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Sample records for saps ii sequential

  1. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander; Kragh, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II...... compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores....... Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS: AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0...

  2. [Validity of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales in obstetric patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskikh, I B; Musaeva, T S; Denisova, E A

    2012-01-01

    to estimate efficiency of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA scales for obstetric patients with heavy sepsis. 186 medical cards retrospective analysis of pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis, 40 women with urosepsis and puerperas with abdominal sepsis--66 was performed. Middle age of women was 26.7 (22.4-34.5). In population of puerperas with abdominal sepsis APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA scales showed to good calibration, however, high resolution was observed only in APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA (AUROC 0.95; 0.93; 0.92 respectively). APACHE III and SOFA scales provided qualitative prognosis in pregnant women with urosepsis; resolution ratio of these scales considerably exceeds APACHE II, SAPS 2 and SAPS 3 (AUROC 0.73; 0.74; 0.79 respectively). APACHE II scale is inapplicable because of a lack of calibration (X2 = 13.1; p < 0.01), and at other scales (APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA) was observed the insufficient resolution (AUROC < 0.9) in pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis. Prognostic possibilities assessment of score scales showed that APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales can be used for a lethality prognosis for puerperas with abdominal sepsis, in population of pregnant women with urosepsis--only APACHE III and SOFA, and with pulmonary sepsis--SAPS 3 and APACHE III only in case of additional clinical information.

  3. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer look...... at SAP’s strategy, however, revealed a closely connected and coordinated network of strategic decisions and investments for which alignment and finding the right balance were key challenges. Hence, it was crucial to ask: What were the principal challenges for SAP in aligning its innovation and sourcing...

  4. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive value of SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems for patient outcome in a medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Godinjak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim is to determine SAPS II and APACHE II scores in medical intensive care unit (MICU patients, to compare them for prediction of patient outcome, and to compare with actual hospital mortality rates for different subgroups of patients. Methods. One hundred and seventy-four patients were included in this analysis over a oneyear period in the MICU, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The following patient data were obtained: demographics, admission diagnosis, SAPS II, APACHE II scores and final outcome. Results. Out of 174 patients, 70 patients (40.2% died. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores in all patients were 48.4±17.0 and 21.6±10.3 respectively, and they were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. SAPS II >50.5 and APACHE II >27.5 can predict the risk of mortality in these patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II vs APACHE II (p=0.501. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the values of SAPS II and APACHE II (r=0.708; p=0.001. Patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock had the highest values of both SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and also the highest hospital mortality rate of 55.1%. Conclusion. Both APACHE II and SAPS II had an excellent ability to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II and APACHE II. A positive correlation was established between them. Sepsis/septic shock patients had the highest predicted and observed hospital mortality rate.

  6. Better prognostic marker in ICU - APACHE II, SOFA or SAP II!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Mahmood, Khalid; Ziaullaha, Syed; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Sharif, Asim

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the comparative efficacy of different scoring system in assessing the prognosis of critically ill patients. This was a retrospective study conducted in medical intensive care unit (MICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) Medical Unit III, Civil Hospital, from April 2012 to August 2012. All patients over age 16 years old who have fulfilled the criteria for MICU admission were included. Predictive mortality of APACHE II, SAP II and SOFA were calculated. Calibration and discrimination were used for validity of each scoring model. A total of 96 patients with equal gender distribution were enrolled. The average APACHE II score in non-survivors (27.97+8.53) was higher than survivors (15.82+8.79) with statistically significant p value (discrimination power than SAP II and SOFA.

  7. Critical Care Nurses Inadequately Assess SAPS II Scores of Very Ill Patients in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Perren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable ICU severity scores have been achieved by various healthcare workers but nothing is known regarding the accuracy in real life of severity scores registered by untrained nurses. Methods. In this retrospective multicentre audit, three reviewers independently reassessed 120 SAPS II scores. Correlation and agreement of the sum-scores/variables among reviewers and between nurses and the reviewers’ gold standard were assessed globally and for tertiles. Bland and Altman (gold standard—nurses of sum scores and regression of the difference were determined. A logistic regression model identifying risk factors for erroneous assessments was calculated. Results. Correlation for sum scores among reviewers was almost perfect (mean ICC = 0.985. The mean (±SD nurse-registered SAPS II sum score was 40.3±20.2 versus 44.2±24.9 of the gold standard (32 points scores. The lowest agreement was found in high SAPS II tertiles for haemodynamics (k = 0.45–0.51. Conclusions. In real life, nurse-registered SAPS II scores of very ill patients are inaccurate. Accuracy of scores was not associated with nurses’ characteristics.

  8. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  9. Comparison of mortality prediction models and validation of SAPS II in critically ill burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantet, O; Faouzi, M; Brusselaers, N; Vernay, A; Berger, M M

    2016-06-30

    Specific burn outcome prediction scores such as the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), Ryan, Belgian Outcome of Burn Injury (BOBI) and revised Baux scores have been extensively studied. Validation studies of the critical care score SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score) have included burns patients but not addressed them as a cohort. The study aimed at comparing their performance in a Swiss burns intensive care unit (ICU) and to observe whether they were affected by a standardized definition of inhalation injury. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including all consecutive ICU burn admissions (n=492) between 1996 and 2013: 5 epochs were defined by protocol changes. As required for SAPS II calculation, stays burned (TBSA) and inhalation injury (systematic standardized diagnosis since 2006). Study epochs were compared (χ2 test, ANOVA). Score performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. SAPS II performed well (AUC 0.89), particularly in burns burns <40% TBSA. Ryan and BOBI scores were least accurate, as they heavily weight inhalation injury.

  10. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  12. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  13. Effect of changes over time in the performance of a customized SAPS-II model on the quality of care assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minne, Lilian; Eslami, Saeid; de Keizer, Nicolette; de Jonge, Evert; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to explore, using an innovative method, the effect of temporal changes in the mortality prediction performance of an existing model on the quality of care assessment. The prognostic model (rSAPS-II) was a recalibrated Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II model

  14. Accuracy of a composite score using daily SAPS II and LOD scores for predicting hospital mortality in ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, J F; Fosse, J P; Troché, G; De Lassence, A; Alberti, C; Garrouste-Orgeas, M; Azoulay, E; Chevret, S; Moine, P; Cohen, Y

    2001-06-01

    In most databases used to build general severity scores the median duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay is less than 3 days. Consequently, these scores are not the most appropriate tools for measuring prognosis in studies dealing with ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h. To develop a new prognostic model based on a general severity score (SAPS II), an organ dysfunction score (LOD) and evolution of both scores during the first 3 days of ICU stay. Prospective multicenter study. Twenty-eight intensive care units (ICUs) in France. A training data-set was created with four ICUs during an 18-month period (893 patients). Seventy percent of the patients were medical (628) aged 66 years. The median SAPS II was 38. The ICU and hospital mortality rates were 22.7% and 30%, respectively. Forty-seven percent (420 patients) were transferred from hospital wards. In this population, the calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square: 37.4, P = 0.001) and the discrimination [area under the ROC curves: 0.744 (95 % CI: 0.714-0.773)] of the original SAPS II were relatively poor. A validation data set was created with a random panel of 24 French ICUs during March 1999 (312 patients). The LOD and SAPS II scores were calculated during the first (SAPS1, LOD1), second (SAPS2, LOD2), and third (SAPS3, LOD3) calendar days. The LOD and SAPS scores alterations were assigned the value "1" when scores increased with time and "0" otherwise. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to select variables measured during the first three calendar days, and independently associated with death. Selected variables were: SAPS II at admission [OR: 1.04 (95 % CI: 1.027-1.053) per point], LOD [OR: 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.085-1.253) per point], transfer from ward [OR: 1.74 (95 % CI: 1.25-2.42)], as well as SAPS3-SAPS2 alterations [OR: 1.516 (95 % CI: 1.04-2.22)], and LOD3-LOD2 alterations [OR: 2.00 (95 % CI: 1.29-3.11)]. The final model has good calibration and discrimination properties in the

  15. Constructing Multiply Substituted Arenes Using Sequential Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Olefination**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Keary M.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Complementary catalytic systems have been developed in which the reactivity/selectivity balance in Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H olefination can be modulated through ligand control. This allows for sequential C–H functionalization for the rapid preparation of 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes. Additionally, a rare example of iterative C–H activation, in which a newly installed functional group directs subsequent C–H activation has been demonstrated. PMID:20632344

  16. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  17. Polyclonal type II natural killer T cells require PLZF and SAP for their development and contribute to CpG-mediated antitumor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Weng, Xiufang; Bagchi, Sreya; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells with potent immunomodulatory function via rapid production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. NKT cells comprise well-characterized type I NKT cells, which can be detected by α-galactosylceramide-loaded CD1d tetramers, and less-studied type II NKT cells, which do not recognize α-galactosylceramide. Here we characterized type II NKT cells on a polyclonal level by using a Jα18-deficient IL-4 reporter mouse model. This model allows us to track type II NTK cells by the GFP+TCRβ+ phenotype in the thymus and liver. We found type II NKT cells, like type I NKT cells, exhibit an activated phenotype and are dependent on the transcriptional regulator promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and the adaptor molecule signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) for their development. Type II NKT cells are potently activated by β-D-glucopyranosylceramide (β-GlcCer) but not sulfatide or phospholipids in a CD1d-dependent manner, with the stimulatory capacity of β-GlcCer influenced by acyl chain length. Compared with type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells produce lower levels of IFN-γ but comparable amounts of IL-13 in response to polyclonal T-cell receptor stimulation, suggesting they may play different roles in regulating immune responses. Furthermore, type II NKT cells can be activated by CpG oligodeoxynucletides to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-4 or IL-13. Importantly, CpG-activated type II NKT cells contribute to the antitumor effect of CpG in the B16 melanoma model. Taken together, our data reveal the characteristics of polyclonal type II NKT cells and their potential role in antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:24550295

  18. Multicenter phase II study of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib therapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce K H Chow

    Full Text Available The safety and tolerability of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib therapy is unknown. An open-label, single arm, investigator-initiated Phase II study (NCT0071279 was conducted at four Asia-Pacific centers to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC not amenable to curative therapies.Sorafenib (400 mg twice-daily was initiated 14 days post-radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y resin microspheres given as a single procedure. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability and best overall response rate (ORR using RECIST v1.0.Secondary endpoints included: disease control rate (complete [CR] plus partial responses [PR] and stable disease [SD] and overall survival (OS.Twenty-nine patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC stage B (38% or C (62% HCC received a median of 3.0 GBq (interquartile range, 1.0 90Y-microspheres followed by sorafenib (median dose/day, 600.0 mg; median duration, 4.1 months. Twenty eight patients experienced ≥1 toxicity; 15 (52% grade ≥3. Best ORR was 25%, including 2 (7% CR and 5 (18% PR, and 15 (54% SD. Disease control was 100% and 65% in BCLC stage B and C, respectively. Two patients (7% had sufficient response to enable radical therapy. Median survivals for BCLC stage B and C were 20.3 and 8.6 months, respectively.This study shows the potential efficacy and manageable toxicity of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00712790.

  19. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1975-08-01

    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)

  20. Sequential separation of copper(II), silver(I) and gold(III) (Paper No. RA-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlani, A.M.; Turel, Z.R.

    1990-02-01

    A sequential separation procedure for the separation of Cu(II), Ag(I) and Au(III) employing solvent extraction technique of these three elements with 1, 2, 3-benzotriazole into chloroform under different experimental conditions has been developed. (author). 1 tab

  1. Comparison of Threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) and Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) in Glaucoma. Part II: Patterns of Visual Field Loss and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTrusty, Alice D; Cameron, Lorraine A; Perperidis, Antonios; Brash, Harry M; Tatham, Andrew J; Agarwal, Pankaj K; Murray, Ian C; Fleck, Brian W; Minns, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test. A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss. SVOP and SAP classifications were cross-tabulated. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their opinions of each test. We analyzed 142 (v1) and 111 (v2) SVOP and SAP test pairs. SVOP v2 had a sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 77.9% for identifying normal versus abnormal visual fields. SAP and SVOP v2 classifications showed complete agreement in 54% of glaucoma patients, with a further 23% disagreeing by one category. On repeat testing, 86% of SVOP v2 classifications agreed with the previous test, compared to 91% of SAP classifications; 71% of subjects preferred SVOP compared to 20% who preferred SAP. Eye-tracking perimetry can be used to obtain threshold visual field sensitivity values in patients with glaucoma and produce maps of visual field defects, with patterns exhibiting close agreement to SAP. Patients preferred eye-tracking perimetry compared to SAP. This first report of threshold eye tracking perimetry shows good agreement with conventional automated perimetry and provides a benchmark for future iterations.

  2. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incidents' refer to 'incidents such as labour disputes and dissatisfaction with service delivery in which violence erupted and SAPS action was required to restore peace and order'.26. It is apparent from both the SAPS statistics and those provided by the Municipal IQ Hotspots. Monitor, that public protests and gatherings are.

  3. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  4. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  5. Advanced oxidation removal of hypophosphite by O3/H2O2 combined with sequential Fe(II) catalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zilong; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Chen, Guanhan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zekun; Gao, Yaguang; Zhou, Beili

    2017-08-01

    Elimination of hypophosphite (HP) was studied as an example of nickel plating effluents treatment by O 3 /H 2 O 2 and sequential Fe(II) catalytic oxidation process. Performance assessment performed with artificial HP solution by varying initial pH and employing various oxidation processes clearly showed that the O 3 /H 2 O 2 ─Fe(II) two-step oxidation process possessed the highest removal efficiency when operating under the same conditions. The effects of O 3 dosing, H 2 O 2 concentration, Fe(II) addition and Fe(II) feeding time on the removal efficiency of HP were further evaluated in terms of apparent kinetic rate constant. Under improved conditions (initial HP concentration of 50 mg L -1 , 75 mg L -1 O 3 , 1 mL L -1 H 2 O 2 , 150 mg L -1 Fe(II) and pH 7.0), standard discharge (<0.5 mg L -1 in China) could be achieved, and the Fe(II) feeding time was found to be the limiting factor for the evolution of apparent kinetic rate constant in the second stage. Characterization studies showed that neutralization process after oxidation treatment favored the improvement of phosphorus removal due to the formation of more metal hydroxides. Moreover, as a comparison with lab-scale Fenton approach, the O 3 /H 2 O 2 ─Fe(II) oxidation process had more competitive advantages with respect to applicable pH range, removal efficiency, sludge production as well as economic costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parameter sampling capabilities of sequential and simultaneous data assimilation: II. Statistical analysis of numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond

    2014-01-01

    We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)

  7. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  8. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  9. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maple sap. 1437.107 Section 1437.107 Agriculture... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be...

  10. Sequential Functionalization of Alkynes and Alkenes Catalyzed by Gold(I) and Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gó mez-Herrera, Alberto; Nahra, Fady; Brill, Marcel; Nolan, Steven P.; Cazin, Catherine S. J.

    2016-01-01

    The iodination of terminal alkynes for the synthesis of 1-iodoalkynes using N-iodosuccinimide in the presence of a AuI-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyst is reported. A series of aromatic alkynes was transformed successfully into the corresponding 1-iodoalkynes in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The further use of these compounds as organic building blocks and the advantageous choice of metal-NHC complexes as catalysts for alkyne functionalization were further demonstrated by performing selective AuI-catalyzed hydrofluorination to yield (Z)-2-fluoro-1-iodoalkenes, followed by a Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by a PdII-NHC complex to access trisubstituted (Z)-fluoroalkenes. All methodologies can be performed sequentially with only minor variations in the optimized individual reaction conditions, maintaining high efficiency and selectivity in all cases, which therefore, provides straightforward access to valuable fluorinated alkenes from commercially available terminal alkynes.

  11. Sequential Functionalization of Alkynes and Alkenes Catalyzed by Gold(I) and Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gómez-Herrera, Alberto

    2016-08-22

    The iodination of terminal alkynes for the synthesis of 1-iodoalkynes using N-iodosuccinimide in the presence of a AuI-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyst is reported. A series of aromatic alkynes was transformed successfully into the corresponding 1-iodoalkynes in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The further use of these compounds as organic building blocks and the advantageous choice of metal-NHC complexes as catalysts for alkyne functionalization were further demonstrated by performing selective AuI-catalyzed hydrofluorination to yield (Z)-2-fluoro-1-iodoalkenes, followed by a Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by a PdII-NHC complex to access trisubstituted (Z)-fluoroalkenes. All methodologies can be performed sequentially with only minor variations in the optimized individual reaction conditions, maintaining high efficiency and selectivity in all cases, which therefore, provides straightforward access to valuable fluorinated alkenes from commercially available terminal alkynes.

  12. Single peak parameters technique for simultaneous measurements: Spectrophotometric sequential injection determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Paluch, J; Węgrzecka, A; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kochana, J; Kościelniak, P

    2016-02-01

    Spectrophotometric sequential injection system (SI) is proposed to automate the method of simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the basis of parameters of a single peak. In the developed SI system, sample and mixture of reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid) are introduced into a vessel, where in an acid environment (pH≅3) appropriate compounds of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid are formed, respectively. Then, in turn, air, sample, EDTA and sample again, are introduced into a holding coil. After the flow reversal, a segment of air is removed from the system by an additional valve and as EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid forming a more stable colorless compound with Fe(III), a complex signal is registered. Measurements are performed at wavelength 530 nm. The absorbance measured at minimum of the negative peak and the area or the absorbance measured at maximum of the signal can be used as measures corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 2 min. Two-component calibration has been applied to analysis. Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.04-4.00 and 0.1-5.00 mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.8% and 1.7% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 7% (RE). The detection limit is 0.04 and 0.09 mg L(-1) for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. The method was applied to analysis of artesian water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and…

  14. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  15. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  16. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  17. American specialists and SAP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Within the past days of November the project teams of SAP Nuclear in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. incorporated the specialists from PSEG from New Jersey, U.S.A. The goal of their stay here was to pass on the professional experience and good practice from the implementation of quite demanding project in the nuclear power plants. We have learned more about the company and the objectives from an interview with Clay Warren, SAP Nuclear Project Manager in SE. (author)

  18. The relationship between sap-flow rate and sap volume in dormant sugar maples

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Gabriel; Russell S. Walters; Donald W. Seegrist

    1972-01-01

    Sap-flow rate is closely correlated with the sap volume produced by dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and could be used in making phenotypic selections of trees for superior sap production.

  19. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  20. Physicochemical changes of raffia sap (Raphia mambillensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galax-07

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... on fermentation on the raffia sap property, its physico-chemical and .... transformed organic nitrogen of the dried sap into mineral nitrogen ..... International Congress on Engineering and Food. March ... uses in vignification.

  1. Errors in the SAP reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dongen, van B.F.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The SAP Reference Model is a set of information models that is utilized to guide the configuration of SAP systems. A big part of these models are business process models represented in the Eventdriven Process Chains (EPC) notation. These EPC models provide a easy to comprehend overview of SAP

  2. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  3. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  4. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  5. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  6. Evaluation of a novel PTFE material for use as a means for separation and preconcentration of trace levels of metal ions in sequential injection (SI) and sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) systems. Determination of cadmium (II) with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    with an external packed column and in a sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system. Employed for the determination of cadmium(II), complexed with diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), and detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), its performance was compared to that of a previously used...

  7. Combining selective sequential extractions, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and X-Ray Powder Diffraction for Cu (II speciation in soil and mineral phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Minkina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of Cu (II ions with the matrix of soil and mineral phases of layered silicates was assessed by the Miller method of selective sequential fractionation and a set of synchrotron X-ray methods, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES. It was shown that the input of Cu into Calcic Chernozem in the form of monoxide (CuO and salt (Cu(NO32 affected the transformation of Cu compounds and their affinity for metal-bearing phases. It was found that the contamination of soil with a soluble Cu(II salt increased the bioavailability of the metal and the role of organic matter and Fe oxides in the fixation and retention of Cu. During the incubation of soil with Cu monoxide, the content of the metal in the residual fractions increased, which was related to the possible entry of Cu in the form of isomorphic impurities into silicates, as well as to the incomplete dissolution of exogenic compounds at the high level of their input into the soil. A mechanism for the structural transformation of minerals was revealed, which showed that ion exchange processes result in the sorption of Cu (II ions from the saturated solution by active sites on the internal surface of the lattice of dioctahedral aluminosilicates. Surface hydroxyls at the octahedral aluminum atom play the main role. X-ray diagnostics revealed that excess Cu(II ions are removed from the system due to the formation and precipitation of coarsely crystalline Cu(NO3(OH3.

  8. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B; Sanglard, D; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M; Schäfer, W; Brown, A J; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  9. The sequential development of type I and type II ostertagiasis in young cattle with special reference to biochemical and serological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrocasso, C; McKellar, Q; Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J; Kloosterman, A

    1986-08-01

    The sequential development of Type I and Type II ostertagiasis over a 2-year period in the same naturally infected cattle is described for the first time. Particular reference is made to biochemical and serological changes. Positive relationships were demonstrated between the clinical signs of both Type I and Type II disease, and marked increases in the levels of plasma pepsinogen, plasma gastrin and antibody titres to adult Ostertagia antigen. At necropsy, there were significant relationships between the combined total of adult and developing 5th stage larvae of Ostertagia spp. and the levels of both plasma pepsinogen and gastrin. By the end of the second grazing season the cattle had acquired an immunity to infection with Ostertagia spp. and had very low burdens of this parasite at necropsy. However some of these cattle maintained elevated plasma pepsinogen levels when under natural challenge by Ostertagia spp. larvae and the aetiology of these changes and the problems of diagnosis using this parameter are discussed. Similar trends of infection were observed for Cooperia oncophora, although resistance to the parasite developed more rapidly.

  10. Architecture of SAP ERP understand how successful software works

    CERN Document Server

    Boeder, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This book - compiled by software architects from SAP - is a must for consultants, developers, IT managers, and students working with SAP ERP, but also users who want to know the world behind their SAP user interface.

  11. A phase II clinical trial evaluating the use of two sequential, four-drug combination chemotherapy regimens in ambulatory bronchogenic adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, L E; Sridhar, K S; Selawry, O S; Charyulu, K N; Rao, R K; Saldana, M J; Lenz, C

    1992-12-01

    Forty-three ambulatory patients with locally advanced or metastatic bronchogenic adenocarcinoma were sequentially treated with two potentially mutually non-cross-resistant chemotherapy regimens. A new regimen, MVPF (mitomycin-c, vinblastine, procarbazine, and 5-fluorouracil), was given until progressive disease occurred. Then, a second regimen--MOCC (methotrexate, vincristine [Oncovin], cyclophosphamide, and CCNU)--was initiated. At further progression, regional disease patients received radiotherapy, whereas extensive disease patients received Phase II agents. Of the 43 patients entered on the study, 40 were evaluable. Three patients withdrew early due to poor tolerance of the regimen. The response rate for MVPF was 33% (12 of 40 PR, 1 of 40 CR) compared to a 4% (1 of 23 PR) response for MOCC (difference: p < or = .03), for a total response rate of 35%. Although there was an initial improvement in survival for responders (31.7 weeks) versus nonresponders (15.7 weeks) at the 75th percentile (p < or = .05), there was no significant difference in median survival. The hematologic toxicity was equivalent for both groups, whereas nonhematologic toxicity revealed a high incidence of nausea and vomiting in the MVPF group. It is concluded that this approach lent itself well to ambulatory care, and MVPF could be considered an alternative to cyclophosphamide-based regimens. However, the absence of a meaningful CR rate and lack of influence of response on median survival were factors limiting its effectiveness.

