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Sample records for saprobe mucor ramosissimus

  1. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch Biotransformação de um aduto de diels-alder cage-like e derivados por Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

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    Felicia Megumi Ito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1 and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a capacidade de biotransformação do aduto de Diels-Alder triciclo[6.2.1.0(2-7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-diona (1 e dois derivados sintéticos pelo fungo sapróbio Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Produtos de oxidação, isomerização e redução regiosseletiva e enantiosseletiva foram obtidos.

  2. Spores of Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor plumbeus and Mucor circinelloides and their ability to activate human complement system in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Luiz Fernando Zmetek; Pinto, Lysianne; Almeida, Cátia Amancio; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Da Silva, Maria Helena; Ejzemberg, Regina; Alviano, Celuta Sales

    2010-03-01

    Complement activation by spores of Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor plumbeus and Mucor circinelloides was studied using absorbed human serum in the presence or absence of chelators (EGTA or EDTA). We found that the spore caused full complement activation when incubated with EGTA-Mg2+ or without chelators, indicating that the alternative pathway is mainly responsible for this response. In order to compare activation profiles from each species, ELISAs for C3 and C4 fragments, mannan binding lectin (MBL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG studies were carried out. All proteins were present on the species tested. Immunofluorescence tests demonstrated the presence of C3 fragments on the surface of all samples, which were confluent throughout fungal surfaces. The same profile of C3, C4, MBL, CRP and IgG deposition, observed in all species, suggests a similar activation behavior for these species.

  3. Diversity of saprobic microfungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyde, K.D.; Busaban, B.; Paulus, B.; Crous, P.W.; Lee, S.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Photita, W.; Lumyong, S.

    2007-01-01

    The data needed to derive an accurate estimate of saprobic microfungi are insufficient, incomplete and contradictory. We therefore address issues that will ultimately reveal whether there are 1.5 million global fungal species, which is the generally accepted working estimate. Our data indicates that

  4. Genotypic analysis of Mucor from the platypus in Australia.

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    Connolly, J H; Stodart, B J; Ash, G J

    2010-01-01

    Mucor amphibiorum is the only pathogen known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the free-living platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Tasmania. Infection has also been reported in free-ranging cane toads (Bufo marinus) and green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from mainland Australia but has not been confirmed in platypuses from the mainland. To date, there has been little genotyping specifically conducted on M. amphibiorum. A collection of 21 Mucor isolates representing isolates from the platypus, frogs and toads, and environmental samples were obtained for genotypic analysis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and GenBank comparison confirmed the identity of most of the isolates. Representative isolates from infected platypuses formed a clade containing the reference isolates of M. amphibiorum from the Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures repository. The M. amphibiorum isolates showed a close sequence identity with Mucor indicus and consisted of two haplotypes, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. With the exception of isolate 96-4049, all isolates from platypuses were in one haplotype. Multilocus fingerprinting via the use of intersimple sequence repeats polymerase chain reaction identified 19 genotypes. Two major clusters were evident: 1) M. amphibiorum and Mucor racemosus; and 2) Mucor circinelloides, Mucor ramosissimus, and Mucor fragilis. Seven M. amphibiorum isolates from platypuses were present in two subclusters, with isolate 96-4053 appearing genetically distinct from all other isolates. Isolates classified as M. circinelloides by sequence analysis formed a separate subcluster, distinct from other Mucor spp. The combination of sequencing and multilocus fingerprinting has the potential to provide the tools for rapid identification of M. amphibiorum. Data presented on the diversity of the pathogen and further work in linking genetic diversity to functional diversity will provide

  5. Saprobic analysis to Marina coastal, Semarang city

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    Nuriasih, D. M.; Anggoro, S.; Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    Semarang city is one of coastal city in Indonesia, that antropogenic activities have impact to coastal of Semarang, including Marina beach. Therefore, it is important to study the quality of seawater related with antropogenic activities. The research purpose was to analyze the saprobic level of Marina beach as an indicator of marine pollution. This case study research used survey method. Purposive method was used for sampling the seawater at five stations at the beach. This research can be concluded that TSI (Tropic Saprobic Index) higher than standard that indicated the Marina Beach Seawaters polution at level of β - Mesosaprobic.

  6. Celwandpolymeren bij mucor mucedo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1977-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden enkele aspecten van de structuur, synthese en interacties van celwandpolymeren bij Mucor mucedo beschreven. In het eerste Hoofdstuk worden enkele inleidende beschouwingen gegeven over celwanden en celwandpolymeren. In het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan interacties

  7. Phaeophytins from Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. with inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Analucia Guedes Silveira; Tenorio-Souza, Fabio Henrique; Moura, Marcelo Dantas; Mota, Sabrina Gondim Ribeiro; Silva Lins, Antonio Claudio da; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Frmaceuticas; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares; Santos, Creusioni Figueredo dos, E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    Our study reports the extraction and isolation of a new phaeophytin derivative 15{sup 1}-hydroxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone, designated anamariaine (1) herein, isolated from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. along with the known 15{sup 1}-ethoxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone (2). These compounds were identified by usual spectroscopic methods. Both compounds were subjected to in vitro (inhibitory activity) tests by means of supercoiled DNA relaxation techniques and were shown to display inhibitory activity against human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha} at 50 {mu}M. Interconversion of these two pigments under the mild conditions of the isolation techniques should be highly unlikely but cannot be entirely ruled out. (author)

  8. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

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    Borovi ka, J.; anda, Z.; Jelínek, E.

    2006-05-01

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g-1) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g-1). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g-1 was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g-1) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g-1).

  9. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovika, J; Randa; Jelinek, E

    2006-01-01

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g -1 ) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g -1 ). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g -1 was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g -1 ) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g -1 )

  10. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  11. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  12. Dermatophytes and saprobe fungi isolated from dogs and cats in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Paixão G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of saprobe fungi in dermatomycoses, as well as the determination of the incidence of dermatophytes in dogs and cats were studied. During a period of one year, 74 dogs and 18 cats, with cutaneous lesions suggesting mycoses were included in this study. The mycological analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud agar, chloramphenicol Sabouraud agar and mycosel agar. Of the 92 samples, 21 resulted in positive cultures for dermatophytes. Dermatophyte fungi pure cultures were obtained from 13 samples. A simultaneous growth of dermatophytes plus saprobe fungi was observed in 8 of the samples. Of the remaining 71 samples, no fungal growth was observed in 10 samples, and at minimum the growth of one saprobe fungi in 61. One, two and three genera of saprobe fungi were isolated in 29, 30 and 2 samples, respectively. Microsporum canis was isolated in 6 (28.6 % and 10 samples (47.6 % from cats and dogs, respectively, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2 (9.5 % and 3 samples (14.3 % from cats and dogs, respectively. The following genera of saprobe fungi were also isolated: Alternaria sp (1.9%, Chaetomium sp (1.9%, Rhizopus sp (2.9%, Curvularia sp (3.9%, Candida sp (6.8%, Trichoderma sp (6.8%, Fusarium sp (7.8%, Cladosporium sp (8.7%, Penicillium sp (21.4% and Aspergillus sp (37.9%.

  13. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  14. Fungal Evolution: Mucor and Phycomyces See Double.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajich, Jason E

    2016-08-22

    Newly available genome sequences of two Mucoralean fungi, Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides, provide evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication that contributed to the generation of expanded gene families. These fungi have robust responses to light that can be correlated with the expansion of gene networks involved in light sensing and signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Antagonism in vitro among phytopathogenic and saprobic fungi from horticultural soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, H E; Monaco, C

    1990-01-01

    Two methods were tested in order to determine the existence of in vitro antagonism among saprobic and pathogenic fungi. These microorganisms were the most common isolates from horticultural soils of La Plata (Buenos Aires). Trichoderma harzianum; T. koningii and Penicillium sp. were antagonistic to all the pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium solani; F. oxysporum; Alternaria solani; Colletotrichum sp. and Sclerotium rolfsii Spicaria sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Chaetomiun sp. were antagonistic only to Colletotrichum sp. and Fusarium solani.

  16. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

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    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  17. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  18. Endogenous acceptors for polyuronide biosynthesis in Mucor rouxii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, A.F.; Balcazar, R.

    1984-01-01

    Cell walls of Mucor rouxii contain relatively high amounts of acidic polymers of D-glucuronic acid. Two types of polyuronides have been isolated from cell walls of M. rouxii: mucoric acid and mucoran. Mucoran isolated from yeast cell walls is a heteropolysaccharide containing D-mannose, D-fructose, D-galactose, and D-glucose, besides D-glucuronic acid. On the other hand, mucoric acid, from sporangiophore walls is a homopolymer of D-glucuronic acid. Glucuronosyl transferase, the enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid to acidic polymers, has been demonstrated using crude membrane fractions from M. rouxii

  19. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.H.; Cervantes, M.; Springer, D.J.; Boekhout, T.; Ruiz-Vazquez, R.M.; Torres-Martinez, S.R.; Heitman, J.; Lee, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a

  20. Taxonomy and epidemiology Mucor irregularis, agent of chronic cutaneous mucormycosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Dolatabadi, S.; Ran, Y.P.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Shen, Y.N.; Li, C.Y.; Xi, L.Y.; Hao, F.; Zhang, Q.Q.; Li, R.Y.; Hu, Z.M.; Lu, G.; Wang, J.J.; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Klaassen, C.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Liu, W.D.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis usually presents as a progressive infection with significant angio-invasion. Mucormycosis due to Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis), however, is exceptional in causing chronic cutaneous infection in immunocompetent humans, ultimately leading to severe

  1. Canthaxanthin production with modified Mucor circinelloides strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Tamás; Csernetics, Arpád; Nagy, Gábor; Bencsik, Ottó; Iturriaga, Enrique A; Eslava, Arturo P; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2013-06-01

    Canthaxanthin is a natural diketo derivative of β-carotene primarily used by the food and feed industries. Mucor circinelloides is a β-carotene-accumulating zygomycete fungus and one of the model organisms to study the carotenoid biosynthesis in fungi. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase gene (crtW) of the marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. N81106 fused with fungal promoter and terminator regions was integrated into the M. circinelloides genome to construct stable canthaxanthin-producing strains. Different transformation methods including polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation with linear DNA fragments, restriction enzyme-mediated integration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were tested to integrate the crtW gene into the Mucor genome. Mitotic stability, site of integration and copy number of the transferred genes were analysed in the transformants, and several stable strains containing the crtW gene in high copy number were isolated. Carotenoid composition of selected transformants and effect of culturing conditions, such as temperature, carbon sources and application of certain additives in the culturing media, on their carotenoid content were analysed. Canthaxanthin-producing transformants were able to survive at higher growth temperature than the untransformed strain, maybe due to the effect of canthaxanthin on the membrane fluidity and integrity. With the application of glucose, trehalose, dihydroxyacetone and L-aspartic acid as sole carbon sources in minimal medium, the crtW-expressing M. circinelloides strain, MS12+pCA8lf/1, produced more than 200 μg/g (dry mass) of canthaxanthin.

  2. MACROZOOBENTHOS OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS OF THE TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION AS A FORAGE BASE OF BENTHOPHAGOUS FISHES AND SAPROBITY INDICATOR

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    S. Kruzhylina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study qualitative and qualitative indices of macrozoobenthos as one of main components of the forage base of benthophagous fishes in mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region and determination of their saprobity level. Methodology. Thhj,9.e study was carried out in summer period of 2009 in mountain river reaches of the Tisa river catchment. Zoobenthos samples were collected by a Surber sampler (25 × 25 cm on the bottoms of different fractions with different water flow rate (riffle, run, pool. Collection, processing and interpretation of the obtained data was carried out according to generally accepted hydrobiological methods developed for mountain river studies. Saprobity was of the studied rivers was calculated by Pantle-Buck formula. The Zelinka-Marvan saprobity index was used for calculations. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative macrozoobenthos indices have been studied. The number of zoobenthos on the investigated river sections ranged from 416 to 7712 ind./m2 with biomasses from 2.96 to 83.84 g/m2. The major portion of the zoobenthic biomass in the majority of rivers was due to caddis fly larvae composing up to 93% of the total biomass. An important role in the total biomass of the zoobenthos also belonged to mayfly (up to 53% and stonefly (up to 55% larvae and in lower degree amphipods (up to 39%, chironomid larvae (up to 14% and aquatic coleopterans (up to 5%. According to the calculated potential fish productivity, the mountain rivers can be apparently separated into three groups: little productive (4.2–12.7 kg/ha, medium productive (13.2–21.6 kg/ha and high productive (25.3–85.3 kg/ha. Mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region were found to belong to pure χ-saprobic, and о- і β-mesosaprobic zones, the saprobity index in which ranged from 0.35 (Rika river to 1.7 (Shipot river. Originality. For further calculation and assessment of brown trout (Salmo trutta and European grayling (Thymallus

  3. Mucor Mycosis maxilla with palatal destruction An Interesting Case Report with Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Mucor mycosis of maxilla is caused by filamentous fungi belonging to mucoracea family. This fungus is ubiquitous and can be found throughout the world on bread, air, soil etc. Rhinocerebralform of mucor mycosis is rather common. In this case report a detailed description of a patient with mucor mycosis involving maxilla with associated palatal destruction is given, along with a reviewof published literature on this topic. Rhinocerebral mucor mycosis is common in diabetics and immuno compromis...

  4. Effects of γ-rays on the survival of several unicellular green algae and the relation to saprobity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Jin; Saito, Masahiro; Bando, Tadashi; Ishida, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The lethal effects of 60 Co-γ-rays on the cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dangeard (Chlorophyceae) and four species of desmids (Charophyceae) such as Closterium acerosum Ehrenberg, Netrium digitus Ehrenberg, Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini, and Pleurotaenium ehrenbergii de Bary were studied at their plateau phase. Wide variation in their response to γ-rays was observed. Among these algae. Cl.acerosum, which is the most tolerant against saprobity, showed the highest resistance to γ-rays. The values of D 37 for Cl.acerosum, N. digitus, Cl.ehrenbergii, Ch.reihardi and Pl.ehrenbergii were about 210Gy, 155Gy, 60Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Some relationship between the resistance to radiation and tolerance to saprobity existed among closely related species. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. 173.140... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by...

  6. Molecular tools for carotenogenesis analysis in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Garre, Victoriano; López-García, Sergio; Navarro, Eusebio; Vila, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The carotene producer fungus Mucor circinelloides is the zygomycete more amenable to genetic manipulations by using molecular tools. Since the initial development of an effective procedure of genetic transformation, more than two decades ago, the availability of new molecular approaches such as gene replacement techniques and gene expression inactivation by RNA silencing, in addition to the sequencing of its genome, has made Mucor a valuable organism for the study of a number of processes. Here we describe in detail the main techniques and methods currently used to manipulate M. circinelloides, including transformation, gene replacement, gene silencing, RNAi, and immunoprecipitation.

  7. Rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species: A rare causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Balvant Lunge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common form of mucormycosis occurring commonly in patients of diabetic ketoacidosis. Fungi of the order Mucorales belong to six families, among whom Rhizopus is the most common, while Mucor is a rare cause. We report a 45-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus diagnosed to have rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species. The diagnosis was confirmed on histology and culture. A high-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy to optimize the outcome. Our patient succumbed to her infection.

  8. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Loise Araujo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011 and dry (January 2013 seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141 and taxa (76 compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa. The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  9. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

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    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  10. Characterisation of the Mucor circinelloides regulated promoter gpd1P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, G.G.; Appel, K.F.; Wolff, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The promoter of the Mucor circinelloides gpd1 gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1P) was recently cloned and used for the production of recombinant proteins, such as the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase 1 (GOX). This represents the first example of the application...

  11. Zygospore ornamentation in the genera Mucor and Zygorhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Maria A.A.; Samson, R.A.; Stalpers, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Zygospores of species of the genera Mucor and Zygorhynchus were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The types of ornamentation are described and compared with those of some species of other genera of the Mucorales. The possibility of grouping the species according to zygospore

  12. Biological control of bacterial spot of tomato by saprobe fungi from semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Casaroto Peitl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a common disease in tomato fields that causes significant economic losses. Due to the difficulty with control of bacterial spot by conventional methods, new techniques such as biological control and induction of resistance are gaining prominence. This study aimed to select saprobe fungi from semi-arid regions of the Brazilian Northeast for the biological control of bacterial spot of tomato. To select the best isolates to control bacterial spot, a greenhouse experiment was initially conducted. Tomato plants (‘Santa Cruz Kada’ were treated with filtrates of 25 saprobe fungi and inoculated three days later with Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. Filtrates of Memnoniella levispora, Periconia hispidula, Zygosporium echinosporum, and Chloridium virescens var. virescens were selected as the most effective. Filtrates and volatile compounds from these four isolates were tested for their antibacterial activity in cultures of X. euvesicatoria and in tomato plants (‘Santa Cruz Kada’ inoculated with X. euvesicatoria. In vitro, the addition of nonvolatile fungal metabolites into the culture medium at 5% and 50% (v/v inhibited bacterial growth by 28.9% and 53.8%, respectively. The volatile compounds produced by C. virescens var. virescens reduced the number of colony-forming units of X. euvesicatoria by 25.9%. In vivo, all treatments reduced from 62.4 to 71.3% the area under bacterial spot progress curve, showing the same control efficacy as the commercial resistance inducer used as a positive control (acibenzolar-S-methyl. Systemicity of the fungal filtrates was confirmed in a separate experiment, where application of the treatments exclusively to the third leaf decreased the severity of the disease on the fourth leaf (except for C. virescens var. virescens. These results show that M. levispora, P. hispidula, Z. echinosporum, and C. virescens var. virescens are potential biocontrol agents against

  13. Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes forming fruit bodies in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okane, Izumi; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Toyama, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    to reveal the diversity and taxonomy of endophytes and the relationships between those endophytes and saprobic Xylariaceae in Thailand that have been recorded according to fruit-body formation on decayed plant materials. Analysis of 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences revealed 21 xylariaceous species inhabiting......A study of the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of endophytic Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) was carried out. In this study, we obtained isolates of Xylariaceae from healthy, attached leaves and teleomorphic stromata on decayed plant materials in a permanent plot at Khao Yai National Park (Thailand......). In addition, strains deposited beforehand were selected in which both endophytic strains isolated from living plant tissues and saprobic strains from fruit bodies were included. Consequently, 405 strains of Xylariaceae (273 endophytic and 132 saprobic strains, including identified strains) were studied...

  14. Rhinocerebral Mucor circinelloides infection in immunocompromised patient following yogurt ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Stephen P; Lukaszewicz, Jennifer M; Persad, Kamleish A; Reinhardt, John F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the cause of this patient's headache and sinus pain in the setting of a unique environmental exposure: the patient ingested yogurt only days before presentation. This particular brand of yogurt caused controversy in early September 2013 when the manufacturer voluntarily recalled all flavors. The yogurt was found to be contaminated with Mucor circinelloides. The recall was triggered by the FDA, after receiving many complaints from consumers affected by temporary gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and nausea. This patient was diagnosed with Rhinocerebral mucormycosis through fungal culture of the affected area. He was specifically colonized with Mucor circinelloides, a variant that rarely causes disease in humans. According to a literature review, only eight cases of mucormycosis in adults caused by this strain were documented before 2009.

  15. Mucor irregularis-associated cutaneous mucormycosis: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine Rammaert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for invasive fungal diseases, and are also exposed to healthcare-associated mucormycosis. Mainly causing localized cutaneous mucormycosis, Mucor irregularis infection is reported for the first time in a kidney-transplant recipient. A healthcare-associated origin was highly suspected in this case. We performed a literature review and highlight the characteristics of this very rare fungus.

  16. Sporangiospore-yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides : Ionic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of intracellular ion concentration during sporangiospores-yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides Tieghem in K+- mediated (0.90 to 1.10 g/l) and Na+-modulated (0.05 to 0.20 g/l) multiionic broths, pH 4.5, temperature 20°C, showed that (a), transmembrane ion flux was continuous during the growth period ...

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view...

  18. Communities of saprobic fungi on leaf litter of Vismia guianensis in remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loise Araujo Costa

    2017-01-01

    We examined the mycobiota associated with Vismia guianensis leaf litter in three Atlantic Forest remnants of Brazil's semiarid region.Among the study sites,two remnants were protected forest reserves,whereas the third was influenced by major anthropogenic activities.Eighteen litter samples were collected in wet and dry seasons and were processed by particle filtration technique.A total of 4750 fungal isolates of 142 taxa were identified.Species richness was higher in litter samples collected during wet season.Nonmetric multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis showed differences in the composition of fungal communities among the sampling sites and the seasons.Analysis of similarity showed that the differences were statistically significant (R =0.85;P =0.0001).Our findings revealed that spatial and temporal heterogeneity,and human activities had significant impacts on the saprobic fungi of V.guianensis leaf litter.

