described that allows imaging of sap flow in intact trees with a maximal trunk diameter of 4 cm and height of several meters. This setup is used to investigate xylem and phloem flow in an intact tree quantitatively. Due to the fragile gradients

  19. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  20. Nucleotides, micro- and macro-nutrients, limonoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamates composition in the phloem sap of sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Manthey, John A; Van der Merwe, Deon; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-06-02

    Currently, the global citrus production is declining due to the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB, otherwise known as citrus greening, is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllids (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP transmits CLas bacterium while feeding on the citrus phloem sap. Multiplication of CLas in the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for CLas. In this study, we investigated the micro- and macro-nutrients, nucleotides, and others secondary metabolites of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. The micro- and macro-nutrients were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Nucleotides and other secondary metabolites analysis was accomplished by reversed phase HPLC coupled with UV, fluorescence detection, or negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Calcium (89 mM) was the highest element followed by potassium (38.8 mM) and phosphorous (24 mM). Magnesium and sulfur were also abundant and their concentrations were 15 and 9 mM, respectively. The rest of the elements were found in low amounts (sap.