  12. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  13. Management of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus with chemoradiation alone or chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy: results of sequential nonrandomized phase II studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algan, Oezer; Coia, Lawrence R; Keller, Steven M; Engstrom, Paul F; Weiner, Louis M; Schultheiss, Timothy E; Hanks, Gerald E

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is increasing, but the optimal treatment for this disease is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of chemoradiation and chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy as treatment for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in sequential prospective nonrandomized phase II studies. Methods and Materials: Between May 1981 and June 1992, all previously untreated patients (N = 35) with potentially resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (clinical Stage I or II) were treated with curative intent in sequential prospective Phase II studies. From May 1981 to August 1987, 11 patients (median age 66) were treated with concurrent chemotherapy [mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] and radiotherapy to a median dose of 60 Gy (CRT group). From September 1987 to June 1992, 24 patients (median age 65) were treated with the same regimen of chemoradiation followed by planned esophagectomy (CRT + PE group). Of these, 12 patients (median age 62) actually underwent esophagectomy (CRT + E subgroup). Results: The median overall survival was 19 months for the CRT group and 15 months for the CRT + PE group. For the CRT + E subgroup, the median overall survival was 33 months. The 3-year actuarial overall survival for the CRT and the CRT + PE groups were 36 and 28% (p = 0.949). The subset of patients treated with chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy had a 3-year actuarial overall survival of 33% (p = 0.274). The 3-year actuarial freedom from local failure rates were similar: 62% in the CRT group vs. 58% in the CRT + PE group. Of the 12 patients who underwent esophagectomy (CRT + E group), 9 (75%) were free of local failure. Four of 12 (33%) patients had no pathologic evidence of malignancy in their surgical specimen. Six of 11 patients (55%) in the CRT group were free of local failure at the time of analysis. Two of five patients in this group who had local recurrence at 2 and 10 months underwent surgical salvage with subsequent survivals of

  14. Non-cross resistant sequential single agent chemotherapy in first-line advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: Results of a phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Surmont; J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim); K.Y. Tan; F.M.N.H. Schramel (Franz); R. Vernhout (Rene); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. sequential chemotherapy can maintain dose intensity and preclude cumulative toxicity by increasing drug diversity. Purpose. to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of the sequential regimen of gemcitabine followed by paclitaxel in first line advanced stage non-small cell

  15. Helium implantation effects in SAP and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Thomas, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A series of 300 keV He implantations of Al and SAP 930 have been conducted at temperatures between 150 and 773K. The He re-emission was monitored during implantation and the samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope after implantation. Both Al and SAP 930 were found to blister after a critical He dose was reached at temperatures above 473K, both underwent flaking below that temperature, with blistering re-appearing in SAP 930 at an implantation temperature of 150K. The surface deformation and He re-emission are strongly dependent on microstructural effects in the intermediate temperature regime

  16. 46 CFR 16.203 - Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. 16.203 Section... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. (a) Employers...) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements...

  17. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. SAP-IV was installed on a Data General NOVA 32K memory disc operating system which utilizes various input-output peripherals and a single 1.2 megaword disc. The entire theoretical analysis-vibration test-data analysis-parameter identification-model modification system required such additional components as analog/digital converters, computer-driven electro-mechanical vibrators, a maximum of 512 transducers, and special-purpose software for test planning, execution, data processing, and matrix manipulation. The software system capabilities which allowed implementation of SAP-IV on the minicomputer were: (1) the availability of double precision; (2) the ability to use multiple OVERLAYs; (3) the ability to read and write programs from the disc to memory without destroying the programs (SWAP); (4) the ability to CHAIN a series of connected programs into the memory and execute them sequentially; and (5) the ability to utilize random access disc files

  18. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  19. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  20. The efficiency of mechanisms driving Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the seasonal and diurnal variation of SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams occurrence based on 3663 SAPS events identified in DMSP ion drift observations in the Northern Hemisphere during July 2001 and June 2003. Their relationships with high latitude convection electric field, substorm, and ionospheric conductivity have been addressed. SAPS occurrences show a clear seasonal and diurnal variation with the occurrence rates varying by a factor of 5. It is found that the convection electric field might play a dominant role in association with SAPS occurrence. Peak convection electric fields mark the occurrence maximum of SAPS. Substorm might play a secondary role related to SAPS occurrence. It account for the secondary maximum in SAPS occurrence rate during December solstice. Our work demonstrates that the substorm induced electric field can develop SAPS during relatively low global convection. Somewhat low fluxtube-integrated conductivity is favorable for SAPS to develop. Another topic is the temporal relationship between SAPS and substorm phases. SAPS can occur at substorm onset, substorm expansion and recovery phases. Most probably SAPS tend to occur 60 min/45 min after substorm onset during quiet/more disturbed geomagnetic activity, respectively. This indicates that enhanced global convection helps SAPS to develop quicker during substorms. The peak plasma velocity of SAPS is increased on average only by 5–10 % by the substorm process.

  1. Implementation of SAP Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, M.L.; LaBorde, C.M.; Nichols, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) assumed responsibility for newly generated waste on October 1, 2005. To ensure effective management and accountability of newly generated waste, Y-12 has opted to utilize SAP, Y-12's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) tool, to track low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), hazardous waste, and non-regulated waste from generation through acceptance and disposal. SAP Waste will include the functionality of the current waste tracking system and integrate with the applicable modules of SAP already in use. The functionality of two legacy systems, the Generator Entry System (GES) and the Waste Information Tracking System (WITS), and peripheral spreadsheets, databases, and e-mail/fax communications will be replaced by SAP Waste. Fundamentally, SAP Waste will promote waste acceptance for certification and disposal, not storage. SAP Waste will provide a one-time data entry location where waste generators can enter waste container information, track the status of their waste, and maintain documentation. A benefit of the new system is that it will provide a single data repository where Y-12's Waste Management organization can establish waste profiles, verify and validate data, maintain inventory control utilizing hand-held data transfer devices, schedule and ship waste, manage project accounting, and report on waste handling activities. This single data repository will facilitate the production of detailed waste generation reports for use in forecasting and budgeting, provide the data for required regulatory reports, and generate metrics to evaluate the performance of the Waste Management organization and its subcontractors. SAP Waste will replace the outdated and expensive legacy system, establish tools the site needs to manage newly generated waste, and optimize the use of the site's ERP tool for integration with related business processes while promoting disposition of waste. (authors)

  2. Analysis list: SAP30 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAP30 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP...30.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP...30.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP30.Pluripote

  3. Non-Cross Resistant Sequential Single Agent Chemotherapy in First-Line Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Results of a Phase II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surmont

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. sequential chemotherapy can maintain dose intensity and preclude cumulative toxicity by increasing drug diversity. Purpose. to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of the sequential regimen of gemcitabine followed by paclitaxel in first line advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with good performance status (PS. Patients and methods. gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 was administered on day 1 and 8 of course 1 and 2; Paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 of course 3 and 4. Primary endpoint was response rate (RR, secondary endpoints toxicity and time to progression (TTP. Results. Of the 21 patients (median age 56, range 38–80 years; 62% males, 38% females 10% (2/21 had stage IIIB, 90% (19/21 stage IV, 15% PS 0, 85% PS 1. 20% of patients had a partial response, 30% stable disease, 50% progressive disease. Median TTP was 12 weeks (range 6–52 weeks, median overall survival (OS 8 months (range 1–27 months, 1-year survival was 33%. One patient had grade 3 hematological toxicity, 2 patients a grade 3 peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions. sequential administration of gemcitabine followed by paclitaxel in first line treatment of advanced NSCLC had a favourable toxicity profile, a median TTP and OS comparable with other sequential trials and might , therefore, be a treatment option for NSCLC patients with high ERCC1 expression.

  4. SAP ERP financial accounting and controlling configuration and use management

    CERN Document Server

    Okungbowa, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SAP ERP modules are notoriously hard to configure and use effectively without a lot of practice and experience. But as SAP ERP Financial Accounting and Controlling: Configuration and Use Management shows, it doesn't have to be so difficult. The book takes a systematic approach that leads SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling (FICO) users step by step through configuring and using all the program's facets. This approach makes configuration complexities manageable. The book's author-SAP expert, trainer, and accountant Andrew Okun

  5. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  6. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  7. [Rainfall effects on the sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Zha, Than Shan; Jia, Xin; Qin, Shu Gao; Qian, Duo; Guo, Xiao Nan; Chen, Guo Peng

    2016-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, plant physiological responses to water availability depend largely on the intensity and frequency of rain events. Knowledge on the responses of xerophytic plants to rain events is important for predicting the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems under changing climate. The sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium in the Mu Us Sand Land was continuously measured during the growing season of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to quantify the dynamics of sap flow under different weather conditions, and to examine the responses of sap flow to rain events of different sizes. The results showed that the daily sap flow rates of H. scoparium were lower on rainy days than on clear days. On clear days, the sap flow of H. scoparium showed a midday plateau, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and relative humidity. On rainy days, the sap flow fluctuated at low levels, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and air temperature. Rain events not only affected the sap flow on rainy days through variations in climatic factors (e.g., solar radiation and air temperature), but also affected post-rainfall sap flow velocities though changes in soil moisture. Small rain events (sap flow, whereas large rain events (>20 mm) significantly increased the sap flow on days following rainfall. Rain-wetted soil conditions not only resulted in higher sap flow velocities, but also enhanced the sensitivity of sap flow to solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and air temperature.

  8. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  9. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  10. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed meta-C-H Olefination: Constructing Multisubstituted Arenes through Homo-Diolefination and Sequential Hetero-Diolefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Milan; Maji, Arun; Sahoo, Santosh K; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-07-13

    Divinylbenzene derivatives represent an important class of molecular building blocks in organic chemistry and materials science. Reported herein is the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of divinylbenzenes by meta-C-H olefination of sulfone-based arenes. Successful sequential olefinations in a position-selective manner provided a novel route for the synthesis of hetero-dialkenylated products, which are difficult to access using conventional methods. Additionally, 1,3,5-trialkenylated compounds can be generated upon successful removal of the directing group. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Kazuki; Tanioka, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Akihito; Inukai, Michio; Yamakawa, Toshiki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Taketoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-01-01

    Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were eligible. Patients were treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) for 3 months followed by capecitabine (2,500 mg/m 2 on days 1-14 every 3 weeks) for 3 months. Primary end points were frequency and the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity as evaluated using the physician-based Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE) grading and the patient-based scale, self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire. Ninety-one patients were enrolled and 86 patients assessed. Eighty-four percent of patients completed the planned oxaliplatin-based therapy for 3 months, and 63% of patients completed all treatments for the full 6 months. Overall incidences of grade 3 or 4 peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy according to the CTCAE were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Regarding the peripheral sensory neuropathy, the proportion of Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (grade C-E) and CTCAE (grade 2-4) at months 1.5/3/6 were 11.3/22.1/29.4% and 5.3/4.4/11.3%, respectively (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.47). A sequential approach to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine was tolerated by patients and associated with a low incidence of neuropathy.

  12. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  13. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  14. 49 CFR 40.311 - What are the requirements concerning SAP reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements concerning SAP reports... Process § 40.311 What are the requirements concerning SAP reports? (a) As the SAP conducting the required... ensure that you receive SAP written reports directly from the SAP performing the evaluation and that no...

  15. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  16. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Faculty perceptions of the integration of SAP in academic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Khoury

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare students for the workforce, academic programs incorporate a variety of tools that students are likely to use in their future careers. One of these tools employed by business and technology programs is the integration of live software applications such as SAP through the SAP University Alliance (SAP UA program. Since the SAP UA program has been around for only about 10 years and the available literature on the topic is limited, research is needed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the SAP UA program. A collaborative study of SAP UA faculty perceptions of their SAP UAs was conducted in the fall of 2011. Of the faculty invited to participate in the study, 31% completed the online survey. The results indicate that most faculty experienced difficulty implementing SAP into their programs and report that a need exists for more standardized curriculum and training, while a large percentage indicated that they are receiving the support they need from their schools and SAP.

  18. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  19. 49 CFR 40.295 - May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? 40.295 Section 40.295 Transportation Office... seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? (a) As an employee...

  20. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Statistical characterization of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, B.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow region of westward directed plasma convection typically observed in the dusk-midnight sector equatorward of the main auroral oval. SAPS plays an important role in mid-latitude space weather dynamics and has a controlling influence on the evolution of large-scale plasma features, such as Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes. In this study, data from North American mid-latitude SuperDARN radars collected between January 2011 and December 2014 have been used to compile a database of SAPS events for statistical analysis. We examine the dependence of SAPS velocity magnitude and direction on geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time. The lowest speed limit and electric fields observed during SAPS are discussed and histograms of SAPS velocities for different Dst bins and MLAT-MLT locations are presented. We find significant differences in SAPS characteristics between periods of low and high geomagnetic activity, suggesting that SAPS are driven by different mechanisms during storm and non-storm conditions. To further explore this possibility, we have characterized the SAPS location and peak speed relative to the ionospheric trough specified by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data from the MIT Haystack Madrigal database. A particular emphasis is placed on identifying the extent to which the location, structure, and depth of the trough may play a controlling influence on SAPS speeds during storm and non-storm periods. The results are interpreted in terms of the current paradigm for active thermosphere-ionosphere feedback being an important component of SAPS physics.

  2. Expedient synthesis of fused azepine derivatives using a sequential rhodium(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation/1-aza-Cope rearrangement of dienyltriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Erica E; Lindsay, Vincent N G; Sarpong, Richmond

    2014-09-08

    A general method for the formation of fused dihydroazepine derivatives from 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles bearing a tethered diene is reported. The process involves an intramolecular cyclopropanation of an α-imino rhodium(II) carbenoid, leading to a transient 1-imino-2-vinylcyclopropane intermediate which rapidly undergoes a 1-aza-Cope rearrangement to generate fused dihydroazepine derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds with similar efficiency on gram scale. The use of catalyst-free conditions leads to the formation of a novel [4.4.0] bicyclic heterocycle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  4. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Guo, J.; Zhang, D.; Wang, C. P.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model Author: Yang Lu, Yue Deng, Jiapeng Guo, Donghe Zhang, Chih-Ping Wang, Cheng Sheng Ion velocity in the Sub Aurora region observed by Satellites in storm time often shows a significant westward component. The high speed westward stream is distinguished with convection pattern. These kind of events are called Sub Aurora Polarization Stream (SAPS). In March 17th 2013 storm, DMSP F18 satellite observed several SAPS cases when crossing Sub Aurora region. In this study, Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been coupled to UCLA-RCM model to simulate the impact of SAPS during March 2013 event on the ionosphere/thermosphere. The particle precipitation and electric field from RCM has been used to drive GITM. The conductance calculated from GITM has feedback to RCM to make the coupling to be self-consistent. The comparison of GITM simulations with different SAPS specifications will be conducted. The neutral wind from simulation will be compared with GOCE satellite. The comparison between runs with SAPS and without SAPS will separate the effect of SAPS from others and illustrate the impact on the TIDS/TADS propagating to both poleward and equatorward directions.

  6. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) enhance efficient and eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In arid and semiarid regions of northern China, there is an increasing interest in using reduced rate of chemical fertilizer along with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different rates of SAP (low, 0.75; medium, 11.3 and high, 15.0 kg ha-1) ...

  7. Assessing the ERP-SAP implementation strategy from cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Syaiful, Bakhri; Sfenrianto; Nurul, Fajar Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Implementing ERP-SAP projects in Indonesian large enterprises frequently create headaches for the consultants, since there are always be a large gap between the outcomes of the SAP with the expected results. Indonesian enterprises have experience with a huge amount of investments and ended up with minor benefits. Despite its unprecedented benefits, the SAP strategy is still considered as a mandatory enterprise system for every enterprise to compete in the marketplaces. The article examines the SAP implementation from cultural perspectives to present new horizon that commonly ignored by major Indonesian enterprises. The article applies the multiple case studies with three large Indonesia enterprises, such as KS, the largest steel producer; GEM, a subsidiary of conglomerate enterprise operates in the mining industry, and HS, a subsidiary of the largest retailer in Asia with more than 700 stores in Indonesia. The outcome of the article is expected to provide a comprehensive analysis from cultural perspectives regarding to common problems faced by SAP consultants.

  8. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxu; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang

    2017-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. PMID:28049627

  9. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...

  10. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (T FH ) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in T FH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient T FH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  11. Ada Apa Dengan SAP (AADS Akrual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Findi Tresnawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides anoverview regarding SAP accrual-based and its problems. It compares information content of PP 24/2005’s cash toward accrual and PP 71/2010’s accrual-based toshow the urgency of accrual-based financial reporting requirements. The analysis borrows Abeysekara’s accounting imperialism. Discussion also involves empirical evidence and evaluation of accrual-based implementation probability in Sumenep Regency. Findings show that accrual-based information is not an urgent need and tends to be difficult to be implemented. Reflecting the evidence in Sumenep, local governments are faced with the need of human resources, the question of the use-fulness of accrual information, and technical difficulties on implementation.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: A report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Matthews, John H.L.; Turner, Sandra L.; Mameghan, Heidi; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Spry, Nigel; Berry, Martin P.; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical effectiveness of concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive radiation in the treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: In January 1997 the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group embarked on a Phase II study (TROG 97.01) of weekly cisplatin (35 mg/m 2 x 7 doses) plus radiation to a dose of 63 Gy over 7 weeks. Following an interim toxicity analysis, the dose intensity of cisplatin was reduced to 6 cycles and the radiation schedule changed to 64 Gy over 6.5 weeks leading to the second study (TROG 99.06). A total of 113 patients were enrolled. Results: Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred in 23% of the patients. Acute grade 4 pelvic toxicity was not seen. Thirty-eight patients (33%) experienced grade 3 or 4 cisplatin related toxicities with 15 patients (12%) requiring significant dose modification. The reduced dose intensity in Study 99.06 improved tolerability. Incidence of significant late morbidity was low (6%). Seventy-nine patients (70%) achieved complete remission at the 6 month cystoscopic assessment. Local invasive recurrence was seen in 11 of the 79 patients (14%). In 18 patients (16%) isolated superficial TCC/CIS were detected (6 months and beyond).The local control rate was 45% with a functional bladder being retained in 69 of the 113 patients (61%). RFS and DSS at 5 years were 33% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Our two sequential Phase II studies have shown that concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin in the management of localised invasive bladder TCC is feasible and reasonably well tolerated. This approach is currently being investigated further in a randomised study

  13. Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

  14. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  15. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605... Assessment Plan (SAP)? (a) A SAP describes the activities (e.g., installation of meteorological towers... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your...

  16. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  17. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songthong, Anussara P; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-08-08

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2 Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2 Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12 Gy and 1.7 Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3-5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4% vs 13.6%, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6% vs 9.1%, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6% vs 7.6%, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6% and 32.7% experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8% and 95.5% in SEQ-IMRT and 98% and 90.2% in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising.

  19. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songthong, Anussara P.; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-01-01

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12Gy and 1.7Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3–5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4 % vs 13.6 %, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6 % vs 9.1 %, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6 % vs 7.6 %, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6 % and 32.7 % experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8 % and 95.5 % in SEQ-IMRT and 98 % and 90.2 % in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising

  20. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuruta A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Tsuruta,1,* Kazuki Yamashita,2,* Hiroaki Tanioka,3 Akihito Tsuji,4,5 Michio Inukai,6 Toshiki Yamakawa,7 Tomoki Yamatsuji,8 Masanori Yoshimitsu,9 Kazuhiro Toyota,10 Taketoshi Yamano,11 Takeshi Nagasaka,12 Masazumi Okajima13 On behalf of the Japan Southwest Oncology Group (JSWOG 1Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, 6Department of Medicine, Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital, Okayama, 7Department of Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu, 8Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 9Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Hospital, Hiroshima, 10Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Higashihirosima Medical Center, Higashihiroshima, 11Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Medical Center, 12Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 13Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients and methods: Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were

  1. The installations maintenance control using SAP R/3; O controle de manutencao de instalacoes utilizando o SAP R/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges; Jorge, Kemal Vieira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A.) began their operations in 1999 and since the beginning the SAP R/3 PM module (Plant Maintenance) is used for the control of the maintenance activities and to manager the Master Maintenance and Inspection Plans. On these five years, a series of reports and SAP functionalities were developed or configured to adapt the system R/3 to the needs of TBG maintenance. Now, the whole management and control of the surface facilities maintenance (compression station, city gate, measurement station, etc) is accomplished by SAP R/3 system. (author)

  2. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Aparecida Resende

    Full Text Available Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract in dogs at baseline (T0, during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd and after early (T90 and late (T885 times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β, even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9% and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  3. Map of important transactions and master data in SAP ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This image represents the most important transactions and master data in SAP ERP as a tube map. As such, it covers most of the content of Magal & Word (2012) Integrated Business Processes with ERP Systems. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

  4. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  5. REA analysis of SAP HCM; some initial findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Polovina, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores further the claim that the Transaction-Oriented Architecture (TOA) based on the principles of Resources, Events, Agents (REA) can enhance Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems by providing a principled theoretical basis that can underpin ERP business process implementations. We provide details of some of our initial findings of the REA/TOA analysis which we carried out on the SAP Human Capital Management (HCM) module. Given that SAP is recognized as the dominant ERP s...

  6. Implantación del sistema ERP SAP R/3

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Fernandez, Jorge Juan

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido realizar un estudio de investigación y desarrollo sobre la implantación del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 de una empresa. L'objectiu d'aquest treball final de carrera ha estat realitzar un estudi d'investigació i desenvolupament sobre la implantació del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 d'una empresa.

  7. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  8. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  9. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose→glucose→cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season. (author)

  10. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  11. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Rogers, A E; Treisman, R

    1995-06-01

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of Serum Response Factor (SRF) and Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element (SRE) to growth factors and mitogens. Three Ets domain proteins, Elk-1, SAP-1 and ERP/NET, have been reported to have the properties of TCF. Here we compare Elk-1 and SAP-1a with the human ERP/NET homologue SAP-2. All three TCF RNAs are ubiquitously expressed at similar relative levels. All three proteins contain conserved regions that interact with SRF and the c-fos SRE with comparable efficiency, but in vitro complex formation by SAP-2 is strongly inhibited by its C-terminal sequences. Similarly, only Elk-1 and SAP-1a efficiently bind the c-fos SRE in vivo; ternary complex formation by SAP-2 is weak and is substantially unaffected by serum stimulation or v-ras co-expression. All three TCFs contain C-terminal transcriptional activation domains that are phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Activation requires conserved S/T-P motifs found in all the TCF family members. Each TCF activation domain can be phosphorylated in vitro by partially purified ERK2, and ERK activation in vivo is sufficient to potentiate transcriptional activation.