  19. Molecular systematics in the genus Mucor with special regards to species encountered in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermet, Antoine; Méheust, Delphine; Mounier, Jérôme; Barbier, Georges; Jany, Jean-Luc

    2012-06-01

    The genus Mucor, a member of the order Mucorales, comprises different species encountered in cheeses. Although fungi play a fundamental role in cheese manufacturing and ripening, the taxonomy of many fungal species found in cheese is poorly defined; indeed, this is the case for Mucor spp. In the present study, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships among 70 Mucor strains, including 36 cheese isolates, by using a five gene phylogenetic approach combined with morphological analyses. Overall, at least six species of Mucor were identified among the cheese isolates including a possible new taxon. The present study also suggests that the genus Mucor comprises undescribed taxa and needs to be properly defined. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) and the saprobic fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, P D; McMullen, J G; Stock, S P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the effect of the saprobic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on the fitness of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Caborca strain). Sand column assays were considered to evaluate the effect of fungal mycelia on infective juvenile (IJ) movement and host access. Additionally, we investigated the effect of fungal spores on the nematodes' ability to search for a host, its virulence, penetration efficiency and reproduction. Three application timings were considered to assess interactions between the fungus and the nematodes. In vitro assays were also considered to determine the effect of fungal extracts on the nematode's symbiotic bacteria. Our observations indicate that presence and age of fungal mycelia significantly affect IJ movement in the sand columns and their ability to establish in the host. These results were also reflected in a reduced insect mortality. In particular, treatments with the 15 days old mycelia showed a significant reduction in insect mortality and penetration efficiency. Presence of fungal spores also impacted nematode virulence and reproduction. In particular, two of the application timings tested (simultaneous [EPN and fungal spores applied at the same time] and alternate I [EPN applied first, fungus applied 24h later]) resulted in antagonistic interactions. Moreover, IJ progeny was reduced to half in the simultaneous application. In vitro assays revealed that fungal extracts at the highest concentration tested (10mg/ml) inhibited the growth of the symbiotic bacteria. Overall, these results suggest that saprobic fungi may play an important role in regulating. EPN populations in the soil, and that they may be one of the factors that impact nematode survival in the soil and their access to insect hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  2. [Characterization of a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingtong; Chen, Haiqin; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yongquan; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-04

    We aimed at characterizing a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides. me1 gene encoding malic enzyme isoform V was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. High-purity recombinant protein BLME1 was obtained by affinity chromatography using. Ni-NTA column and characterized subsequently. The optimum conditions were pH at 8.0 and temperature at 33 degrees C. Under optimum conditions, BLME1 activity achieved 92.8 U/mg. The K(m) for L-malate and NADP+ were 0.74960 ± 0.06120 mmol/L and 0.22070 ± 0.01810 mmol/L, the V(max) for L-malate and NADP+ were 72.820 ± 1.077 U/mg and 86.110 ± 1.665 U/mg, respectively. In addition, ions played important roles in BLME1 activity; several ions such as Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+ could activate BLME1, whereas Ca2+, Cu2+ could be used as inhibitors. Additionally, the metabolic intermediates such as oxaloacetic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid inhibited the activity of BLME1, whereas succinic acid activated it. A malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides was characterized, providing the references for further studies on this enzyme.

  3. Coprophilous Mucorales (ex Zygomycota from three areas in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fragoso de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. Although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the Mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. Samples of dung collected in the cities of Arcoverde, Serra Talhada and Sertânia were incubated in moist chambers in triplicate. Altogether, 24 taxa of Mucorales distributed in the genera Absidia, Circinella, Cunninghamella, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Pilobolus, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were identified. The highest species richness was found in sheep excrement. Mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus was the most common taxon, followed by M. ramosissimus. The similarity of the composition of Mucorales species was greatest between the excrements of Guzerá and Sindi breeds (bovine. All mucoralean species isolated are being cited for the first time from animal dung found in Caatinga and a new species of Mucor was recorded. An identification key for species of Mucorales from dung in the semi-arid region of Brazil is provided.

  4. Coprophilous Mucorales (ex Zygomycota) from three areas in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Alberto Fragoso de; Lima, Diogo Xavier; Gurgel, Luciana M S; Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo

    Mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. Although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the Mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. Samples of dung collected in the cities of Arcoverde, Serra Talhada and Sertânia were incubated in moist chambers in triplicate. Altogether, 24 taxa of Mucorales distributed in the genera Absidia, Circinella, Cunninghamella, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Pilobolus, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were identified. The highest species richness was found in sheep excrement. Mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus was the most common taxon, followed by M. ramosissimus. The similarity of the composition of Mucorales species was greatest between the excrements of Guzerá and Sindi breeds (bovine). All mucoralean species isolated are being cited for the first time from animal dung found in Caatinga and a new species of Mucor was recorded. An identification key for species of Mucorales from dung in the semi-arid region of Brazil is provided. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Taxonomy and epidemiology of Mucor irregularis, agent of chronic cutaneous mucormycosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.-L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Dolatabadi, S.; Ran, Y.-P.; Shen, Y.-N.; Li, C.-Y.; Xi, L.-Y.; Hao, F.; Zhang, Q.-Q.; Li, R.-Y.; Hu, Z.-M.; Lu, G.-X.; Wang, J.-J.; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Klaassen, C.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Liu, W.-D.; Hoog, de G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis usually presents as a progressive infection with significant angio-invasion. Mucormycosis due to Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis), however, is exceptional in causing chronic cutaneous infection in immunocompetent humans, ultimately leading to severe

  6. Effect of hexoses on the levels of pyruvate decarboxylase in Mucor rouxii.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, C R; Corral, J

    1980-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase activity in the dimorphic fungus Mucor rouxii increased 25- to 35-fold in yeastlike and mycelial cells grown in the presence of glucose as compared to the activity observed in mycelial cultures grown in the absence of glucose.

  7. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is being investigated as a possible host for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, the environmental conditions defining the physiology and morphology of this dimorphic fungus have been investigated in submerged batch cultivation. The optimal conditions for growth...

  8. Characterization of pterin deaminase from Mucor indicus MTCC 3513

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandeeswaran, M.; Karthika, P.; Mahendran, R.; Palaniswamy, M.; Angayarkanni, J.

    2018-03-01

    Pterin deaminase is an amidohydrolase enzyme which hydrolyses pteridines to produce lumazine derivatives and ammonia. Even though the enzyme was shown as early as 1959 for its anticancer efficacy there was a long gap in the communique after that which was in 2013. In our study we have chosen Mucor indicus MTCC 3513 which was a promising strain for production of different industrial products.The pterin deaminase enzyme was harvested and extracellular from M. indicus. The extracellular sample was partially purified by using ethanol precipitation and ion exchange column (Hi-Trap QFF) in Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified pterin deaminase enzyme was apparently determined by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was further biochemically characterized. Molecular docking studies with the predicted sequence showed higher binding affinity towards folic acid interaction. The structure of this protein may open the windows for new drug targets for cancer therapy.

  9. Screening de Mucor spp. para produção de amilase, lipase, poligalacturonase e protease

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria Helena; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Milanez, Adauto Ivo

    2002-01-01

    Fungi are well known by their ability to excrete enzymes into the environment. Among them, representatives of Mucor Fresen. have important biotechnological potential and some of them produce industrial enzymes. This work studied amylase, lipase, polygalacturonase and protease production by fifty-six isolates of Mucor belonging to 11 different taxa, selected from herbivores dung using solid media. The results showed that the majority of the isolates presented several enzymatic activities with ...

  10. A reliable Differentiation of Mucor from Aspergillus in Tissue Sections with Ultraviolet Illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Senba, Masachika; Toda, Takayoshi; Toda, Yumiko; Hokama, Seitetsu

    1989-01-01

    In tissue, hyphae of mucor are characteristically broad and infrequently septate. However, it may be difficult to distinguish mucor from aspergillus in tissue sections occasionally, because sometimes aspergillus septa are not detected with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), periodic acid Schiff (PAS ), and Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS). In a case, aspergillus septa can be seen under ultraviolet light. Specifically, structures of these septum were clear cut differences in the histological finding be...

  11. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, F.; Dahot, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  12. Complete genome sequence analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 reveals a saprobic lifestyle and the genes needed for human pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans.

  13. Complete genome sequence analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 reveals a saprobic lifestyle and the genes needed for human pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans.

  14. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles H; Cervantes, Maria; Springer, Deborah J; Boekhout, Teun; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M; Torres-Martinez, Santiago R; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan

    2011-06-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a heterothallic fungus: (+) sex allele encodes SexP and (-) sex allele SexM, both of which are HMG domain protein sex determinants. M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus (Mcl) (-) mating type isolates produce larger asexual sporangiospores that are more virulent in the wax moth host compared to (+) isolates that produce smaller less virulent sporangiospores. The larger sporangiospores germinate inside and lyse macrophages, whereas the smaller sporangiospores do not. sexMΔ mutants are sterile and still produce larger virulent sporangiospores, suggesting that either the sex locus is not involved in virulence/spore size or the sexP allele plays an inhibitory role. Phylogenetic analysis supports that at least three extant subspecies populate the M. circinelloides complex in nature: Mcl, M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus, and M. circinelloides f. circinelloides (Mcc). Mcc was found to be more prevalent among clinical Mucor isolates, and more virulent than Mcl in a diabetic murine model in contrast to the wax moth host. The M. circinelloides sex locus encodes an HMG domain protein (SexP for plus and SexM for minus mating types) flanked by genes encoding triose phosphate transporter (TPT) and RNA helicase homologs. The borders of the sex locus between the three subspecies differ: the Mcg sex locus includes the promoters of both the TPT and the RNA helicase genes, whereas the Mcl and Mcc sex locus includes only the TPT gene promoter. Mating between subspecies was restricted compared to mating within subspecies. These findings demonstrate that spore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of M. circinelloides species and that plasticity of the sex locus and adaptations in pathogenicity have

  15. Mechanism of biosorption of Heavy metals by mucor rouxii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, G. [Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Commission, Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada); Viraraghavan, T. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii are capable of removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The role various functional groups play in the cell wall of M. rouxii in metal biosorption of lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc was investigated in this paper. The biomass was chemically treated to modify the functional carboxyl, amino and phosphate groups. These modifications were examined by means of infrared spectroscopy. It was found that an esterification of the carboxyl groups and phosphate and a methylation of the amine groups significantly decreased the biosorption of the heavy metals studied. Thus, the carboxylate, amine and phosphate groups were recognized as important in the biosorption of metal ions by M. rouxii biomass. The role the lipids fraction play was not significant. The study showed that Na, K, Ca and Mg ions were released from the biomass after biosorption of Pb,Cd,Ni and Zn, indicating that ion exchange was a key mechanism in the biosorption of metal ions by M. rouxii biomass. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Antioxidants Potential of the Filamentous Fungi (Mucor circinelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods and solvent systems affected the recovery yield and antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05. Ethanolic extracts were found to be rich source of antioxidant components and subsequently more effective in antioxidant properties. Fermentation period and media used also significantly affected (p ≤ 0.05 the antioxidant production and the resulting antioxidant properties. The (ethanolic extracts of all the strains from late exponential growth phase (120 h showed highest antioxidant production with topmost reducing, chelating and radical scavenging capabilities. Strain MC277.49 was found to be the highest producer of antioxidants followed by MC108.16 and WJ11. Phenolic compounds were detected significantly in higher (p ≤ 0.05 amount succeeded by the condensed tannins and flavonoids. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity. Submerged fermentation with nutritional stress conditions were found to be excellent way of producing surplus amount of natural antioxidants/secondary metabolites with their vast potential commercial application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Antioxidants Potential of the Filamentous Fungi (Mucor circinelloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahsan; Hussain, Syed Ammar; Yang, Junhuan; Ijaz, Muhammad Umair; Liu, Qing; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Song, Yuanda

    2017-10-07

    Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h) under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods and solvent systems affected the recovery yield and antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly ( p ≤ 0.05). Ethanolic extracts were found to be rich source of antioxidant components and subsequently more effective in antioxidant properties. Fermentation period and media used also significantly affected ( p ≤ 0.05) the antioxidant production and the resulting antioxidant properties. The (ethanolic) extracts of all the strains from late exponential growth phase (120 h) showed highest antioxidant production with topmost reducing, chelating and radical scavenging capabilities. Strain MC277.49 was found to be the highest producer of antioxidants followed by MC108.16 and WJ11. Phenolic compounds were detected significantly in higher ( p ≤ 0.05) amount succeeded by the condensed tannins and flavonoids. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity. Submerged fermentation with nutritional stress conditions were found to be excellent way of producing surplus amount of natural antioxidants/secondary metabolites with their vast potential commercial application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Detoxification of Fusaric Acid by the Soil Microbe Mucor rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Liu, Jinggao; Duke, Sara E; Stipanovic, Robert D; Nichols, Robert L

    2017-06-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (VCG0114), which causes root rot and wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense), has been identified recently for the first time in the western hemisphere in certain fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This pathotype produces copious quantities of the plant toxin fusaric acid (5-butyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) compared to other isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) that are indigenous to the United States. Fusaric acid is toxic to cotton plants and may help the pathogen compete with other microbes in the soil. We found that a laboratory strain of the fungus Mucor rouxii converts fusaric acid into a newly identified compound, 8-hydroxyfusaric acid. The latter compound is significantly less phytotoxic to cotton than the parent compound. On the basis of bioassays of hydroxylated analogues of fusaric acid, hydroxylation of the butyl side chain of fusaric acid may affect a general detoxification of fusaric acid. Genes that control this hydroxylation may be useful in developing biocontrol agents to manage Fov.

  19. Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Zygospore ornamentation in intra- and interspecific matings in some related species of mucor and Backusella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, J.A.; Schipper, M.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zygospores resulting from intraspecific matings of Mucor amphibiorum, M. inaequisporus, M. indicus, M. recurvus, M. variosporus, Backusella circina, and B. lamprospora are compared with azygospores (zygospores) formed in matings of Mucor amphibiorum strain CBS 764.74 and strains of the other species

  2. Mucor nidicola sp. nov., a fungal species isolated from an invasive paper wasp nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, A A; Stchigel, A M; Guarro, J; Sutton, D; Starks, P T

    2012-07-01

    A strain of a novel mucoralean fungus was isolated from a nest of the invasive paper wasp, Polistes dominulus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA gene sequences, along with physiological tests, revealed that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mucor. The novel species also includes a representative that had previously been characterized as part of the Mucor hiemalis complex. Unlike the type strain of M. hiemalis, these two strains can grow at 37 °C and sporulate at 35 °C. Here, we present a partial resolution of the M. hiemalis species complex and propose the novel species Mucor nidicola sp. nov. to accommodate the isolate; the type strain of M. nidicola is F53(T) (=NRRL 54520(T)=UAMH 11442(T)=CBS 130359(T)).

  3. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  4. Production of rennin-like acid protease by Mucor pusillus through submerged fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudi, S.; Mukhtar, H.; Rehman, A.U.; Haq, I.U.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU. (author)

  5. Fatty acid production by four strains of Mucor hiemalis grown in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Four Mucor hiemalis strains (M1, M2, M3 and M4), isolated from soil at a depth of 0 - 15 ... Plant oils were inhibitors of fatty acid production by these strains. .... The procedure was adapted from Kates (1982) and Kennedy et al.

  6. Cloning and characterisation of a glucoamylase gene (GlaM) from dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houghton-Larsen, J.; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a novel strategy for the cloning of glucoamylase genes using conserved sequences and semi-nested PCR and its application in cloning the GlaM glucoamylase gene and cDNA from the dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides. The deduced 609-amino-acid enzyme (including signal...

  7. Production of Mozzarella Cheese Using Rennin Enzyme from Mucor miehei Grown at Rice Bran Molasses Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdan, I. H.; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to study the characteristic and yield of Mozzarella cheese produced by using rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei which is grown at rice bran and molasses medium. The popularity of Mozzarella cheese in Indonesia is increased caused by the spreading of western foods in Indonesia such as pizza and spaghetti that use Mozzarella cheese for ingredient. In Italy, Mozzarella and pizza cheeses are dominating 78% of the total Italian Cheese products. In producing Mozzarella cheese, rennin enzyme is always used as milk coagulant. Even now, Indonesia has not produced the rennin enzyme yet. The rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei growing at rice bran and molases medium which have the availability can be managed purposively within short period of time. The completly randomized design methode used to get the best crude extracts of Mucor miehei rennin enzyme, then is employed to produce mozzarella cheese. The result of Mozzarella cheese has various characteristics such as the yield’s weight is 9.1%, which consists of 50% moisture content, 36.64% peotein levels, 0.1 melting ability and 82.72% stretch ability or 0.79/N. With that characteristic it is concluded that rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei grown at rice bran molasses medium has the potential to alternatively subtitute calf rennin to produce Mozzarella cheese, and the characteristics fulfill the standart.

  8. Chronic rhino-orbital mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis (Rhizomucor variabilis) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a chronic case of rhino-orbital zygomycosis caused by Mucor irregularis, formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis, a rare mycotic agent in humans. The infection caused progressive destruction of the nasal septum, soft and hard palate, leading to collapse of the nose bridge...

  9. Heterothallic mating in Mucor irregularis and first isolate of the species outside of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the discovery of heterothallic mating in Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis) and it extends the range of this species from Asia to the United States. We report on a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis, involving the forearms of a cotton farmer ...

  10. Hematogenously Disseminated Skin Disease Caused by Mucor velutinosus in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Christensen, Jesica A.; Bennett, John E.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a case of disseminated skin infection caused by Mucor velutinosus, a recently described new species. We believe this to be the first published report of a clinical case of mucormycosis due to M. velutinosus, as well as a rare case of dissemination from a deep site to skin. PMID:21543575

  11. Morphology and physiology of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides (syn. M. racemosus) during anaerobic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The dimorphic Mucor circinelloides requires an anaerobic atmosphere and the presence of 30% CO2 to grow as a multipolar budding yeast, otherwise hyphal growth predominates. Establishing other means to control the morphology would be a distinct advantage in the development of a fermentation process...

  12. Identification of a β-glucosidase from the Mucor circinelloides genome by peptide pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuhong, Huang; Busk, Peter Kamp; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2014-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides produces plant cell wall degrading enzymes that allow it to grow on complex polysaccharides. Although the genome of M. circinelloides has been sequenced, only few plant cell wall degrading enzymes are annotated in this species. We applied peptide pattern recognition, which...

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbehuesen, T.L.; Nielsen, J.; McIntyre, M. [Center for Process Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view to the minimisation or elimination of the by-product ethanol for future process design. Large amounts of ethanol were produced during aerobic growth on glucose under non-oxygen limiting conditions, which is indicative of M. circinelloides being a Crabtree-positive organism. Ethanol production on galactose or xylose was less significant. The response of the organism to increased ethanol concentrations, both as the sole carbon source and in the presence of a sugar, was investigated in terms of biomass formation and morphology. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of culture media for enhancing gamma-linolenic acid production by Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: g-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition. In the present study, production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292 was evaluated in submerged fermentation. Materials and methods: The fermentation variables were chosen according to the fractional factorial design and further optimized via full factorial method. Four significant variables, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and pH were selected for the optimization studies. The design consisted of total 16 runs consisting of runs at two levels for each factor with three replications of the center points. Results: The analysis of variance and three-dimensional response surface plot of effects indicated that variables were regarded to be significant for production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis. Results indicated that fermentation at the optimum conditions (100 g/l glucose concentration; 1 g/l peptone; 1 g/l ammonium nitrate, and pH of 4.5 enhanced the g-linolenic acid production up to 709 mg/l. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that higher g-linolenic acid yield can be achieved in a simple medium at high glucose and ammonium nitrate, low peptone concentrations and acidic pH by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292. This simple and low cost optimization condition of culture media can be applied for g-linolenic acid production at higher scale for pharmaceutical and nutritional industries. 

  15. The water quality and Cultivant enrichment potency of pond based on saprobic index at north coastal waters of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Jafron W.

    2018-05-01

    Central Java is one of many areas which has long coastline, especially in the Northern Coast of Java Island. Intertidal activities occurred at this area may affect the transport of material and energy from surroundings. Cultivation activity supplies many inputs, i.e. feeds, chemicals (vitamin and mineral), including pollutants from feces and unconsumed feeds that affects the environment. One of water management is done through bioremediation by using vegetative agents (soft rehabilitation), such as seaweed and mangrove stands. The implementation of soft rehabilitation is highly depend on the existing environmental conditions of the ponds and surrounding waters. Therefore, it is very important to identify the condition of those waters first. The purpose of this study is to identify the quality of waters in the north coast of Central Java. Besides, it is also to analyze the potency of enriching cultivated commodity (cultivant), as well as a soft remediation mechanism using seaweed. The study was conducted in the coastal areas of Central Java, mainly to the locations commonly practicing cultivation in the pond waters; namely Brebes, Pemalang, Semarang, Demak, Pati and Jepara. Data were taken by sampling at least at 3 different sites as repetition, included ponds, public irrigations and coastline waters. The water sample was taken as much as 30 lt and filtered using plankton net no 25. Biodiversity of Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), evenness index (e) and Saprobic Index were used to analyze the plankton data. Result showed that plankton diversity in Central Java coasts were varied generally between 10 – 28 species. The most widely found species were Oscillatoria sp, Rhizosolenia styliformes, Surirella sp and Lyngbia conferoides. The diversity index varied from 1.83 to 2.9 with the stability status were between small to medium. The saprobic index showed a value between 0.33 up to 2.27; which indicated very small up to lightly contaminated status. The biggest stability

  16. Microbial transformation of hederagenin by Cunninghamella echinulate, Mucor subtilissimus, and Pseudomonas oleovorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Lu, Yan-Hua; Feng, Xu; Zou, Ying-Xin; Diao, Zhuo; Chu, Zhi-Yong

    2017-07-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenoid hederagenin (1) was subjected to biotransformation by Cunninghamella echinulate CGMCC 3.2000, Mucor subtilissimus CGMCC 3.2454 and Pseudomonas oleovorans CGMCC 1.1641. Three metabolites were obtained. On the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectral analyses, their structures were characterized as 3β, 23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3β, 15α, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (3), 1β, 3β, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), and metabolite (3) was a new compound. This was the first report on the biotransformation of hederagenin.

  17. Statistical analysis and modeling of pelletized cultivation of Mucor circinelloides for microbial lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chunjie; Wei, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Microbial oil accumulation via oleaginous fungi has some potential benefits because filamentous fungi can form pellets during cell growth and these pellets are easier to harvest from the culture broth than individual cells. This research studied the effect of various culture conditions on the pelletized cell growth of Mucor circinelloides and its lipid accumulation. The results showed that cell pelletization was positively correlated to biomass accumulation; however, pellet size was negatively correlated to the oil content of the fungal biomass, possibly due to the mass transfer barriers generated by the pellet structure. How to control the size of the pellet is the key to the success of the pelletized microbial oil accumulation process.

  18. Unguisin F, a new cyclic peptide from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akone, Sergi H; Daletos, Georgios; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The new cyclic heptapeptide unguisin F (1) and the known congener unguisin E (2), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis, isolated from the medicinal plant Moringa stenopetala, collected in Cameroon. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues of 1 and 2 was determined using Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal potential, but failed to display significant activities.