  12. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic study and transport of N in the xylem sap was carried out with a view to observing the influence of different nitrate levels and growth stages of the plant in chemically treated mutants of Lupinus albus. Several stresses induce a reduction in plant growth, resulting in the accumulation of free amino acids, amides or ureides, not only in the shoot, but also in the roots and nodules. Although enzyme activity is decisive in avoiding products that inhibit nitrogenase by ammonium, little is known about the mechanism by which the xylem carries these products. However, this process may be the key to the function of avoiding the accumulation of amino acids in the cells of infected nodules. The behaviour of the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrogen compounds derived from fixation, such as N-a-amino, N-ureides and N-amide in mutant genotypes were observed. The NR enzyme activity was highly influenced by the application of nitrate showing much higher values than those in the non-application of nitrate, independently of genotype, being that the NR, the best evaluation period was in the tenth week. The L-62 genotype characterized with nitrate- resistance, clearly showed that the enzyme PEPC is inhibited by presence of nitrate. The L-135 genotype (nod- fix- showed GS activity extremely low, thus demonstrating that GS is an enzyme highly correlated with fixation. With regard to the best growth stage for GS, Lupinus albus should be evaluated in the seventh week.O estudo enzimático e o transporte de N na seiva do xilema foi realizado visando observar a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágios de crescimento da planta em mutantes tratadas quimicamente. Vários estresses induzem a redução no crescimento da planta da qual resulta na acumulação de aminoácidos livres, amidas ou ureídos, tanto na parte aérea como nas raízes e nódulos. A atividade de enzimas

  13. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  14. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  15. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  16. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  17. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  18. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of the self-assessment of psoriasis symptoms (SAPS) - clinical trial and the SAPS - real world patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Stokes, Jonathan; Sundaram, Murali; Shields, Alan L

    2017-09-01

    The Self-Assessment of Psoriasis Symptoms - Clinical Trials (SAPS-CT) and SAPS - Real World (SAPS-RW) were simultaneously created to assess the experience of plaque psoriasis in two unique contexts. Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted in four phases namely concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Following concept elicitation, 18 concepts were selected to inform questionnaire construction of the SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW. To accommodate each context of use, the SAPS-CT asks respondents to rate the target symptom 'at its worst' in the 24 h prior to assessment, while the SAPS-RW asks respondents to rate the target symptom "on average" in the 7 days prior to assessment. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that patients could comprehend and provide meaningful responses to both versions and, after minor modifications, resulted in 11-item questionnaires administered in an observational study (N = 200). Results from the observational study informed further item reduction (SAPS-RW to six items and SAPS-CT to nine items) and demonstrated that scores from each were reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.90, test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70), construct valid and able to differentiate among clinically distinct groups. The SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW are content-valid PRO questionnaires capable of producing psychometrically sound scores when administered chronic to plaque psoriasis patients.

  1. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  2. Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers’ operational work. Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers’ work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers’ inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.

  3. Auditoria fiscal previdenciária em ambiente SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre David Viva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca identificar meios para efetuar auditoria fiscal nos bancos de dados do SAP - o mais adotado ERP da atualidade (Bae e Ashcroft, 2004, 1 e 5; Khan, 2005, 5. Pretende-se concentrar no método de acesso às tabelas SAP, um dos cinco métodos de acesso aos bancos de dados de ERP (Neil Raden, 2004, 10. Em um primeiro momento, é necessário o levantamento, por empresa, de uma listagem dos cabeçalhos das tabelas com as quais ela trabalha, em bancos de dados que já alcançam os terabytes (SAP, SAP NetWeaver: 50. Como o SAP é um programa multilíngüe e multiempresarial, suas tabelas são criptografadas, isto é, os nomes das tabelas e de duas colunas não guardam a menor relação com os dados que elas registram (Saphir, 2004, 1. Em um segundo momento, então, por meio do ACL, a listagem de cabeçalhos de tabelas obtida é filtrada. As tabelas que interessam ao Fisco são solicitadas à empresa de uma forma mais precisa, de modo a não sobrecarregar nem a empresa nem do Fisco. Em um terceiro momento, ainda com auxílio do ACL, as tabelas especificadas são analisadas (Primeiros Passos, 2003, 3.

  4. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix melichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gaschromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of potassium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  5. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix mielichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gas-chromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of kalium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  6. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....

  7. Sequential Power-Dependence Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike

  8. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  9. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...

  10. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  11. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  12. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  13. The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study: Masdar ... administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying the contribution of ... Keywords: SAP, human resources management, Masdar Building Materials Company ...

  14. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry.......In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...

  15. 49 CFR 40.281 - Who is qualified to act as a SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is qualified to act as a SAP? 40.281 Section... § 40.281 Who is qualified to act as a SAP? To be permitted to act as a SAP in the DOT drug and alcohol.... (2) You must be knowledgeable about the SAP function as it relates to employer interests in safety...

  16. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  17. Five years' experience of the new SAPs: overview and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the five years' experience gained in applying the new safety assessment principles (SAPs). Beginning with a brief history of SAPs, it goes on to discuss their structure and their relevance to safety matters. It develops some of the more basic issues which users have to bear in mind and also considers how SAPs are used by NII. Finally, there is a look forward to future developments in SAPs usage and application. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 40.285 - When is a SAP evaluation required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a SAP evaluation required? 40.285 Section... § 40.285 When is a SAP evaluation required? (a) As an employee, when you have violated DOT drug and... unless you complete the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in this...

  19. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted SAP, and additional information provided pursuant to § 285.611, to determine if it...

  20. 30 CFR 285.606 - What must I demonstrate in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I demonstrate in my SAP? 285.606 Section 285.606 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... demonstrate in my SAP? (a) Your SAP must demonstrate that you have planned and are prepared to conduct the...

  1. 49 CFR 40.289 - Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are employers required to provide SAP and... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.289 Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees? (a) As an employer, you are not required to provide a SAP evaluation or any...

  2. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.297 Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial... managed-care provider, any service agent) may change in any way the SAP's evaluation or recommendations...

  3. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  4. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  5. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  6. Conformational Plasticity of the Cell-Penetrating Peptide SAP As Revealed by Solid-State 19F-NMR and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, Sergii; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Mykhailiuk, Pavel K; Komarov, Igor V; Ulrich, Anne S

    2017-07-13

    The cell-penetrating peptide SAP, which was designed as an amphipathic poly-l-proline helix II (PPII), was suggested to self-assemble into regular fibrils that are relevant for its internalization. Herein we have analyzed the structure of SAP in the membrane-bound state by solid-state 19 F-NMR, which revealed other structural states, in addition to the expected surface-aligned PPII. Trifluoromethyl-bicyclopentyl-glycine (CF 3 -Bpg) and two rigid isomers of trifluoromethyl-4,5-methanoprolines (CF 3 -MePro) were used as labels for 19 F-NMR analysis. The equilibria between different conformations of SAP were studied and were found to be shifted by the substituents at Pro-11. Synchrotron-CD results suggested that substituting Pro-11 by CF 3 -MePro governed the coil-to-PPII equilibrium in solution and in the presence of a lipid bilayer. Using CD and 19 F-NMR, we examined the slow kinetics of the association of SAP with membranes and the dependence of the SAP conformational dynamics on the lipid composition. The peptide did not bind to lipids in the solid ordered phase and aggregated only in the liquid ordered "raft"-like bilayers. Self-association could not be detected in solution or in the presence of liquid disordered membranes. Surface-bound amphipathic SAP in a nonaggregated state was structured as a mixture of nonideal extended conformations reflecting the equilibrium already present in solution, i.e., before binding to the membrane.

  7. Determining sap sweetness in small sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. Koelling

    1967-01-01

    Describes a technique based on the use of a hypodermic needle for determining sap-sugar concentrations in small trees. The technique is applicable to pot cultures in greenhouses and also, with the use of a movable shelter, to seedlings in nursery beds.

  8. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  9. SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards 4.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with a good command and knowledge of creating dashboards, but are not yet an advanced user of SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards, then this is the perfect book for you. Prerequisites include a good working knowledge of Microsoft Excel as well as knowledge of basic dashboard practices.

  10. Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in Concrete Construction State-of-the-Art Report Prepared by Technical Committee 225-SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This is the state-of-the-art report prepared by the RILEM TC “Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in concrete construction”. It gives a comprehensive overview of the properties of SAP, specific water absorption and desorption behaviour of SAP in fresh and hardening concrete, effects of the SAP addition on rheological properties of fresh concrete, changes of cement paste microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. Furthermore, the key advantages of using SAP are described in detail: the ability of this material to act as an internal curing agent to mitigate autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete, the possibility to use SAP as an alternative to air-entrainment agents in order to increase the frost resistance of concrete, and finally, the benefit of steering the rheology of fresh cement-based materials. The final chapter describes the first existing and numerous prospective applications for this new concrete additive.

  11. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, Tamiris; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Cortez, Cristian; Almeida, Igor C; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco

    2013-01-01

    To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP) comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD) responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP) and polyclonal (anti-SAP) antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs). Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE) that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP proteins and proposes a triggering role for extracellular SAP

  12. Water relations in silver birch during springtime: How is sap pressurised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Dominguez Carrasco, M D R; Salmon, Y; Aalto, J; Vanhatalo, A; Bäck, J; Lintunen, A

    2018-05-06

    Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurisation period. The diurnal dynamics of xylem sap pressure and sap flow during the sap pressurisation period varied, but were more often opposite to the diurnal pattern after bud burst, i.e. sap pressure increased and sap flow rate mostly decreased when temperature increased. Net conversion of soluble sugars to starch in the stem and roots occurred during the sap pressurisation period. Xylem sap osmotic pressure was small in comparison to total sap pressure, and it did not follow changes in environmental conditions or tree water relations. Based on these findings, we suggest that xylem sap pressurisation and embolism refilling occur gradually over a few weeks through water transfer from parenchyma cells to xylem vessels during daytime, and then the parenchyma are refilled mostly during nighttime by water uptake from soil. Possible drivers for water transfer from parenchyma cells to vessels are discussed. Also the functioning of thermal dissipation probes in conditions of changing stem water content is discussed. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  14. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  15. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  17. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  18. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca 2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  19. Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) Duration as Determined From Van Allen Probe Successive Electric Drift Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a characteristic feature of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, namely, the persistent and latitudinally narrow bands of rapid westward ion drifts called the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS). Despite countless works on SAPS, information relative to their durations is lacking. Here we report on the first statistical analysis of more than 200 near-equatorial SAPS observations based on more than 2 years of Van Allen Probe electric drift measurements. First, we present results relative to SAPS radial locations and amplitudes. Then, we introduce two different ways to estimate SAPS durations. In both cases, SAPS activity is estimated to last for about 9 h on average. However, our estimates for SAPS duration are limited either by the relatively long orbital periods of the spacecraft or by the relatively small number of observations involved. Fifty percent of the events fit within the time interval [0;18] hours.

  20. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  1. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  3. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  4. Implantación de SAP ERP en una distribuidora

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Costales, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende reflejar en qué consistiría un proyecto de implantación de un ERP, en nuestro caso SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribución alimenticia. Para llevarlo a cabo se empleará la metodología ASAP, pretendiendo ser el resultado final del proyecto el análisis y diseño del mismo. En aquest treball es pretén reflectir en què consistiria un projecte d'implantació d'un ERP, en el nostre cas SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribució alimentària. Per f...

  5. Stormtime Simulations of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present simulation results from the self-consistently coupled SAMI3/RCM code on the impact of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system with an emphasis on the development of sub-auroral plasma streams (SAPS). We consider the following storm events: March 31, 2001, March 17, 2013, March 17, 2015, September 3, 2012, and June 23, 2015. We compare and contrast the development of SAPS for these storms. The main results are the development of sub-auroral (< 60 degrees) low-density, high-speed flows (1 - 2 km/s). Additionally, we discuss the impact on plasmaspheric dynamics. We compare our model results to data (e.g., Millstone Hill radar, GPS TEC).

  6. Cost of Maple Sap Production for Various Size Tubing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel K. Huyler

    2000-01-01

    Reports sap production costs for small (500 to 1,000 taps), medium (1,000 to 5,000), and large (5,000 to 15,000) maple syrup operations that use plastic tubing with vacuum pumping. The average annual operating cost per tap ranged from $4.64 for a 500-tap sugarbush operation to $1.84 for a sugarbush with 10,000 taps. The weighted average was $2.87 per tap or $11.48 per...

  7. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  8. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  9. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  10. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  11. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 2. Laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W

    2012-07-01

    Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests.

  12. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  13. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  14. Time scale of random sequential adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.

  15. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Ko, E-mail: etoko@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sonoda, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Jin, Yuji [School of Basic Medicine, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013 (China); Abe, Shin-ichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  16. Collection of pure phloem sap from wheat and its chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, H.; Chino, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat Phloem sap was collected without contamination from the stylets of small brown planthopper severed by a YAG laser beam. The sugar, amino acid and inorganic ion composition was determined using only one μl of the sap. The sap had a high sucrose level (251 mM), and also a high K+ level (299 mM). Total amino acid compounds in the sap reached 262 mM. The dominant amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine, while r-amino butylic acid was absent. The major anion in the sap was Cl− and its concentration was 25.1 mM. Nitrate was also present at a concentration of 8.1 mM. These results suggested that the sap obtained from the cut end of the stylets of the small brown planthopper was a phloem origin of wheat. (author)

  17. SAPS effects on thermospheric winds during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, C.; Lu, G.; Wang, W.; Doornbos, E.; Talaat, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Strong subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) were observed by DMSP satellites during the main phase of the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm. Both DMSP F18 and GOCE satellites sampled at 19 MLT during this period, providing near-simultaneous measurements of ion drifts and neutral winds near dusk. The fortuitous satellite conjunction allows us to directly examine the SAPS effects on thermospheric winds. In addition, two sets of model runs were carried out for this event: (1) the standard TIEGCM run with high-latitude forcing; (2) the SAPS-TIEGCM run by incoporating an empirical model of SAPS in the subauroral zone. The difference between these two runs represents the influence of SAPS forcing. In particular, we examine ion-neutral coupling at subauroral latitudes through detailed forcing term analysis to determine how the SAPS-related strong westward ion drifts alter thermospheric winds.

  18. Groundwater sapping channels: Summary of effects of experiments with varied stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Simmons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments in the recirculating flume sapping box have modeled valley formation by groundwater sapping processes in a number of settings. The effects of the following parameters on sapping channel morphology were examined: surface slope; stratigraphic variations in permeability cohesion and dip; and structure of joints and dikes. These kinds of modeling experiments are particularly good for: testing concepts; developing a suite of distinctive morphologies and morphometries indicative of sapping; helping to relate process to morphology; and providing data necessary to assess the relative importance of runoff, sapping, and mass wasting processes on channel development. The observations from the flume systems can be used to help interpret features observed in terrestrial and Martian settings where sapping processes are thought to have played an important role in the development of valley networks.

  19. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Ranitović, P.; Tepić, G.; Matić, B.; Sremac, S.; Vukadinović, V.

    2013-01-01

    MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services) has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics securit...

  20. Pengaruh Pemahaman Standar Akuntansi Pemerintahan (SAP, Pelatihan, Akuntabilitas, Transparansi Terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan SKPD Kota Padangsidimpuan

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Putri Bunga Meiliana

    2016-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, tranparancy (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy. ...

  1. Characterization and vaccine potential of Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (SAP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Waseewiwat, Pinkamon; Thanasinpaiboon, Thanaporn; Cheukamud, Werachon; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-01-15

    The recombinant Fasciola gigantica Saposin-like protien-1 (rFgSAP-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from NEJ cDNA, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rFgSAP-1). By immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit IgG anti-rFgSAP-1 reacted with rFgSAP-1 at a molecular weight 12kDa, but not with rFgSAP-2. The rFgSAP-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after infection. The FgSAP-1 protein was expressed at a high level in the caecal epithelium of metacercariae and NEJs. The vaccination was performed in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSAP-1 combined with Alum adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae per mouse by the oral route. The percents protection of rFgSAP-1 vaccine were estimated to be 73.2% and 74.3% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a specific to rFgSAP-1 in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, were inversely and significantly correlated with the numbers of worm recoveries. The rFgSAP-1-vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver damage. These indicated that rFgSAP-1 has strong potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in large economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  4. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section 285.607... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ...

  5. Framework for sequential approximate optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python

  6. Hepatobiliary sequential scintiscanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, G.; Hottenrott, C.; Maul, F.D.

    1985-01-04

    The duodeno-gastric reflux was evaluated in 33 patients following gastric surgery by functional hepato-biliary scintigraphy. In 16 of 26 patients with gastric resection a reflux was found. The Y-en-Roux and the retrocolic B II resection with Braun's Anastomosis showed the lowest incidence of reflux. The functional scintigraphy permits an objective diagnosis of reflux without provocation by diagnostic manipulations. The high percentage of accuracy in evaluating reflux recommends the scintigraphy as an optimal method in postoperative reflux control.

  7. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  8. The finite element structural analysis code SAP IV conversion from CDC to IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1977-02-01

    SAP IV is a general three dimensional, linear, static and dynamic finite element structural analysis program. The program which was obtained from the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, was written in FORTRAM for a CDC 6400. Its main use was anticipated to be the seismic analysis of reactor structures. SAP IV may also prove useful for fracture mechanics studies as well as the usual elastic stress analysis of structures. A brief description of SAP IV and a more detailed account of the FORTRAN conversion required to make SAP IV run successfully on the UKAEA Harwell IBM 370/168 are given. (author)

  9. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  10. Sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense docetaxel, cisplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (TCF-dd) followed by combination of oxaliplatin, folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan (COFFI) in metastatic gastric cancer: results of a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiesa, Matteo; Tomasello, Gianluca; Buti, Sebastiano; Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; Brighenti, Matteo; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Donati, Gianvito; Passalacqua, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a new strategy of two sequential, intensified chemotherapy regimens in metastatic gastric cancer. Chemo-naïve patients with metastatic gastric cancer were enrolled to receive 4 cycles of TCF-dd (docetaxel initially 85 mg/m(2) and cisplatin initially 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 [later modified due to toxicity: 70 and 60 mg/m(2) respectively], l-folinic acid 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) bolus and then 600 mg/m(2) as a 22 h continuous infusion on day 1 and 2, every 14 days). Subsequently, patients with CR, PR or SD received 4 cycles of COFFI (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), irinotecan 140 mg/m(2), l-folinic acid 200 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by 2,400 mg/m(2) as a 48 h continuous infusion, every 14 days). In both regimens pegfilgrastim 6 mg subcutaneously on day 3 was included. Forty consecutive patients were enrolled. TCF-dd regimen achieved an ORR of 55% (95% CI, 40-70). Twenty-three patients proceeded to COFFI. After this regimen the ORR was then increased to 60% (95% CI, 45-75). Among the 21 patients treated with TCF-dd after the protocol amendments, main grade 3-4 toxicities were: neutropenia (29%), thrombocytopenia (19%), asthenia (24%) and diarrhea (14%). COFFI caused grade 3-4 neutropenia (all not febrile) and diarrhea in 35% and 17% of patients respectively. A sequential strategy with TCF-dd followed by COFFI is very active and may be of special interest in selected patients.

  11. Separation and preconcentration of ultratrace levels of cadmium(II) in a sequential injection (SI) system with a PTFE packed column as a mimic sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system with renewable column employing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Gała, Piotr

    of cadmium(II) by detection with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The non-charged complex formed between the analyste and the chelating reagent diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA) was selectively adsorbed on the surface of the PTFE beads and eluted by ethanol before being directed...

  12. Sequential compression pump effect on hypotension due to spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: A double blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Fatemeh Javaherforoosh; Alqozat, Mostafa; Zadeh, Reza Akhond

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal anesthesia (SA) is a standard technique for cesarean section. Hypotension presents an incident of 80–85% after SA in pregnant women. Objective To determine the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression of lower limbs on declining spinal anesthesia induced hypotension during cesarean section. Methods This double-blind clinical prospective study was conducted on 76 non-laboring parturient patients, aged 18–45 years, with the American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I or II who were scheduled for elective cesarean section at Razi Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from December 21, 2015 to January 20, 2016. Patients were divided into treatment mechanical pump (Group M) or control group (Group C) with simple random sampling. Fetal presentation, birth weight, Apgar at 1 and 5 min, time taken for pre-hydration (min), pre-hydration to the administration of spinal anesthesia (min), initiation of spinal to the delivery (min) and total volume of intravenous fluids, total dose of ephedrine and metoclopramide were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19, using repeated measures of ANOVA and Chi square test. Results Heart rate, MPA, DAP and SAP changes were significantly higher in off-pump group in the baseline and 1st-minute (p<0.05), and in the other times, this change was significantly different with control groups. Conclusion This research showed the suitability of the use of Sequential Compression Device (SCD) in reducing hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, also this method can cause reducing vasopressor dosage for increased blood pressure, but the approval of its effectiveness requires repetition of the study with a larger sample size. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT ID: IRCT2015011217742N3. Funding The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. PMID:28713516

  13. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  14. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  15. Microscopic insight into thermodynamics of conformational changes of SAP-SLAM complex in signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-04-01

    The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, associate with SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-related molecules, composed of single SH2 domain architecture. SAP activates Src-family kinase Fyn after SLAM ligation, resulting in a SLAM-SAP-Fyn complex, where, SAP binds the Fyn SH3 domain that does not involve canonical SH3 or SH2 interactions. This demands insight into this SAP mediated signalling cascade. Thermodynamics of the conformational changes are extracted from the histograms of dihedral angles obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this structurally well characterized SAP-SLAM complex. The results incorporate the binding induced thermodynamic changes of individual amino acid as well as the secondary structural elements of the protein and the solvent. Stabilization of the peptide partially comes through a strong hydrogen bonding network with the protein, while hydrophobic interactions also play a significant role where the peptide inserts itself into a hydrophobic cavity of the protein. SLAM binding widens SAP's second binding site for Fyn, which is the next step in the signal transduction cascade. The higher stabilization and less fluctuation of specific residues of SAP in the Fyn binding site, induced by SAP-SLAM complexation, emerge as the key structural elements to trigger the recognition of SAP by the SH3 domain of Fyn. The thermodynamic quantification of the protein due to complexation not only throws deeper understanding in the established mode of SAP-SLAM interaction but also assists in the recognition of the relevant residues of the protein responsible for alterations in its activity.

  16. Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenfeld, T.

    1982-01-01

    The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism

  17. The Efficiency of SAP in improving the HR Performance Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... operations at the operational, administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying ... Key Words- SAP, human resources management, Masdar. Building ... There are thousands of companies around the world using the SAP ... results indicate that managers have a fairly positive view of the impact of the ...

  18. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  19. SAP: structure, function, and its roles in immune-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dan; Luo, TianTian; Xiong, Haowei; Liu, Jichen; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Hou, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), also known as pentraxin-2, is a member of the pentraxin protein family with an established relationship to the immune response. In the last century, SAP has been used as a diagnostic marker in amyloidosis diagnosis and patient follow-up. SAP has been thought to have potential for treating and curing amyloidosis and fibrosis diseases. More recently, it has been shown that SAP may serve as both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for many immune-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, nephritic, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In the cardiovascular system, SAP has been defined as the culprit in amyloidosis in the heart. SAP may also exert a protective role during the early stage of atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. In noncardiovascular system diseases, SAP is being developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize SAP history, structure, and its roles in immune-related diseases in different systems with emphasis on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  1. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  2. An interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Sap flux sensors are an important tool for estimating tree-level transpiration in forested and urban ecosystems around the world. Thermal dissipation (TD) or Granier-type sap flux probes are among the most commonly used due to their reliability, simplicity, and low cost.

  3. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  4. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  5. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  6. Handling of the demilitarized zone using service providers in SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, A.; Robu, R.

    2016-02-01

    External collaboration needs to allow data access from the Internet. In a trusted Internet collaboration scenario where the external user works on the same data like the internal user direct access to the data in the Intranet is required. The paper presents a solution to get access to certain data in the Enterprise Resource Planning system, having the User Interface on a system in the Demilitarized Zone and the database on a system which is located in the trusted area. Using the Service Provider Interface framework, connections between separate systems can be created in different areas of the network. The paper demonstrates how to connect the two systems, one in the Demilitarized Zone and one in the trusted area, using SAP ERP 6.0 with Enhancement Package 7. In order to use the Service Provider Interface SAP Business Suite Foundation component must be installed in both systems. The advantage of using the Service Provider Interface framework is that the external user works on the same data like the internal user (and not on copies). This assures data consistency and less overhead for backup and security systems.

  7. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  8. Evaluasi Implementasi SAP Modul Material Management: Studi Kasus pada PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is a necessity for a company to help solve problems in business transactions management. SAP application is an application that is able to provide solutions to such problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the running business processes on the Material Management module;evaluate the performance of the running SAP systems associated with the implementation and maintenance of SAP applications as well as to give sugestions based on the development of evaluation results obtained, in terms of business processes, performance, and financial. Utilized for analysis is IT Balanced Scorecard method, while ASAP (Accelerated SAP method is used for the system development. This study produced an analysis of the evaluation of the enterprise business processes in implementing the SAP development of ERP system modulesMaterial Management.

  9. Revaluasi Inventory dengan Menu Standard pada SAP-B1 Sesuaikah dengan IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Novianti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Some available standard modules in SAP-B1 can be adapted for changes in accounting rules and regulations. One is the Inventory Revaluation menu of Inventory module. Users can use the menu to make Inventory value adjustments of value in SAP-B1, to be consistent with the values that must be presented in the financial statements. Based on the flexibility provided by SAP-B1menu, should not be too difficult for users of SAP-B1 to manage accounting transactions based on accounting rules that apply today, IFRS. IFRS requirements on inventory adjustment transactions with a value of SAP-B1 could be done more easily.

  10. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  11. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  12. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  13. Concomitant or sequential administration of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine and yellow fever 17D vaccine: randomized double-blind phase II evaluation of safety and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasveld, Peter E; Marjason, Joanne; Bennett, Sonya; Aaskov, John; Elliott, Suzanne; McCarthy, Karen; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Reid, Mark

    2010-11-01

    A randomized, double-blind, study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) co-administered with live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D strain; Stamaril®, Sanofi Pasteur) or administered successively. Participants (n = 108) were randomized to receive: YF followed by JE-CV 30 days later, JE followed by YF 30 days later, or the co-administration of JE and YF followed or preceded by placebo 30 days later or earlier. Placebo was used in a double-dummy fashion to ensure masking. Neutralizing antibody titers against JE-CV, YF-17D and selected wild-type JE strains was determined using a 50% serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroconversion was defined as the appearance of a neutralizing antibody titer above the assay cut-off post-immunization when not present pre-injection at day 0, or a least a four-fold rise in neutralizing antibody titer measured before the pre-injection day 0 and later post vaccination samples. There were no serious adverse events. Most adverse events (AEs) after JE vaccination were mild to moderate in intensity, and similar to those reported following YF vaccination. Seroconversion to JE-CV was 100% and 91% in the JE/YF and YF/JE sequential vaccination groups, respectively, compared with 96% in the co-administration group. All participants seroconverted to YF vaccine and retained neutralizing titers above the assay cut-off at month six. Neutralizing antibodies against JE vaccine were detected in 82-100% of participants at month six. These results suggest that both vaccines may be successfully co-administered simultaneously or 30 days apart.

  14. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  15. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol D. von Dohlen; Usha Spaulding; Kistie B. Patch; Kathryn M. Weglarz; Robert G. Foottit; Nathan P. Havill; Gaelen R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce...

  16. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  17. 49 CFR 40.307 - What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in prescribing the... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.307 What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests? (a) As a SAP, for each employee who has committed a DOT drug or alcohol regulation violation, and...

  18. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...: BOEM-2012-0077] RIN 1010-AD77 Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or... would amend the timing requirements for submitting a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities... and grants will have a preliminary term of 12 months in which a lessee or grantee must submit a SAP or...

  19. 49 CFR 40.293 - What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in conducting the... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.293 What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee? As a SAP, for every employee who comes to you following a DOT drug and alcohol...

  20. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  1. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  2. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...

  3. Application of TXRF spectrometry and HPLC for the characterization of xylem saps of nickel contaminated cucumber plants grown in urea containing nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, E.; Mihucz, V.G.; Varga, G.; Zaray, G.; Cseh, E.

    2000-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used to determine the elemental composition of xylem saps of cucumber plants grown in nutrient solutions having urea, as the sole nitrogen source and artificially contaminated with nickel(II) ions in concentration of 10 μM, which proved to be toxic for the plants. The saps of uncontaminated plants - grown at the same time with the contaminated ones - were also investigated. The collection of the samples was performed for 1 hour followed by two additional 30-minute-long time periods, thus three samples resulted for each group of plants. The TXRF measurements were performed using Ga as internal standard. For excitation, Mo tube was used and the integration time was 300 s. The nutrient heavy metals determined by the TXRF spectrometry in the saps were Fe, Mn and Zn in concentration range of ng/cm 3 . Two other nutrient elements, Ca and K were also determined and they were present in the samples in concentration of μg/cm 3 . The concentration of nickel in the saps originating from the contaminated plants, was approximately 1400 ng/cm 3 . The concentration of another nutrient heavy metal, Cu was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption (GF-AAS) spectrometry. Applying a reversed-phased HPLC method, the organic acids of the samples, citric, malic and fumaric acids were also quantified, their concentrations being also in the μg/cm 3 concentration range. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were also performed in order to detect possible macromolecules of the saps. Both techniques, having low sample volume demand, were suitable to perform reliable measurements of the samples whose masses were between 0,9-2,5 g. Furthermore, the absence of the matrix effects is also an important advantage of the TXRF spectrometry that permits the direct analysis of the xylem saps. These investigations form part of our work focusing on the availability, accumulation and transport of heavy metals in

  4. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  5. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  6. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  7. An Auroral Boundary-Oriented Model of Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, R. G.; Anderson, P. C.

    2018-04-01

    An empirical model of subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric fields has been developed using measurements of ion drifts and particle precipitation made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1987 to 2012 and Dynamics Explorer 2 as functions of magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude, the auroral electrojet index (AE), hemisphere, and day of year. Over 500,000 subauroral passes are used. This model is oriented in degree magnetic latitude equatorward of the aurora and takes median values instead of the mean to avoid the contribution of low occurrence frequency subauroral ion drifts so that the model is representative of the much more common, latitudinally broad, low-amplitude SAPS field. The SAPS model is in broad agreement with previous statistical efforts in the variation of the SAPS field with MLT and magnetic activity level, although the median field is weaker. Furthermore, we find that the median SAPS field is roughly conjugate in both hemispheres for all seasons, with a maximum in SAPS amplitude and width found for 1800-2000 MLT. The SAPS amplitude is found to vary seasonally only from about 1800-2000 MLT, maximizing in both hemispheres during equinox months. Because this feature exists despite controlling for the AE index, it is suggested that this is due to a seasonal variation in the flux tube averaged ionospheric conductance at MLT sectors where it is more likely that one flux tube footprint is in darkness while the other is in daylight.

  8. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  9. The performance and customization of SAPS 3 admission score in a Thai medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) admission scores, both the original and a customized version, in mixed medical critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Thailand. The probability of hospital mortality of the original SAPS 3 was calculated using the general and customized Australasia version (SAPS 3-AUS). The patients were randomly divided into equal calibration and validation groups for customization. A total of 1,873 patients were enrolled. The hospital mortality rate was 28.6%. The general equation of SAPS 3 had excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.933, but poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H = 106.7 and C = 101.2 (P customized SAPS 3 showed a good calibration of all patients in the validation group (H = 14, P = 0.17 and C = 11.3, P = 0.33) and all subgroups according to main diagnosis, age, gender and co-morbidities. The SAPS 3 provided excellent discrimination but poor calibration in our MICU. A first level customization of the SAPS 3 improved the calibration and could be used to predict mortality and quality assessment in our ICU or other ICUs with a similar case mix.

  10. SAP buran injury management of mangoes (mangifera indica L.) in sri lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapillai, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - Willard, Karuthakolumban, Chembaddan and Ambalavi - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 and 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 and 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in Karuthakolumban. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in Willard, Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. (author)

  11. Phase I/II Trial of Sequential Chemoradiotherapy Using a Novel Hypoxic Cell Radiosensitizer, Doranidazole (PR-350), in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (WJTOG-0002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Koji; Tanaka, Masahiro; Segawa, Yoshihiko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Negoro, Shunichi; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Hida, Toyoaki; Kawahara, Masaaki; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Hirokawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Ariyoshi, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I/II trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of PR-350, a novel hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, when administered with thoracic radiation therapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (CT) for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Two cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 ) and paclitaxel (180 mg/m 2 ), or carboplatin (AUC = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m 2 ) were given before RT of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. In the Phase I portion, the starting dosage of PR-350 was 10 daily administrations (2000 mg/m 2 ) in combination with RT, and this number was increased in increments of 10 for successive groups to 30 doses. Results: In total, 37 patients were enrolled. In Phase I (n = 20), PR-350 could be administered 30 times with concurrent thoracic RT. Thus, in Phase II (n = 17), PR-350 was administered 30 times. The major toxicity was radiation pneumonitis, with Grade 3 or more pneumonitis noted in 6 patients (16%) including 2 with treatment-related deaths. However, no Grade 3 or more esophageal toxicity was noted, and only Grade 1 peripheral neuropathy was noted in 9 patients (24%). For all 37 patients, the median survival time (MST) and the 2-year survival rate were 15.9 months and 24%, respectively. For 18 patients receiving 21 to 30 doses of PR-350, the MST and 2-year survival rate were 20.9 months and 33%, respectively. Conclusions: Thoracic RT combined with 30 daily administrations of PR-350 after induction CT was well tolerated and promising for locally advanced NSCLC

  12. Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water

  13. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  14. Enhanced production and purification of recombinant surface array protein (Sap) for use in detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Nidhi; Tripathi, N K; Pal, V; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively. The protein purity and its reactivity were confirmed employing SDS-PAGE and Western blot, respectively. The antibodies raised against purified Sap were evaluated by Western blotting for detection of Sap released by B. anthracis . Our results showed that the Sap could be a novel marker for detection and confirmation of B. anthracis .

  15. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  16. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittäminen Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulussa

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia, millä toimin Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulun liiketalouden ja tekniikan keskuksen opetushenkilöstön ERP SAP-osaamista on kehitetty ja vastaako osaaminen ulkoisten asiakkaiden tarpeisiin. Tutkimustavoitteena oli selvittää myös ne menetelmät, jotka opetushenkilöstö kokee parhaimpina ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisen keinoina. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisessä huomioitiin ulkoisten asiakkuuksien näkemykset. Tutkimustulosten osalta tuli esille, että ty...

  17. Management of setpoint information using SAP-PM; Gerenciamento das informacoes de setpoints usando o SAP-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is always a challenge to assure that the set points of field instruments and valves (e.g., transmitters, regulator valves, shut off valves, safety valves, etc) are adjusted in conformity either to the originally designed values or the ones established by the operations team, specially when multiple teams are involved in the activity. In such circumstances, keeping these values updated on proper data sheets is also a defying task. The correct information is essential to the Control Room operators and its accuracy is a step ahead towards operational availability and safety. TBG, through CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) - SAP R/3, PM Module, developed a set of automated tools to integrate data from different environments (reports, handhelds, workflows and procedures), thus allowing allow a better control over the set point adjustment process. (author)

  18. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  19. Sequential Probability Ration Tests : Conservative and Robust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Shi, Wen

    2017-01-01

    In practice, most computers generate simulation outputs sequentially, so it is attractive to analyze these outputs through sequential statistical methods such as sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs). We investigate several SPRTs for choosing between two hypothesized values for the mean output

  20. Observation of Intravascular Changes of Superabsorbent Polymer Microsphere (SAP-MS) with Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Daigo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sone, Teruki; Kobatake, Makito; Tamada, Tsutomu; Umetani, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the intravascular transformation behavior of superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) in vivo macroscopically by using monochromatic X-ray imaging and to quantitatively compare the expansion rate of SAP-MS among different kinds of mixtures. Fifteen rabbits were used for our study and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed for their auricular arteries using monochromatic X-ray imaging. We used three kinds of SAP-MS (particle diameter 100-150 μm) mixture as embolic spherical particles: SAP-MS(H) absorbed with sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix 320), SAP-MS(V) absorbed with isosmolar contrast medium (Visipaque 270), and SAP-MS(S) absorbed with 0.9% sodium saline. The initial volume of SAP-MS particles just after TAE and its final volume 10 minutes after TAE in the vessel were measured to calculate the expansion rate (ER) (n = 30). Intravascular behavior of SAP-MS particles was clearly observed in real time at monochromatic X-ray imaging. Averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (H) (1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ) were significantly smaller (p 7 μm 3 ) and SAP-MS (S) (5.85 x 10 7 μm 3 ). Averaged final volumes of SAP-MS (H) were significantly larger than averaged initial volumes (4.41 x 10 7 μm 3 vs. 1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ; p < 0.0001, ER = 3.55). There were no significant difference between averaged final volumes and averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (V) and SAP-MS (S). SAP-MS (H), which first travels distally, reaches to small arteries, and then expands to adapt to the vessel lumen, is an effective particle as an embolic agent, causing effective embolization.

  1. Random sequential adsorption of cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  2. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP

  3. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbakel, Werner; Carmeliet, Geert; Engelborghs, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. → This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. → NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. → The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP-chromatin interaction

  4. Studi Kelayakan Implementasi SAP dengan Metode Fit/Gap Analysis dan CBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlina Nurlina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An application system is required by a company to meet the needs of enterprise business processes so as to provide information quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is necessary to study the feasibility status of plan of enterprise system implementation. SAP R/3 contains various modules which is deserved to be considered as a company's information system solution. Results of the feasibility study through the analysis of fit/ gap analysis state that the implementation of SAP R/3 sales module is feasible and able to meet all the needs of the system.Results of cost and benefit analysis state that the strategy implementation of SAP R/3 module is feasible. Based on the analysis and research using the two methods above, a decision can be taken whether the SAP R/3 is worth to be implemented or not.

  5. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  6. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  7. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. (Auth.)

  8. Mechanical properties of Concrete with SAP. Part I: Development of compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    The development of mechanical properties has been studied in a test program comprising 15 different concrete mixes with 3 different w/c ratios and different additions of superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The degree of hydration is followed for 15 corresponding paste mixes. This paper concerns...... compressive strength. It shows that results agree well with a model based on the following: 1. Concrete compressive strength is proportional to compressive strength of the paste phase 2. Paste strength depends on gel space ratio, as suggested by Powers 3. The influence of air voids created by SAP...... on compressive strength can be accounted for in the same way as when taking the air content into account in Bolomeys formula. The implication of the model is that at low w/c ratios (w/c SAP additions, SAP increases the compressive strength at later ages (from 3 days after casting and onwards...

  9. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed

  10. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  12. Assessing ERP SAP implementation in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes; Gunawan, W.; Ikhsan, R. B.; Aries

    2018-03-01

    The consistent growth of Indonesian SMEs has received attention of global IT vendors. One of major ERP player in Indonesian market such as SAP, has introduced ERP solutions for SMEs through SAP Business One. Due to its fast growth, unfortunately, there are still very few articles can be found to understand the ERP implementation in Indonesian SMEs. The article addressed the common factors that affect the successful of the ERP implementation at SMEs. They are: identifying vendor quality, opening balance data migration, and A-SAP methodology. The article applied case study method to examine the fast growth companies owned by same owners, such as: GRK, MMM, and KM25; with the objectives to identify the practical pattern of ERP implementation in SMEs that will be useful for SAP project manager and consultants.

  13. ANALIZA PODPORE KADROVSKIH PROCESOV S SISTEMOM SAP V PODJETJU AVTENTA.SI D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Vehovec, David

    2011-01-01

    V okviru diplomskega dela so z metodo prenove poslovnih procesov predstavljeni procesi zaposlovanja in razporejanja, upravljanja kadrovskih podatkov in prenehanja delovnega razmerja v podjetju Avtenta.si d.o.o. Na podlagi popisanih procesov je narejena analiza njihove podprtosti s sistemom SAP in predlog prenove. Le-ta vključuje modele prenovljenih procesov in prilagoditev sistema SAP do nivoja delujočega prototipa. V teoretičnem delu so opisana področja prenove poslovnih procesov, upravl...

  14. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  16. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1 G93A ), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1 G93A rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; pSAP: 64±10%, n=10 vs. 60±13; n=8; p>0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  18. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K + concentration ([K + ]), electrical conductivity (σ sap ), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (K wb ), leaf blade (K lb ) and petiole hydraulic conductances (K P ) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (T A ) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on K wb K lb , K P , [K + ] and σ sap . Osm varied only with light intensity, while K B varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as T A , VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (Ψ S ) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, Ψ S influenced also [K + ] and σ sap . The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Large-Scale Structure and Dynamics of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Nishitani, N.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow channel of high-speed westward ionospheric convection which appears equatorward of the duskside auroral oval during geomagnetically active periods. SAPS is generally thought to occur when the partial ring current intensifies and enhanced region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) are forced to close across the low conductance region of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. However, recent studies have suggested SAPS can also occur during non-storm periods, perhaps associated with substorm activity. In this study, we used measurements from mid-latitude SuperDARN radars to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of SAPS during several geomagnetically active days. Linear correlation analysis applied across all events suggests intensifications of the partial ring current (ASYM-H index) and auroral activity (AL index) are both important driving influences for controlling the SAPS speed. Specifically, SAPS flows increase, on average, by 20-40 m/s per 10 nT of ASYM-H and 10-30 m/s per 100 nT of AL. These dependencies tend to be stronger during the storm recovery phase. There is also a strong local time dependence such that the strength of SAPS flows decrease by 70-80 m/s for each hour of local time moving from dusk to midnight. By contrast, the evidence for direct solar wind control of SAPS speed is much less consistent, with some storms showing strong correlations with the interplanetary electric field components and/or solar wind dynamic pressure, while others do not. These results are discussed in the context of recent simulation results from the Rice Convection Model (RCM).

  20. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  1. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  2. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dong; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo; Zhang, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  3. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  5. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  6. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  7. Biochemical characterization of sap (latex) of a few Indian mango varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K Saby; Bhat, S G; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2003-01-01

    Mango sap (latex) from four Indian varieties was studied for its composition. Sap was separated into non-aqueous and aqueous phases. Earlier, we reported that the non-aqueous phase contained mainly mono-terpenes having raw mango aroma (Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 891). In the present study biochemical composition of the aqueous phase was studied. Aqueous phase contained little amount of protein (2.0-3.5 mg/ml) but showed high polyphenol oxidase (147-214 U/mg protein) and peroxidase (401-561 U/mg protein) activities. It contained low amounts of polyphenols and protease activities. On native PAGE, all the major protein bands exhibited both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities. Both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were found to be stable in the aqueous phase of sap at 4 degrees C. Sap contained large amount of non-dialyzable and non-starchy carbohydrate (260-343 mg/ml sap) which may be responsible for maintaining a considerable pressure of fluid in the ducts. Thus, the mango sap could be a valuable by-product in the mango industry as it contains some of the valuable enzymes and aroma components.

  8. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Michael; Tocheva, Anna S; Sandigursky, Sabina; Nayak, Shruti; Philips, Elliot A; Nichols, Kim E; Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Askenazi, Manor; Neel, Benjamin G; Pelzek, Adam J; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Mor, Adam

    2018-01-16

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an essential inhibitory receptor in T cells. Antibodies targeting PD-1 elicit durable clinical responses in patients with multiple tumor indications. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1 treatment, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways downstream of PD-1 could provide biomarkers for those whose tumors respond and new therapeutic approaches for those whose tumors do not. We used affinity purification mass spectrometry to uncover multiple proteins associated with PD-1. Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses. Silencing of SAP augmented and overexpression blocked PD-1 function. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), who lack functional SAP, were hyperresponsive to PD-1 signaling, confirming its inhibitory role downstream of PD-1. Strikingly, signaling downstream of PD-1 in purified T cell subsets did not correlate with PD-1 surface expression but was inversely correlated with intracellular SAP levels. Mechanistically, SAP opposed PD-1 function by acting as a molecular shield of key tyrosine residues that are targets for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates PD-1 inhibitory properties. Our results identify SAP as an inhibitor of PD-1 function and SHP2 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with XLP.

  9. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  10. SAPS and SAID: Differences and implications on modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. C.; Landry, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subauroral electric fields/ion drifts associated with geomagnetic activity and known as Polarization Jets [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1978] have been reported by a number of researchers over the years starting in the early 1970s. They are latitudinally narrow ( 1 - 3°), are primarily located between the late afternoon and early morning sectors, are extended several hours in magnetic local time, and have westward drifts that can exceed 5000 m/s. Foster et al., [2002] used Millstone Hill radar data to derive a statistical model of the subauroral ion drifts and coined the term SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams) to identify the sometimes broad region of subauroral drifts that the SAID are embedded within. While both are located in the subauroral region and closely associated with ionospheric conductivity and the region 2 field-aligned currents, they are in reality separate phenomena. We investigate this difference, their production mechanisms, and the implications for modeling them.

  11. iSAP: Interactive Sparse Astronomical Data Analysis Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourt, O.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.; Moudden, Y.; Abrial, P.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-03-01

    iSAP consists of three programs, written in IDL, which together are useful for spherical data analysis. MR/S (MultiResolution on the Sphere) contains routines for wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and Independent Component Analysis on the Sphere. MR/S has been designed for the PLANCK project, but can be used for many other applications. SparsePol (Polarized Spherical Wavelets and Curvelets) has routines for polarized wavelet, polarized ridgelet and polarized curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and blind source separation on the Sphere. SparsePol has been designed for the PLANCK project. MS-VSTS (Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on the Sphere), designed initially for the FERMI project, is useful for spherical mono-channel and multi-channel data analysis when the data are contaminated by a Poisson noise. It contains routines for wavelet/curvelet denoising, wavelet deconvolution, multichannel wavelet denoising and deconvolution.

  12. Stabilization/Solidification of Radioactive LiCl-KCl Waste Salt by Using SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5(SAP) Inorganic Composite: Part 2. The Effect of SAP Composition on Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Soo Na; Park, Hwan Seo; Cho, In Hak; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Yong Zun

    2012-01-01

    Metal chloride waste is generated as a main waste streams in a series of electrolytic processes of a pyrochemical process. Different from carbonate or nitrate salt, metal chloride is not decomposed into oxide and chlorine but it is just vaporized. Also, it has low compatibility with conventional silicate glasses. Our research group adapted the dechlorination approach for the immobilization of waste salt. In this study, the composition of SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) was adjusted to enhance the reactivity and to simplify the solidification process as a subsequent research. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 into the basic SAP decreased the SAP/Salt ratio in weight from 3 for SAP 1071 to 2.25 for M-SAP(Fe=0.1). The experimental results indicated that the addition of Fe 2 O 3 increased the reactivity of M-SAP with LiCl-KCl but the reactivity gradually decreased above Fe=0.1. Also, introducing B 2 O 3 into M-SAP requires no glass binder for the consolidation of reaction products. U-SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) could effectively dechlorinate the LiCl-KCl waste and its reaction product could be consolidated as a monolithic form without a glass binder. The leaching test result indicated that U-SAP 1071 was more durable than other SAPs wasteform. By using U-SAP, 1 g of waste salt could generated 3 - 4 g of wasteform for final disposal. The final volume would be about 3 - 4 times lower than the glass-bonded sodalite. From these results, it could be concluded that the dechlorination approach using U-SAP would be one of prospective methods to manage the volatile waste salt.

  13. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  14. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  15. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  16. Pengaruh Pemahaman SAP, Pendidikan dan Pelatihan, serta Latar Belakang Pendidikan terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Daerah pada Pemerintah Kota Medan.

    OpenAIRE

    Enho, Yohanes

    2011-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background, (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training and w...

  17. 49 CFR 40.301 - What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in the follow-up... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.301 What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee? (a) As a SAP, after you have prescribed assistance under § 40.293, you must re-evaluate the...