  19. Production and partial characterization of proteases from Mucor hiemalis URM3773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roana Cecília dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the proteases production from 11 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Rhizomucor and Absidia. The species were obtained from the Collection of Cultures URM at the Mycology Department-UFPE, Brazil. The best producing species was Mucor hiemalis URM 3773 (1.689 U mL-1. Plackett-Burman design methodology was employed to select the most effective parameter for protease production out of 11 medium components, including: concentration of filtrate soybean, glucose, incubation period, yeast extract, tryptone, pH, aeration, rotation, NH4Cl, MgSO4 and K2HPO4. Filtrated soybean concentration was the significant variable over the response variable, which was the specific protease activity. The crude enzyme extract showed optimal activity in pH 7.5 and at 50ºC. The enzyme was stable within a wide pH range from 5.8 to 8.0, in the phosphate buffer 0.1M and in stable temperature variation of 40-70ºC, for 180 minutes. The ions FeSO4, NaCl, MnCl2, MgCl2 and KCl stimulated the protease activity, whereas ZnCl2 ion inhibited the activity in 2.27%. Iodoacetic acid at 1mM was the proteases inhibitor that presented greater action.The results indicate that the studied enzyme have great potential for industrial application.

  20. RNAi pathways in Mucor: A tale of proteins, small RNAs and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2016-05-01

    The existence of an RNA-mediated silencing mechanism in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides was first described in the early 2000. Since then, Mucor has reached an outstanding position within the fungal kingdom as a model system to achieve a deeper understanding of regulation of endogenous functions by the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery. M. circinelloides combines diverse components of its RNAi machinery to carry out functions not only limited to the defense against invasive nucleic acids, but also to regulate expression of its own genes by producing different classes of endogenous small RNA molecules (esRNAs). The recent discovery of a novel RNase that participates in a new RNA degradation pathway adds more elements to the gene silencing-mediated regulation. This review focuses on esRNAs in M. circinelloides, the different pathways involved in their biogenesis, and their roles in regulating specific physiological and developmental processes in response to environmental signals, highlighting the complexity of silencing-mediated regulation in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles in dormant sporangiospores of the fungus Mucor racemosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of sporangiospores of Mucor racemosus contained RNA that readily hybridized with [ 3 H]polyuridylic acid. Prior to germination, this RNA was in a form sedimenting at 31 P-orthophosphate or L-[ 32 S]methionine, absorbance at 280 nm, or hybridization of [ 3 H]polyuridylic acid. mRNP's from the first two fractions were analyzed. A bimodal population of particles was detected in sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. Particles eluted at low ionic strength demonstrated a sedimentation coefficient distribution of 20S-to-80S. Particles eluted in formamide demonstrated a sedimentation coefficient distribution of 20S-to-60S. Particles eluted at low ionic strength displayed two peaks in CsCl centrifugation, with buoyant densities of 1.37 gm/cc and 1.59 gm/cc. Particles eluted in formamide displayed a single peak with a buoyant density of 1.61 gm/cc. Particles eluted at low ionic strength and centrifuged in metrizamide solution formed two bands having buoyant densities of 1.15 gm/cc and 1.30 gm/cc; formamide-eluted particles banded only at the higher density. Mucor 40S ribosomal subunits banded at 1.56 gm/cc and 1.28 gm/cc in CsCl and metrizamide solution respectively

  2. Multiple isoforms for the catalytic subunit of PKA in the basal fungal lineage Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Núñez, Lucas; Ocampo, Josefina; Gottlieb, Alexandra M; Rossi, Silvia; Moreno, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) activity is involved in dimorphism of the basal fungal lineage Mucor. From the recently sequenced genome of Mucor circinelloides we could predict ten catalytic subunits of PKA. From sequence alignment and structural prediction we conclude that the catalytic core of the isoforms is conserved, and the difference between them resides in their amino termini. This high number of isoforms is maintained in the subdivision Mucoromycotina. Each paralogue, when compared to the ones form other fungi is more homologous to one of its orthologs than to its paralogs. All of these fungal isoforms cannot be included in the class I or II in which fungal protein kinases have been classified. mRNA levels for each isoform were measured during aerobic and anaerobic growth. The expression of each isoform is differential and associated to a particular growth stage. We reanalyzed the sequence of PKAC (GI 20218944), the only cloned sequence available until now for a catalytic subunit of M. circinelloides. PKAC cannot be classified as a PKA because of its difference in the conserved C-tail; it shares with PKB a conserved C2 domain in the N-terminus. No catalytic activity could be measured for this protein nor predicted bioinformatically. It can thus be classified as a pseudokinase. Its importance can not be underestimated since it is expressed at the mRNA level in different stages of growth, and its deletion is lethal. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid accumulation by pelletized culture of Mucor circinelloides on corn stover hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cristiano E R; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil accumulated by fungal cells is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and lignocellulosic materials can serve as the carbon source to support the fungal growth. The dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover can effectively break down its lignin structure, and this process generates a hydrolysate containing mostly xylose at very dilute concentration and numerous by-products that may significantly inhibit the cell growth. This study utilized corn stover hydrolysate as the culture media for the growth of Mucor circinelloides. The results showed that Mucor cells formed pellets during the cell growth, which facilitates the cell harvest from dilute solution. The results also showed that the inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid could be avoided if their concentration was low. In fact, all these by-products may be assimilated as carbon sources for the fungal growth. The results proved the feasibility to reuse the cultural broth water for acid pretreatment and then use for subsequent cell cultivation. The results will have a direct impact on the overall water usage of the process.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, B.J.F.; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective

  5. Successful treatment of a necrotizing fasciitis patient caused by Mucor indicus with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yijin; Zeng, Fanqin; Huang, Xiaowen; Li, Qun; Tan, Guozhen; Xi, Liyan; Lu, Changming; Guo, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis, an uncommon disease caused by Mucorales, predominantly occurs in immunocompromised host. The present case is a primary cutaneous mucormycosis due to Mucor indicus in an immunocompetent individual. It is with the features of necrotizing fasciitis over the right pretibial area. We are presenting this case owing to its rarity and the successful treatment with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

  6. Calcineurin orchestrates dimorphic transitions, antifungal drug responses and host-pathogen interactions of the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Inoue, Makoto; Tonthat, Nam K; Bain, Judith M; Louw, Johanna; Shinohara, Mari L; Erwig, Lars P; Schumacher, Maria A; Ko, Dennis C; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Calcineurin plays essential roles in virulence and growth of pathogenic fungi and is a target of the natural products FK506 and Cyclosporine A. In the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides, calcineurin mutation or inhibition confers a yeast-locked phenotype indicating that calcineurin governs the dimorphic transition. Genetic analysis in this study reveals that two calcineurin A catalytic subunits (out of three) are functionally diverged. Homology modeling illustrates modes of resistance resulting from amino substitutions in the interface between each calcineurin subunit and the inhibitory drugs. In addition, we show how the dimorphic transition orchestrated by calcineurin programs different outcomes during host-pathogen interactions. For example, when macrophages phagocytose Mucor yeast, subsequent phagosomal maturation occurs, indicating host cells respond appropriately to control the pathogen. On the other hand, upon phagocytosis of spores, macrophages fail to form mature phagosomes. Cytokine production from immune cells differs following exposure to yeast versus spores (which germinate into hyphae). Thus, the morphogenic transition can be targeted as an efficient treatment option against Mucor infection. In addition, genetic analysis (including gene disruption and mutational studies) further strengthens the understanding of calcineurin and provides a foundation to develop antifungal agents targeting calcineurin to deploy against Mucor and other pathogenic fungi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The RNAi machinery controls distinct responses to environmental signals in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Francisco E; Vila, Ana; Moxon, Simon; Cascales, María D; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Garre, Victoriano

    2015-03-25

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism of genome defence that can also have a role in the regulation of endogenous functions through endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs). In fungi, knowledge of the functions regulated by esRNAs has been hampered by lack of clear phenotypes in most mutants affected in the RNAi machinery. Mutants of Mucor circinelloides affected in RNAi genes show defects in physiological and developmental processes, thus making Mucor an outstanding fungal model for studying endogenous functions regulated by RNAi. Some classes of Mucor esRNAs map to exons (ex-siRNAs) and regulate expression of the genes from which they derive. To have a broad picture of genes regulated by the silencing machinery during vegetative growth, we have sequenced and compared the mRNA profiles of mutants in the main RNAi genes by using RNA-seq. In addition, we have achieved a more complete phenotypic characterization of silencing mutants. Deletion of any main RNAi gene provoked a deep impact in mRNA accumulation at exponential and stationary growth. Genes showing increased mRNA levels, as expected for direct ex-siRNAs targets, but also genes with decreased expression were detected, suggesting that, most probably, the initial ex-siRNA targets regulate the expression of other genes, which can be up- or down-regulated. Expression of 50% of the genes was dependent on more than one RNAi gene in agreement with the existence of several classes of ex-siRNAs produced by different combinations of RNAi proteins. These combinations of proteins have also been involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. Besides genes regulated by the canonical RNAi pathway, this analysis identified processes, such as growth at low pH and sexual interaction that are regulated by a dicer-independent non-canonical RNAi pathway. This work shows that the RNAi pathways play a relevant role in the regulation of a significant number of endogenous genes in M. circinelloides during exponential

  8. A New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor from Green Glycosylation of Trachyloban-19-oic Acid by Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gabriel F Dos; Takahashi, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of a widespread natural product, trachyloban-19-oic acid (1), by the fungal species Mucor plumbeus was studied in a sucrose-yeast liquid medium. Two products were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic means as 7β-hydroxytrachyloban-19-oic acid (5) and trachyloban-19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6). To the best of our knowledge, compound 6 is herein reported by the first time in the literature. These compounds were assayed for acetylcholinesterase inhibition along with some related compounds. Compound 6 showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at 10000 µg/mL among the tested compounds, a result (92.89%) comparable to the activity of the positive control, galanthamine (94.21%). Therefore, biotransformation of the natural product 1 by M. plumbeus produced a novel compound with potential as a new lead to develop anti-Alzheimer medicines.

  9. Proteomic analysis of the adaptative response of Mucor spp. to cheese environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Jany, Jean-Luc; Artigaud, Sébastien; Pichereau, Vianney; Bernay, Benoît; Coton, Emmanuel; Madec, Stéphanie

    2017-02-10

    In the cheese industry context, Mucor species exhibit an ambivalent behavior as some species are essential "technological" organisms of some cheeses while others can be spoiling agents. Previously, we observed that cheese "technological" species exhibited higher optimal growth rates on cheese related matrices than on synthetic media. This growth pattern combined with morphological differences raise the question of their adaptation to cheese. In this study, using a comparative proteomic approach, we described the metabolic pathways of three Mucor strains considered as "technological" or "contaminant" in the cheese environment (M. lanceolatus UBOCC-A-109153, M. racemosus UBOCC-A-109155, M. circinelloides CBS 277-49) as well as a non-cheese related strain (M. endophyticus CBS 385-95). Overall, 15.8 to 19.0% of the proteomes showed a fold change ≥1.6 in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) versus Cheese Agar (CA), a cheese mimicking-medium. The 289 differentially expressed proteins identified by LC MS-MS analysis were mostly assigned to energy and amino-acid metabolisms in PDA whereas a higher diversity of biological processes was observed for cheese related strains in CA. Surprisingly, the vast majority (72.9%) of the over-accumulated proteins were different according to the considered medium and strain. These results strongly suggest that the observed better adaptative response of "technological" strains to cheese environment is mediated by species-specific proteins. The Mucor genus consists of a multitude of poorly known species. In the food context, few species are known for their positive role in the production of various food products, including cheese, while others are spoiling agents. The present study focused on the analysis of morphological and proteome differences of various Mucor spp. representative strains known as either positively (hereafter referred as "technological") or negatively (hereafter referred as "contaminant") associated with cheese or non-related to

  10. Effect of oxygen on morphogenesis and polypeptide expression by Mucor racemosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.; Borgia, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of Mucor racemosus in cultures continuously sparged with nitrogen gas was investigated. When appropriate precautions were taken to prevent oxygen from entering the cultures, the morphology of the cells was uniformly yeastlike irrespective of the N 2 flow rate. When small amounts of oxygen entered the cultures the resulting microaerobic conditions evoked mycelial development. Polypeptides synthesized by aerobic mycelia, microaerobic mycelia, anaerobic yeasts, and yeasts grown in a CO 2 atmosphere were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that a large number of differences in polypeptide expression exist when microaerobic mycelia or anaerobic yeasts are compared with aerobic mycelia and that these alterations correlate with a change from an oxidative to a fermentative metabolic mode. The authors hypothesize that oxygen regulates the expression of polypeptides involved in both the metabolic mode and in morphogenesis

  11. Model for the mechanism and regulation of chitosan synthesis in Mucor rouxii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.L.; Bartnicki-Garcia, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cell walls of mucoraceous fungi are characterized by the joint occurrence of chitosan and chitin, the β-1,4-linked polysaccharides of G1cN and G1cNAc, respectively. It has been proposed that chitosan is made from chitin by enzymatic deacetylation, but the evidence is inconclusive since the deacetylase isolated from Mucor rouxii is effective against glycol chitin, but not against genuine chitin; consequently, chitosan synthesis in vitro was not achieved. The authors discovered that the same deacetylase can deacetylate chitin efficiently if it is allowed to act on chitin chains as they are being formed; i.e. the simultaneous presence and operation of chitin synthetase and chitin deacetylase is required for chitosan synthesis. Subsequent studies on the effect of digitonin on chitosan synthesis were the basis for a model the authors have developed for the regulation of chitosan and chitin syntheses in vivo

  12. A New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor from Green Glycosylation of Trachyloban-19-oic Acid by Mucor plumbeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL F. DOS SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The in vitro metabolism of a widespread natural product, trachyloban-19-oic acid (1, by the fungal species Mucor plumbeus was studied in a sucrose-yeast liquid medium. Two products were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic means as 7β-hydroxytrachyloban-19-oic acid (5 and trachyloban-19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6. To the best of our knowledge, compound 6 is herein reported by the first time in the literature. These compounds were assayed for acetylcholinesterase inhibition along with some related compounds. Compound 6 showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at 10000 µg/mL among the tested compounds, a result (92.89% comparable to the activity of the positive control, galanthamine (94.21%. Therefore, biotransformation of the natural product 1 by M. plumbeus produced a novel compound with potential as a new lead to develop anti-Alzheimer medicines.

  13. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Okubo, Yuko; Katano, Azusa; Sano, Ayako; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often lethal severe fungal infection, which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly patient. Seven months after the surgical dissection of the involved skin, cutaneous mucormycosis recurred at the peripheral edge of the skin graft. Shortly subsequent to the administration of liposomal amphotericin B, the remaining skin lesion was excised again. M. irregularis is rarely but increasingly reported as a cause of mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals, especially in Asian farmers. M. irregularis may be largely disseminated in the soils of Asia and thus the trivial trauma at the time of farm work may be a trigger for the onset. These cases tend to leave severe cosmetic damage even in healthy individuals, although the vital prognosis is not affected. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Production of extracellular proteases by Mucor circinelloides using D-glucose as carbon source / substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Vânia Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some Mucorales species have been reported as protease producers. The production of extracellular proteases by Mucor circinelloides using glucose as substrate was studied. Experiments were carried out with different D-glucose concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g/L. Biomass, pH and protease activity were determined. Although biomass production had reached best yields for the medium containing D-glucose in a concentration of 80 g/L, the enzymatic production was higher when the substrate concentration was reduced to 40 g/L. The yield factor for product on cell growth and the yield factor for product on carbon substrate were higher when the microorganism grew in medium containing 40 g/L glucose. The kinetics parameters suggest that this strain seems to be promising as an alternative microorganism for protease production.

  15. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Roberta A.; Stamford, Tânia L.M.; de Campos-Takaki, Galba M.; Stamford, Thayza C.M.; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L-1) and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g-1) were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L-1 after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 104 g.mol-1 of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1. At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1 chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL-1 were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:24031403

  16. Transport of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii spores through water-saturated quartz sands; Transport von Phanerochaete chrysosporium- und Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii-Sporen durch wassergesaettigten Quarzsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, E.; Klotz, D.; Teichmann, G.; Lang, H.; Wolf, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie; Beisker, W. [GSF, Inst. fuer Pathologie (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    Just as bacteria so can aquatic fungi contribute effectively to pollutant elimination, at least in superficial groundwaters. However, very little is known about this. Nor is it known whether fungal spores are capable of being transported through sedimentary cavities. At least fungal spores are for some part of similar size as bacteria. We here report for the first time on a demonstration of the migration through quartz sand of spores of the two fungal species Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii. [German] Neben Bakterien koennen auch aquatische Pilze, zumindest im oberflaechennahen Grundwasser, effiziente Beitraege zur Schadstoffentgiftung leisten. Darueber ist aber sehr wenig bekannt. Es ist auch nicht bekannt, ob ueberhaupt Pilzsporen durch Sedimenthohlraeume transportiert werden koennen, obwohl die Pilzsporen z.T. aehnliche Abmessungen wie Bakterien haben. Hier berichten wir erstmalig ueber den Nachweis der Migration von Sporen der beiden Pilzarten Phanerochaete chrysosporium und Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii durch Quarzsand. (orig.)

  17. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  18. Effect of environmental conditions and Gamma Irradiation on the productivity of rennin-like enzyme from Mucor Lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Kabbany, H.; Kamel, Z.M.; Moubasher, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation included the isolation and identification of rennin like enzyme fungal producer from different egyptian food and soil samples. Only six out of three hundred and ninety five fungal cultures isolated from cheese, yogurt and soil samples collected from different localities of egypt were found to be positive for the production of clotting enzymes. The six positive isolates were identified as: paecilomyces variotii, Mucor circinelloides, aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, Emericella variecolor and Cochliobolus spicifier. All isolates were found to be negative for mycotoxins but Mucor Lamprosporus isolate obtained from the CBS, Baarn, netherlands was the best in the production of the crude enzyme. The highest growth and production of the crude enzyme were obtained from wheat bran medium after an incubation period for 7-9 days at 25 degree C and Ph 5.0. wheat bran medium could also be used several times to produce the enzyme. Mucor lamprospours spores were found to be sensitive to gamma rays since 2.5 kGy completely inactivated the germination of the spore sand D 10 value of the spores was calculated to be only 0.36 kGy and very low doses of gamma irradiation did not affect the ability of the isolates to produce the milk clotting enzyme till 100 Gy

  19. Effect of environmental conditions and Gamma Irradiation on the productivity of rennin-like enzyme from Mucor Lamprosporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, L A; El-Fouly, M Z; El-Kabbany, H [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O.Box 29, Cairo (Egypt); Kamel, Z M; Moubasher, M H [Botany Department, Faculty od Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The present investigation included the isolation and identification of rennin like enzyme fungal producer from different egyptian food and soil samples. Only six out of three hundred and ninety five fungal cultures isolated from cheese, yogurt and soil samples collected from different localities of egypt were found to be positive for the production of clotting enzymes. The six positive isolates were identified as: paecilomyces variotii, Mucor circinelloides, aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, Emericella variecolor and Cochliobolus spicifier. All isolates were found to be negative for mycotoxins but Mucor Lamprosporus isolate obtained from the CBS, Baarn, netherlands was the best in the production of the crude enzyme. The highest growth and production of the crude enzyme were obtained from wheat bran medium after an incubation period for 7-9 days at 25 degree C and Ph 5.0. wheat bran medium could also be used several times to produce the enzyme. Mucor lamprospours spores were found to be sensitive to gamma rays since 2.5 kGy completely inactivated the germination of the spore sand D{sub 10} value of the spores was calculated to be only 0.36 kGy and very low doses of gamma irradiation did not affect the ability of the isolates to produce the milk clotting enzyme till 100 Gy.

  20. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Gamma Irradiation on the Productivity of Rennin-like Enzyme from Mucor Lamprospous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L. A.; El-Fouly, M. Z.; Ei-Kabbany, H.; Kamel Z, M.; Moubasher, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation included the isolation and identification of rennin like enzyme fungal producer from different Egyptian food and soil samples. Only six out of three hundred and ninety five fungal cultures isolated from cheese, yogurt and soil samples collected from different localities of Egypt were found to be positive for the production of clotting enzymes. The six positive isolates were identified as: Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor Circinelloides, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Emericella variecolour and Cochliobolus spicifier. All isolates were found to be negative for mycotoxins but Mucor lamprosporus isolate obtained from the CBS, Baam, Netherlands was the bast in the production of the crude enzyme were obtained from wheat bran medium after an incubation period for 7-9 days at 25 degree and ph 5.0. Wheat bran medium could also be used several times to produce the enzyme. Mucor lamprospours spores were found to be sensitive to gamma rays since 2.5 kGy completely inactivated the germination of the spore sand D 1 0 value of the spores was calculated to be only 0.36 KGy and very low doses of gamma irradiation did not affect the ability of the isolates to produce the milk clotting enzyme till 100 Gy

  1. Mucor irregularis infection around the inner canthus cured by amphotericin B: a case report and review of published literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daoxian; Jiang, Xian; Wan, Huiying; Ran, Yuping; Hao, Dan; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis. A 47-year-old farmer was presented to our clinic with the history of progressive red plaque around the inner canthus following dacryocystectomy about a year earlier. Linear, aseptate hyphae were seen by direct KOH examination and in biopsy. Fungal culture revealed light yellow filamentous colonies that were identified as Mucor irregularis by nucleotide sequencing of rRNA gene. Amphotericin B and dexamethasone were used in gradually increasing dosage. The treatment lasted 43 days, and the patient received 760 mg total amphotericin B. The patient was discharged after 2 months of treatment. The plaque became smooth, and fungal culture was negative. There was no recurrence for half a year through telephone follow-ups. A review of published studies revealed 23 cases of Mucor irregularis infection. Most cases resulted following injuries or surgical complications. Farmers and manual laborers were most at risk with males outnumbering females among patients. Amphotericin B and its liposomal preparations remain most effective treatment choices.

  2. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Responses of the antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsano, Evelyn; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Hoque, Enamul; Lima, Stephan Pflugmacher

    2017-08-01

    To investigate antioxidative and biotransformation enzyme responses in Mucor hiemalis towards cyanotoxins considering its use in mycoremediation applications. Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in M. hiemalis maintained their activities at all tested microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure concentrations. Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased with exposure to 100 µg MC-LR l -1 while microsomal GST remained constant. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at 100 µg l -1 led to an increase in CAT activity and inhibition of GR, as well as to a concentration-dependent GPx inhibition. Microsomal GST was inhibited at all concentrations tested. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) inhibited GR activity in a concentration-dependent manner, however, CAT, GPx, and GST remained unaffected. M. hiemalis showed enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and intact biotransformation enzyme activity towards MC-LR and BMAA in comparison to CYN, confirming its applicability in bioreactor technology in terms of viability and survival in their presence.

  4. Production, Purification, and Characterization of Polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides ITCC 6025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Thakur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucor circinelloides produced an extracellular polygalacturonase enzyme, the production of which was enhanced when various production parameters were optimized. Maximum polygalacturonase (PGase activity was obtained in 48 h at 30∘C and pH 4.0 with pectin methyl ester (1% w/v as carbon source and a combination of casein hydrolysate (0.1% w/v and yeast extract (0.1% w/v as nitrogen source. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity (13.3-fold by Sephacryl S-100 gel-filtration chromatography. Its molecular weight was 66 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was found to have Km and Vmax values of 2.2 mM and 4.81 IU/ml at 0.1% to 0.5% (w/v concentration of the substrate. The addition of phenolic acids (0.05 mM, metal ions such as Mn+2, Co+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, Al+3, Hg+2, and Cu+2, and thiols had inhibitory effect on the enzyme. The enzyme showed maximum activity in the presence of polygalacturonic acid (0.1% w/v at pH 5.5 and 42∘C.

  5. Overexpression of malic enzyme (ME) of Mucor circinelloides improved lipid accumulation in engineered Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Sun, Hanxiao; Mo, Xuemei; Li, Xiuying; Xu, Bo; Tian, Peng

    2013-06-01

    The oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis has been known to be a potential feedstock for lipid production. In the present study, we investigated the enhancement of expression of malic enzyme (ME; NADP(+) dependent; EC 1.1.1.40) from Mucor circinelloides as a strategy to improve lipid content inside the yeast cells. The 26S rDNA and 5.8S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Rhodotorula glutinis were used for homologous integration of ME gene into R. glutinis chromosome under the control of the constitutively highly expressed gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to achieve stable expression. We demonstrated that by increasing the expression of the foreign ME gene in R. glutinis, we successfully improved the lipid content by more than twofold. At the end of lipid accumulation phrase (96 h) in the transformants, activity of ME was increased by twofold and lipid content of the yeast cells was increased from 18.74 % of the biomass to 39.35 %. Simultaneously, there were no significant differences in fatty acid profiles between the wild-type strain and the recombinant strain. Over 94 % of total fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2. Our results indicated that heterologous expression of NADP(+)-dependent ME involved in fatty acid biosynthesis indeed increased the lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast R. glutinis.

  6. Distinct RNAi Pathways in the Regulation of Physiology and Development in the Fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Nicolás, Francisco E; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Garre, Victoriano

    2015-01-01

    The basal fungus Mucor circinelloides has become, in recent years, a valuable model to study RNA-mediated gene silencing or RNA interference (RNAi). Serendipitously discovered in the late 1900s, the gene silencing in M. circinelloides is a landscape of consensus and dissents. Although similar to other classical fungal models in the basic design of the essential machinery that is responsible for silencing of gene expression, the existence of small RNA molecules of different sizes generated during this process and the presence of a mechanism that amplifies the silencing signal, give it a unique identity. In addition, M. circinelloides combines the components of RNAi machinery to carry out functions that not only limit themselves to the defense against foreign genetic material, but it uses some of these elements to regulate the expression of its own genes. Thus, different combinations of RNAi elements produce distinct classes of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) that regulate different physiological and developmental processes in response to environmental signals. The recent discovery of a new RNAi pathway involved in the specific degradation of endogenous mRNAs, using a novel RNase protein, adds one more element to the exciting puzzle of the gene silencing in M. circinelloides, in addition to providing hints about the evolutionary origin of the RNAi mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-scale metabolic modeling of Mucor circinelloides and comparative analysis with other oleaginous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Tawornsamretkit, Iyarest; Tatiyaborwornchai, Witthawin; Laoteng, Kobkul; Meechai, Asawin

    2016-06-01

    We present a novel genome-scale metabolic model iWV1213 of Mucor circinelloides, which is an oleaginous fungus for industrial applications. The model contains 1213 genes, 1413 metabolites and 1326 metabolic reactions across different compartments. We demonstrate that iWV1213 is able to accurately predict the growth rates of M. circinelloides on various nutrient sources and culture conditions using Flux Balance Analysis and Phenotypic Phase Plane analysis. Comparative analysis of three oleaginous genome-scale models, including M. circinelloides (iWV1213), Mortierella alpina (iCY1106) and Yarrowia lipolytica (iYL619_PCP) revealed that iWV1213 possesses a higher number of genes involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolisms that might contribute to its versatility in nutrient utilization. Moreover, the identification of unique and common active reactions among the Zygomycetes oleaginous models using Flux Variability Analysis unveiled a set of gene/enzyme candidates as metabolic engineering targets for cellular improvement. Thus, iWV1213 offers a powerful metabolic engineering tool for multi-level omics analysis, enabling strain optimization as a cell factory platform of lipid-based production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  9. Biopolymer production using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíssa Rodrigues Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated extracellular production of biopolymer using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as a carbon source. Initially employing conical flasks of 500 mL containing 100 mL of cultive medium with 0.18 ± 0.03 g.L–1 of microorganisms, the results showed that the best conditions of the variables studied were: initial concentration of glycerol 50 g.L–1, fermentation time of 96 h, inoculum cultivation time of 120 h, and aeration in two stages–the first 24 hours without aeration and 72 hours fermentation with aeration of 2 vvm and 2 g.L–1 of yeast extract. The experiments conducted in a Biostat B fermenter with a 2.0 L capacity that contained 1.0 L of medium showed production of 16.35 g.L–1 gum formed and 75% glycerol consumption. These conditions produced a biopolymer with the molecular weight and total sugar content of 4.607×106 g.mol–1 (Da and 89.5%, respectively.

  10. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  11. Novel glucose dehydrogenase from Mucor prainii: Purification, characterization, molecular cloning and gene expression in Aspergillus sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Ryoko; Ichiyanagi, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Keiichi; Hirokawa, Kozo; Araki, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Taro; Gomi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is of interest for its potential applications in the field of glucose sensors. To improve the performance of glucose sensors, GDH is required to have strict substrate specificity. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH was isolated from Mucor prainii NISL0103 and its enzymatic properties were characterized. This FAD-dependent GDH (MpGDH) exhibited high specificity toward glucose. High specificity for glucose was also observed even in the presence of saccharides such as maltose, galactose and xylose. The molecular masses of the glycoforms of GDH ranged from 90 to 130 kDa. After deglycosylation, a single 80 kDa band was observed. The gene encoding MpGDH was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus sojae. The apparent kcat and Km values of recombinant enzyme for glucose were found to be 749.7 s(-1) and 28.3 mM, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of MpGDH were suitable for assaying blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation of oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Cánovas-Márquez, José T; Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous fungi requires the supply of reducing power, NADPH, and the precursor of fatty acids, acetyl-CoA, which is generated in the cytosol being produced by ATP: citrate lyase which requires citrate to be, transported from the mitochondrion by the citrate/malate/pyruvate transporter. This transporter, which is within the mitochondrial membrane, transports cytosolic malate into the mitochondrion in exchange for mitochondrial citrate moving into the cytosol (Fig. 1). The role of malate transporter in lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi is not fully understood, however. Therefore, the expression level of the mt gene, coding for a malate transporter, was manipulated in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides to analyze its effect on lipid accumulation. The results showed that mt overexpression increased the lipid content for about 70 % (from 13 to 22 % dry cell weight, CDW), whereas the lipid content in mt knockout mutant decreased about 27 % (from 13 to 9.5 % CDW) compared with the control strain. Furthermore, the extracellular malate concentration was decreased in the mt overexpressing strain and increased in the mt knockout strain compared with the wild-type strain. This work suggests that the malate transporter plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungus M. circinelloides.

  13. Purification, biochemical, and structural characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago Pajeú; Sales, Amanda Emmanuelle; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão; Breydo, Leonid; Uversky, Vladimir N; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Converti, Attilio

    2017-08-01

    Fibrinolytic proteases are enzymes that degrade fibrin. They provide a promising alternative to existing drugs for thrombolytic therapy. A protease isolated from the filamentous fungus Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 was purified in three steps by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, and molecular exclusion chromatographies, and characterized biochemically and structurally. The purified protease exhibited a molecular mass of 20 kDa, an apparent isoelectric point of 4.94 and a secondary structure composed mainly of α-helices. Selectivity for N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as substrate suggests that this enzyme is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease, whose activity was enhanced by the addition of Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Fe 2+ . The enzyme showed a fibrinolytic activity of 22.53 U/mL at 40 °C and its contact with polyethylene glycol did not lead to any significant alteration of its secondary structure. This protein represents an important example of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme with potential use in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis.

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Solanum nigrum L. with Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Cao, Xiufeng; Li, Min; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Cui, Zhaojie

    2017-04-01

    Strain selected from mine tailings in Anshan for Pb bioremediation was characterized at the genetic level by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Results revealed that the strain belongs to Mucor circinelloides. Bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil was conducted using Solanum nigrum L. combined with M. circinelloides. The removal efficacy was in the order microbial/phytoremediation > phytoremediation > microbial remediation > control. The bioremediation rates were 58.6, 47.2, and 40.2% in microbial/phytoremediation, microbial remediation, and phytoremediation groups, respectively. Inoculating soil with M. circinelloides enhanced Pb removal and S. nigrum L. growth. The bioaccumulation factor (BF, 1.43), enrichment factor (EF, 1.56), and translocation factor (TF, 1.35) were higher than unit, suggesting an efficient ability of S. nigrum L. in Pb bioremediation. Soil fertility was increased after bioremediation according to change in enzyme activities. The results indicated that inoculating S. nigrum L. with M. circinelloides enhanced its efficiency for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb.

  15. Mucor irregularis infection and lethal midline granuloma: a case report and review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Ming; Lun, Li De

    2012-12-01

    Mucor irregularis (Rhizomucor variabilis) infection and lethal midline granuloma (LMG) are characterized by progressive swelling, ulceration, and destruction of the central face that is usually fatal. Pathological features are inflammation, necrosis, and granulation. LMG has been called by various names, and in recent years, it has been known as NK/T cell lymphoma. However, diagnosis still relies on the progressive necrosis course rather than malignancy in histology. The disease has long challenged physicians, particularly when it worsens with radiotherapy or chemotherapy but sometimes achieves total remission without anti-malignancy therapies. We describe a 35-year-old man who had typical clinical-pathological symptoms of LMG, which turned out to be primary M. irregularis infection; that was diagnosed by positive tissue culture and fungal elements in histology. The patient was successfully treated with antifungal therapy (liposomal amphotericin B, total 4,600 mg and amphotericin B total 277 mg, over a duration of 70 days). We hereby review current knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, radiographic characteristics, and pathologic features of LMG with those of M. irregularis infection and their associations. We conclude that primary M. irregulars infection can mimic the clinico-pathological symptoms of LMG and the condition responds favorably to aggressive antifungal therapy.

  16. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis of lipid accumulation in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Wang, Liping; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2015-12-01

    The oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides is of industrial interest because it can produce high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid γ-linolenic acid. M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 is able to accumulate less than 15% of cell dry weight as lipids, while M. circinelloides WJ11 can accumulate lipid up to 36%. In order to better understand the mechanisms behind the differential lipid accumulation in these two strains, tracer experiments with (13)C-glucose were performed with the growth of M. circinelloides and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection of (13)C-patterns in proteinogenic amino acids was carried out to identify the metabolic network topology and estimate intracellular fluxes. Our results showed that the high oleaginous strain WJ11 had higher flux of pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme, lower flux in tricarboxylic acid cycle, higher flux in glyoxylate cycle and ATP: citrate lyase, together, it might provide more NADPH and substrate acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Oleaginous Fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luning; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Song, Yuanda

    2018-01-24

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is a pivotal regulator of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides has four putative DGATs: McDGAT1A, McDGAT1B, McDGAT2A, and McDGAT2B, classified into the DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, respectively. To identify and characterize DGATs in M. circinelloides, these four genes were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 (TAG-deficient quadruple mutant), individually. TAG biosynthesis was restored only by the expression of McDGAT2B, and TAG content was significantly higher in the mutants with McDGAT2B expression than in a S. cerevisiae mutant with endogenous DGA1 expression. McDGAT2B prefers saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids and has an obvious preference for C18:3 (ω-6) according to the results of substrate preference experiments. Furthermore, only the mRNA expression pattern of McDGAT2B correlated with TAG biosynthesis during a fermentation process. Our experiments strongly indicate that McDGAT2B is crucial for TAG accumulation, suggesting that it may be an essential target for metabolic engineering aimed at increasing lipid content of M. circinelloides.

  18. Biomineralization of gold by Mucor plumbeus: The progress in understanding the mechanism of nanoparticles' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Irena; Tylus, Włodzimierz; Chęcmanowski, Jacek; Szczygieł, Bogdan; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Pusz, Wojciech; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This contribution describes the deposition of gold nanoparticles by microbial reduction of Au(III) ions using the mycelium of Mucor plumbeus. Biosorption as the major mechanism of Au(III) ions binding by the fungal cells and the reduction of them to the form of Au(0) on/in the cell wall, followed by the transportation of the synthesized gold nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, is postulated. The probable mechanism behind the reduction of Au(III) ions is discussed, leading to the conclusion that this process is nonenzymatic one. Chitosan of the fungal cell wall is most likely to be the major molecule involved in biomineralization of gold by the mycelium of M. plumbeus. Separation of gold nanoparticles from the cells has been carried out by the ultrasonic disintegration and the obtained nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron micrograph analysis. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1381-1392, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. New cryptotanshinone derivatives with anti-influenza A virus activities obtained via biotransformation by Mucor rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenni; Li, Yao; Qin, Yuejie; Tong, Xiaomei; Song, Zhijun; Zhao, Yu; Wei, Ran; Li, Li; Dai, Huanqin; Wang, Wenzhao; Luo, Houwei; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an efficient platform to diversify the structure and pharmaceutical potentials of known natural products. Seven metabolites were obtained via the biotransformation of cryptotanshinone by the fungus Mucor rouxii AS 3.3447, and assigned as 13R-14R-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (1), 1S-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (2), 1R-hydroxy-anhydride of 16R-cryptotanshinone (3), 3S-hydroxy-epicryptoacetalide (4), 3S-hydroxy-cryptoacetalide (5), epicryptoacetalide (6), and cryptoacetalide (7). Among these compounds, 1-5 are novel. The ortho-naphthoquinone chromophore of cryptotanshinone was degraded and rearranged by M. rouxii. 1 and 3 showed good anti-influenza A virus activities with the reduced cytotoxic activities compared to the parent substrate cryptotanshinone (8). The structures of all the new compounds were determined on the basis of HRESIMS (high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy) spectrometry, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, ECD (electronic circular dichroism) calculations, and the CD (circular dichroism) of "in situ" method with [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ].

  20. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  1. Rhino-oculo-cerebral aspergillus and mucor co-infections in an immunocompromised patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidas Rit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis are pathogenic moulds of the mucorales species usually occurring in immunocompromised patients or in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Aspergillosis is the clinical condition caused by Aspergillus species and may cause an invasive disease with high case fatality rate, especially in immunosuppressed patients. A 46-year-old male patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with underlying malignancy presented with proptosis of left eye. Combined infections of Mucor and Aspergillus were diagnosed by means of computed tomography (CT scan and biopsy. Treatment with Amphotericin B and Voriconazole was started, the patient died within 3 months, from multi-organ failure.

  2. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-cancer activities of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Ge, Hongjuan; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin; Zhai, Xuguang; Wu, Juanjuan; Ling, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    To produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by fungal biotransformation. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (1) by Mucor racemosus AS 3.205 afforded six products. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. M. racemosus could selectively catalyze dehydrogenation at C-12 and further hydroxylation at C-7, C-11, and C-15, as well as rearrangement of double bond at C-26. Two of these new compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against SH-SY5Y and HepG2 cell lines. Biotransformation by M. racemosus AS 3.205 was an effective approach to produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol.

  3. Analysis of a food-borne fungal pathogen outbreak: virulence and genome of a Mucor circinelloides isolate from yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Billmyre, R Blake; Li, Alicia; Carson, Sandra; Sykes, Sean M; Huh, Eun Young; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Ko, Dennis C; Cuomo, Christina A; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-07-08

    Food-borne pathogens are ongoing problems, and new pathogens are emerging. The impact of fungi, however, is largely underestimated. Recently, commercial yogurts contaminated with Mucor circinelloides were sold, and >200 consumers became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mucoralean fungi cause the fatal fungal infection mucormycosis, whose incidence has been continuously increasing. In this study, we isolated an M. circinelloides strain from a yogurt container, and multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides. M. circinelloides f. circinelloides is the most virulent M. circinelloides subspecies and is commonly associated with human infections, whereas M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus and M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus are less common causes of infection. Whole-genome analysis of the yogurt isolate confirmed it as being close to the M. circinelloides f. circinelloides subgroup, with a higher percentage of divergence with the M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus subgroup. In mating assays, the yogurt isolate formed sexual zygospores with the (-) M. circinelloides f. circinelloides tester strain, which is congruent with its sex locus encoding SexP, the (+) mating type sex determinant. The yogurt isolate was virulent in murine and wax moth larva host systems. In a murine gastromucormycosis model, Mucor was recovered from fecal samples of infected mice for up to 10 days, indicating that Mucor can survive transit through the GI tract. In interactions with human immune cells, M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus induced proinflammatory cytokines but M. circinelloides f. circinelloides did not, which may explain the different levels of virulence in mammalian hosts. This study demonstrates that M. circinelloides can spoil food products and cause gastrointestinal illness in consumers and may pose a particular risk to immunocompromised patients. Importance: The U.S. FDA reported that yogurt products were contaminated with M

  4. Complete NMR assignment of a bisecting hybrid-type oligosaccharide transferred by Mucor hiemalis endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanoi, Takashi; Oda, Yoshiki; Katsuraya, Kaname; Inazu, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2016-06-02

    This study describes the complete nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral assignment of a bisecting hybrid-type oligosaccharide 1, transferred by Mucor hiemalis endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Endo-M). Through (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY, and NOESY experiments, we determine the structure of the glycoside linkage formed by the Endo-M transglycosylation, i.e., the connection between GlcNAc and GlcNAc in oligosaccharide 1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical mechanism of phytoremediation process of lead and cadmium pollution with Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Yang, Huanhuan; Cui, Zhaojie

    2018-08-15

    This study focused on the bioremediation mechanisms of lead (0, 100, 500, 1000 mg kg -1 ) and cadmium (0,10,50,100 mg kg -1 ) contaminated soil using two indigenous fungi selected from mine tailings as the phytostimulation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The two fungal strains were characterized as Mucor circinelloides (MC) and Trichoderma asperellum (TA) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing at the genetic levels. Our research revealed that Cadmium was more toxic to plant growth than lead and meanwhile, MC and TA can strengthen A. thaliana tolerance to cadmium and lead with 40.19-117.50% higher root length and 58.31-154.14% shoot fresh weight of plant compared to non-inoculation. In this study, TA exhibited a higher potential to the inactivation of cadmium; however, MC was more effective in lead passivation. There was a direct correlation between the type of fungi, heavy metal content, heavy metal type and oxidative damage in plant. Both lead and cadmium induced oxidative damage as indicated by increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while the antioxidant levels were significantly higher in fungal inoculated plants compared with those non-inoculated. The analysis of soil enzyme activity and taxonomic richness uncovered that the dominant structures of soil microbial community were altered by exogenous microbial agents. MC enhanced higher microbial diversity and soil enzyme activity than TA. The two indigenous fungi lessened several limiting factors with respect to phytoremediation technology, such as soil chemistry, contamination level and transformation, and metal solubility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Static magnetic field effects on proteases with fibrinolytic activity produced by Mucor subtilissimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Wendell; Nascimento, Thiago; Brandão-Costa, Romero; Fernandes, Thiago; Porto, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a static magnetic field (SMF) on crude enzyme extracts with proteolytic activity is described and discussed. Proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze peptide bonds, and fibrinolytic enzymes, which dissolve fibrin clots, have industrial relevance, and applicability dependent on improvements of productivity and activity. We investigated whether a moderate SMF affects proteolysis in different in vitro tests: general proteolysis of azocasein substrate, and static and dynamic fibrinolytic processes (to compare fibrin gel configuration under exposure). Crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state fermentation of Mucor subtilissimus UCP (Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) 1262, were used to carry out assays under slightly heterogeneous fields: a varied vertical SMF (for tests in Eppendorf tubes, from 0.100 to 0.170 T) and a varied horizontal SMF (for tests in Petri dishes, from 0.01 to 0.122 T), generated by two permanent magnets (NdFeB alloy). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in static fibrinolysis assays after 24 h of exposure. The mean diameter of halos of fibrin degradation in the treated group increased by 21% compared to the control group; and the pixel number count of fibrin consumption (in a computational analysis of the area of each halo) enhanced by 30% with exposure. However, in dynamic fibrinolysis assays, no effects of SMF were observed. These results suggest a response of fibrin monomers to the SMF as a possible cause of the observed effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A new mercury-accumulating Mucor hiemalis strain EH8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Enamul; Fritscher, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalisEH8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury (Hg 0 ). EH8 was isolated from a microbial biofilm grown in sulfidic-reducing spring water sourced at a Marching's site located downhill from hop cultivation areas with a history of mercury use. A thorough biodiversity survey and mercury-removal function analyses were undertaken in an area of about 200 km 2 in Bavaria (Germany) to find the key biofilm and microbe for mercury removal. After a systematic search using metal removal assays we identified Marching spring's biofilm out of 18 different sulfidic springs' biofilms as the only one that was capable of removing ionic Hg from water. EH8 was selected, due to its molecular biological identification as the key microorganism of this biofilm with the capability of mercury removal, and cultivated as a pure culture on solid and in liquid media to produce germinating sporangiospores. They removed 99% of mercury from water within 10-48 h after initial exposure to Hg(II). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated occurrence of intracellular mercury in germinating sporangiospores exposed to mercury. Not only associated with intracellular components, but mercury was also found to be released and deposited as metallic-shiny nanospheres. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis of such a nanosphere confirmed presence of mercury by the HgM α peak at 2.195 keV. Thus, a first aquatic eukaryotic microbe has been found that is able to grow even at low temperature under sulfur-reducing conditions with promising performance in mercury removal to safeguard our environment from mercury pollution. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. Expression of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernetics, Árpád; Tóth, Eszter; Farkas, Anita; Nagy, Gábor; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments that act as powerful antioxidants and have various beneficial effects on human and animal health. Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina) is a carotenoid producing zygomycetes fungus, which accumulates β-carotene as the main carotenoid but also able to produce the hydroxylated derivatives of β-carotene (i.e. zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) in low amount. These xanthophylls, together with the ketolated derivatives of β-carotene (such as canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin) have better antioxidant activity than β-carotene. In this study our aim was to modify and enhance the xanthophyll production of the M. circinelloides by expression of heterologous genes responsible for the astaxanthin biosynthesis. The crtS and crtR genes, encoding the cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase, respectively, of wild-type and astaxanthin overproducing mutant Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains were amplified from cDNA and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared to each other. Introduction of the crtS on autonomously replicating plasmid in the wild-type M. circinelloides resulted enhanced zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin accumulation and the presence of canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin in low amount; the β-carotene hydroxylase and ketolase activity of the X. dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase in M. circinelloides was verified. Increased canthaxanthin and echinenone production was observed by expression of the gene in a canthaxanthin producing mutant M. circinelloides. Co-expression of the crtR and crtS genes led to increase in the total carotenoid and slight change in xanthophyll accumulation in comparison with transformants harbouring the single crtS gene.