  18. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  19. Influence of Auroral Streamers on Rapid Evolution of Ionospheric SAPS Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Mishin, E. V.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nishitani, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) often show large, rapid enhancements above their slowly varying component. We present simultaneous observations from ground-based all-sky imagers and flows from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars to investigate the relationship between auroral phenomena and flow enhancement. We first identified auroral streamers approaching the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval to examine how often the subauroral flow increased. We also performed the reverse query starting with subauroral flow enhancements and then evaluated the auroral conditions. In the forward study, 98% of the streamers approaching the equatorward boundary were associated with SAPS flow enhancements reaching 700 m/s and typically hundreds of m/s above background speeds. The reverse study reveals that flow enhancements associated with streamers (60%) and enhanced larger-scale convection (37%) contribute to SAPS flow enhancements. The strong correlation of auroral streamers with rapid evolution (approximately minutes) of SAPS flows suggests that transient fast earthward plasma sheet flows can often lead to westward SAPS flow enhancements in the subauroral region and that such enhancements are far more common than only during substorms because of the much more frequent occurrences of streamers under various geomagnetic conditions. We also found a strong correlation between flow duration and streamer duration and a weak correlation between SAPS flow velocity and streamer intensity. This result suggests that intense flow bursts in the plasma sheet (which correlate with intense streamers) are associated with intense SAPS ionospheric flows perhaps by enhancing the ring current pressure and localized pressure gradients when they are able to penetrate close enough to Earth.

  20. Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I

    2009-01-01

    Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...

  1. The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is

  2. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  3. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-07-05

    One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.

  4. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  5. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  6. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  7. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  8. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was performed approximately yearly; FDT every other year. First and last visit had to contain both tests. Using linear regression, progression velocities were calculated for SAP (Humphrey Field Analyzer) mean deviation (MD) and FDT MD and the number of test locations with a total deviation probability below p glaucoma progression in patients who cannot perform SAP reliably. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  11. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  12. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  13. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.

    1993-10-01

    Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.

  14. Sap flow is Underestimated by Thermal Dissipation Sensors due to Alterations of Wood Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Wiedemann, A.; van den Bulcke, J.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.; Steppe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal dissipation technique (TD) is one of the most commonly adopted methods for sap flow measurements. However, underestimations of up to 60% of the tree transpiration have been reported with this technique, although the causes are not certainly known. The insertion of TD sensors within the stems causes damage of the wood tissue and subsequent healing reactions, changing wood anatomy and likely the sap flow path. However, the anatomical changes in response to the insertion of sap flow sensors and the effects on the measured flow have not been assessed yet. In this study, we investigate the alteration of vessel anatomy on wounds formed around TD sensors. Our main objectives were to elucidate the anatomical causes of sap flow underestimation for ring-porous and diffuse-porous species, and relate these changes to sap flow underestimations. Successive sets of TD probes were installed in early, mid and end of the growing season in Fagus sylvatica (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea (ring-porous) trees. They were logged after the growing season and additional sets of sensors were installed in the logged stems with presumably no healing reaction. The wood tissue surrounding each sensor was then excised and analysed by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray micro CT). This technique allowed the quantification of vessel anatomical characteristics and the reconstruction of the 3-D internal microstructure of the xylem vessels so that extension and shape of the altered area could be determined. Gels and tyloses clogged the conductive vessels around the sensors in both beech and oak. The extension of the affected area was larger for beech although these anatomical changes led to similar sap flow underestimations in both species. The higher vessel size in oak may explain this result and, therefore, larger sap flow underestimation per area of affected conductive tissue. The wound healing reaction likely occurred within the first weeks after sensor installation, which

  15. Can Sap Flow Help Us to Better Understand Transpiration Patterns in Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Blume, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions and for improving the parameterisation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. At the tree scale, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status, stand-specific characteristics such as basal area or stand density and site-specific characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect control sap flow of individual trees. However, little is known about the relative importance or the dynamic interplay of these controls. We studied these influences with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites spread over a 290 km²-catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we applied linear models to the daily spatial pattern of sap velocity and determined the importance of the different predictors. By upscaling sap velocities to the tree level with the help of species-dependent empirical estimates for sapwood area we also examined patterns of sap flow as a more direct representation of transpiration. Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in this landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow, the site-specific predictors provided the largest contribution to the explained variance, however, in contrast to the sap velocity analysis, geology was more important than aspect. Spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explained only a small fraction of the variance. However, the temporal dynamics of the explanatory power of the tree-specific characteristics, especially species, were

  16. [Stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Yan, Hai-Long; Yao, Shi-Jun

    2007-04-01

    From April to November 2005, the stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert was measured by Flow-32 System. The results showed that, in the extremely arid hinterland of Taklimakan Desert and under enough water supply, the average daily water consumption of T. ramosissima with a stem diameter of 3.5 cm and 2.0 cm was 6.322 kg and 1.179 kg, respectively in one growth season. The stem sap flow of T. ramosissima presented a single-peaked curve, with an obvious day and night variation rhythm and fluctuated with environment factors. Under enough water supply, the environmenal factors such as total radiation, wind speed and air temperature were the main factors affecting the stem sap flow, and the dynamics of stem sap flow could be predicted by the liner regression model based on total radiation and wind speed. Because of the extremely arid environment and enough water supply, T. ramosissima had a relatively higher stem sap flow rate and a great water consumption.

  17. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  18. Dissolved atmospheric gas in xylem sap measured with membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K

    2016-04-01

    A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  20. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  1. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  2. The study of Cr(III) complexation in the xylem sap using ion exchange and radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Shikha; Prakash, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Radiotracer was employed to carry out ion exchange experiments to study the chromium speciation in the in vitro samples of xylem sap of maize stem of 60 days old plants. Cr(III) radiolabelled with its radioactive isotope ( 51 Cr) was mixed with both the ion exchange fraction of the sap which represented the carboxylic acids, as well as the whole sap and was analysed for complexation after 10 and 30 days at 25 degC. Prior to this, the ion exchange elution chromatography of Cr(III), and the Cr(III) complexes with oxalic and citric acid were used to compare the complexes being formed in the in vitro studies. The in vitro Cr(III) complexation results indicated that Cr(III) was vitally present as anionic species. The elution curve trend was similar to that of citric acid complexation. Citric acid was also found to be the major complexing acid in the xylem sap as determined by HPLC. The results indicate the transportation of Cr(III) as a citrate complex in the xylem sap of maize plants. (author)

  3. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods.

  4. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  5. Sequential lineup laps and eyewitness accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblay, Nancy K; Dietrich, Hannah L; Ryan, Shannon L; Raczynski, Jeanette L; James, Kali A

    2011-08-01

    Police practice of double-blind sequential lineups prompts a question about the efficacy of repeated viewings (laps) of the sequential lineup. Two laboratory experiments confirmed the presence of a sequential lap effect: an increase in witness lineup picks from first to second lap, when the culprit was a stranger. The second lap produced more errors than correct identifications. In Experiment 2, lineup diagnosticity was significantly higher for sequential lineup procedures that employed a single versus double laps. Witnesses who elected to view a second lap made significantly more errors than witnesses who chose to stop after one lap or those who were required to view two laps. Witnesses with prior exposure to the culprit did not exhibit a sequential lap effect.

  6. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  7. Sequential Product of Quantum Effects: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an overview for the theory of sequential products of quantum effects. We first summarize some of the highlights of this relatively recent field of investigation and then provide some new results. We begin by discussing sequential effect algebras which are effect algebras endowed with a sequential product satisfying certain basic conditions. We then consider sequential products of (discrete) quantum measurements. We next treat transition effect matrices (TEMs) and their associated sequential product. A TEM is a matrix whose entries are effects and whose rows form quantum measurements. We show that TEMs can be employed for the study of quantum Markov chains. Finally, we prove some new results concerning TEMs and vector densities.

  8. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  9. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  10. Logistic Core Operations with SAP Inventory Management, Warehousing, Transportation, and Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Kappauf, Jens; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    “Logistic Core Operations with SAP” not only provides an overview of core logistics processes and functionality—it also shows how SAP’s Business Suite covers logistic core operations, what features are supported, and which systems can be used to implement end-to-end processes in the following logistic core disciplines: Procurement, Distribution, Transportation, Warehouse Logistics and Inventory Management, and Compliance and Reporting. In this context the authors not only explain their integration, the organizational set-up, and master data, but also which solution fits best for a particular business need.   This book serves as a solid foundation for understanding SAP software. No matter whether you are a student or a manager involved in an SAP implementation, the authors go far beyond traditional function and feature descriptions, helping you ask the right questions, providing answers, and making recommendations. The book assists you in understanding SAP terminology, concepts and technological compo...

  11. Phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device for monitoring photosynthates transportation in plant shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuya; Ono, Akihito; Terao, Kyohei; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Ikuo; Shimokawa, Fusao

    2018-06-01

    We propose a microscale phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device to obtain the index of an internal plant condition regarding the transportation of primary photosynthates in phloem, which is an essential indicator of stable crop production under controlled-growth environments. In detail, we integrated a conventional Granier sensor with a thermal-flow sensor and devised an improved sensor device to quantify such index, including the information on velocity and direction of the phloem-sap flow using the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The experimental results showed that although the proposed sensor device was approximately only 1/10 the size of the conventional Granier sensor, it could generate an output nearly equal to that of the conventional sensor. Furthermore, experiments using mimicked plants demonstrated that the proposed device could measure minute flow velocities in the range of 0–200 µm/s, which are generally known as the phloem-sap flow velocity, and simultaneously detect the flow direction.

  12. SAPS-Associated Explosive Brightening on the Duskside: A New Type of Onset-Like Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S. K.; Kepko, L. E.

    2018-01-01

    Quasiperiodic energetic particle injections have been observed at geosynchronous orbit on the duskside during a steady magnetospheric convection event. We examine high-resolution auroral imager data and ground magnetometer data associated with the first of these injections and conclude that it was not associated with classical substorm signatures. It is proposed that these injections are caused by the explosive nonlinear growth of a shear flow-ballooning instability in the region where subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) also occur. It is suggested that interchange will occur preferentially in the low-conductivity SAPS region since the magnetic Richardson number is lowest there and the "line-tying" effect will also be least stabilizing there. We propose that the observed particle injection signatures and auroral morphology constitute a new type of SAPS-associated explosive "onset-like" disturbance that can occur during intervals of strong convection.

  13. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  14. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  15. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  16. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  17. Uncertainty in sap flow-based transpiration due to xylem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, N. T.; Hu, J.; Martin, J. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from plants through their stomata, is a key component of the terrestrial water balance, influencing streamflow as well as regional convective systems. From a plant physiological perspective, transpiration is both a means of avoiding destructive leaf temperatures through evaporative cooling and a consequence of water loss through stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide. Despite its hydrologic and ecological significance, transpiration remains a notoriously challenging process to measure in heterogeneous landscapes. Sap flow methods, which estimate transpiration by tracking the velocity of a heat pulse emitted into the tree sap stream, have proven effective for relating transpiration dynamics to climatic variables. To scale sap flow-based transpiration from the measured domain (often area) to the whole-tree level, researchers generally assume constancy of scale factors (e.g., wood thermal diffusivity (k), radial and azimuthal distributions of sap velocity, and conducting sapwood area (As)) through time, across space, and within species. For the widely used heat-ratio sap flow method (HRM), we assessed the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to uncertainty in k (a function of wood moisture content and density) and As. A sensitivity analysis informed by distributions of wood moisture content, wood density and As sampled across a gradient of water availability indicates that uncertainty in these variables can impart substantial error when scaling sap flow measurements to the whole tree. For species with variable wood properties, the application of the HRM assuming a spatially constant k or As may systematically over- or underestimate whole-tree transpiration rates, resulting in compounded error in ecosystem-scale estimates of transpiration.

  18. Tratamento de más oclusões de Classe II graves com aparelhos funcionais removíveis e ortodônticos sequenciais: um caso para a avaliação do MOrthRCSEd Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential removable functional and orthodontic appliances: a case for MOrthRCSEd examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Ching Fan Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o aparelho funcional é uma forma eficaz de tratar as más oclusões de Classe II esqueléticas em crianças e adolescentes. Um protocolo de avanço mandibular progressivo de 12 meses já demonstrou ser capaz de aumentar o crescimento condilar e melhorar o prognatismo mandibular utilizando o aparelho de Herbst. OBJETIVO: relatar o caso clínico (apresentado como um dos requisitos para aprovação no Exame de Ortodontia para Filiação ao Royal College of Surgeons de Edimburgo* de uma menina chinesa de 11 anos de idade, com 11mm de sobressaliência, tratada na Fase I da terapia de modificação do crescimento, ao longo de 12 meses, utilizando o aparelho Twin Block com um expansor palatal Hyrax e um extrabucal de puxada alta, em um protocolo de avanço mandibular progressivo, seguido pela Fase II da terapia, com um aparelho Edgewise pré-ajustado.INTRODUCTION: Functional appliances are an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 month step-wise mandibular advancement protocol has been proved to enhance the condylar growth and improve the mandibular prognathism using Herbst appliance. OBJECTIVES: The following case report documented a 11 year-old Chinese girl with 11 mm overjet treated by a Phase I 12-month growth modification therapy using Twin Block appliance with Hyrax palatal expander and high pull headgear in a step-wise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a Phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy. This is one of the cases submitted for the Membership of Orthodontics Examination of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

  19. Genetic variability of the phloem sap metabolite content of maize (Zea mays L.) during the kernel-filling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Dinant, Sylvie; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Quilleré, Isabelle; Armengaud, Patrick; Monfalet, Priscilla; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Using a metabolomic approach, we have quantified the metabolite composition of the phloem sap exudate of seventeen European and American lines of maize that had been previously classified into five main groups on the basis of molecular marker polymorphisms. In addition to sucrose, glutamate and aspartate, which are abundant in the phloem sap of many plant species, large quantities of aconitate and alanine were also found in the phloem sap exudates of maize. Genetic variability of the phloem sap composition was observed in the different maize lines, although there was no obvious relationship between the phloem sap composition and the five previously classified groups. However, following hierarchical clustering analysis there was a clear relationship between two of the subclusters of lines defined on the basis of the composition of the phloem sap exudate and the earliness of silking date. A comparison between the metabolite contents of the ear leaves and the phloem sap exudates of each genotype, revealed that the relative content of most of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing metabolites was similar. Correlation studies performed between the metabolite content of the phloem sap exudates and yield-related traits also revealed that for some carbohydrates such as arabitol and sucrose there was a negative or positive correlation with kernel yield and kernel weight respectively. A posititive correlation was also found between kernel number and soluble histidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Double strand RNA oral delivery methods to induce RNA interference in phloem and plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phloem and plant sap feeding insect pests invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients in the process damaging food productivity. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. Halyomorpha hal...

  1. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply with the Clean Air Act...

  2. Sap flow for beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a natural and a managed forest-effect of spatial heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    -aged 80-year old stand (MAN), with a height of 25 m, and a total of 283 stems ha(-1) with diameters averaging 38 cm. Stem sap flow, J(s) (g m(-2) s(-1)), was continuously measured in 12 (MAN) and 13 (NAT) trees using 20-mm long heat dissipation sensors. Individual tree measures of sap flow were correlated...

  3. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  4. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  5. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended services. You may also make use of SAP and employee assistance program (EAP) services in assisting... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support group services even after the employee returns to...

  6. Control objectives design for the human and resources module of SAP

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Antón, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Català: En aquest projecte trobem la definició d'objectius de control i d'activitats de control per al módul de recursos humans de SAP, donant especial importància a l'adecuada segregació de funcions dins el módul. Castellano: En este proyecto de encuentra la definición de objetivos de control i actividades de control para el módulo de recursos humanos de SAP, dando especial importancia a la adecuada segregación de funciones dentro de éste módulo. English: In this project we can find th...

  7. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...

  8. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  9. Phloem sap collection from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Methodology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, M; Tjallingii, W F; van Beek, T A

    1994-12-01

    Three methods to collect phloem sap on different lettuce lines were optimized and are described in detail. The success ratio for stylectomy of aphids was over 80% through the combination of a specially designed setup and electrical penetration graphs to monitor phloem sap ingestion. For unknown reasons on some lettuce lines stylets never showed sustained exudation. There were clear differences in stylet exudation between two aphid species on the same lettuce line. Honeydew collection in hexadecane made accurate quantitative analysis possible; samples were large and clean, but biotransformed. The EDTA chelation method produced large samples, but dilution, oxidation, and impurities from the wound surface reduced the reliability.

  10. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  13. Effect of sequential isoproturon pulse exposure on Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Nathalie; Eggen, Rik Ilda Lambertus; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2009-04-01

    Aquatic organisms are typically exposed to fluctuating concentrations of herbicides in streams. To assess the effects on algae of repeated peak exposure to the herbicide isoproturon, we subjected the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus to two sequential pulse exposure scenarios. Effects on growth and on the inhibition of the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) were measured. In the first scenario, algae were exposed to short, 5-h pulses at high isoproturon concentrations (400 and 1000 microg/l), each followed by a recovery period of 18 h, while the second scenario consisted of 22.5-h pulses at lower concentrations (60 and 120 microg/l), alternating with short recovery periods (1.5 h). In addition, any changes in the sensitivity of the algae to isoproturon following sequential pulses were examined by determining the growth rate-EC(50) prior to and following exposure. In both exposure scenarios, we found that algal growth and its effective quantum yield were systematically inhibited during the exposures and that these effects were reversible. Sequential pulses to isoproturon could be considered a sequence of independent events. Nevertheless, a consequence of inhibited growth during the repeated exposures is the cumulative decrease in biomass production. Furthermore, in the second scenario, when the sequence of long pulses began to approach a scenario of continuous exposure, a slight increase in the tolerance of the algae to isoproturon was observed. These findings indicated that sequential pulses do affect algae during each pulse exposure, even if algae recover between the exposures. These observations could support an improved risk assessment of fluctuating exposures to reversibly acting herbicides.

  14. Correção da acidez do solo e controle do capim-sapé Soil acidity correction and control of sapé-grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Mesquita Carvalho

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Um experimento de campo foi realizado para verificar o efeito da correção da acidez do solo sobre o controle do capim-sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, gramínea invasora de pastagens. Pastagem de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com intensa infestação de capim-sapé foi usada. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 1, 2, 4 e 6 t/ha, incorporado ao solo manualmente com auxílio de enxada, à profundidade de 20 cm, após gradagem das parcelas. Um tratamento extra, sem calcário e gradagem foi adotado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. No período de 33 meses de duração do experimento, foram feitos três cortes da vegetação aérea e duas amostragens de solo. Não houve efeito das doses de calcário sobre a produção de matéria seca do capim-sapé e das outras espécies (capim-gordura, Brachiaria decumbens e invasoras de folhas largas, apesar de terem ocorrido alterações nas características químicas do solo. A correção da acidez do solo, quando associada às correções das principais deficiências nutricionais, pode controlar o capim-sapé, ao estimular o crescimento das forrageiras.ABSTRACT - A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acid soil correction, on the control of the sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, a grass type weed of pasture. A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora pasture in a red-yellow latosol, having a high proportion of "sapé" was used. Treatments consisted of five levels of dolomite limestone (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 t/ha incorporated by hand using a garden tool to the top 20 cm of soil following a mechanical tillage of the plots (disking. An additional treatment without disking and without lime was adopted. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. During the 33 months of the experimental period, three harvests and two soil samplings were performed. There were no

  15. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  16. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yicun Wang; Xiang Gao; J U Zhi gang; Jingyuan Liu; Shuai Dong; Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. Aim: In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods: Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1...

  17. Synthesis of a novel chemotype via sequential metal-catalyzed cycloisomerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Leng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequential cycloisomerizations of diynyl o-benzaldehyde substrates to access novel polycyclic cyclopropanes are reported. The reaction sequence involves initial Cu(I-mediated cycloisomerization/nucleophilic addition to an isochromene followed by diastereoselective Pt(II-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerization.

  18. Analysis of the Tonle Sap Flood Pulse Based on Remote Sensing: how much does Tonle Sap Lake Affect the Mekong River Flood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W.; Hu, N.; Fu, J.; Lu, J.; Lu, H.; Lei, T.; Pang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, L.

    2018-04-01

    The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. The flow of Mekong River is the primary factor affecting the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain. The Tonle Sap Lake also plays a very important role in regulating the downstream flood of Mekong River. Hence, it is necessary to understand its temporal changes of lake surface and water storage and to analyse its relation with the flood processes of Mekong River. Monthly lake surface and water storage from July 2013 to May 2014 were first monitored based on remote sensing data. The relationship between water surface and accumulative water storage change was then established. In combination with hydrological modelling results of Mekong River Basin, the relation between the lake's water storage and the runoff of Mekong River was analysed. It is found that the water storage has a sharp increase from September to December and, after reaching its maximum in December, water storage quickly decreases with a 38.8 billion m3 of drop in only half month time from December to January, while it keeps rather stable at a lower level in other months. There is a two months' time lag between the maximum lake water storage and the Mekong River peak flood, which shows the lake's huge flood regulation role to downstream Mekong River. It shows that this remote sensing approach is feasible and reliable in quantitative monitoring of data scarce lakes.

  19. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sequential Therapy of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karimdzhanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study — to examine the effectiveness of sequential therapy of injectable and oral forms cephalosporins of II generation, cefuroxime sodium and cefprozil, in children with acute community-acquired pneumonia. We examined 53 child patients aged 6 months — 14 years with acute community-acquired pneumonia. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st group — 26 patients who treated with cefuroxime sodium intramuscularly, and 2nd — 27 patients who treated with cefuroxime sodium in first 3 days and then from the 4th day — with cefprozil suspension orally. Both groups of patients were comparable by forms and course of pneumonia. In the clinic to all patients were conducted conventional clinical and laboratory investigations. Complex therapy was not different in both groups. Efficacy of treatment was assessed in dynamics. When comparing the effectiveness of two antibiotic regimens (cefuroxime sodium parenterally and sequential regimen with replacement by cefprozil orally there were no differences in the dynamics of clinical course, laboratory and radiological data. Finding of the conducted investigations before treatment showed that majority of patients had clinical and radiological evidence of pneumonia: fever, cough, shortness of breath, tachycardia, physical and radiological changes in the lungs. Evaluation of treatment efficacy showed that by the end of treatment in both groups of patients there was a positive clinical and radiological dynamics of the disease, the body temperature returned to normal, symptoms of intoxication, physical changes in the lungs disappeared, focal and infiltrative changes disappeared completely. Thus, sequential therapy with cephalosporins of II generation, cefuroxime and cefprozil, in the treatment of acute community-acquired pneumonia in children is a quite effective and safe method with good tolerability and no side effects.

  1. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform safety...

  2. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  3. 30 CFR 285.700 - What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.700 Section 285.700 Mineral Resources... § 285.700 What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP... in your approved COP (§ 285.632(a)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (§ 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [psap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, psap in trees with bamboo (psap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (psap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

  5. 49 CFR 40.313 - Where is other information on SAP functions and the return-to-duty process found in this regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where is other information on SAP functions and... on SAP functions and the return-to-duty process found in this regulation? You can find other information on the role and functions of SAPs in the following sections of this part: § 40.3—Definition. § 40...

  6. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  7. 49 CFR 40.291 - What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation, referral, and treatment process of an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation... Process § 40.291 What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation, referral, and treatment process of an employee who has violated DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations? (a) As a SAP, you are charged...

  8. 30 CFR 285.611 - What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I submit with my SAP to... Assessment Plan § 285.611 What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other relevant laws? (a) You must submit with your SAP detailed information to assist MMS in complying...