  10. Generation of a Mutant Mucor hiemalis Endoglycosidase That Acts on Core-fucosylated N-Glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Toshihiko; Katayama, Takane; Tomabechi, Yusuke; Nishikawa, Yoshihide; Kumada, Jyunichi; Matsuzaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-28

    Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase M (Endo-M), an endoglycosidase from the fungus Mucor hiemalis, is a useful tool for chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycoconjugates, including glycoprotein-based therapeutics having a precisely defined glycoform, by virtue of its transglycosylation activity. Although Endo-M has been known to act on various N-glycans, it does not act on core-fucosylated N-glycans, which exist widely in mammalian glycoproteins, thus limiting its application. Therefore, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on Endo-M to isolate mutant enzymes that are able to act on mammalian-type core-α1,6-fucosylated glycans. Among the Endo-M mutant enzymes generated, those in which the tryptophan at position 251 was substituted with alanine or asparagine showed altered substrate specificities. Such mutant enzymes exhibited increased hydrolysis of a synthetic α1,6-fucosylated trimannosyl core structure, whereas their activity on the afucosylated form decreased. In addition, among the Trp-251 mutants, the W251N mutant was most efficient in hydrolyzing the core-fucosylated substrate. W251N mutants could act on the immunoglobulin G-derived core-fucosylated glycopeptides and human lactoferrin glycoproteins. This mutant was also capable of transferring the sialyl glycan from an activated substrate intermediate (sialyl glyco-oxazoline) onto an α1,6-fucosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl biotin. Furthermore, the W251N mutant gained a glycosynthase-like activity when a N175Q substitution was introduced and it caused accumulation of the transglycosylation products. These findings not only give insights into the substrate recognition mechanism of glycoside hydrolase family 85 enzymes but also widen their scope of application in preparing homogeneous glycoforms of core-fucosylated glycoproteins for the production of potent glycoprotein-based therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Identification of a β-glucosidase from the Mucor circinelloides genome by peptide pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Zhao, Hai; Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    Mucor circinelloides produces plant cell wall degrading enzymes that allow it to grow on complex polysaccharides. Although the genome of M. circinelloides has been sequenced, only few plant cell wall degrading enzymes are annotated in this species. We applied peptide pattern recognition, which is a non-alignment based method for sequence analysis to map conserved sequences in glycoside hydrolase families. The conserved sequences were used to identify similar genes in the M. circinelloides genome. We found 12 different novel genes encoding members of the GH3, GH5, GH9, GH16, GH38, GH47 and GH125 families in M. circinelloides. One of the two GH3-encoding genes was predicted to encode a β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21). We expressed this gene in Pichia pastoris KM71H and found that the purified recombinant protein had relative high β-glucosidase activity (1.73U/mg) at pH5 and 50°C. The Km and Vmax with p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as substrate was 0.20mM and 2.41U/mg, respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by glucose and retained 84% activity at glucose concentrations up to 140mM. Although zygomycetes are not considered to be important degraders of lignocellulosic biomass in nature, the present finding of an active β-glucosidase in M. circinelloides demonstrates that enzymes from this group of fungi have a potential for cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and characterization of D-xylulokinase from the D-xylose-fermenting fungus, Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Hidenobu; Yamasaki-Yashiki, Shino; Hoshino, Kazuhiro; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-11-01

    D-Xylulokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-xylulose in the final step of the pentose catabolic pathway to form d-xylulose-5-phosphate. The D-xylulokinase activity was found to be induced by both D-xylose and L-arabinose, as well as some of the other enzymes involved in the pentose catabolism, in the D-xylose-fermenting zygomycetous fungus, Mucor circinelloides NBRC 4572. The putative gene, xyl3, which may encode D-xylulokinase, was detected in the genome sequence of this strain. The amino acid sequence deduced from the gene was more similar to D-xylulokinases from an animal origin than from other fungi. The recombinant enzyme was purified from the E. coli transformant expressing xyl3 and then characterized. The ATP-dependent phosphorylative activity of the enzyme was the highest toward D-xylulose. Its kinetic parameters were determined as Km (D-xylulose) = 0.29 mM and Km (ATP) = 0.51 mM, indicating that the xyl3 gene encoded D-xylulokinase (McXK). Western blot analysis revealed that McXK was induced by L-arabinose as well as D-xylose and the induction was repressed in the presence of D-glucose, suggesting that the enzyme may be involved in the catabolism of D-xylose and L-arabinose and is subject to carbon catabolite repression in this fungus. This is the first study on D-xylulokinase from zygomycetous fungi. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response surface approach for the biosorption of Cr{sup 6+} ions by mucor racemosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabasingh, Sekarathil A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Pavithra, Garre [Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-06-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) employing the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the biosorption of chromium (Cr{sup 6+}) by Mucor racemosus in submerged culture. The initial Cr{sup 6+} concentration (20-100 mg/L), pH (3.0-7.0), biomass dosage (5.0-9.0 mg), and time of sorption (2.0-6.0 h) were chosen as the process variables for the optimization. Two response values were chosen, i.e., sorption capacity (mg/g) and sorption percentage are optimized. A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of these parameters on the sorption percentage. A second-order quadratic model suggested the optimum conditions (initial Cr{sup 6+} concentration 100 mg/L, pH of 5.0, biomass dosage of 5.0 mg, and time of sorption 4 h) resulted in the improvement of sorption of Cr{sup 6+} from 12.47 to 49.98% as well as the improvement of the sorption capacity from 0.1036 to 0.5 mg/g. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the above-mentioned response variables yielded a high coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) value of 0.9985 and 0.9025 for the sorption capacity and sorption percentage, respectively. The desirability plot and overlay plot suggested the significance of the designed model. This is the first report on Cr{sup 6+} sorption by M. racemosus using statistical experimental design employing RSM. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Mucor fragilis as a novel source of the key pharmaceutical agents podophyllotoxin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Xin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Xiao; He, Xiao-Rui

    2014-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin, a pharmaceutically important bioactive compound of Podophyllum sps. (Berberidaceae), is in great demand worldwide as an anticancer and antivirus drug precursor. However, the source of podophyllotoxin is very limited due to the endangered status of the Podophyllum plant. The aim of this study was to isolate podophyllotoxin-producing endophytic fungi from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying (1979) (Berberidaceae) plants of the Taibai Mountains of China in order to obtain bioactive compounds. The strains producing kaempferol and podophyllotoxin were screened by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The presence of kaempferol and podophyllotoxin in extracts of these strains was further confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. Among six endophytic fungi isolated from the rhizomes of S. hexandrum, one strain was able to produce kaempferol. Another strain, named TW5, was able to produce both kaempferol and podophyllotoxin simultaneously according to the TLC, HPLC, and NMR results. The podophyllotoxin yield of TW5 was calculated to be 49.3 μg/g of mycelial dry weight after 7-d fermentation. Strain TW5 was identified morphologically and phylogenetically to be Mucor fragilis Fresen. (Mucoraceae). These results suggest that the podophyllotoxin-synthesizing ability is obtained by uptaking genes involved in the podophyllotoxin synthesis from the host plant into endophytic fungal genomes. Our results showed, for the first time, that the endophytic fungus M. fragilis is able to produce simultaneously the same two bioactive metabolites, podophyllotoxin and kaempferol, as its host plant. Furthermore, the relatively high podophyllotoxin yield obtained may improve the industrial production of podophyllotoxin, which may help protect this endangered plant.

  15. Changing Epidemiology of Mucoralean Fungi: Chronic Cutaneous Infection Caused by Mucor irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Jagdish; Kaur, Mandeep; Bhalla, Mala; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Singla, Nidhi; Bhola, Kalyani; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Stchigel, Alberto M; Guarro, Josep

    2015-10-01

    The fungi pertaining to order Mucorales usually cause an acute form of clinical disease called mucormycosis. A primary chronic presentation in an immunocompetent patient is a rare form of mucormycosis. Mucor irregularis is known for causing chronic cutaneous infections geographically confined to Asia, mainly in China. We describe a case of primary chronic cutaneous mucormycosis caused by M. irregularis from a new geographical niche in India, highlighting changing aspects of its epidemiology. The patient was a farmer with a history of skin lesions over the lower limb for the past 6 years. The biopsy taken from the lesions showed pauci-septate hyphae with right-angle branching on KOH wet mount as well as special fungal stains. On fungal culture, greyish-white cottony mycelial growth of Mucormycetes was obtained. The strain was finally identified as M. irregularis on macro- and microscopic features on 2 % MEA and DNA sequencing. The antifungal susceptibility was done using EUCAST broth microdilution method and was found to be susceptible to commonly used antifungal agents. The patient was started on oral itraconazole and saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI). While undergoing treatment for 2 months, he was lost to follow-up, however, after a year when he recently visited the hospital; the disease got completely healed with no new crops of skin lesions. Mucoralean fungi should also be suspected in cases with chronic presentation, in immunocompetent host, as there is emergence of such fungi in new endemic areas, particularly located in Asia. The role of other antifungal agents apart from amphotericin B for the treatment of chronic mucormycosis needs to be explored.

  16. Purification and Physico-Chemical Properties of Milk Clotting Enzyme Produced by Mucor Lamprosporus Comparable with Calf Rennet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Kabbany, H.; Kamel, Z.M.; Moubasher, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Fractional precipitation of the crude enzyme produced by Mucor Lamprosporus fungus using 70% ammonium sulfate gave the highest MCA at 40 degree. Further purification of the partially purified enzyme was achieved by using Sephadex G-100 and rechromatographed on DEAE Sephadex A-50 and gave 22.5 fold then the crude enzyme with 301% enzyme recovery. Addition of NaCl to the skim milk caused pronounced decline in MCA of the enzyme while addition of 160 ppm of NaCl increased the MCA from 26.6 su/ml to 200 su/ml. The optimum temperature of the skin milk which induced the maximum activity of the purified enzyme in skim milk was found to be 40 degree while preheating the enzyme at 50 degree for 10 min caused a complete inhibition. Mild acidic condition did not affect the activity of the purified enzyme which remained almost stable till pH 6.0 while at pH 7.0 or more, the enzyme completely lost its clotting activity. The present data also showed that Mucor Lamprosporus rennin like enzyme exhibited higher activity than calf rennet

  17. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional identification and regulatory analysis of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from the oleaginous fungus Mucor sp. EIM-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianzhang; Liu, Hongjiao; Niu, Yongchao; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Mingliang; Huang, Jianzhong

    2017-03-01

    To enlarge the diversity of the desaturases associated with PUFA biosynthesis and to better understand the transcriptional regulation of desaturases, a Δ 6 -desaturase gene (Md6) from Mucor sp. and its 5'-upstream sequence was functionally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the Δ 6 -fatty acid desaturase (Md6) in S. cerevisiae showed that Md6 could convert linolenic acid to γ-linolenic acid. Computational analysis of the promoter of Md6 suggested it contains several eukaryotic fundamental transcription regulatory elements. In vivo functional analysis of the promoter showed the 5'-upstream sequence of Md6 could initiate expression of GFP and Md6 itself in S. cerevisiae. A series deletion analysis of the promoter suggested that sequence between -919 to -784 bp (relative to start site) named as eMd6 is the key factor for high activity of Δ 6 -desaturase. The activity of Δ 6 -desaturase was increased by 2.8-fold and 2.5-fold when the eMd6 sequence was placed upstream of -434 with forward or reverse orientations respectively. To our best knowledge, the native promoter of Md6 from Mucor is the strongest promoter for Δ 6 -desaturase reported so far and the sequence between -919 to -784 bp is an enhancer for Δ 6 -desaturase activity.

  19. Dual disseminated infection with Nocardia farcinica and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clerck, Frederik; Van Ryckeghem, Florence; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominque; Druwé, Patrick; Hugel, Arnika; Claeys, Geert; Cools, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2014-11-20

    Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and require early diagnosis and treatment. However, correct diagnosis and treatment are often delayed by a multitude of factors. We report what we believe to be the first case of a combined disseminated infection with Nocardia and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 74-year-old Caucasian woman with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with recurrent pneumonia. Despite empirical treatment with antibiotics, her condition gradually deteriorated. Microbiological sampling by thoracoscopy revealed the presence of Nocardia. Despite the institution of therapy for disseminated nocardiosis, she died of multi-organ failure. A post-mortem investigation confirmed nocardiosis, but showed concomitant disseminated mucormycosis infection as well. Members of the bacterial genus Nocardia and the fungal genus Mucor are ubiquitous in the environment, have the ability to spread to virtually any organ, and are remarkably resistant to appropriate therapy. Both pathogens can mimic other pathologies both on clinical and radiological investigations. Invasive sampling procedures are often needed to prove their presence. Establishing a timely, correct diagnosis and a specific treatment is essential for patient survival.

  20. Effect of Naphthalene, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dioctyl Phthalate, and Adipic Dioctyl Ester, Chemicals Found in the Nests of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on a Saprophytic Mucor sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are commonly found associated with termites and their nests. Four chemicals that have been isolated from the nests of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated to determine their effect on a common nest fungus, a saprophytic Mucor sp. Butylated hydroxyto...

  1. The use of compensatory base change analysis of ITS2 as a tool in the phylogeny of Mucorales, illustrated by the Mucor circinelloides complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlowska, J.; Walther, G.; Wilk, M.; de Hoog, S.; Wrzosek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Compensatory base changes (CBCs) in helix II of rDNA ITS2, suggested as a molecular classifier for fungi, were analyzed in Mucor circinelloides and its varieties. Only a few CBCs were found in the complex. Three out of the four accepted formae (f. circinelloides, f. lusitanicus, f. janssenii) did

  2. Calcineurin plays key roles in the dimorphic transition and virulence of the human pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic fungi are dimorphic and switch between yeast and filamentous states. This switch alters host-microbe interactions and is critical for pathogenicity. However, in zygomycetes, whether dimorphism contributes to virulence is a central unanswered question. The pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides exhibits hyphal growth in aerobic conditions but switches to multi-budded yeast growth under anaerobic/high CO₂ conditions. We found that in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, Mucor exhibits exclusively multi-budded yeast growth. We also found that M. circinelloides encodes three calcineurin catalytic A subunits (CnaA, CnaB, and CnaC) and one calcineurin regulatory B subunit (CnbR). Mutations in the latch region of CnbR and in the FKBP12-FK506 binding domain of CnaA result in hyphal growth of Mucor in the presence of FK506. Disruption of the cnbR gene encoding the sole calcineurin B subunit necessary for calcineurin activity yielded mutants locked in permanent yeast phase growth. These findings reveal that the calcineurin pathway plays key roles in the dimorphic transition from yeast to hyphae. The cnbR yeast-locked mutants are less virulent than the wild-type strain in a heterologous host system, providing evidence that hyphae or the yeast-hyphal transition are linked to virulence. Protein kinase A activity (PKA) is elevated during yeast growth under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of FK506, or in the yeast-locked cnbR mutants, suggesting a novel connection between PKA and calcineurin. cnaA mutants lacking the CnaA catalytic subunit are hypersensitive to calcineurin inhibitors, display a hyphal polarity defect, and produce a mixture of yeast and hyphae in aerobic culture. The cnaA mutants also produce spores that are larger than wild-type, and spore size is correlated with virulence potential. Our results demonstrate that the calcineurin pathway orchestrates the yeast-hyphal and spore size dimorphic transitions that contribute to

  3. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes Potencial de quitosana de Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 como componente alternativo para inibir Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Bento

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L¹ and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g-1 were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L¹ after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 10(4 g.mol-1of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1. At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1 chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL-1were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes.Listeria monocytogenes apresentase como um microrganismo amplamente distribuído na natureza, sendo que a infecção listeriose é reconhecida como uma potencial ameaça a saúde humana devido a sua taxa de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de crescimento e de produção de quitosana por Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 cultivado em meio jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, bem como avaliar a eficácia anti-L. monocytogenes da quitosana produzida com vistas a uma possível aplicação em alimentos. Os mais elevados valores de biomassa de M. rouxxi (16,9 g.L¹ e o maior rendimento na

  4. Uranium biosorption by a filamentous fungus Mucor miehei pH effect on mechanisms and performances of uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibal, E.; Roulph, C.; Le Cloirec, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on uranium sorption mechanisms by Mucor miehei, a fungal biomass, used in agro-industries (enzyme synthesis). The pH plays an important part in these phenomena, mainly by its influence on metal or cell wall chemistry. Hydroxylation of uranyl, dependent on the pH and total metal concentration, influences kinetics, via the nature of the limiting phases: diffusion of metal through layers bordering or consituting the biomass, or intramembranar precipitation of uranyl initially adsorbed, and sorption mechanisms. With a moderate pH, sorption of uranylhydroxides modifies extracellular sorbent structures, consequently inducing a multilayer sorption opposed to monolayer adsorption obtained with acid pH. Uptake capacity is characterized by high values obtained even with low metal concentration in solution. Biosorbent could be a technical answer to pollution treatment and valorization of low charge waste streams and leaching solutions obtained in recovery of infra-marginal ores. (author)

  5. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-07-12

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective review of the literature revealed 13 cases. Eight (76.9%) patients had disseminated infections, and the overall mortality rate was 30.7%. A pulmonary infection caused by M. indicus genotype I in a liver transplant recipient was disseminated to include the skin and was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgery. M. indicus can infect a wide variety of patients with no real preference for the site of infection. We concluded that M. indicus has emerged as a significant cause of invasive mycosis in severely immunocompromised patients worldwide. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could enhance survival in these immunocompromised patient populations.

  6. New isocoumarins from a cold-adapted fungal strain mucor sp. and their developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chun-Chi; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Yan-Qiu; Xin, Sheng-Chang; Li, Song; Tang, Jin-Shan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Dan; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Gao, Hao

    2014-07-01

    Three new isocoumarin derivatives, mucorisocoumarins A-C (1-3, resp.), together with seven known compounds, 4-10, were isolated from the cold-adapted fungal strain Mucor sp. (No. XJ07027-5). The structures of the new compounds were identified by detailed IR, MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. It was noteworthy that compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were successfully resolved by chiral HPLC, indicating that 1-7 should exist as enantiomers. In an embryonic developmental toxicity assay using a zebrafish model, compound 3 produced developmental abnormalities in the zebrafish embryos. This is the first report of isocoumarins with developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Biotransformation of 20(R)-panaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Li, Jie; Yan, Sensen; Lin, Haijun; Wu, Juanjuan; Zhai, Xuguang; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin

    2017-08-01

    Biocatalysis of 20(R)-panaxatriol (PT) was performed by the fungus Mucor racemosus. Six metabolites (1-6) including five new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,24β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (2), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,22β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (3), 20(R),25-epoxy-23β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,12-trione (4), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,23α- dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (5), and 20(R),25-epoxy-12β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,23-trione (6) by spectroscopic analysis. Pharmacological studies revealed that compounds 2, 3 and 5 exhibited significant antihepatic fibrosis activity, while 4 and 6 showed cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells.

  8. LC-MS/MS method development for quantitative analysis of acetaminophen uptake by the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Balsano, Evelyn; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen is a pharmaceutical, frequently found in surface water as a contaminant. Bioremediation, in particular, mycoremediation of acetaminophen is a method to remove this compound from waters. Owing to the lack of quantitative analytical method for acetaminophen in aquatic organisms, the present study aimed to develop a method for the determination of acetaminophen using LC-MS/MS in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. The method was then applied to evaluate the uptake of acetaminophen by M. hiemalis, cultured in pellet morphology. The method was robust, sensitive and reproducible with a lower limit of quantification of 5 pg acetaminophen on column. It was found that M. hiemalis internalize the pharmaceutical, and bioaccumulate it with time. Therefore, M. hiemalis was deemed a suitable candidate for further studies to elucidate its pharmaceutical tolerance and the longevity in mycoremediation applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced ethanol and glucosamine production from rice husk by NAOH pretreatment and fermentation by fungus Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Omidvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from rice husk by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Mucor hiemalis was investigated. To reach the maximum ethanol production yield, the most important influencing factors in the pretreatment process, including temperature (0-100°C, NaOH concentration (1-3 M, and the pretreatment time (30-180 min, were optimized using an experimental design by a response surface methodology (RSM. The maximum ethanol production yield of 86.7 % was obtained after fungal cultivation on the husk pretreated with 2.6 M NaOH at 67°C for 150 min. This was higher than the yield of 57.7% obtained using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control. Furthermore, fermentation using M. hiemalis under the optimum conditions led to the production of a highly valuable fungal biomass, containing 60 g glucosamine (GlcN, 410 g protein, and 160 g fungal oil per each kg of the fungal biomass.