  9. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  10. Sequential Generalized Transforms on Function Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gil Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define two sequential transforms on a function space Ca,b[0,T] induced by generalized Brownian motion process. We then establish the existence of the sequential transforms for functionals in a Banach algebra of functionals on Ca,b[0,T]. We also establish that any one of these transforms acts like an inverse transform of the other transform. Finally, we give some remarks about certain relations between our sequential transforms and other well-known transforms on Ca,b[0,T].

  11. Oxidation behavior analysis of cladding during severe accidents with combined codes for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingwei; Cao, Xinrong; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new verified oxidation model of cladding has been added in Severe Accident Program (SAP). • A coupled analysis method utilizing RELAP5 and SAP codes has been developed and applied to analyze a SA caused by LBLOCA. • Analysis of cladding oxidation under a SA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) has been performed by SAP. • Estimation of the production of hydrogen has been achieved by coupled codes. - Abstract: Core behavior at a high temperature is extremely complicated during transition from Design Basic Accident (DBA) to the severe accident (SA) in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The progression of core damage is strongly affected by the behavior of fuel cladding (oxidation, embrittlement and burst). A Severe Accident Program (SAP) is developed to simulate the process of fuel cladding oxidation, rupture and relocation of core debris based on the oxidation models of cladding, candling of melted material and mechanical slumping of core components. Relying on the thermal–hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of a SA caused by the large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) without mitigating measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) was performed by SAP for finding the key sequences of accidents, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding

  12. Enhancement of crack healing efficiency and performance of SAP in biocrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriselvam, M. G.; Poornima, V.; Venkatasubramani, R.; Sreevidya, V.

    2018-02-01

    Concrete usage in Construction becomes more common in this speedy world. Despite its benefits, concrete often exhibits crack which appear due to stresses. Larger cracks cause Structural integrity problems and smaller cracks may result in durability issues. A novel environmental friendly strategy to restore or remediate cracks formed in the structures is bio-mineralization of calcium carbonate using microbes such as Bacillus Subtilis (used in this study), as manual repair and maintenance is costly. In this Paper, an idea of using Super Absorbent Polymer in Bacterial Concrete was analysed which increases the strength and durability properties of concrete and also which acts as a protection to bacteria, where Self-Healing nature is viewed. In the span of 90 days, the results of Bacterial concrete cured under normal water providing nutrients inside with SAP shows healing up to 74 % and without SAP displays 49 % and when it is cured under nutrient medium, Bacterial Concrete having SAP displays healing up to 66 %, whereas without SAP it displays 57.4% of healing. During the observation it is discernible that the crack width ranging from 0.10 mm near 0.45 mm show better self-healing capacity. XRD analysis displays the presence of Calcium carbonate precipitation in cracks.

  13. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  14. Sugars of the unfermented sap and the wine from the oil palm, Elaeis guinensis, tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, M O; Ogan, U

    1988-01-01

    The sugar composition of the unfermented sap from oil palm (Elaeis guinensis) trees growing in the plantations of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, has been determined. While sucrose concentration ranges from 9.59 to 10.59% (w/v) in the pure unfermented sap, that of either glucose or fructose is much less than 1% (w/v) (0.13-0.73% w/v). Raffinose occurs in traces only (0.13-0.35 w/v). These results were derived from our improved methods which eliminate completely, or reduce to a bare minimum, fermentation of the sap during collection. The variation with time of storage of the individual sugars in the sap during fermentation to form palm wine reveals that, as sucrose steadily decreases, fructose reaches a peak at 1.51% (w/v) at the 9th hour, and thereafter declines, while glucose and raffinose remain continuously low; all sugars disappear beyond the 33rd hour. Concomittantly, pH decreases from pH 6.60 at zero time and stabilizes at pH 3.30 after 48 h, while titrable acidity increases continuously up until the 96th hour. These changes account for the variations in the quality of palm wine during storages.

  15. Selection of the best consultant for SAP ERP project using combined AHP-IBA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a combined AHP-IBA model for selecting the best SAP consultant for an SAP ERP project. The goal of the SAP Project Manager is to choose the best consultant, the one who is able to implement standard SAP functionalities with quality and on time. When making a decision on the basis of multiple criteria, the traditional Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method does not take into account the fact that attributes may correlate, assuming that there are no dependencies between them. However, the dependencies of the attributes can often be used to model important knowledge for multiple criteria decision analysis. We propose an extension to the traditional AHP method by applying Interpolative realization of Boolean algebra (IBA, using AHP to determine the criteria weights, and IBA to model the logical interactions among criteria. The research conducted on ERP consultant selection suggests that the decision making process is modelled more accurately if logical interactions between attributes are modelled before applying AHP.

  16. Realizing block planning concepts in make-and-pack production using MILP modelling and SAP APO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, H.O.; Grunow, M.; Neuhaus, U.

    2006-01-01

    of a major producer of hair dyes as a case study. We present two different implementations of the block planning concept. One utilizes the Production Planning/Detailed Scheduling module of the SAP APO© software. The other approach is based on a mixed-integer linear programming formulation. In contrast...

  17. A quantitative analysis of faulty EPCs in the SAP reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Moser, M.; Neumann, G.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The SAP reference model contains more than 600 non-trivial process models expressed in terms of Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs). We have automatically translated these EPCs into YAWL models and analyzed these models usingWofYAWL, a veri¯cation tool based on Petri nets. We discovered that at least

  18. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decrea......Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses...... relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...... for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  19. Synthesis and processing of sphingolipid activator protein-2 (SAP-2) in cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, S.; Wenger, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sphingolipid activator proteins (SAP) are relatively small molecular weight proteins that stimulate the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingolipids in the presence of specific lysosomal hydrolases. SAP-2 has previously been demonstrated to activate the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, and, possibly, sphingomyelin. Using monospecific rabbit antibodies against human spleen SAP-2, the synthesis and processing of SAP-2 were studied in cultured human fibroblasts. When [ 35 S]methionine was presented in the medium to control human cells for 4 h, five major areas of radiolabeling were found. These had apparent molecular weights of 73,000, 68,000, 50,000, 12,000, and 9000. Further studies indicated that the major extracellular product in normal cells given NH4Cl along with the [ 35 S]methionine and in medium from cultures from patients with I cell disease had an apparent molecular weight of 73,000. The Mr = 68,000 and 73,000 species can be converted to a species with an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 by the action of endoglycosidase F. After labeling cells for 1 h followed by a 1-h chase, the Mr = 12,000 and 9000 species appear. Treatment of the immunoprecipitated mixture with endoglycosidase F resulted in conversion of these species to one band with an apparent molecular weight of 7600. These studies indicate that this relatively low molecular weight protein is rapidly synthesized from a relatively large molecular weight highly glycosylated precursor

  20. Whole body amyloid deposition imaging by 123I-SAP scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor; Hazenberg, Bouke

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the name of a group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Deposition of amyloid can be localized or systemic. The 123I-SAP-scan can be used to image extent and distribution of amyloid deposition in patients with systemic AA, AL and ATTR amyloidosis.

  1. Exploring the Potential of Banana SAP as Dye for the Adinkra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to explore the potential of banana sap as a dye for the Adinkra industry in Ghana. Pseudostem extract of banana and stem bark extract of Bridelia micratha were compared as dyeing stuff. A consumer preference study was also conducted to assess the acceptability of the products developed.

  2. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  3. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 40 - SAP Equivalency Requirements for Certification Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. E Appendix E to Part 40—SAP Equivalency... requirement. The test must accurately measure the application of the knowledge, skills, and abilities... information is being accepted by the certifying agency. 9. Code of Ethics: Certified counselors must pledge to...

  5. Sexual Abuse Prevention Mobile Application (SAP_MobAPP) for Primary School Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.

  6. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...

  7. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  8. Adjuvant sequential chemo and radiotherapy improves the oncological outcome in high risk endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Mauro; Lissoni, Andrea Alberto; De Ponti, Elena; Grassi, Tommaso; Ponti, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the impact of sequential chemoradiotherapy in high risk endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Two hundred fifty-four women with stage IB grade 3, II and III EC (2009 FIGO staging), were included in this retrospective study. Results Stage I, II, and III was 24%, 28.7%, and 47.3%, respectively. Grade 3 tumor was 53.2% and 71.3% had deep myometrial invasion. One hundred sixty-five women (65%) underwent pelvic (+/- aortic) lymphadenectomy and 58 (22.8%) had nodal metastases. Ninety-eight women (38.6%) underwent radiotherapy, 59 (23.2%) chemotherapy, 42 (16.5%) sequential chemoradiotherapy, and 55 (21.7%) were only observed. After a median follow-up of 101 months, 78 women (30.7%) relapsed and 91 women (35.8%) died. Sequential chemoradiotherapy improved survival rates in women who did not undergo nodal evaluation (disease-free survival [DFS], p=0.040; overall survival [OS], p=0.024) or pelvic (+/- aortic) lymphadenectomy (DFS, p=0.008; OS, p=0.021). Sequential chemoradiotherapy improved both DFS (p=0.015) and OS (p=0.014) in stage III, while only a trend was found for DFS (p=0.210) and OS (p=0.102) in stage I-II EC. In the multivariate analysis, only age (≤65 years) and sequential chemoradiotherapy were statistically related to the prognosis. Conclusion Sequential chemoradiotherapy improves survival rates in high risk EC compared with chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone, in particular in stage III. PMID:26197768

  9. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  10. La proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP regula la expresión de IFN-g en lepra The SLAM-associated protein (SAP regulates IFN-g expression in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Quiroga

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La inmunidad protectora contra Mycobacterium leprae requiere IFN-g. Los pacientes con lepra tuberculoide producen localmente citoquinas Th1, mientras que los pacientes lepromatosos producen citoquinas Th2. La molécula linfocitaria activadora de señales (SLAM y la proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP participan en la diferenciación celular que conduce a producción de patrones específicos de citoquinas. A fin de investigar la vía SLAM/SAP en la infección por M. leprae, determinamos expresión de ARN mensajero (ARNm de SAP, IFN-g y SLAM en pacientes con lepra. Observamos que la expresión de SLAM correlacionó en forma directa con la expresión de IFN-g, mientras que la expresión de SAP correlacionó inversamente con la expresión de ambas proteínas. Así, nuestros resultados indican que SAP interferiría con las respuestas de citoquinas Th1 mientras que SLAM contribuiría con la respuesta Th1 en lepra, señalando a la vía SLAM/SAP como potencial blanco modulador de citoquinas en enfermedades con respuestas Th2 disfuncionales.Tuberculoid leprosy patients locally produce Th1 cytokines, while lepromatous patients produce Th2 cytokines. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP participate in the differentiation process that leads to the production of specific patterns of cytokines by activated T cells. To investigate the SLAM/SAP pathway in M. leprae infection, we determined the expression of SAP, IFN-g and SLAM RNA messenger in leprosy patients. We found a direct correlation of SLAM expression with IFN-g expression, whereas the expression of SAP was inversely correlated with the expression of both SLAM and IFN-g. Therefore, our data indicate that SAP might interfere with Th1 cytokine responses while SLAM expression may contribute to Th1 responses in leprosy. This study further suggests that the SLAM/SAP pathway might be a focal point for therapeutic modulation of T cell cytokine responses in diseases

  11. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  12. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Decreased SAP expression in T cells from patients with SLE contributes to early signaling abnormalities and reduced IL-2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P.; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of functions including increased early signaling events following engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating immune response. Here we present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and 3 men with SLE independently of disease activity. In SLE T cells the SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by a caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells simultaneously heightened IL-2 production, calcium (Ca2+) responses and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR antibodies, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  14. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  15. [Sap flow characteristics of Quercus liaotungensis in response to sapwood area and soil moisture in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jin Lin; He, Qiu Yue; Yan, Mei Jie; Li, Guo Qing; Du, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    To examine the characteristics of sap flow in Quercus liaotungensis and their response to environmental factors under different soil moisture conditions, Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flow of trees with different sapwood area in a natural Q. liaotungensis forest in the loess hilly region. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation, and soil moisture were monitored during the study period. The results showed that sap flux of Q. liaotungensis reached daily peaks earlier than solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The diurnal dynamics of sap flux showed a similar pattern to those of the environmental factors. Trees had larger sap flux during the period with higher soil moisture. Under the same soil moisture conditions, trees with larger diameter and sapwood areas had significantly higher sap flux than those with smaller diameter and sapwood areas. Sap flux could be fitted with vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, and the integrated index of the two factors using exponential saturation function. Differences in the fitted curves and parameters suggested that sap flux tended to reach saturation faster under higher soil moisture. Furthermore, trees in the smaller diameter class were more sensitive to the changes of soil moisture. The ratio of daily sap flux per unit vapor pressure deficit under lower soil moisture condition to that under higher soil moisture condition was linearly correlated to sapwood area. The regressive slope in smaller diameter class was larger than that in bigger diameter class, which further indicated the higher sensitivity of trees with smaller diameter class to soil moisture. These results indicated that wider sapwood of larger diameter class provided a buffer against drought stress.

  16. A global database of sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET) to link plant and ecosystem physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Flo, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Regional and global networks of ecosystem CO2 and water flux monitoring have dramatically increased our understanding of ecosystem functioning in the last 20 years. More recently, analyses of ecosystem-level fluxes have successfully incorporated data streams at coarser (remote sensing) and finer (plant traits) organisational scales. However, there are few data sources that capture the diel to seasonal dynamics of whole-plant physiology and that can provide a link between organism- and ecosystem-level function. Sap flow measured in plant stems reveals the temporal patterns in plant water transport, as mediated by stomatal regulation and hydraulic architecture. The widespread use of thermometric methods of sap flow measurement since the 1990s has resulted in numerous data sets for hundreds of species and sites worldwide, but these data have remained fragmentary and generally unavailable for syntheses of regional to global scope. We are compiling the first global database of sub-daily sap flow measurements in individual plants (SAPFLUXNET), aimed at unravelling the environmental and biotic drivers of plant transpiration regulation globally. I will present the SAPFLUXNET data infrastructure and workflow, which is built upon flexible, open-source computing tools within the R environment (dedicated R packages and classes, interactive documents and apps with Rmarkdown and Shiny). Data collection started in mid-2016, we have already incorporated > 50 datasets representing > 40 species and > 350 individual plants, globally distributed, and the number of contributed data sets is increasing rapidly. I will provide a general overview of the distribution of available data sets according to climate, measurement method, species, functional groups and plant size attributes. In parallel to the sap flow data compilation, we have also collated published results from calibrations of sap flow methods, to provide a first quantification on the variability associated with different sap

  17. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  18. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-10-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  19. SAP aitas Politsei- ja Piirivalveameti finantstöötajate arvu vähendada ligi kolm korda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võttis kasutusele SAP tarkvara, mis on võimeline muutma asutuse finantsjuhtimise, personali-, palgaarvestuse ja logistika valdkondade tööprotsessid efektiivsemaks ja automatiseeritumaks

  20. Ultrafiltration and thermal processing effects on Maillard reaction products and biological properties of date palm sap syrups (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Krichen, Fatma; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Mokni, Abir; Sila, Assad; Bougatef, Ali; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2018-08-01

    The effect of ultrafiltration process and temperature concentration on MRPs content and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of date palm sap syrups were investigated. MRPs were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power and DPPH free radical and H 2 O 2 scavenging activities. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. In vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. Date sap syrups displayed strong antioxidant activities which are correlated 5HMF and 2F contents. In addition, concentration at 100 °C, unlike ultrafiltration process, enhanced significantly the antioxidant activities sap syrups and total phenolic contents. The antimicrobial activities showed marked activity against S. enterica, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes with an inhibition zone of 21, 34, 27 and 34 mm respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that sap syrups can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines at high concentration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO 3 SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  2. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...

  3. Fast susceptibility-weighted imaging with three-dimensional short-axis propeller (SAP)-echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Moseley, Michael E; Skare, S

    2015-05-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of three-dimensional (3D) gradient recalled echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D short-axis propeller echo-planar imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. The 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. The 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. The 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2 mm, scan time = 5 min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2 mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52 min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  5. Dihydroazulene photoswitch operating in sequential tunneling regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Thisted, Christine Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    to electrodes so that the electron transport goes by sequential tunneling. To assure weak coupling, the DHA switching kernel is modified by incorporating p-MeSC6H4 end-groups. Molecules are prepared by Suzuki cross-couplings on suitable halogenated derivatives of DHA. The synthesis presents an expansion of our......, incorporating a p-MeSC6H4 anchoring group in one end, has been placed in a silver nanogap. Conductance measurements justify that transport through both DHA (high resistivity) and VHF (low resistivity) forms goes by sequential tunneling. The switching is fairly reversible and reenterable; after more than 20 ON...

  6. Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyukevich, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous

  7. Analysis of piping systems by finite element method using code SAP-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Ogrizek, D.

    1987-01-01

    Due to extensive and multiple use of the computer code SAP-IV we have decided to install it on VAX 11/750 machine. Installation required a large quantity of programming due to great discrepancies between the CDC (the original program version) and the VAX. Testing was performed basically in the field of pipe elements, based on a comparison between results obtained with the codes PSAFE2, DOCIJEV, PIPESD and SAP -V. Besides, the model of reactor pressure vessel with 3-D thick shell elements was done. The capabilities show good agreement with the results of other programs mentioned above. Along with the package installation, the graphical postprocessors being developed for mesh plotting. (author)

  8. The effect of different trap height on the diversity of sap beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nor Atikah Abdul; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    This paper aim to measure the diversity and abundance of sap beetles in oil palm plantation in Malaysia on different heights, 1.5m and 2.5m above ground. A total 0f 20 baited traps were set up in Felda Lui Muda, Negeri Sembilan and located along three transects. The sap beetles collected weekly for a month and identified until species level and the diversity indexes were measured using Evenness Index (E), Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), Simpson's Index (D') and Margalef's Index (R'). All the diversity indexes indicated that the diversity on the lower height above the ground is higher than the upper height The result also shows that there are significant difference (p<0.05) when tested with t-test between the numbers of individuals on the different trap height although the number of species shows different results.

  9. Pembelajaran Mandiri Aplikasi Enterprise Resource System: Studi Kasus pada Aplikasi SAP – Modul Sales and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Johan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ERP (enterprise resource planning is a solution needed by companies to assist the integration of all functional areas. A self-learning media of ERP system is needed for the successful use which is highly depended on the users mastery. The learning media must be flexible to time and place. Therefore, this research creates a self-learning application for ERP system based on a case study on SAP application. SAP is an ERP-based solution widely used by medium to large companies. The method used are data collection, analysis on running business processes and the identification of information needs, followed by the application design. Identificationof system requirements uses Flash CS5 Action Script 3.0. The result achieved in this research is a multimediabased learning tool which assists training for trainers and trainee and facilitates trainee supervision during training. The learning tool is found helpful in self learning process.

  10. Assessing Leading ERP-SAP Implementation in Leading Firms in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, B.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) enables to bring critical capabilities to an organisation, however, the implementation of such capabilities is often surrounded with problems. The implementing ERP-SAP in Indonesian enterprises are still facing tremendous challenges with the failure rate can reach more than 80% of the cases. The article examines the common problems faced by the consultants whenever they deal with their clients, from the practical perspectives. The article takes the multiple case studies of the leading enterprises in Indonesia, such as: KS (largest steel producer), GEM (large mining producer), and HS (large retailer), with the aim to identify the root of problems of SAP implementation. The outcome of the study is expected to provide the consultants with the guideline to understand the ERP implementation process in their clients and effective solutions to cope with it.

  11. On the use of phloem sap δ13C to estimate canopy carbon discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, Katherine; Máguas, Cristina; Werner, Christiane

    2010-05-01

    Although the carbon stable isotope composition (d13C) of bulk leaf material is a good integrative parameter of photosynthetic discrimination and can be used as a reliable ecological index of plant functioning; it is not a good tracer of short-term changes in photosynthetic discrimination. In contrast, d13C of phloem sap is potentially useful as an indicator of short-term changes in canopy photosynthetic discrimination. However, recent research indicates that d13C signatures may be substantially altered by metabolic processes downstream of initial leaf-level carbon fixation (e.g. post-photosynthetic fractionation). Accordingly, before phloem sap d13C can be used as a proxy for canopy level carbon discrimination an understanding of factors influencing the degree and magnitude of post-photosynthetic fractionation and how these vary between species is of paramount importance. In this study, we measured the d13C signature along the basipetal transport pathway in two co-occurring tree species in the field - an understory invasive exotic legume, Acacia longifolia, and a native pine, Pinus pinaster. We measured d13C of bulk leaf and leaf water soluble organic matter (WSOM), phloem sap sampled at two points along the plant axis and leaf and root dark respiration. In general, species differences in photosynthetic discrimination resulted in more enriched d13C values in the water-conserving P. pinaster relative to the water-spending A. longifolia. Post-photosynthetic fractionation led to differences in d13C of carbon pools along the plant axis with progressively more depleted d13C from the canopy to the trunk (~6.5 per mil depletion in A. longifolia and ~0.8per mil depletion in P. pinaster). Leaf and root respiration, d13C, were consistently enriched relative to putative substrates. We hypothesize that the pronounced enrichment of leaf respired CO2 relative to leaf WSOM may have left behind relatively depleted carbon to be loaded into the phloem resulting in d13C depletion

  12. Strategi Perencanaan Pengembangan Sistem Sap pada Human Capital and Legal di Institusi Pendidikan Xyz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Ekawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of processes and operational functions cause arises the need for an integrated information system across all functional areas to reach the highest point of effectiveness and efficiency, and relying on the information in making decisions, ie ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning. The objective of writing this journal is to analyze and determine a SAP system development strategy planning at Human Capital and Legal of Education Institution XYZ. In collecting data, the author collected the datas by making an interview with the sources, data observation, and SAP system exploration. Current architecture datas that were collected and anylized to design the planning strategy in developing system architecture. The conclusion of this journal writing is that planning with some methodologies could maximize the using of IS or IT in an organization and can achieve its goals.

  13. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, SE; Allison, EH; Gill, JA; Reynolds, JD

    2010-01-01

    Commercial trade is a major driver of over-exploitation of wild species, but the pattern of demand and how it responds to changes in supply is poorly understood. Here we explore the markets for snakes from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia to evaluate future exploitation scenarios, identify entry points for conservation and, more generally, to illustrate the value of multi-scale analysis of markets to traded wildlife conservation. In Cambodia, the largest driver of snake exploitation is the domestic...

  15. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  16. Ensuring Data Protection in the SAP Business Information Warehouse: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Maria Stefanache; Ilona-Mariana Nagy

    2010-01-01

    Today’s business environment is highly vulnerable to private data disclosure considering the permanently increasing amounts of data used in the business and decision-making processes. Ever more measures for data protection are applied by companies regardless of their activity area or size, some of them implying great costs and efforts. This article presents a series of protection measures available in the SAP Business Intelligence and operational systems, in form of authentication and authori...

  17. Projekt konverze měny SKK na EUR v ERP SAP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuročkin, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This diploma work is concerned about of euro conversion and its impact on information system ERP SAP in large multinational company. Theoretical part is focused on general scenarios of euro adoption and progress of adoption of euro in Slovakia. Next chapter is describing methods of project management, definitions, subjects and stakeholders, organizational structures and phases of the project. Theoretical parts ends with description of ERP functionality, basic functional modules and general in...

  18. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  19. SAP R/3 plant maintenance making it work for your business

    CERN Document Server

    Stengl, Britta

    2001-01-01

    SAP R/3 Plant Maintenance offers a clear introduction to this small but sophisticated component and provides a highly practical guide to implementing PM. Beginning with a examination of the key business processes underlying PM functionality, the book goes on to cover all the crucial aspects of maintenance planning and execution in R/3. Particular attention is given to integrating plant maintenance with a company's natural process flow.