  10. The crucial role of the Pls1 tetraspanin during ascospore germination in Podospora anserina provides an example of the convergent evolution of morphogenetic processes in fungal plant pathogens and saprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambou, Karine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Barbisan, Crystel; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Silar, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Pls1 tetraspanins were shown for some pathogenic fungi to be essential for appressorium-mediated penetration into their host plants. We show here that Podospora anserina, a saprobic fungus lacking appressorium, contains PaPls1, a gene orthologous to known PLS1 genes. Inactivation of PaPls1 demonstrates that this gene is specifically required for the germination of ascospores in P. anserina. These ascospores are heavily melanized cells that germinate under inducing conditions through a specific pore. On the contrary, MgPLS1, which fully complements a DeltaPaPls1 ascospore germination defect, has no role in the germination of Magnaporthe grisea nonmelanized ascospores but is required for the formation of the penetration peg at the pore of its melanized appressorium. P. anserina mutants with mutation of PaNox2, which encodes the NADPH oxidase of the NOX2 family, display the same ascospore-specific germination defect as the DeltaPaPls1 mutant. Both mutant phenotypes are suppressed by the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, suggesting that they are involved in the same cellular process required for the germination of P. anserina melanized ascospores. The analysis of the distribution of PLS1 and NOX2 genes in fungal genomes shows that they are either both present or both absent. These results indicate that the germination of P. anserina ascospores and the formation of the M. grisea appressorium penetration peg use the same molecular machinery that includes Pls1 and Nox2. This machinery is specifically required for the emergence of polarized hyphae from reinforced structures such as appressoria and ascospores. Its recurrent recruitment during fungal evolution may account for some of the morphogenetic convergence observed in fungi.

  11. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding a functional NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NED A SETAYESH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study a new NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305. A cDNA coding for cb s r was isolated from a Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA including coding and sequences flanking regions was determined. The open reading frame starting from ATG and ending with TAG stop codon encoded 228 amino acids and displayed the closest similarity (73% with Mortierella alpina cb s r. Lack of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal sequence was apparent, suggesting that the enzyme is a soluble isoform. The coding sequence was then cloned in the pET16b transcription vector carrying an N-terminal-linked His-Tag® sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. The recombinant Mucor enzyme was shown to have its optimal activity at pH and temperature of about 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The apparent Km value was calculated to be 13 μM for ferricyanide. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of a native fungal soluble isoform of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in E. coli.

  12. In vitro and in vivo activities of posaconazole and amphotericin B in a murine invasive infection by Mucor circinelloides: poor efficacy of posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Valentina; Pastor, F Javier; Calvo, Enrique; Alvarez, Eduardo; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Anette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Guarro, Josep

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 strains of Mucor circinelloides to amphotericin B and posaconazole was ascertained by using broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods and by determining the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). We evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day and amphotericin B at 0.8 mg/kg/day in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated infection by M. circinelloides by using 6 different strains tested previously in vitro. In general, most of the posaconazole MICs were within the range of susceptibility or intermediate susceptibility, while the small inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) were indicative of nonsusceptibility for all isolates tested. The MFCs were ≥ 3 dilutions higher than the corresponding MICs. In contrast, amphotericin B showed good activity against all of the strains tested regardless of the method used. The in vivo studies demonstrated that amphotericin B was effective in prolonging survival and reducing the fungal load. Posaconazole showed poor in vivo efficacy with no correlation with the MIC values. The results suggested that posaconazole should be used with caution in the treatment of infections caused by Mucor circinelloides or by strains of Mucor not identified to the species level.

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of fatty acid profiles in Mucor fungi grown in media with different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapaval, Volha; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Vogt, Gjermund; Kohler, Achim

    2014-09-11

    Fungal production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a highly potential approach in biotechnology. Currently the main focus is directed towards screening of hundreds strains in order to select of few potential ones. Thus, a reliable method for screening a high number of strains within a short period of time is needed. Here, we present a novel method for screening of PUFA-producing fungi by high-throughput microcultivation and FTIR spectroscopy. In the study selected Mucor fungi were grown in media with different carbon sources and fatty acid profiles were predicted on the basis of the obtained spectral data. FTIR spectra were calibrated against fatty acid analysis by GC-FD. The calibration models were cross-validated and correlation coefficients (R2) from 0.71 to 0.78 with RMSECV (root mean squared error) from 2.86% to 6.96% (percentage of total fat) were obtained. The FTIR results show a strong correlation to the results obtained by GC analysis, where high total contents of unsaturated fatty acids (both PUFA and MUFA) were achieved for Mucor plumbeus VI02019 cultivated in canola, olive and sunflower oil and Mucor hiemalis VI01993 cultivated in canola and olive oil.

  14. Alleviation of heavy metal toxicity and phytostimulation of Brassica campestris L. by endophytic Mucor sp. MHR-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mahwish; Irshad, Muhammad; Rahman, Hazir; Qasim, Muhammad; Afridi, Sahib Gul; Qadir, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr 6+ ), manganese (Mn 2+ ), cobalt (Co 2+ ), copper (Cu 2+ ) and zinc (Zn 2+ ). Out of 27 isolated endophytes, only one strain (MHR-7) was selected for multiple heavy metals tolerance. The strain was identified as Mucor sp. by 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 4 sequence homology. The strain effectively tolerated up to 900µgmL -1 of these heavy metals showing no remarkable effect on its growth. The adverse effect of the heavy metals, measured as reduction of the fungal growth increased with increasing concentration of the metals. The strain was able to remove 60-87% of heavy metals from broth culture when supplied with 300µgmL -1 of these metals. A trend of decline in bioremediation potential of the strain was observed with increasing amount of metals. The strain removed metals by biotransformation and/or accumulation of heavy metal in its hyphae. Application of Mucor sp. MHR-7 locked down HM in tis mycelium thereby making them less available to plant root reducing HM uptake and toxicity in mustard. Besides its bioremediation potential, the strain was also able to produce IAA, ACC deaminase and solubilize phosphate making it excellent phytostimulant fungus. It is concluded that MHR-7 is an excellent candidate for use as biofertilizer in fields affected with heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sorption of heavy metals by the soil fungi 'Aspergillus niger' and Mucor rouxii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Beveridge, T.J.; Bailey, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sorption of the nitrate salts of cadmium(II), copper(II), lanthanum(III) and silver(I) by two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii, was evaluated using Freundlich adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray electron microscopy. The linearized Freundlich isotherm described the metal sorption data well for metal concentrations of 5 microM-1 mM metal. Differences in metal binding were observed among metals, as well as between fungal species. Calculated Freundlich K values indicated that metal binding decreased in the order La(3+) > or = Ag(+) > Cu(2+) > Cd(2+). However, sorption of Ag(+) was greater than that of La(3+) from solutions of 0.1 and 1 mM metal and likely due to precipitation at the cell wall surface. At the 1 mM initial concentration, there were no significant differences between the two fungi in metal sorption, except for Ag(+) binding. At the 5 microM concentration, there was no difference between the fungi in their sorption capacities for the four metals. Electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that silver precipitated onto cells as colloidal silver. The results indicate that Freundlich isotherms may be useful for describing short-term metal sorption by fungal biomass and for comparison with other soil constituents in standardized systems. (Copyright (c) 1992 Pergamon Press plc.)

  16. Rapamycin exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-dependent inhibition of Tor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Shertz, Cecelia A; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E

    2012-03-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis.

  17. Biosynthesis, characterization and enzymatic transesterification of single cell oil of Mucor circinelloides--a sustainable pathway for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana K F; Rivaldi, Juan D; Barbosa, Jayne C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides URM 4182 was tested to determine its ability to produce single-cell oil suitable for obtaining biodiesel. Cell growth and lipid accumulation were investigated in a medium containing glucose as the main carbon source. A microwave-assisted ethanol extraction technique (microwave power ⩽200 W, 50-60 °C) was established and applied to lipid extraction from the fungal hyphae to obtain high lipid concentration (44%wt) of the dry biomass, which was considerably higher than the quantity obtained by classical solvent methods. The lipid profile showed a considerable amount of oleic acid (39.3%wt), palmitic acid (22.2%wt) and γ-linoleic acid (10.8%wt). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of the single-cell oil with ethanol using a immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym® 435) as the catalyst. (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses confirmed conversion of 93% of the single-cell oil from M. circinelloides into ethyl esters (FAEE). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal heterotrimeric G protein-encoding genes and their expression during dimorphism in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco Iván; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin Eduardo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Martínez-Cadena, Guadalupe; Campos-García, Jesús; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha Isela; Reyes-De la Cruz, Homero; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Díaz-Pérez, César; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-12-01

    In fungi, heterotrimeric G proteins are key regulators of biological processes such as mating, virulence, morphology, among others. Mucor circinelloides is a model organism for many biological processes, and its genome contains the largest known repertoire of genes that encode putative heterotrimeric G protein subunits in the fungal kingdom: twelve Gα (McGpa1-12), three Gβ (McGpb1-3), and three Gγ (McGpg1-3). Phylogenetic analysis of fungal Gα showed that they are divided into four distinct groups as reported previously. Fungal Gβ and Gγ are also divided into four phylogenetic groups, and to our understanding this is the first report of a phylogenetic classification for fungal Gβ and Gγ subunits. Almost all genes that encode putative heterotrimeric G subunits in M. circinelloides are differentially expressed during dimorphic growth, except for McGpg1 (Gγ) that showed very low mRNA levels at all developmental stages. Moreover, several of the subunits are expressed in a similar pattern and at the same level, suggesting that they constitute discrete complexes. For example, McGpb3 (Gβ), and McGpg2 (Gγ), are co-expressed during mycelium growth, and McGpa1, McGpb2, and McGpg2, are co-expressed during yeast development. These findings provide the conceptual framework to study the biological role of these genes during M. circinelloides morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapamycin Exerts Antifungal Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J.; Shertz, Cecelia A.; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22210828

  1. Rhizovarins A-F, Indole-Diterpenes from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Mucor irregularis QEN-189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Williams, Katherine; Proksch, Peter; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-26

    Genome mining of the fungus Mucor irregularis (formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis) revealed the presence of various gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including several terpene-based clusters. Investigation into the chemical diversity of M. irregularis QEN-189, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh inner tissue of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the discovery of 20 structurally diverse indole-diterpenes including six new compounds, namely, rhizovarins A-F (1-6). Among them, compounds 1-3 represent the most complex members of the reported indole-diterpenes. The presence of an unusual acetal linked to a hemiketal (1) or a ketal (2 and 3) in an unprecedented 4,6,6,8,5,6,6,6,6-fused indole-diterpene ring system makes them chemically unique. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and chemical calculations. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antitumor activity against HL-60 and A-549 cell lines.

  2. Dual Functions of Lip6 and Its Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in the Oleaginous Fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Song, Yuanda

    2018-03-21

    Although multiple roles of lipases have been reported in yeasts and microalgae, the functions of lipases have not been studied in oleaginous filamentous fungi. Lipase Lip6 has been reported in the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides with the consensus lipase motif GXSXG and the typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4 -D. To demonstrate that Lip6 might play dual roles as a lipase and an acyltransferase, we performed site-directed mutagenesis in the lipase motif and the acyltransferase motif of Lip6. Mutation in the lipase motif increased cell biomass by 12%-18% and promoted lipid accumulation by 9%-24%, while mutation in the acyltransferase motif induced lipid degradation. In vitro, purified Lip6 had a slight lipase activity but had a stronger phospholipid:DAG acyltransferase activity. Enzyme activity assays in vivo and phospholipid synthesis pathway analysis suggested that phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl ethanolamine can be the supplier of a fatty acyl moiety to form TAG in M. circinelloides.

  3. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  4. Generation of lycopene-overproducing strains of the fungus Mucor circinelloides reveals important aspects of lycopene formation and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingtong; Chen, Haiqin; Navarro, Eusebio; López-García, Sergio; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano

    2017-03-01

    To generate lycopene-overproducing strains of the fungus Mucor circinelloides with interest for industrial production and to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism of lycopene cyclase and regulatory process during lycopene overaccumulation. Three lycopene-overproducing mutants were generated by classic mutagenesis techniques from a β-carotene-overproducing strain. They carried distinct mutations in the carRP gene encoding lycopene cyclase that produced loss of enzymatic activity to different extents. In one mutant (MU616), the lycopene cyclase was completely destroyed, and a 43.8% (1.1 mg/g dry mass) increase in lycopene production was observed in comparison to that by the previously existing lycopene overproducer. In addition, feedback regulation of the end product was suggested in lycopene-overproducing strains. A lycopene-overaccumulating strain of the fungus M. circinelloides was generated that could be an alternative for the industrial production of lycopene. Vital catalytic residues for lycopene cyclase activity and the potential mechanism of lycopene formation and accumulation were identified.

  5. [Blue-light induced expression of S-adenosy-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like gene in Mucor amphibiorum RCS1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Shu; Fu, Mingjia; Zhong, Guolin

    2013-09-04

    To determine blue-light induced expression of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like (sahhl) gene in fungus Mucor amphibiorum RCS1. In the random process of PCR, a sequence of 555 bp was obtained from M. amphibiorum RCS1. The 555 bp sequence was labeled with digoxin to prepare the probe for northern hybridization. By northern hybridization, the transcription of sahhl gene was analyzed in M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia culture process from darkness to blue light to darkness. Simultaneously real-time PCR method was used to the sahhl gene expression analysis. Compared with the sequence of sahh gene from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and some fungi species, a high homology of the 555 bp sequence was confirmed. Therefore, the preliminary confirmation has supported that the 555 bp sequence should be sahhl gene from M. amphibiorum RCS1. Under the dark pre-culture in 24 h, a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene in the mycelia can be detected by northern hybridization and real-time PCR in the condition of 24 h blue light. But a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene were not found in other detection for the dark pre-culture of 48 h, even though M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia were induced by blue light. Blue light can induce the expression of sahhl gene in the vigorous growth of M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia.

  6. A thermolabile aspartic proteinase from Mucor mucedo DSM 809: gene identification, cloning, and functional expression in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the cDNA encoding the aspartic proteinase of Mucor mucedo DSM 809 has been identified by RNA ligased-mediated and oligo-capping rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The gene contained an open reading frame of 1,200 bp and encoded for a signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues. Two N-glycosylation sites were observed within the identified sequence. The proteinase gene was cloned into the vector pGAPZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 for the first time. The protein has been secreted in functionally active form into the culture medium. The expression system does not require any acid activation process. The factors affecting the expression level were optimized in shaking flask cultures. Maximum enzyme production was observed with an initial medium pH of 3.5 at 20 °C and 220 rpm shaking speed utilizing 4 % glucose as a carbon and energy source. The enzyme was purified with cation exchange chromatography and further studies revealed that the enzyme was secreted in glycosylated form. The purified enzyme exhibited remarkable sensitivity to thermal treatment and became completely inactivated after incubation at 55 °C for 10 min. These results indicated that the recombinant proteinase could be considered as a potential rennet candidate for the cheese-making industry.

  7. Composition and morphology characterization of exopolymeric substances produced by the PAH-degrading fungus of Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Liu, Changfeng; Gong, Zongqiang

    2016-05-01

    To explore the role of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in the process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation, the characteristics of EPS isolated from a PAH-degrading fungus were investigated firstly by spectrometric determination, microscopic observation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), and then the PAH-degrading ability of isolated EPS was evaluated. The EPS compositions and morphology varied significantly with the extraction methods. EPS were mainly composed of proteins, carbohydrate, and humic-like substances, and the cation exchange resin (CER)-extracted EPS were granular while other EPS samples were all powders. Heating was the most effective treatment method, followed by the CER, centrifugation, and ultrasonication methods. However, 3D-EEM data demonstrated that heating treatment makes the mycelia lyse the most. Overall, therefore, the CER was the best EPS extraction method for Mucor mucedo (M. mucedo). The PAH degradation results indicated that 87 % of pyrene and 81 % of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were removed by M. mucedo over 12 days and 9 % more pyrene and 7 % more B[a]P were reduced after CER-extracted EPS addition of 465 mg l(-1). The investigation of EPS characterization and EPS enhancing PAH biodegradation is the premise for further in-depth exploration of the role of EPS contribution to PAH biodegradation.

  8. Sialoglycoproteins in morphological distinct stages of Mucor polymorphosporus and their influence on phagocytosis by human blood phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Travassos, Luiz R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2013-10-01

    The possible role of sialic acids in host cells-fungi interaction and their association with glycoproteins were evaluated using a clinical isolate of the dimorphic fungus Mucor polymorphosporus. Lectin-binding assays with spores and yeast cells denoted the presence of surface sialoglycoconjugates containing 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialylglycosyl groups. Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled Limulus polyphemus agglutinin revealed the occurrence of different sialoglycoprotein types in both cell lysates and cell wall protein extracts of mycelia, spores, and yeasts of M. polymorphosporus. Sialic acids contributed to the surface negative charge of spores and yeast forms as evaluated by adherence to a cationic substrate. Sialidase-treated spores were less resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and monocytes from healthy individuals than control (untreated) fungal suspensions. The results suggest that sialic acids are terminal units of various glycoproteins of M. polymorphosporus, contributing to negative charge of yeasts and spore cells and protecting infectious propagules from destruction by host cells.

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real time RT-PCR during dimorphism in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco I; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin E; Gutiérrez-Corona, Félix; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Campos-García, Jesús; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungal model for studying several biological processes including cell differentiation (yeast-mold transitions) as well as biodiesel and carotene production. The recent release of the first draft sequence of the M. circinelloides genome, combined with the availability of analytical methods to determine patterns of gene expression, such as quantitative Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the development of molecular genetic tools for the manipulation of the fungus, may help identify M. circinelloides gene products and analyze their relevance in different biological processes. However, no information is available on M. circinelloides genes of stable expression that could serve as internal references in qRT-PCR analyses. One approach to solve this problem consists in the use of housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is a fundamental step prior to initiating qRT-PCR assays. This work evaluates expression of several constitutive genes by qRT-PCR throughout the morphological differentiation stages of M. circinelloides; our results indicate that tfc-1 and ef-1 are the most stable genes for qRT-PCR assays during differentiation studies and they are proposed as reference genes to carry out gene expression studies in this fungus.

  10. Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutani, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Yukie; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2011-11-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum with antimicrobial activity relatively weaker than those of well-known antibiotics, and significantly enhances the antifungal activity of polygodial and dodecanol against the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole is unresolved. Anethole demonstrated antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus, Mucor mucedo IFO 7684, accompanied by hyphal morphological changes such as swollen hyphae at the tips. Its minimum growth inhibitory concentration was 0.625 mM. A hyperosmotic condition (1.2 M sorbitol) restricted the induction of morphological changes, while hypoosmotic treatment (distilled water) induced bursting of hyphal tips and leakage of cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner. These results suggest that the morphological changes of M. mucedo could be explained by the fragility of cell walls caused by CHS inhibition. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Value-added oil and animal feed production from corn-ethanol stillage using the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Debjani; Rasmussen, Mary L; Chand, Priyanka; Chintareddy, Venkat Reddy; Yao, Linxing; Grewell, David; Verkade, John G; Wang, Tong; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2012-03-01

    This study highlights the potential of oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides in adsorbing/assimilating oil and nutrients in thin stillage (TS), and producing lipid and protein-rich fungal biomass. Fungal cultivation on TS for 2 days in a 6-L airlift bioreactor, resulted in a 92% increase in oil yield from TS, and 20 g/L of fungal biomass (dry) with a lipid content of 46% (g of oil per 100g dry biomass). Reduction in suspended solids and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in TS were 95% and 89%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungal oil were 52% of total lipids. Fungal cells grown on Yeast Malt (YM) broth had a higher concentration of γ-linolenic acid (17 wt.%) than those grown on TS (1.4 wt.%). Supplementing TS with crude glycerol (10%, v/v) during the stationary growth phase led to a further 32% increase (from 46% to 61%) in cellular oil content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Single Argonaute Gene Participates in Exogenous and Endogenous RNAi and Controls Cellular Functions in the Basal Fungus Mucor circinelloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Francisco E.; Moxon, Simon; de Haro, Juan P.; Dalmay, Tamas; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of RNAi is well described in metazoans where it plays a role in diverse cellular functions. However, although different classes of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) have been identified in fungi, their biological roles are poorly described due, in part, to the lack of phenotype of mutants affected in the biogenesis of these esRNAs. Argonaute proteins are one of the key components of the RNAi pathways, in which different members of this protein family participate in the biogenesis of a wide repertoire of esRNAs molecules. Here we identified three argonaute genes of the fungus Mucor circinelloides and investigated their participation in exogenous and endogenous RNAi. We found that only one of the ago genes, ago-1, is involved in RNAi during vegetative growth and is required for both transgene-induced RNA silencing and the accumulation of distinct classes of esRNAs derived from exons (ex-siRNAs). Classes I and II ex-siRNAs bind to Ago-1 to control mRNA accumulation of the target protein coding genes. Class III ex-siRNAs do not specifically bind to Ago-1, but requires this protein for their production, revealing the complexity of the biogenesis pathways of ex-siRNAs. We also show that ago-1 is involved in the response to environmental signals, since vegetative development and autolysis induced by nutritional stress are affected in ago-1 − M. circinelloides mutants. Our results demonstrate that a single Ago protein participates in the production of different classes of esRNAs that are generated through different pathways. They also highlight the role of ex-siRNAs in the regulation of endogenous genes in fungi and expand the range of biological functions modulated by RNAi. PMID:23935973

  13. Effect of the Filamentous Fungus Mucor circinelloides On The Development of Eggs of the Rumen Fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Fabián; Hernández, José A; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Pedreira, José; Sanchís, Jaime; Romasanta, Ángel; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S

    2017-06-01

    Ruminants infected by Paramphistomidae flukes shed eggs in the feces, which pass through different stages in the environment until the infective stages (metacercariae) are reached. The activity of the soil fungus Mucor circinelloides on the development of eggs of the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi was presently tested with 3 probes, i.e., in petri plates, feces, and an aqueous environment (tubes). The effect of the fungus was assessed by recording the numbers of undeveloped, nonviable, and embryonated eggs. Nonviable eggs were considered when vacuolization occurred, the inner structures were not clearly observed, the eggshell was broken, or the embryo inside was destroyed. By considering the ability of hyphae of M. circinelloides to develop in the presence of C. daubneyi eggs, attach to their surface, and penetrate and destroy the inner embryo, this ovicidal effect was classified as type 3. After a period of 50 days, the percentage of undeveloped eggs in the feces of infected cattle was 40%; furthermore, 27% of the eggs were nonviable, and 33% were embryonated (1 miracidium inside). The addition of 4 doses of M. circinelloides spores directly onto the feces resulted in 9-31% undeveloped eggs, 38-60% nonviable eggs, and 9-21% embryonated eggs, and no statistical significances were obtained among the different doses. Placing the eggs of C. daubneyi into an aqueous solution containing 10 7 spores of M. circinelloides/ml for 29 days resulted in 43% undeveloped eggs, 40% nonviable eggs, and 17% embryonated eggs, whereas in the controls, the percentages were 48%, 12%, and 40%, respectively. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the spores of the fungus M. circinelloides in limiting the development of the eggs of the trematode C. daubneyi.