  20. Vapor Pressure Deficit and Sap Velocity Dynamic Coupling in Canopy Dominant Trees in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Gimenez, B.; Jardine, K.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Cobello, L. O.; Fontes, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Higuchi, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial water fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, especially in tropical forests which recycle large fluxes of water to the atmosphere. This need has become more relevant due to observed records in global temperature. In this study we show a strong temporal correlation between sap velocity and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As VPDs in the upper canopy (20-30 m) varied throughout the day and night, basal sap velocity (1.5 m) responded rapidly without an observable delay (< 15 min). Sap velocity showed a sigmoidal dependence on VPDs including an exponential increase, an inflection point, and a plateau, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential was evident with morning periods showing higher sensitivities to VPD than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf gas exchange observations revealed a morning to midday peak in stomatal conductance, but midday to afternoon peak in transpiration and VPD. Thus, our study confirms that the temporal lag between the Gs peak and VPD peak are the major regulators of the hysteresis phenomenon as previously described by other studies. Moreover, out study provide direct evidence for the role of decreased stomatal conductance in the warm afternoon periods to reduce transpiration and allow for the partial recovery of leaf water potential to less negative values. Our results suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes from ecosystem to regional scales using remote sensing of vegetation temperature from, for example, thermal images of satellites and drones.

  1. Groundwater discharge and phosphorus dynamics in a flood-pulse system: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Supcharoen, Ratsirin; Sioudom, Khamfeuane; Kum, Veasna; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan

    2017-06-01

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia), a classic example of a "flood pulse" system, is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about six fold. The lake is likely phosphorus limited and we hypothesized that groundwater discharge, including recirculated lake water, may represent an important source of P and other nutrients. To address this question, we surveyed hundreds of kilometers of the lake for natural 222Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth. All major inorganic nutrients and phosphorus species were evaluated by systematic sampling throughout the lake. Results showed that there were radon hotspots, all at the boundaries between the permanent lake and the floodplain, indicating likely groundwater inputs. A radon mass balance model indicates that the groundwater flow to Tonle Sap Lake is approximately 10 km3/yr, about 25% as large as the floodwaters entering from the Mekong River during the wet monsoon. Our results suggest that the groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) contribution to Tonle Sap is more than 30% of the average inflows from all natural sources. Since the productivity of the lake appears to be phosphorus limited, this finding suggests that the role of groundwater is significant for Tonle Sap Lake and perhaps for other flood pulse systems worldwide.

  2. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-15

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. [Expression of PARP/NF-κB and intervention effect of 5-AIQ/PDTC in SAP rats with adrenal damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Guo, Wen-Yi; Yu, Jia; Zhao, Kai-liang; Shi, Qiao; Zuo, Teng; Wang, Wei-xing

    2013-10-15

    To explore the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase/nuclear factor-κB (PARP/NF-κB) and intervention effect of 5-aminoisoquinolinone/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (5-AIQ/PDTC) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats with adrenal damage. The primarily cultured adrenocortical cells were quantitatively divided into control group (SO), pancreatitis group (SAP), PDTC drug control group (SO+PDTC), PDTC intervention group (SAP+PDTC), 5-AIQ drug control group (SO+ 5-AIQ) and 5-AIQ intervention group (SAP+5-AIQ). The SAP and 2 intervention groups were stimulated with the sera of SAP rats. Then corresponding drugs were added and culture continued for 12 hours. The corticosterone levels and PARP/NF-κB expression were observed for each group. Adrenal cells in vitro cultured were round or oval, had secretory granules and could be stained by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase antibody. The adherence rate was 60% after 48-hour culturing. The corticosterone level of SAP group was significantly lower than that of SO group [ (216.4 ± 15.7) vs (294.8 ± 16.3) µg/L, P SAP group (P SAP and PDTC intervention groups were higher than SO group while 5-AIQ intervention group was significantly lower than SAP and PDTC intervention groups, but higher than SO and drug control groups. The expression of NF-κB in SAP group was higher than that in SO group. Two intervention groups were lower than SAP group, but higher than SO and drug control groups. The pathway of PARP/NF-κB participates in adrenal damage of SAP rats. To a certain extent, the uses of 5-AIQ and PDTC may alleviate adrenal damage.

  4. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SAP-1 protects against colitis through regulation of CEACAM20 in the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoji; Kotani, Takenori; Supriatna, Yana; Kitamura, Yasuaki; Imada, Shinya; Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishio, Miki; Daniwijaya, Edwin Widyanto; Sadakata, Hisanobu; Kusakari, Shinya; Mori, Munemasa; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Saito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Katsuya; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Okazawa, Hideki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akira; Matozaki, Takashi

    2015-08-04

    Intestinal epithelial cells contribute to regulation of intestinal immunity in mammals, but the detailed molecular mechanisms of such regulation have remained largely unknown. Stomach-cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1, also known as PTPRH) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is localized specifically at microvilli of the brush border in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that SAP-1 ablation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a model of inflammatory bowel disease, resulted in a marked increase in the severity of colitis in association with up-regulation of mRNAs for various cytokines and chemokines in the colon. Tyrosine phosphorylation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 20, an intestinal microvillus-specific transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily, was greatly increased in the intestinal epithelium of the SAP-1-deficient animals, suggesting that this protein is a substrate for SAP-1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM20 by the protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the consequent association of CEACAM20 with spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) promoted the production of IL-8 in cultured cells through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, SAP-1 and CEACAM20 were found to form a complex through interaction of their ectodomains. SAP-1 and CEACAM20 thus constitute a regulatory system through which the intestinal epithelium contributes to intestinal immunity.

  5. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  7. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (Psap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  9. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  10. E-SAP: efficient-strong authentication protocol for healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN) can sense humans' physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals' hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients' medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1) a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard) professional authentication; (2) mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4) establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5) professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost). Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  11. Transport and use of CO2 in the xylem sap of Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, J.W.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Results of recent experiments indicate an internal cycling of respiratory CO 2 in woody plants. The CO 2 concentration of xylem sap expressed from the twigs of field grown Populus deltoides ranged from .14 to .50 mM. The pH of the xylem sap was 5.7 to 6.7, providing a significant bicarbonate concentration in many samples. Total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC = CO 2 + H 2 CO 3 + HCO 3 - ) was 0.5 mM to 1.3 mM. Results from the analysis of xylem sap of 10 other species of woody plants were similar. To determine the fate of DIC delivered to the leaves of Populus deltoides, excised leaves were fed 1mM NaHCO 3 (2 μCi NaH 14 CO 3 ml -1 ). Less than 0.4% of the label escaped from the leaves, and ≥93% was fixed. Of the carbon fixed 56% of the 14 C was found in the petiole and midrib, and 14% was in the major veins, with the remaining 30% in the minor veins and lamina. Shading of the peptiole and midrib of leaves decreased the amount of fixed carbon in these tissues to 38% and increased the amount in the lamina to 55%

  12. An experimental study on Sodalite and SAP matrices for immobilization of spent chloride salt waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbo, Francesca; Da Ros, Mirko; Macerata, Elena; Mariani, Mario; Giola, Marco; De Angelis, Giorgio; Capone, Mauro; Fedeli, Carlo

    2018-02-01

    In the frame of Generation IV reactors a renewed interest in pyro-processing of spent nuclear fuel is underway. Molten chloride salt waste arising from the recovering of uranium and plutonium through pyro-processing is one of the problematic wastes for direct application of vitrification or ceramization. In this work, Sodalite and SAP have been evaluated and compared as potential matrices for confinement of spent chloride salt waste coming from pyro-processing. To this aim Sodalite and SAP were synthesized both in pure form and mixed with different glass matrices, i.e. commercially available glass frit and borosilicate glass. The confining matrices were loaded with mixed chloride salts to study their retention capacities with respect to the elements of interest. The matrices were characterized and leached for contact times up to 150 days at room temperature and at 90 °C. SEM analyses were also performed in order to compare the matrix surface before and after leaching. Leaching results are discussed and compared in terms of normalized releases with similar results reported in literature. According to this comparative study the SAP matrix with glass frit binder resulted in the best matrix among the ones studied, with respect to retention capacities for both matrix and spent fuel elements.

  13. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  15. SAID/SAPS Revisited: A Causal Relation to the Substorm Current Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    We present multi-spacecraft observations of enhanced flow/electric field channels in the inner magnetosphere and conjugate subauroral ionosphere, i.e., subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) near dusk and subauroral ion drifts (SAID) near midnight. The channels collocate with ring current (RC) injections lagging the onset of substorms by a few to ˜20 minutes, i.e., significantly shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of tens of keV ions. The time lag is of the order of the propagation time of reconnection-injected hot plasma jets to the premidnight plasmasphere and the substorm current wedge (SCW) to dusk. The observations confirm and expand on the previous results on the SAID features that negate the paradigm of voltage and current generators. Fast-time duskside SAPS/RC injections appear intimately related to a two-loop circuit of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L). We suggest that the poleward electric field inherent in the SCW2L circuit, which demands closure of the Region 1- and Region 2-sense field-aligned currents via meridional currents, is the ultimate cause of fast RC injections and SAPS on the duskside.

  16. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  17. Clinical characteristics and SAP scintigraphic findings in 10 patients with AGel amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowczenio, Dorota; Tennent, Glenys A; Gilbertson, Janet; Lachmann, Helen J; Hutt, David F; Bybee, Alison; Hawkins, Philip N; Gillmore, Julian D

    2014-12-01

    The clinical features of hereditary gelsolin (AGel) amyloidosis include corneal lattice dystrophy, distal sensorimotor, cranial neuropathy and cutis laxa. To date, four mutations of the gelsolin (GSN) gene encoding the following variants have been identified as the cause of this malady; p.D214N, p.D214Y, p.G194R and p.N211K (this nomenclature includes the 27-residue signal peptide). Interestingly, the latter two variants are associated exclusively with a renal amyloidosis phenotype. Here we report the clinical features in 10 patients with AGel amyloidosis associated with the p.D214N mutation, all of whom underwent whole body (123)I-SAP scintigraphy and were followed up in a single UK Centre for a prolonged period. Two patients, from the same kindred presented with proteinuria; eight subjects had a characteristic AGel amyloidosis phenotype including cranial neuropathy and/or corneal lattice dystrophy. (123)I-SAP scintigraphy revealed substantial renal amyloid deposits in all 10 patients, including those with preserved renal function, and usually without tracer uptake into other visceral organs. (123)I-SAP scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique that aids early diagnosis of patients with this rare disease, especially those who lack a family history and/or present with an unusual clinical phenotype.

  18. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  20. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  1. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  2. S.M.P. SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CICIARELLI, V; LEONARD, JOSEPH

    A SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BEGINNING WITH THE BASIC FUNDAMENTALS ON THE FOURTH GRADE LEVEL IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN UNDERSTANDING OF OUR NUMBER SYSTEM, AND THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF WORKING WITH WHOLE NUMBERS--ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, AND DIVISION. COMMON FRACTIONS ARE TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH, SIXTH, AND SEVENTH GRADES. A…

  3. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  4. Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-02-01

    Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.

  5. Sequential models for coarsening and missingness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.; Robins, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a companion paper we described what intuitively would seem to be the most general possible way to generate Coarsening at Random mechanisms a sequential procedure called randomized monotone coarsening Counterexamples showed that CAR mechanisms exist which cannot be represented in this way Here we

  6. Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role

  7. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity

  8. A framework for sequential multiblock component methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jong, S.de

    2003-01-01

    Multiblock or multiset methods are starting to be used in chemistry and biology to study complex data sets. In chemometrics, sequential multiblock methods are popular; that is, methods that calculate one component at a time and use deflation for finding the next component. In this paper a framework

  9. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  10. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects

  11. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video

  12. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    maintains the flexibility of deciding sooner than the fixed sample size procedure at the price of some lower power [13, 514]. The sequential probability... markets , detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the... skimming cruise missile can yield a significant increase in the probability of raid annihilation. Furthermore, usually detection systems are

  13. STABILIZED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the motivation for, the current state-of-the-art in convergence results, and some open questions concerning the stabilized version of the sequential quadratic programming algorithm for constrained optimization. We also discuss the tools required for its local convergence analysis, globalization challenges, and extentions of the method to the more general variational problems.

  14. Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique

  15. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  16. How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kraft

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.

  17. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  18. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  19. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    As Verticillium stem striping of oilseed rape (OSR), a vascular disease caused by Verticillium longisporum, is extending into new geographic regions and no control with fungicides exists, the demand for understanding mechanisms of quantitative resistance increases. Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role of soluble constituents and nutritional conditions in xylem sap as determinants of cultivar resistance of OSR to V. longisporum. Assessment of biometric and molecular genetic parameters applied to describe V. longisporum resistance (net area under disease progress curve, stunting, stem thickness, plant biomass, and V. longisporum DNA content) showed consistent susceptibility of cultivar 'Falcon' in contrast to two resistant genotypes, 'SEM' and 'Aviso'. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed a consistently stronger in vitro growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap extracted from OSR compared with the water control. Further comparisons of fungal growth in xylem sap of different cultivars revealed the absence of constitutive or V. longisporum induced antifungal activity in the xylem sap of resistant versus susceptible genotypes. The similar growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap, irrespective of cultivar, infection with V. longisporum and xylem sap filtration, was correlated with about equal amounts of total soluble proteins in xylem sap from these treatments. Interestingly, compared with younger plants, xylem sap from older plants induced significantly stronger fungal growth. Growth enhancement of V. longisporum in xylem sap of aging plants was reflected by increased contents of carbohydrates, which was consistent in mock or V. longisporum-infected plants and independent from cultivar resistance. The improved nutritional conditions in the xylem of more mature plants may explain the late appearance of disease symptoms, which are observed only in

  20. Experimental Assessment of the Use of a Novel Superabsorbent polymer (SAP for the Optimization ofWater Consumption in Agricultural Irrigation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannazza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an innovative cellulose-based superabsorbent polymer (SAP was experimentally assessed as an environmentally friendly alternative to acrylate-based SAPs, for the optimization of water consumption in agriculture. The cellulose-based SAP was synthesized and tested for its swelling capability in different aqueous media. The effectiveness of the SAP in agricultural applications was then evaluated by analyzing its performance after several absorption/desorption cycles, over a period of approximately 80 days, upon addition to different types of soil, i.e., white and red soil, for the cultivation of two varieties of plants typical of the Mediterranean area (tomatoes and chicory. The results confirmed that SAP-amended soil can store a considerable amount of water and can release it gradually to the plant roots when needed. The adoption of the proposed SAP in cultivations could thus represent a promising solution for the rationalization of water resources, especially in desert areas.

  1. Sequential Sampling Plan of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Mota, T A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2017-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important pests of cotton production worldwide. The objective of this work was to develop a sequential sampling plan for the boll weevil. The studies were conducted in Maracaju, MS, Brazil, in two seasons with cotton cultivar FM 993. A 10,000-m2 area of cotton was subdivided into 100 of 10- by 10-m plots, and five plants per plot were evaluated weekly, recording the number of squares with feeding + oviposition punctures of A. grandis in each plant. A sequential sampling plan by the maximum likelihood ratio test was developed, using a 10% threshold level of squares attacked. A 5% security level was adopted for the elaboration of the sequential sampling plan. The type I and type II error used was 0.05, recommended for studies with insects. The adjustment of the frequency distributions used were divided into two phases, so that the model that best fit to the data was the negative binomial distribution up to 85 DAE (Phase I), and from there the best fit was Poisson distribution (Phase II). The equations that define the decision-making for Phase I are S0 = -5.1743 + 0.5730N and S1 = 5.1743 + 0.5730N, and for the Phase II are S0 = -4.2479 + 0.5771N and S1 = 4.2479 + 0.5771N. The sequential sampling plan developed indicated the maximum number of sample units expected for decision-making is ∼39 and 31 samples for Phases I and II, respectively. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Measurement of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) dust by ethanol derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul; Lemmo, John S; Macomber, Margaret; Holcomb, Mark L; Lieckfield, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) is an important industrial chemical manufactured primarily as sodium polyacrylate but occasionally as potassium salt. It has many applications owing to its intrinsic physical property of very high water absorption, which can be more than 100 times it own weight. SAP is commonly used in disposable diapers and feminine hygiene products and is known by a number of synonyms-sodium polyacrylate, superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP), polyacrylate absorbent (PA), and superabsorbent material (SAM). Germany and The Netherlands have adopted a nonbinding scientific guideline value 0.05 mg/m³ (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA) as the maximum allowable workplace concentration for the respirable dust of SAP (acrylate was developed and validated for the analysis of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate dust collected on filter cassettes in the workplace environment. This method is an alternative to the commonly used sodium-based method, which is limited owing to potential interference by other sources of sodium from the workplace and laboratory environments. The alcohol derivatization method effectively eliminates sodium interference from several classes of sodium compounds, as shown by their purposeful introduction at two and six times the equivalent amount of SAP present in reference samples. The accuracy of the method, as determined by comparison with sodium analysis of known reference samples, was greater than 80% over the study range of 5-50 μg of SAP dust. The lower reporting limit of the method is 3.0 μg of SAP per sample, which is equivalent to 3 (μg/m³) for an 8-hr sampling period at the recommended flow rate of 2.2 L/min.

  3. The Adaptor Protein SAP Directly Associates with CD3ζ Chain and Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Mutations altering the gene encoding the SLAM associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or XLP1. Its absence is correlated with a defective NKT cells development, a decrease in B cell functions and a reduced T cells and NK cells cytotoxic activities, thus leading to an immunodeficiency syndrome. SAP is a small 128 amino-acid long protein that is almost exclusively composed of an SH2 domain. It has been shown to interact with the CD150/SLAM family of receptors, and in a non-canonical manner with SH3 containing proteins such as Fyn, βPIX, PKCθ and Nck1. It would thus play the role of a minimal adaptor protein. It has been shown that SAP plays an important function in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the SLAM family of receptors. Therefore SAP defective T cells display a reduced activation of signaling events downstream of the TCR-CD3 complex triggering. In the present work, we evidence that SAP is a direct interactor of the CD3ζ chain. This direct interaction occurs through the first ITAM of CD3ζ, proximal to the membrane. Additionally, we show that, in the context of the TCR-CD3 signaling, an Sh-RNA mediated silencing of SAP is responsible for a decrease of several canonical T cell signaling pathways including Erk, Akt and PLCγ1 and to a reduced induction of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA. Altogether, we show that SAP plays a central function in the T cell activation processes through a direct association with the CD3 complex. PMID:22912825

  4. Expression of the Aeluropus littoralis AlSAP Gene Enhances Rice Yield under Field Drought at the Reproductive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaura Ghneim-Herrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the yields of Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’ rice lines expressing a gene encoding an A20/AN1 domain stress-associated protein, AlSAP, from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis under the control of different promoters. Three independent field trials were conducted, with drought imposed at the reproductive stage. In all trials, the two transgenic lines, RN5 and RN6, consistently out-performed non-transgenic (NT and wild-type (WT controls, providing 50–90% increases in grain yield (GY. Enhancement of tillering and panicle fertility contributed to this improved GY under drought. In contrast with physiological records collected during previous greenhouse dry-down experiments, where drought was imposed at the early tillering stage, we did not observe significant differences in photosynthetic parameters, leaf water potential, or accumulation of antioxidants in flag leaves of AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at flowering. However, AlSAP expression alleviated leaf rolling and leaf drying induced by drought, resulting in increased accumulation of green biomass. Therefore, the observed enhanced performance of the AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at the reproductive stage can be tentatively ascribed to a primed status of the transgenic plants, resulting from a higher accumulation of biomass during vegetative growth, allowing reserve remobilization and maintenance of productive tillering and grain filling. Under irrigated conditions, the overall performance of AlSAP-lines was comparable with, or even significantly better than, the NT and WT controls. Thus, AlSAP expression inflicted no penalty on rice yields under optimal growth conditions. Our results support the use of AlSAP transgenics to reduce rice GY losses under drought conditions.

  5. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems. Keywords: Food science, Food safety, Materials chemistry

  6. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 1. Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubczynski, Maciek W; Chavarro-Rincon, Diana; Roy, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Natural temperature gradient (NTG) can be a significant problem in thermal sap flow measurements, particularly in dry environments with sparse vegetation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel correction method called cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) in its thermal dissipation probe (TDP) application. The CHD method is based on cyclic, switching ON/OFF power schema measurements and a three-exponential model, extrapolating measured signal to steady state thermal equilibrium. The extrapolated signal OFF represents NTG, whereas the extrapolated signal ON represents standard TDP signal, biased by NTG. Therefore, subtraction of the OFF signal from the ON signal allows defining the unbiased TDP signal, finally processed according to standard Granier calibration. The in vivo Kalahari measurements were carried out in three steps on four different tree species, first as NTG, then as standard TDP and finally in CHD mode, each step for ∼1-2 days. Afterwards, each tree was separated from its stem following modified Roberts' (1977) procedure, and CHD verification was applied. The typical NTG varying from ∼0.5 °C during night-time to -1 °C during day-time, after CHD correction, resulted in significant reduction of sap flux densities (J(p)) as compared with the standard TDP, particularly distinct for low J(p). The verification of the CHD method indicated ∼20% agreement with the reference method, largely dependent on the sapwood area estimate. The proposed CHD method offers the following advantages: (i) in contrast to any other NTG correction method, it removes NTG bias from the measured signal by using in situ, extrapolated to thermal equilibrium signal; (ii) it does not need any specific calibration making use of the standard Granier calibration; (iii) it provides a physical background to the proposed NTG correction; (iv) it allows for power savings; (v) it is not tied to TDP, and so can be adapted to other thermal methods. In its current state, the CHD data

  7. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  8. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of stress-associated protein (SAP gene family encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress associated proteins (SAPs play important roles in developmental processes, responses to various stresses and hormone stimulation in plants. However, little is known about the SAP gene family in Medicago truncatula. In this study, a total of 17 MtSAP genes encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins were characterized. Out of these 17 genes, 15 were distributed over all 8 chromosomes at different densities, and two segmental duplication events were detected. The phylogenetic analysis of these proteins and their orthologs from Arabidopsis and rice suggested that they could be classified into five out of the seven groups of SAP family genes, with genes in the same group showing similar structures and conserved domains. The cis-elements of the MtSAP promoters were studied, and many cis-elements related to stress and plant hormone responses were identified. We also investigated the stress-responsive expression patterns of the MtSAP genes under various stresses, including drought, exposure to NaCl and cold. The qRT-PCR results showed that numerous MtSAP genes exhibited transcriptional responses to multiple abiotic stresses. These results lay the foundation for further functional characterization of SAP genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the SAP gene family in M. truncatula.

  10. Borassus flabellifer L. Brown Crystal Sugar Processing (The Study of Sap pH and Fine Crystal Sucrose (FCS Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Alvian Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nira as one of the Borassus flabellirer L. products has a similar characteristics with other agricultural commodities that are easily damaged. This research aims to know the influence of nira’s pH and concentration addition of FCS against characteristics of the brown crystal sugar. Research compiled by using Randomized Block Design (RBD which comprises two factors consisting of 3 levels with 3 times replication. The first factor is pH or degree of nira acidity which consists of 3 level (6.50 (± 0.10; 7.00 (± 0.10; 7.50 (± 0.10 and the second factor is addition of FCS concentration consisting of 3 level (5%; 10%; 15% (b/v. The analyzes used include analysis of organoleptic (color, aroma, taste as well as physical and chemical analyzes (sucrose content, moisture content, ash content, reducing sugar content, insoluble solid content. The analysis results of raw material showed that the pH of palm sap affect the amount of total sugar because the fermentation process. The addition of 10% FCS provides organoleptic results with the best reception at the brown crystal sugar. Physical and chemical test results of products with the best treatment showed that the levels of sucrose in brown crystal sugar was 81.483% in accordance with the minimum requirements specified Indonesian Industrial Standard (IIS, water content of 6.32% dry basis , ash content of 1.78%, reducing sugar amounted to 5.18%, and insoluble solid content of 0.089%.