  14. A non-canonical RNA degradation pathway suppresses RNAi-dependent epimutations in the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Silvia; Nicolás, Francisco E; Lee, Soo Chan; Vila, Ana; Cervantes, Maria; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M; Cardenas, Maria E; Heitman, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified. Thus, mutations that specifically block the mRNA degradation pathway, such as those in the genes r3b2 and rdrp3, enhance the production of drug resistant epimutants, similar to the phenotype previously described for mutation of the gene rdrp1. Our genetic analysis also revealed two new specific components of the epimutation pathway related to the quelling induced protein (qip) and a Sad-3-like helicase (rnhA), as mutations in these genes prevented formation of drug-resistant epimutants. Remarkably, drug-resistant epimutant production was notably increased in M. circinelloides f. circinelloides isolates from humans or other animal hosts. The host-pathogen interaction could be a stressful environment in which the phenotypic plasticity provided by the epimutant pathway might provide an advantage for these strains. These results evoke a model whereby balanced regulation of two different RNAi pathways is determined by the activation of the RNAi-dependent epimutant pathway under stress conditions, or its repression when the regular maintenance of the mRNA degradation pathway operates under non-stress conditions.

  15. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

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    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory, 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  16. Lipase genes in Mucor circinelloides: identification, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling during growth and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2016-10-01

    Lipases or triacylglycerol hydrolases are widely spread in nature and are particularly common in the microbial world. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a potential lipase producer, as it grows well in triacylglycerol-contained culture media. So far only one lipase from M. circinelloides has been characterized, while the majority of lipases remain unknown in this fungus. In the present study, 47 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides WJ11 and 30 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 were identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. An overview of these lipases is presented, including several characteristics, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the lipase genes during growth and lipid accumulation. All of these proteins contained the consensus sequence for a classical lipase (GXSXG motif) and were divided into four types including α/β-hydrolase_1, α/β-hydrolase_3, class_3 and GDSL lipase (GDSL) based on gene annotations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that class_3 family and α/β-hydrolase_3 family were the conserved lipase family in M. circinelloides. Additionally, some lipases also contained a typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4-D, and these lipases may play a dual role in lipid metabolism, catalyzing both lipid hydrolysis and transacylation reactions. The differential expression of all lipase genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression profiling were analyzed to predict the possible biological roles of these lipase genes in lipid metabolism in M. circinelloides. We preliminarily hypothesized that lipases may be involved in triacylglycerol degradation, phospholipid synthesis and beta-oxidation. Moreover, the results of sub-cellular localization, the presence of signal peptide and transcriptional analyses of lipase genes indicated that four lipase in WJ11 most likely belong to extracellular lipases with a signal peptide. These findings provide a platform

  17. Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit Isoforms Regulate Growth and Differentiation in Mucor circinelloides: Essential Role of PKAR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, J.; McCormack, B.; Navarro, E.; Moreno, S.; Garre, V.

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation in the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides. PKA holoenzyme is comprised of two catalytic (C) and two regulatory (R) subunits. In M. circinelloides, four genes encode the PKAR1, PKAR2, PKAR3, and PKAR4 isoforms of R subunits. We have constructed null mutants and demonstrate that each isoform has a different role in growth and differentiation. The most striking finding is that pkaR4 is an essential gene, because only heterokaryons were obtained in knockout experiments. Heterokaryons with low levels of wild-type nuclei showed an impediment in the emission of the germ tube, suggesting a pivotal role of this gene in germ tube emergence. The remaining null strains showed different alterations in germ tube emergence, sporulation, and volume of the mother cell. The pkaR2 null mutant showed an accelerated germ tube emission and was the only mutant that germinated under anaerobic conditions when glycine was used as a nitrogen source, suggesting that pkaR2 participates in germ tube emergence by repressing it. From the measurement of the mRNA and protein levels of each isoform in the wild-type and knockout strains, it can be concluded that the expression of each subunit has its own mechanism of differential regulation. The PKAR1 and PKAR2 isoforms are posttranslationally modified by ubiquitylation, suggesting another regulation point in the specificity of the signal transduction. The results indicate that each R isoform has a different role in M. circinelloides physiology, controlling the dimorphism and contributing to the specificity of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway. PMID:22635921

  18. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Wei; Yarbrough, John M; Baker, John O; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Chen, Xiaowen; Taylor, Larry E; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E; Zhang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory), 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory) and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH) proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH) that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI) into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  19. A non-canonical RNA degradation pathway suppresses RNAi-dependent epimutations in the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Calo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified. Thus, mutations that specifically block the mRNA degradation pathway, such as those in the genes r3b2 and rdrp3, enhance the production of drug resistant epimutants, similar to the phenotype previously described for mutation of the gene rdrp1. Our genetic analysis also revealed two new specific components of the epimutation pathway related to the quelling induced protein (qip and a Sad-3-like helicase (rnhA, as mutations in these genes prevented formation of drug-resistant epimutants. Remarkably, drug-resistant epimutant production was notably increased in M. circinelloides f. circinelloides isolates from humans or other animal hosts. The host-pathogen interaction could be a stressful environment in which the phenotypic plasticity provided by the epimutant pathway might provide an advantage for these strains. These results evoke a model whereby balanced regulation of two different RNAi pathways is determined by the activation of the RNAi-dependent epimutant pathway under stress conditions, or its repression when the regular maintenance of the mRNA degradation pathway operates under non-stress conditions.

  20. Mucor circinelloides whole-cells as a biocatalyst for the production of ethyl esters based on babassu oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Grazielle S S; Carvalho, Ana K F; Romero, Cintia M; Oliveira, Pedro C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2014-12-01

    The intracellular lipase production by Mucor circinelloides URM 4182 was investigated through a step-by-step strategy to attain immobilized whole-cells with high lipase activity. Physicochemical parameters, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum size and aeration, were studied to determine the optimum conditions for both lipase production and immobilization in polyurethane support. Olive oil and soybean peptone were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, to enhance the intracellular lipase activity. Low inoculum level and poor aeration rate also provided suitable conditions to attain high lipase activity (64.8 ± 0.8 U g(-1)). The transesterification activity of the immobilized whole- cells was assayed and optimal reaction conditions for the ethanolysis of babassu oil were determined by experimental design. Statistical analysis showed that M. circinelloides whole-cells were able to produce ethyl esters at all tested conditions, with the highest yield attained (98.1 %) at 35 °C using an 1:6 oil-to-ethanol molar ratio. The biocatalyst operational stability was also assayed in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) charged with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Aliquat-treated cells revealing half-life of 43.0 ± 0.5 and 20.0 ± 0.8 days, respectively. These results indicate the potential of immobilized M. circinelloides URM 4182 whole-cells as a low-cost alternative to conventional biocatalysts in the production of ethyl esters from babassu oil.

  1. Molecular identification and biodegradation of 3-chloropropionic acid (3CP by filamentous fungi-Mucor and Trichoderma species isolated from UTM agricultural land

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    Parvizpour, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to further characterize fungal species that could degrade 3-chloropropionic acid (3CPas sole source of carbon and energy. Methodology and Results: Both fungi were able to grow on 3CP after 10 days on solid minimal media. Based on sequencing of its segment of 18S rRNA these isolates were identified as Mucor sp. SP1 and Trichoderma sp. SP2. The isolated strains were not able to grow on media plates containing 10 mM of 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2DCP as sole source of carbon. 3CP degradation was observed in liquid minimal medium containing 10 mM 3CP after 18 days cultureperiod. The chloride ion released was detected in both growth medium containing Mucor sp. SP1 and Trichoderma sp. SP2. At least 80% of 10 mM 3CP was utilized in the growth medium. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Dehalogenase enzyme that can degrade α-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids for example 2,2DCP is well studied up to protein crystallization. Very few reports on the degradationof β-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids such as 3CP and none from fungi. This study is considered important because it can be compared to that of well-documented α-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids degradation. This is the first study to indicate fungal growth on 3CP as sole carbon and energy sources.

  2. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of a Recyclable Genetic Marker and Serial Gene Deletions in the Human Pathogenic Mucorales Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexis; Adedoyin, Gloria; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan

    2017-07-05

    Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG - mutant background. The resulting carRP :: pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP :: dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP :: dpl237 and cnbR :: pyrG These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides . Copyright © 2017 Garcia et al.

  4. Construction of a Recyclable Genetic Marker and Serial Gene Deletions in the Human Pathogenic Mucorales Mucor circinelloides

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    Alexis Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly incorporated into the upstream region of the gene, resulting in construction of a pyrG-dpl237 marker. To test the functionality of the pyrG-dpl237 marker, we disrupted the carRP gene that is involved in carotenoid synthesis in pyrG− mutant background. The resulting carRP::pyrG-dpl237 mutants exhibit a white colony phenotype due to lack of carotene, whereas wild type displays yellowish colonies. The pyrG marker was then successfully excised, generating carRP-dpl237 on 5-FOA medium. The mutants became auxotrophic and required uridine for growth. We then disrupted the calcineurin B regulatory subunit cnbR gene in the carRP::dpl237 strain, generating mutants with the alleles carRP::dpl237 and cnbR::pyrG. These results demonstrate that the recyclable marker system is fully functional, and therefore the pyrG-dpl237 marker can be used for sequential gene deletions in M. circinelloides.

  5. A new regulatory mechanism controlling carotenogenesis in the fungus Mucor circinelloides as a target to generate β-carotene over-producing strains by genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingtong; Navarro, Eusebio; Cánovas-Márquez, José T; Almagro, Lorena; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano

    2016-06-07

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with antioxidant properties that have important functions in human physiology and must be supplied through the diet. They also have important industrial applications as food colourants, animal feed additives and nutraceuticals. Some of them, such as β-carotene, are produced on an industrial scale with the use of microorganisms, including fungi. The mucoral Blakeslea trispora is used by the industry to produce β-carotene, although optimisation of production by molecular genetic engineering is unfeasible. However, the phylogenetically closely related Mucor circinelloides, which is also able to accumulate β-carotene, possesses a vast collection of genetic tools with which to manipulate its genome. This work combines classical forward and modern reverse genetic techniques to deepen the regulation of carotenoid synthesis and generate candidate strains for biotechnological production of β-carotene. Mutagenesis followed by screening for mutants with altered colour in the dark and/or in light led to the isolation of 26 mutants that, together with eight previously isolated mutants, have been analysed in this work. Although most of the mutants harboured mutations in known structural and regulatory carotenogenic genes, eight of them lacked mutations in those genes. Whole-genome sequencing of six of these strains revealed the presence of many mutations throughout their genomes, which makes identification of the mutation that produced the phenotype difficult. However, deletion of the crgA gene, a well-known repressor of carotenoid biosynthesis in M. circinelloides, in two mutants (MU206 and MU218) with high levels of β-carotene resulted in a further increase in β-carotene content to differing extents with respect to the crgA single-null strain; in particular, one strain derived from MU218 was able to accumulate up to 4 mg/g of β-carotene. The additive effect of crgA deletion and the mutations present in MU218 suggests the existence of a

  6. Preparation of sn-2 long-chain polyunsaturated monoacylglycerols from fish oil by hydrolysis with a stereospecific lipase from mucor miehei

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    Nieto, Susana

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of sn-2 eicosapentaenoyi glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyi glycerol by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereo-specific immobilised lipase (Lipozyme IM-20 from mucor miehei is described. Monoacylglycerols obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis were separated by silver nitrate-coated silicic acid column chromatography Both monoacylglycerols can be individually separated in almost pure form by elution from the column with a solvent mixture. The preparation of sn-2 substituted monoacylglycerols from marine origin allows their utilization as substrates for the synthesis of structured long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing triacylglycerols at specific positions.

    Se describe la preparación de sn-2 eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol mediante la hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por lipasa inmovilizada sn-1, sn-3 estereoespecífica (Lipozime IM-20 de mucor miehei. Los monoacilgliceroles obtenidos después de la hidrólisis enzimática se separaron por cromatografía en columna de ácido silícico impregnado de nitrato de plata. Ambos monoacilgliceroles pueden ser individualmente separados en forma casi pura por elución de la columna con una mezcla de solvente. La preparación de sn-2 monoacilgliceroles sustituidos de origen marino permite su utilización como sustratos para la síntesis de triacilgliceroles que contienen ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en posiciones específicas.

  7. Lysine and Glutamic Acids as the End Products of Multi-response of Optimized Fermented Medium by Mucor mucedo KP736529.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hersh, Mohammed S; Saber, WesamEldin I A; El-Fadaly, Husain A; Mahmoud, Mohammed K

    Amino acids are important for living organisms, they acting as crucial for metabolic activities and energy generation, wherein the deficiency in these amino acids cause various physiological defects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of some nutritional factors on the amino acids production by Mucor mucedo KP736529 during fermentation intervals. Mucor mucedo KP736529 was selected according to proteolytic activity. Corn steep liquor and olive cake were used in the fermented medium during Placket-Burman and central composite design to maximize the production of lysine and glutamic acids. During the screening by Plackett-Burman design, olive cake and Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) had potential importance for the higher production of amino acids. The individual fractionation of total amino acids showed both lysine and glutamic as the major amino acids associated with the fermentation process. Moreover, the Central Composite Design (CCD) has been adopted to explain the interaction between olive cake and CSL on the production of lysine and glutamic acids. The model recorded significant F-value, with high values of R 2, adjusted R 2 and predicted R 2 for both lysine and glutamic, indicating the validity of the data. Solving equation for maximum production of lysine recorded theoretical levels of olive cake and CSL, being 2.58 and 1.83 g L -1, respectively, with predicting value of lysine at 1.470 μg mL -1, whereas the predicting value of glutamic acid reached 0.805 mg mL -1 at levels of 2.49 and 1.93 g L -1 from olive cake and CSL, respectively. The desirability function (D) showed the actual responses being 1.473±0.009 and 0.801±0.004 μg mL -1 for lysine and glutamic acids, respectively. The model showed adequate validity to be applied in a large-scale production of both lysine and glutamic acids.

  8. Studies on the Diels-Alder adduct from cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone: Biotransformation, enantiomeric excess and absolute configuration

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    Felipe Camargo Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms or isolated enzymes in synthetic routes has been extensively used by industry and academic research. A great advantage of biotransformation in a synthetic route is highly regio- and enatiosselective control, which can be achieved through microbial catalyzed reaction. Biotransformation is one of the most efficient methods in a production of high purity optical compounds and development of efficient routes for target molecules. Biotransformation by Mucor ramosissimus of enedione 1 gave the keto-alcohol (--2 with enantiomeric excess (ee>99,9% (determined by 1H NMR with [(+-Eu(hfc]3 and their epimer (--3. Determination of the absolute configuration of epimer (--3 was accomplished by controlled reaction and measuring of optical rotation (scheme 1. The fungus M. ramosissimus is a promising species to perform desymmetrization of diketones with high enantioselectivity.

  9. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

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    Xin Tang

    Full Text Available The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA; however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11 isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w cell dry weight (CDW. We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  10. Effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from Mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to extract chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides UCP 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger URM 5162 and Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). The effect of CHI coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. The greatest amount of CHI was extracted from M. circinelloides UCP 050 grown in medium containing 7 g of CSL per 100 mL at pH 5.5 with rotation at 180 rpm. CHI from M. circinelloides UCP 050 caused morphological changes in the spores of the fungal strains tested and inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. CHI coating delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes, as well as autochthonous mycoflora during storage. CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes during storage, as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results demonstrate that edible coatings derived from M. circinelloides CHI could be a useful alternative for controlling pathogenic fungi and maintaining the post-harvest quality of table grapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Intracardial fungal multiplication of order Mucor in an almost totally carbonised part of a male body found after ten days missing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Silvia Farkašová; Klán, Jaroslav; Lamps, Laura W; Farkaš, Daniel; Švajdler Ml, Marián; Szabo, Miroslav

    Determination of time of death belongs to the most difficult and also the most important issues for the medical examiners, especially those who deal with violent death. Besides the most frequently evaluated postmortal changes it is sometimes possible to perform the evaluation on the basis of less frequently observed findings. One of such findings is for example the fungal multiplication on the body or in the very close vicinity. Knowledge of moulds as well as information about their speed of growth should contribute to confirmation or negation of some information gained during police investigation. In this case report authors describe the macroscopically visible fungal intracardiac multiplication in heart chambers and aorta in an almost totally carbonised body which was missing for only ten days. Based on the molecular examination it was detected that the body belonged to the 64-year-old man who was repeatedly hospitalised in psychiatry for depression with suicidal tendencies. The last hospitalisation was six weeks before death and there was no organic disability. The cause of fire was a naked flame. The cause of death was burn injury or asphyxia. The almost total carbonisation did not allow to perform toxicological investigation. By histological investigation we found the presence of wide long non-septate moulds growing in the heart muscle, which belonged to the order Mucor. Since there was no obvious inflammatory response, we suppose their growth started on the congealed blood after death.

  12. Effects of 20 standard amino acids on the growth, total fatty acids production, and γ-linolenic acid yield in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2014-12-01

    Twenty standard amino acids were examined as single nitrogen source on the growth, total fatty acids production, and yield of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) in Mucor circinelloides. Of the amino acids, tyrosine gave the highest biomass and lipid accumulation and thus resulted in a high GLA yield with respective values of 17.8 g/L, 23 % (w/w, dry cell weight, DCW), and 0.81 g/L, which were 36, 25, and 72 % higher than when the fungus was grown with ammonium tartrate. To find out the potential mechanism underlying the increased lipid accumulation of M. circinelloides when grown on tyrosine, the activity of lipogenic enzymes of the fungus during lipid accumulation phase was measured. The enzyme activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and ATP-citrate lyase were up-regulated, while NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase was down-regulated by tyrosine during the lipid accumulation phase of the fungus which suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the increased lipid biosynthesis by tyrosine in this fungus.

  13. Comparative Proteome Analysis between High Lipid-Producing Strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-21

    Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces <25% total lipid. Nevertheless, we isolated a new strain WJ11 that can produce up to 36% lipid of cell dry weight. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the global changes in protein levels between the high lipid-producing strain WJ11 and the low lipid-producing strain CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.

  14. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Francisco Esteban; Moxon, Simon; de Haro, Juan P.; Calo, Silvia; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M.; Dalmay, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi. PMID:20427422

  15. Apoptosis-like death was involved in freeze-drying-preserved fungus Mucor rouxii and can be inhibited by L-proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Youzhi

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-drying is one of the most effective methods to preserve fungi for an extended period. However, it is associated with a loss of viability and shortened storage time in some fungi. This study evaluated the stresses that led to the death of freeze-dried Mucor rouxii by using cell apoptotic methods. The results showed there were apoptosis-inducing stresses, such as the generation of obvious intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metacaspase activation. Moreover, nuclear condensation and a delayed cell death peak were determined after rehydration and 24 h incubation in freeze-dried M. rouxii via a propidium iodide (PI) assay, which is similar to the phenomenon of cryopreservation-induced delayed-onset cell death (CIDOCD). Then, several protective agents were tested to decrease the apoptosis-inducing stresses and to improve the viability. Finally, it was found that 1.6 mM L-proline can effectively decrease the nuclear condensation rate and increase the survival rate in freeze-dried M. rouxii. (1) apoptosis-inducing factors occur in freeze-dried M. rouxii. (2) ROS and activated metacaspases lead to death in freeze-dried M. rouxii. (3)L-proline increases the survival rate of freeze-dried M. rouxii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA); however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11) isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w) cell dry weight (CDW). We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w) lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  17. Two new β-glucosidases from ethanol-fermenting fungus Mucor circinelloides NBRC 4572: enzyme purification, functional characterization, and molecular cloning of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuo; Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Two β-glucosidases (BGLs 1 and 2) were purified to homogeneity from the extracellular enzyme preparations of the ethanol-fermenting Mucor circinelloides NBRC 4572 statically grown on rice straw. BGLs 1 and 2 are monomeric glycoproteins whose apparent molecular masses (Ms) are around 78 kDa, which decreased by approximately 10 kDa upon enzymatic deglycosylation. Both BGLs showed similar enzyme characteristics in optimal temperature and pH, stability, and inhibitors. They were active against a wide range of aryl-β-glucosides and β-linked glucose oligosaccharides. Their amino acid sequences shared 81% identity and exhibited less than 60% identity with the known family-3 BGLs. Considering properties such as reduced inhibition by ethanol, glucose, and cellobiose, low transglucosylation activity, wider substrate range, less binding affinity to lignocellulosic materials, and abundant expression, BGL1 is likely to be more suitable for bioethanol production than BGL2 via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw with M. circinelloides.