  11. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  12. Documentscape: Intertextuality, Sequentiality & Autonomy at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Bjørn, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic field study, this article introduces the concept of documentscape to the analysis of document-centric work practices. The concept of documentscape refers to the entire ensemble of documents in their mutual intertextual interlocking. Providing empirical data from...... a global software development case, we show how hierarchical structures and sequentiality across the interlocked documents are critical to how actors make sense of the work of others and what to do next in a geographically distributed setting. Furthermore, we found that while each document is created...... as part of a quasi-sequential order, this characteristic does not make the document, as a single entity, into a stable object. Instead, we found that the documents were malleable and dynamic while suspended in intertextual structures. Our concept of documentscape points to how the hierarchical structure...

  13. A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory

  14. Applying the minimax principle to sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (minimum

  15. Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…

  16. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016

  17. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  18. Comparing two Poisson populations sequentially: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halteman, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado monitors each of its employees for radiation exposure. Excess exposure is detected by comparing the means of two Poisson populations. A sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is proposed as a replacement for the fixed sample normal approximation test. A uniformly most efficient SPRT exists, however logistics suggest using a truncated SPRT. The truncated SPRT is evaluated in detail and shown to possess large potential savings in average time spent by employees in the monitoring process

  19. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sequential Monte Carlo with Highly Informative Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Pierre; Murray, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling the posterior distribution of state-space models under highly informative observation regimes, a situation in which standard SMC methods can perform poorly. A special case is simulating bridges between given initial and final values. The basic idea is to introduce a schedule of intermediate weighting and resampling times between observation times, which guide particles towards the final state. This can always be done for continuous-...

  1. Sequential test procedures for inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Kern, E.A.; Emeigh, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    By means of a simulation study, we investigated the appropriateness of Page's and power-one sequential tests on sequences of inventory differences obtained from an example materials control unit, a sub-area of a hypothetical UF 6 -to-U 3 O 8 conversion process. The study examined detection probability and run length curves obtained from different loss scenarios. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Sequential neural models with stochastic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccaro, Marco; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Paquet, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    How can we efficiently propagate uncertainty in a latent state representation with recurrent neural networks? This paper introduces stochastic recurrent neural networks which glue a deterministic recurrent neural network and a state space model together to form a stochastic and sequential neural...... generative model. The clear separation of deterministic and stochastic layers allows a structured variational inference network to track the factorization of the model's posterior distribution. By retaining both the nonlinear recursive structure of a recurrent neural network and averaging over...

  3. [Responses of sap flow to natural rainfall and continuous drought of tree species growing on bedrock outcrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Ding, Ya Li; Chen, Hong Song; Wang, Ke Lin; Nie, Yun Peng

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on bedrock outcrops, a very common habitat in karst region of southwest China. To reveal the responses of plant transpiration to natural rainfall and continuous drought, two tree species typical to this habitat, Radermachera sinica and Triadica rotundifolia, were selected as test materials. A rainout shelter was used to simulate continuous drought. The sap flow dynamics were monitored using the method of Granier's thermal dissipation probe (TDP). Our results showed that sap flow density increased to different degrees after rain in different stages of the growing season. Sap flow density of the deciduous species T. rotundifolia was always higher than that of the semi-deciduous species R. sinica. After two months without rainfall input, both species exhibited no obvious decrease in sap flow density, indicating that rainfall was not the dominant source for their water uptake, at least in the short-term. Based on the regression relationships between sap flow density and meteorological factors before and after rainfall, as well as at different stages of continuous drought, we found that the dynamics of meteorological factors contributed little to plant transpiration. The basic transpiration characteristics of both species were not changed in the circumstance of natural rainfall and short-term continuous drought, which would be closely related to the special water storage environments of bedrock outcrops and the reliance on deep water sources by tree species.

  4. FOXP3 renders activated human regulatory T cells resistant to restimulation-induced cell death by suppressing SAP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gil; Voss, Kelsey; Yan, Toria F; Kim, Yong Chan; Kortum, Robert L; Scott, David W; Snow, Andrew L

    2018-05-01

    Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD. Here we demonstrate that normal Tregs express very low levels of SAP compared to conventional T cells. FOXP3 reduces SAP expression by directly binding to and repressing the SH2D1A (SAP) promoter. Indeed, ectopic SAP expression restores RICD sensitivity in human FOXP3 + Tregs. Our findings illuminate the mechanism behind FOXP3-mediated RICD resistance in Tregs, providing new insight into their long-term persistence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  6. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala') vascular tissue and phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gould, Nick; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Sutherland, Paul; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2010-08-04

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'). We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  7. Converting positive and negative symptom scores between PANSS and SAPS/SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Faziola, Lawrence; Turner, Jessica; Bustillo, Juan; Belger, Aysenil; Lim, Kelvin O; McEwen, Sarah; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Ford, Judith; Potkin, Steven G; Fbirn

    2014-01-01

    The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) are the most widely used schizophrenia symptom rating scales, but despite their co-existence for 25 years no easily usable between-scale conversion mechanism exists. The aim of this study was to provide equations for between-scale symptom rating conversions. Two-hundred-and-five schizophrenia patients [mean age±SD=39.5±11.6, 156 males] were assessed with the SANS, SAPS, and PANSS. Pearson's correlations between symptom scores from each of the scales were computed. Linear regression analyses, on data from 176 randomly selected patients, were performed to derive equations for converting ratings between the scales. Intraclass correlations, on data from the remaining 29 patients, not part of the regression analyses, were performed to determine rating conversion accuracy. Between-scale positive and negative symptom ratings were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations between the original positive and negative symptom ratings and those obtained via conversion of alternative ratings using the conversion equations were moderate to high (ICCs=0.65 to 0.91). Regression-based equations may be useful for conversion between schizophrenia symptom severity as measured by the SANS/SAPS and PANSS, though additional validation is warranted. This study's conversion equations, implemented at http:/converteasy.org, may aid in the comparison of medication efficacy studies, in meta- and mega-analyses examining symptoms as moderator variables, and in retrospective combination of symptom data in multi-center data sharing projects that need to pool symptom rating data when such data are obtained using different scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of different tree sap flow up-scaling procedures using Monte-Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Fyodor; Preisler, Yakir; Roahtyn, Shani; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    An important task in determining forest ecosystem water balance is the estimation of stand transpiration, allowing separating evapotranspiration into transpiration and soil evaporation. This can be based on up-scaling measurements of sap flow in representative trees (SF), which can be done by different mathematical algorithms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the error associated with different up-scaling algorithms under different conditions. Other types of errors (such as, measurement error, within tree SF variability, choice of sample plot etc.) were not considered here. A set of simulation experiments using Monte-Carlo technique was carried out and three up-scaling procedures were tested. (1) Multiplying mean stand sap flux density based on unit sapwood cross-section area (SFD) by total sapwood area (Klein et al, 2014); (2) deriving of linear dependence of tree sap flow on tree DBH and calculating SFstand using predicted SF by DBH classes and stand DBH distribution (Cermak et al., 2004); (3) same as method 2 but using non-linear dependency. Simulations were performed under different SFD(DBH) slope (bs, positive, negative, zero); different DBH and SFD standard deviations (Δd and Δs, respectively) and DBH class size. It was assumed that all trees in a unit area are measured and the total SF of all trees in the experimental plot was taken as the reference SFstand value. Under negative bs all models tend to overestimate SFstand and the error increases exponentially with decreasing bs. Under bs >0 all models tend to underestimate SFstand, but the error is much smaller than for bs

  9. Ensuring Data Protection in the SAP Business Information Warehouse: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria Stefanache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business environment is highly vulnerable to private data disclosure considering the permanently increasing amounts of data used in the business and decision-making processes. Ever more measures for data protection are applied by companies regardless of their activity area or size, some of them implying great costs and efforts. This article presents a series of protection measures available in the SAP Business Intelligence and operational systems, in form of authentication and authorizations procedures implemented for an application designed for the efficient management of employees’ data and time scheduling.

  10. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  11. Root Hydraulics and Root Sap Flow in a Panamanian Low-Land Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretfeld, M.; Ewers, B. E.; Hall, J. S.; Ogden, F. L.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, trees are subjected to increasingly frequent and severe droughts driven by climate change. Given the hydrological benefits associated with tropical forests, such as reduced peak runoff during high precipitation events and increased base flow during drought periods ("sponge-effect"), the underlying plant-hydrological processes at the soil-plant interface have become the focus of recent research efforts. In Panama, the 2015/16 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event ranks amongst the driest and hottest periods on record, thus providing an excellent opportunity to study the effects of drought on tropical forests. Starting in 2015, we instrumented 76 trees with heat-ratio sap flow sensors in regrowing secondary forest (8-, 25-, and 80-year old stands) in the 15 km2 Agua Salud study area, located in central Panama. Of those trees, 16 individuals were instrumented with additional sap flow sensors on three roots each. Data were logged every 30 minutes and soil moisture was measured at 10, 30, 50, and 100 cm depth. Meteorological data were taken from a nearby met-station. Rooting depth and root density were assessed in eight 2×2×2 m soil pits. In April 2017, we measured hydraulic conductance and vulnerability to cavitation of eight species using the centrifuge technique. Trees in 8-year old forest limited transpiration during the drought whereas no such limitation was evident in trees of the 80-year old forest. Root sap flow data show seasonal shifts in water uptake between individual roots of a given tree, with sap flow decreasing in some roots while simultaneously increasing in other roots during the wet-dry season transition. Roots followed a typical log distribution along the profile, with overall root densities of 46, 43, and 52 roots m-2 in the 8-, 25-, and 80-yo stand, respectively. Roots were found up to 200 cm depth in all forests, with roots >5 cm occurring at lower depths (>125 cm) only in 25- and 80-year old forests. Maximum hydraulic

  12. Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Kerry E; Linklater, Wayne L

    2013-08-16

    The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

  13. Determination of uranium and plutonium by sequential potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The determination of uranium and plutonium in mixed oxide fuels has been developed by sequential potentiometric titration. A weighed sample of uranium and plutonium oxides is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the solution is fumed with sulfuric acid. After the reduction of uranium and plutonium to uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) by chromium(II) sulfate, 5 ml of buffer solution (KCl-HCl, pH 1.0) is added to the solution. Then the solution is diluted to 30 ml with water and the pH of the solution is adjusted to 1.0 -- 1.5 with 1 M sodium hydroxide. The solution is stirred until the oxidation of the excess of chromium(II) by air is completed. After the removal of dissolved oxygen by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 minutes, uranium (IV) is titrated with 0.1 N cerium(IV) sulfate. Then, plutonium is titrated by 0.02 N cerium(IV) sulfate. When a mixture of uranium and plutonium is titrated with 0.1 N potassium dichromate potentiometrically, the potential change at the end point of plutonium is very small and the end point of uranium is also unclear when 0.1 N potassium permanganate is used as a titrant. In the present method, nitrate, fluoride and copper(II) interfere with the determination of plutonium and uranium. Iron interferes quantitatively with the determination of plutonium but not of uranium. Results obtained in applying the proposed method to 50 mg of mixtures of plutonium and uranium ((7.5 -- 50))% Pu were accurate to within 0.15 mg of each element. (auth.)

  14. Taloushallinto SAP ERP 6.0 - järjestelmässä : Tehtäväpaketin laatiminen

    OpenAIRE

    Holappa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli oppimateriaalin luominen taloushallinnon opiskelijoille SAP ERP 6.0 - järjestelmään. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Oulun ammattikorkeakoulun liiketalouden yksikkö, joka käyttää opetuksessaan SAP ERP - järjestelmää. SAP AG:n omien harjoitusten lisäksi oli tarve saada lisää tehtäviä kurssilla käytettäväksi. Kehittämistehtävä rajattiin käsittämään ostoprosessi (MM), myyntiprosessi (SD) sekä pääkirja. Opinnäytetyöstä rajattiin pois muut taloushallinnon prosessit. ...

  15. Radial variation in sap velocity as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness in yellow-poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; King, Anthony W.

    2000-04-01

    Canopy transpiration and forest water use are frequently estimated as the product of sap velocity and cross-sectional sapwood area. Few studies, however, have considered whether radial variation in sap velocity and the proportion of sapwood active in water transport are significant sources of uncertainty in the extrapolation process. Therefore, radial profiles of sap velocity were examined as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness for yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees growing on two adjacent watersheds in eastern Tennessee. The compensation heat pulse velocity technique was used to quantify sap velocity at four equal-area depths in 20 trees that ranged in stem diameter from 15 to 69 cm, and in sapwood thickness from 2.1 to 14.8 cm. Sap velocity was highly dependent on the depth of probe insertion into the sapwood. Rates of sap velocity were greatest for probes located in the two outer sapwood annuli (P1 and P2) and lowest for probes in closest proximity to the heartwood (P3 and P4). Relative sap velocities averaged 0.98 at P1, 0.66 at P2, 0.41 at P3 and 0.35 at P4. Tree-specific sap velocities measured at each of the four probe positions, divided by the maximum sap velocity measured (usually at P1 or P2), indicated that the fraction of sapwood functional in water transport (f(S)) varied between 0.49 and 0.96. There was no relationship between f(S) and sapwood thickness, or between f(S) and stem diameter. The fraction of functional sapwood averaged 0.66 +/- 0.13 for trees on which radial profiles were determined. No significant depth-related differences were observed for sapwood density, which averaged 469 kg m(-3) across all four probe positions. There was, however, a significant decline in sapwood water content between the two outer probe positions (1.04 versus 0.89 kg kg(-1)). This difference was not sufficient to account for the observed radial variation in sap velocity. A Monte-Carlo analysis indicated that the standard error in

  16. Determination of trace metal ions via on-line separation and preconcentration by means of chelating Sepharose beads in a sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The analytical performance of an on-line sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system using chelating Sepharose beads as sorbent material for the determination of ultra trace levels of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and discussed...

  17. Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-01-01

    SAP-1 is a 113 amino acid long single-chain protein which belongs to the type 2 cystatin gene family. In our previous study, we have purified SAP-1 from human seminal plasma and observed its cross-class inhibitory property. At this time, we report the interaction of SAP-1 with diverse proteases and its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the conformation of SAP-1 is changed after its complexation with proteases, and the alterations in protein secondary structure are quantitatively calculated with increase of α-helices and reduction of β-strand content. To get insight into the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases, we make an effort to model the three-dimensional structure of SAP-1 by molecular modeling and verify its stability and viability through molecular dynamics simulations and finally complexed with different proteases using ClusPro 2.0 Server. A high degree of shape complementarity is examined within the complexes, stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) and hydrophobic interactions. Using HB analyses in different protein complexes, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases. These findings will assist to understand the mechanism of inhibition of SAP-1 for different proteases and provide intimation for further research.

  18. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroefl, Christof, E-mail: christof.schroefl@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Mechtcherine, Viktor [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen/AG (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1.

  19. Biotic and Abiotic Drivers of Sap Flux in Mature Green Ash Trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Experiencing Varying Levels of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Douglas J. Lynch; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel A.  Gonzalez-Meler

    2018-01-01

    While the relationship between abiotic drivers of sap flux are well established, the role of biotic disturbances on sap flux remain understudied. The invasion of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) into North America in the 1990s represents a significant threat to ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), which are a...

  20. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroefl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1

  1. A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant-heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. McCulloh; K. Winter; F.C. Meinzer; M. Garcia; J. Aranda; Lachenbruch B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of Granier-style heat dissipation sensors to measure sap flow is common in plant physiology, ecology, and hydrology. There has been concern that any change to the original Granier design invalidates the empirical relationship between sap flux density and the temperature difference between the probes. We compared daily water use estimates from gravimetric...

  2. Optimización de la Gestión de Recursos Humanos (GRH) aplicando las soluciones SAP.

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas Martinez, Montserrat Ana

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of the HR function through technologies such as SAP HCM that facilitates the configuration of shared service centers (centralization) and which favors the digital transformation of their employees. Transformación de la Función de Recursos Humans mediante tecnología SAP HCM que facilita la configuración de centros de servicio compartidos (centralitzación) y que favorece la transformación digital de sus empleados. Transformació de la Funció de Recursos Humans mitjançant tec...

  3. Implementação de sistemas SAP em empresas de serviços públicos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Elisabete Gabriela de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia e Gestão de Sistemas A utilização de sistemas Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) para organizar a informação relevante de uma organização é cada vez mais frequente. Com este documento pretende-se explorar o percurso profissional na implementação de sistemas ERP, mais precisamente na implementação de sistemas SAP para empresas de serviços públicos, ou seja implementação de sistemas SAP IS-U. Apesar do foco principal do presente documento ...

  4. Implantación de SAP en el área financiera de una empresa de adhesivos

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Pérez, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto pretende analizar la conveniencia de la implantación del sistema SAP en el departamento de finanzas de la delegación de México de una multinacional especializada en la fabricación y distribución de adhesivos. Inicialmente se revisan las características principales de los sistemas ERP, el fundamento del sistema SAP ERP y una explicación del entorno, incidiendo en las necesidades del área financiera vinculadas a los procesos de producción de adhesivos. Esta información f...

  5. Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V; Söderman, Guy; Labina, Eugenia S; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. We used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. We used a replicated sampling design and quantitatively collected and identified all sap-feeding insects from four species of forest trees along five latitudinal gradients (750-1300 km in length, ten sites in each gradient) in northern Europe (59 to 70°N and 10 to 60°E) during 2008-2011. Similar decreases in diversity of sap-feeding insects with latitude were observed in all gradients during all study years. The sap-feeder load (i.e. insect biomass per unit of foliar biomass) decreased with latitude in typical summers, but increased in an exceptionally hot summer and was independent of latitude during a warm summer. Analysis of combined data from all sites and years revealed dome-shaped relationships between the loads of sap-feeders and midsummer temperatures, peaking at 17 °C in Picea abies, at 19.5 °C in Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens and at 22 °C in B. pendula. From these relationships, we predict that the losses of forest trees to sap-feeders will increase by 0-45% of the current level in southern boreal forests and by 65-210% in subarctic forests with a 1 °C increase in summer temperatures. The observed relationships between temperatures and the loads of sap-feeders differ between the coniferous and deciduous tree species. We conclude that climate warming will not only increase plant losses to sap-feeding insects, especially in subarctic forests, but can also alter plant-plant interactions, thereby affecting both the productivity and the structure of future forest ecosystems. © 2014

  6. Influence of sap's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on energetic and purine exchange of irradiated organism under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisov, T.K.; Agafonova, I.P.; Zhetpisbaev, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of immuno correctors under development of common adaptive syndrome is saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock. Research of influence of saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on enzymes activity of energetic and purine exchange under stress was carried out. There were 2 series of experiments with 120 white rats. Results showed that the irradiated animals on the background phyto therapy had high enzymes activity under stress during all of the investigation periods. The preparations from plantain and burdock biomass increase unspecific resistivity of organism and helps of energetic exchange's rise irradiated organs's sells of animals under stress

  7. Sourcing strategies to keep up with competition: the case of SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Antero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic of competition. The case study reveals that (a organizations are adaptive systems and capable of learning to make strategic changes pertaining to sourcing arrangements; (b organizations select the terms on which they want to compete by developing certain capabilities within the firm; (c organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes.

  8. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  9. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-09-30

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].

  10. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.

    2012-12-01

    Femtocells are promising techniques employed in cellular systems to enhance the indoor coverage, especially in areas with high density and high traffic rates. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource utilization protocol, named shared access protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed system model, we obtain, in closed-form, the main signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) characteristics, including the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF). In addition, these expressions are further used to derive several performance metrics in closed-form, such as, the average bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and the average channel capacity for the proposed SAP herein. Furthermore, Monte-carlo simulations as well as numerical results are provided showing a good match that ensures and confirms the correctness of the derived expressions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christopher Oishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS. We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or “baseline”, which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  12. A comprehensive strategy for identifying long-distance mobile peptides in xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Takamasa; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing awareness that secreted pemediate organ-to-organ communication in higher plants. Xylem sap peptidomics is an effective but challenging approach for identifying long-distance mobile peptides. In this study we developed a simple, gel-free purification system that combines o-chlorophenol extraction with HPLC separation. Using this system, we successfully identified seven oligopeptides from soybean xylem sap exudate that had one or more post-transcriptional modifications: glycosylation, sulfation and/or hydroxylation. RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses showed that the peptide-encoding genes are expressed in multiple tissues. We further analyzed the long-distance translocation of four of the seven peptides using gene-encoding peptides with single amino acid substitutions, and identified these four peptides as potential root-to-shoot mobile oligopeptides. Promoter-GUS analysis showed that all four peptide-encoding genes were expressed in the inner tissues of the root endodermis. Moreover, we found that some of these peptide-encoding genes responded to biotic and/or abiotic factors. These results indicate that our purification system provides a comprehensive approach for effectively identifying endogenous small peptides and reinforce the concept that higher plants employ various peptides in root-to-shoot signaling. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Research and Design of Fixed Photovoltaic Support Structure Based on SAP2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the solar photovoltaic power station project, PV support is one of the main structures, and fixed photovoltaic PV support is one of the most commonly used stents. For the the actual demand in a Japanese photovoltaic power, SAP2000 finite element analysis software is used in this paper, based on Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS C 8955-2011, describing the system of fixed photovoltaic support structure design and calculation method and process. The results show that: (1 according to the general requirements of 4 rows and 5 columns fixed photovoltaic support, the typical permanent load of the PV support is 4679.4 N, the wind load being 1.05 kN/m2, the snow load being 0.89 kN/m2 and the seismic load is 5877.51 N; (2 by theoretical calculation of the two ends extended beam model, the beam span under the rail is determined 2200 mm; (3 by the way of using the single factor experiment, through the calculation and analysis of SAP2000, the three best supporting points of the support of the W stent are determined; (4 by comprehensive simulation, the optimal parameters for the rail, beam, support and bolt are 60× 60× 1.0, 60× 60× 1.0, 40× 50× 2.0, and M10 respectively.

  14. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.

  15. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  16. Infections and use of antibiotics in patients admitted for severe acute pancreatitis: data from the EPIC II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J; Rello, Jordi; Anzueto, Antonio; Moreno, Rui; Lipman, Jeffrey; Sakr, Yasser; Pickkers, Peter; Leone, Marc; Ferguson, Andrew; Oud, Lavi; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-01

    Infectious complications are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) but multinational epidemiologic data are lacking. The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of the infectious complications and antimicrobial use in this setting. One-day point prevalence study of infection in critically ill patients (Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU-II study), performed in 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries. Of the 13,796 patients in the study, 159 were admitted with SAP. One-hundred sixteen (73%) had infections: 31% intra-abdominal, 16% extra-abdominal, and 26% both. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent than gram-positive organisms, anaerobes, or fungi. Therapeutically, penicillins and other beta-lactams were used most frequently. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to 24% of the patients with SAP. Infections are frequent in patients admitted with SAP; most are intra-abdominal infections. Microbiology is diverse with gram-negative micro-organisms most frequently isolated. Most patients admitted to the ICU for SAP receive antibiotics at some point.

  17. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf

  18. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.

  20. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.