  18. Early and Late Trisporoids Differentially Regulate β-Carotene Production and Gene Transcript Levels in the Mucoralean Fungi Blakeslea trispora and Mucor mucedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, Yamuna; Richter-Fecken, Mareike; Kaerger, Kerstin; Voigt, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The multistep cleavage of carotenoids in Mucorales during the sexual phase results in a cocktail of trisporic acid (C18) sex pheromones. We hypothesized that the C18 trisporoid intermediates have a specific regulatory function for sex pheromone production and carotenogenesis that varies with genus/species and vegetative and sexual phases of their life cycles. Real-time quantitative PCR kinetics determined for Blakeslea trispora displayed a very high transcript turnover in the gene for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, tsp3, during the sexual phase. An in vivo enzyme assay and chromatographic analysis led to the identification of β-apo-12′-carotenal as the first apocarotenoid involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis in B. trispora. Supplementation of C18 trisporoids, namely D'orenone, methyl trisporate C, and trisporin C, increased tsp3 transcripts in the plus compared to minus partners. Interestingly, the tsp1 gene, which is involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis, was downregulated compared to tsp3 irrespective of asexual or sexual phase. Only the minus partners of both B. trispora and Mucor mucedo had enhanced β-carotene production after treatment with C20 apocarotenoids, 15 different trisporoids, and their analogues. We conclude that the apocarotenoids and trisporoids influence gene transcription and metabolite production, depending upon the fungal strain, corresponding genus, and developmental phase, representing a “chemical dialect” during sexual communication. PMID:24056470

  19. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor; Nicolas, Francisco; Moxon, Simon; Haro, Juan de; Calo, Silvia; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa; Dalmay, Tamas

    2011-09-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi

  20. Mucor miehei’den Rennet Üretiminde Bazı Azotlu Katkı Maddelerinin Enzim Üretimine Etkisi Üzerinde bir Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Dönmez, Sedat; Özçelik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    In the production of cheese, it is necessary to coagulate the milk in order to be able to separate the casein from the whey. These enzyme can be obtained from various sources and microorganisms. Enzyme from Mucor miehei appears to possess a more favorable ratio between milk coagulating and proteolytic activity.            In this study, the effect of nitrogenous additives on enzyme activity has been searched. Addition of ground malt, soy flour and powdered whey as nitrogen supplement to th...

  1. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  2. Using aquatic fungi for pharmaceutical bioremediation: Uptake of acetaminophen by Mucor hiemalis does not result in an enzymatic oxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The increasing anthropogenic pollution of aquatic environments and fresh water scarcity worldwide have prompted the development of low-cost and effective water treatment alternatives. One example of a highly released anthropogenic xenobiotics is acetaminophen (APAP), which has been detected in surface waters at concentrations as high as 5 μg L(-1). To date, traditional water treatment plants were unable to remove all pharmaceutical xenobiotics and as in the case with APAP, the breakdown products are toxic. Phytoremediation has proved to remove xenobiotics efficiently producing no toxic breakdown products, however, they are often restrained in their application range. Therefore, it was necessary to find alternate remediation tools to extend and complement the application ranges of existing bioremediation techniques. With the success of mycoremediation as well as the adaptability of fungi, Mucor hiemalis was investigated in terms of its APAP uptake capabilities. The investigation included the examination of concentration- and time-dependent uptake studies to examine the effects of each of these parameters independently. Additionally, the extracellular peroxidase activity of M. hiemalis was measured with exposure to APAP to evaluate possible breakdown and the antioxidative stress enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were assayed to investigate whether APAP caused oxidative stress. The results showed that M. hiemalis was able to internalize between 1 and 2 μg APAP per g dried fungal biomass when exposed to 5, 10, 50 and 100 ng mL(-1) APAP for 24-48 h, but not beyond this time frame. Further, exposure to APAP did not result in elevated extracellular peroxidase activity or oxidative stress. The findings led to the conclusion that M. hiemalis could be integrated in bioremediation systems, for short-term degradation at low concentrations of APAP with effective management. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by

  3. Purification and characteristics of an inducible by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons NADP(+)-dependent naphthalenediol dehydrogenase (NDD) in Mucor circinelloides YR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Morales, Reyna Lucero; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Casillas, Juana Lizbeth González; Ballesteros, Elizabeth Aranda; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Zazueta-Sandoval, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We detected NADP(+)-dependent dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) activity in a cell-free extract from Mucor circinelloides YR-1, after high-speed centrifugation. We analyzed the enzymatic activity in the cytosolic fraction by zymograms, as described previously, and eight different DD activity bands were revealed. Five constitutive DD activities (DD1-5) were present when glucose was used as carbon source and three inducible activities (NDD, PDD1 and PDD2) when aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were used. NDD activity was induced all of the aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. The highest DD activity inducer was naphthalene and the lowest was pyrene. One of the enzymes showed higher activity with cis-naphthalene-diol rather than with trans-nahthalenediol as a substrate. We purified this particular enzyme to homogeneity and found that it had an isoelectric point of 4.6. The molecular weight for the native protein was 197.4kDa and 49.03±0.5kDa for the monomer that conforms it, suggesting a homotetrameric structure for the complete enzyme. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against it and obtained. NDD activity was almost totally inhibited when antibodies were used at low concentrations, and in native immunoblots only one band, which corresponds to the activity band detected in the zymograms, could be detected. In denaturing PAGE immunoblots only one band was detected. This band corresponds to the purified protein band of 49kDa detected in SDS-PAGE gels. The other two inducible enzymes PDD1 and PDD2 were present only when phenanthrene was used as sole carbon source in the culture media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Contrasting Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Mucor Racemosus Secondary Metabolites Compared to Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Samuel M; Muqaku, Besnik; Ullmann, Ronald; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mader, Johanna C; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Gerner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Classical drug assays are often confined to single molecules and targeting single pathways. However, it is also desirable to investigate the effects of complex mixtures on complex systems such as living cells including the natural multitude of signalling pathways. Evidence based on herbal medicine has motivated us to investigate potential beneficial health effects of Mucor racemosus (M rac) extracts. Secondary metabolites of M rac were collected using a good-manufacturing process (GMP) approved production line and a validated manufacturing process, in order to obtain a stable product termed SyCircue (National Drug Code USA: 10424-102). Toxicological studies confirmed that this product does not contain mycotoxins and is non-genotoxic. Potential effects on inflammatory processes were investigated by treating stimulated cells with M rac extracts and the effects were compared to the standard anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone on the levels of the proteome and metabolome. Using 2D-PAGE, slight anti-inflammatory effects were observed in primary white blood mononuclear cells, which were more pronounced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Proteome profiling based on nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests revealed inhibitory effects of M rac extracts on pro-inflammatory cytoplasmic mediators and secreted cytokines and chemokines in these endothelial cells. This finding was confirmed using targeted proteomics, here treatment of stimulated cells with M rac extracts down-regulated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, CXCL5 and GROA significantly. Finally, the modulating effects of M rac on HUVECs were also confirmed on the level of the metabolome. Several metabolites displayed significant concentration changes upon treatment of inflammatory activated HUVECs with the M rac extract, including spermine and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:0 and sphingomyelin C26:1, while the bulk of measured metabolites remained unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of M rac

  5. Proteomics analysis of high lipid-producing strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11: an explanation for the mechanism of lipid accumulation at the proteomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-11

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that

  6. Isolation, identification and anti-candidal activity of filamentous fungi from Saudi Arabia soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Enazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten fungal strains; namely, Penicillium melinii, Petriella setifera, Aspergillus pseudo-niger, Alternaria chlamydospora, Pythium nayoroense, Phoma glomerata, Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor racemosus, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Rhizopus azygosporus were isolated from soil. The extra- and intra-cellular extracts of the fungal strains grown on malt extract and yeast-extract sucrose media were screened for their anticandidal activity against different clinically-isolated Candida species. Most of the fungal extracts showed activity against different Candida species. However, the fungal strains grew on malt extract showed greater activities than those grew on yeast extract sucrose media. The activity of the intracellular was higher than the extracellular metabolites. All fungal extracts (extra and intra were similar in chemical constituent; they contained carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpens, tannins and traces of coumarins. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones and cardenolides were no detected. The intra-cellular extracts contained more compounds than the extra-cellular extracts.

  7. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. II. Study of cellular lipids of Mucor circinelloides during growth on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial oil production from fatty materials of animal or plant origin has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. During the process of microbial growth/accumulation of fat reserves, the dominating phenomena that define the composition of endocellular fat are, first, the specific process of incorporation of substrate fatty acids into the microbial cell and, second, the endocellular changes of fatty acids defined by the enzymic capabilities of the microorganism. The fatty acids will either be degraded for growth needs or act as substrate of endocellular biotransformation processes, leading to concentration changes and production of "new" fatty acids which did not previously exist in the substrate.
    The purpose of the present work is to study the endocellular lipids of Mucor circinelloidesCBS 172-27 grown on sunflower oil. The mathematical model, described in part I, was applied in order to investigate the following:
    a. Microorganism specificity in the incorporation of substrate fatty acids.
    b. Microorganism specificity in the degradation of fatty acids present in the reserve fat.
    c. Possibilities of endocellular biotransformations during the microbial growth.
    In conclusion, this work is aimed at developing a quantitative expression of parameters defining the lipid composition of fat reserves. The proposed mathematical model can be used not only for selection of microbial strains having specific enzymic potential but also for substrate selection.

    La producción de aceites microbianos a partir de materiales grasos de origen animal o vegetal ha sido objeto de investigación e interés industrial durante muchos años. En el proceso de crecimiento microbiano/acumulación de reservas grasas, los fenómenos dominantes que definen la composición de grasa endocelular son, primero, el proceso específico de incorporación de ácidos grasos como sustratos en la célula microbiana

  8. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. I. Lipid accumulation during growth of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available    The accumulation of lipids In microorganisms cultivated In growth media having as sole carbon and energy source vegetable or animal fat has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. Interestingly, the accumulated fat often has a composition and structure much different from that of the fat present In the substrate.
       The present work describes a mathematical approach to the accumulation of fat by oleaginous microorganisms growing on medium containing vegetable oil as carbon source. A mathematical model, correlating the accumulation of reserve fat with the growth of microbial population and the available quantity of exocellular fat, is proposed. This model is verified by experimental data taken by cultivation of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on sunflower oil.
       The proposed model is described by the equation: XL = XLo + Lo(1-e-k2.t– (lnx-lnxo/k1    where XL(mg/l the concentration of reserve lipids at time t(h, XLo(mg/l the concentration of lipid reserves at time t=o, Lo(mg/l the initial concentration of exocellular fat (a t=o, X(mg/l the concentration of fat-free biomass at a given time t and Xo the concentration of fat-free biomass at time t=o; k1 and k2 constants.

       Durante muchos años la acumulación de lípidos en microorganismos desarrollados en medio de cultivo, tomando como única fuente de carbono y energía grasas vegetales o animales, ha sido objeto de investigación e Interés industrial.    Interesadamente, la grasa acumulada tiene a menudo una composición y estructura muy diferente de la que tiene la grasa presente en el sustrato.    El presente trabajo describe una aproximación matemática a la acumulaci

  9. yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides Tieghe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... A nested model analysis of variance of growth data of induced yeast .... Figure 2. Mean biomass and relative growth rates of M. circinelloides cultivated in treatments in ..... Pullman B (ed) Frontiers in Physicochemical Biology.

  10. Sporangiospore - Yeast Transformation of Mucor circinelloides - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... circinelloides: Ionic circulation, chemical potential, sodium influx rate and .... 20 mM MgCl2 solution were added and centrifuged for 10 min, in a very rapid ... Analysis of data. This was done in Microsoft Excel. Growth data were log trans- formed. RESULTS. Effect of K+ and Na+ incorporation on intracellular.

  11. Modification of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil saprobic microfungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Mikšík, Ivan; Gryndler, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2006), s. 2292-2299 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/0188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : soil microfungi * fulvic acid * humic acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.623, year: 2006

  12. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... M. mucedo {MMM1-U.V. irradiated mutant and MMM2-EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) treated ... tions were induced and two positive mutants (MMM1, .... yeast biofilter for the treatment of a Nigerian fertilizer plant effluent. World J.

  13. Pembuatan keju dengan menggunakan enzim renin Mucor pusillus amobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to understand the goog condition of temperature and pH in the cheese making with immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusillus. Rennin from M. pusillus was produced using corn starch as substrate, incubated at 37 0C for 116 hours. Immobilization was conducted with entrapment method using alginate. Proteolytic and milk-clotting activities of enzyme was measured. Furthemore, the immobilized enzyme was used in the cheese production with defferent temperatures (32, 37 and 420C and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 using Split Plot Design. It was conducted a test of pH, titratable acidity and texture for produced cheese. The result showed that the alginate matrix can be used to immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusillus. Immobilization of rennin enxyme from M. pusillus has proteolitic activity value 0.1395 unit/ml/minute and milk-clotting activity value 6090 unit/mg protein/minute. The temperatures (32, 37 and 42 0C in the cheese making using immobilized rennin enzyme M. pusillus gave a highly significant different effect (P<0,01 on texture and pH of fresh cheese. The pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 gave a highly significant different effect (P<0,01 on pH and titratable acidity of fresh cheese. It is concluded that alginate can be used in the rennin enzyme immobilization. Temperature and pH gave a highly significant different effect on texture, pH and titratable acidity of fresh cheese. The temperature of 37 0C and pH 6.0 can be used to make a good quality cheese with immobilized rennin enzyme from M. pusilus using alginate with characters as follows : texture 1.1866 N, pH 4.94 – 5.21 and titratable acidity 1.409%.

  14. Subcutaneous mucor zygomycosis with potential life-threatening visceral complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass in right supraclavicular fossa in a diabetic patient mimicking tuberculosis (TB adenitis that ultimately proved to be subcutaneous zygomycosis. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed for diagnosis especially when these lesions occur at typical sites for the more common indolent infections like TB. This case is being presented not only because of its rarity, but to emphasize the role of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent serious complications due to proximity to major structures. Fluconazole was used despite not being the ideal drug, solely due to cost constraints. Our patient responded well. However, we do emphasize that response to fluconazole is the exception rather than the rule.

  15. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fusant MMFu3 showed very good increase in the production of three enzymes protease (1.90 U/ml), peroxidase (1100 U/ml) and laccase (200 U/ml) when compared to the two parent strains proving that the higher enzymatic secretions are responsible for the decolourisation activity. In protease isozyme analysis, fusants ...

  16. Convergent evolution of morphogenetic processes in fungi: Role of tetraspanins and NADPH oxidases 2 in plant pathogens and saprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Brun, Sylvain; Lambou, Karine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Convergent evolution of trophic life style and morphological characters are very common in the fungal kingdom. Recently, we have shown that the same molecular machinery containing a tetraspanin and a NADPH oxidase has been recruited in two different fungal species for the same purpose (exiting from a melanized re-enforced cell at a focal weakened point), but at different stages of their development (ascospore germination and appressorium mediated penetration). Although this molecular machinery is required at these key developmental steps, it is also likely involved in specialized cellular functions at other stages of fungal development, as shown here for nutrient acquisition by Podospora anserina.

  17. Saprobic microfungi under Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens at different fertilization intensities and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Blum, H.; Hršelová, Hana; Gamper, H.; Gryndler, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 224-230 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1276; GA ČR GA526/03/0188; GA ČR GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : carbon cycle * elevated CO2 * concentration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.075, year: 2005

  18. Development of new chiral auxiliary from the Diels-Alder adduct endo-tricyclo[6.2.1.02,7] undeca-4 ,9-dien-3 ,6-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suély Copini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry control is very important in organic synthesis and it is a basic challenge in asymmetric synthesis. An approach widely used is making use of chiral auxiliary compounds. In this work it is showed the synthesis of highly optically pure rigid polycyclic compounds from the Diels-Alder adduct 1. Compounds 1-3 were prepared as described by Ito et. al. [1]. The alcohol (--3 was obtained by biotransformation of diketone 2 with Mucor ramosissimus, e.e.>99% (60%. The polycyclic halides 4-6 were synthesized (60-97% after treatment of alcohol (--3 with NBS, NIS and, NCS in dichloromethane, respectively. Compound 7 was prepared by reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid, whilst 8 was prepared by treatment of (--3 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The strained polycylic alcohols 9-13 will be achieved by reduction of ketones 4-8 with NaBH4. All compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Due to intrinsic rigidity of the synthesized polycyclic, they could be of use as chiral auxiliary agents. Prochiral substrates can be readily attached by many ways to C-3 or through hydroxyl group found in compounds 8-13. The stereo-dirigent potential of these polycyclic can also be increased by directly or indirectly introduction of many groups at position C-3, or at adjacent positions to carbonyl or hydroxyl at C-3 and C-10.

  19. Isolation and identification mould micoflora inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on isolation and identification mould inhabiting plant leaf litter had been conducted. The objective of the study was to isolate and identify mould inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java. The mould isolation was based on washing and filtering with membrane isolation method. The result showed that 39 moulds generas with 55 species varians, one group identified in class level, and three groups of unidentified mould isolates had been isolated. Taxas distributions showed that there were endophyte and phytopatogen mould isolates had been isolated such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, and Coelomycetes. However, typical soil taxa and common saprobic fungi such as Aspergillus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma remain dominated the resulted isolates.

  20. Role of plant growth regulators and a saprobic fungus in enhancement of metal phytoextraction potential and stress alleviation in pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus-e-Bareen; Shafiq, Muhammad; Jamil, Sidra

    2012-10-30

    "Assisted phytoextraction" involving application of chemical additives such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) has become a trend in phytoremediation technology. This study identifies a cost-effective, naturally available crude PGR (PGR1) that produces the same effects as the commercial PGR (PGR2), increasing metal uptake by plants and the reduction of metal stress. Assisted phytoextraction by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from a multi-metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Na and Zn) contaminated soil medium with tannery solid waste (TSW) soil amendments of 5 and 10%, was evaluated in a full-factorial pot trial with PGR1, PGR2 and Trichoderma pseudokoningii as factors. The effects of these phytoextraction assistants were measured through dry biomass production, heavy metal uptake, stress tolerance enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble protein content of plant, and phytoextraction efficiency. Dry biomass and multi-metal accumulation were the highest in the soil treatments with a combined application of PGR1, PGR2 and T. pseudokoningii and the lowest in the control. The soluble protein contents and the SOD and CAT values were the highest in the 10% TSW treatment provided with PGR2+T. pseudokoningii, while the lowest were in the control. Thus, application of crude PGR in combination with other phytoextraction assistants can increase biomass production as well as multi-metal accumulation in plants. However, the biochemical properties of the plant depend on the level of TSW stress in the soil treatment as well as the type of phytoextraction assistants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformation of 14C-labelled lignin and humic substances in forest soil by the saprobic basidiomycetes Gymnopus erythropus and Hypholoma fasciculare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Steffen, K. T.; Hofrichter, M.; Baldrian, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2010), s. 1541-1548 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk OC 155; GA MŠk OC08050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Forest soil * Humic acid * Gymnopus erythropus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2010

  2. Multicenter evaluation of MIC distributions for epidemiologic cutoff value definition to detect amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole resistance among the most clinically relevant species of Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chakrabarti, A; Chowdhary, A; Cordoba, S; Dannaoui, E; Dufresne, P; Fothergill, A; Ghannoum, M; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Kidd, S; Lass-Flörl, C; Meis, J F; Pelaez, T; Tortorano, A M; Turnidge, J

    2015-03-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) have not been established for the Mucorales and any antifungal agent. In lieu of CBPs, epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) are proposed for amphotericin B, posaconazole, and itraconazole and four Mucorales species. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined with available pooled CLSI MICs from 14 laboratories (Argentina, Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States) as follows: 10 Apophysomyces variabilis, 32 Cunninghamella bertholletiae, 136 Lichtheimia corymbifera, 10 Mucor indicus, 123 M. circinelloides, 19 M. ramosissimus, 349 Rhizopus arrhizus, 146 R. microsporus, 33 Rhizomucor pusillus, and 36 Syncephalastrum racemosum isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MICs were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs comprising ≥95% and ≥97.5% of the modeled populations were as follows: amphotericin B ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for M. circinelloides were 1 and 2 μg/ml, those for R. arrhizus were 2 and 4 μg/ml, and those for R. microsporus were 2 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; posaconazole ECVs for L. corymbifera were 1 and 2, those for M. circinelloides were 4 and 4, those for R. arrhizus were 1 and 2, and those for R. microsporus were 1 and 2, respectively; both itraconazole ECVs for R. arrhizus were 2 μg/ml. ECVs may aid in detecting emerging resistance or isolates with reduced susceptibility (non-WT MICs) to the agents evaluated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 173.150 - Milk-clotting enzymes, microbial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; family, Bacillaceae; genus, Bacillus; species, cereus (Frankland and Frankland). (3) Mucor pusillus Lindt...; genus, Mucor; species, pusillus; variety, Lindt. (4) Mucor miehei Cooney et Emerson classified as follows: Class, Phycomycetes; subclass, Zygomycetes; order, Mucorales; family, Mucoraceae; genus, Mucor...

  4. Fatty acid production by four strains of Mucor hiemalis grown in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid media containing 2% vegetable oil (palm oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sesame oil, or sunflower oil) or 2% carbohydrate (fructose, galactose, glycerol, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, sorbitol or xylose) and 1% yeast extract as a nitrogen source were used. The greatest biomass production was observed with M3 and ...

  5. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  6. Characterization of the Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    in and between the different morphological forms of the organism.Methods and Results: Mycelial growth and the transformation of hyphae into chains of arthrospores were characterized by image analysis techniques and described quantitatively. The influence of the nature (glucose and xylose) and concentration......-through cell, and combined with fluorescent microscopy which allowed new insights to bud formation. Additionally, numbers and distribution of nuclei in arthrospores, hyphae and yeasts were studied.Conclusions: The results give essential information on the morphological development of the organism...

  7. Effects of fermentation conditions on valuable products of ethanolic fungus Mucor indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharifyazd

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: It is not possible to have the maximum amounts of the products simultaneously. The fermentation conditions and composition of culture media determine the product yields. Carbon source type and the addition of nitrogen source are among the most influencing factors on the product yields. Moreover, all measured products were made with higher yields in cultivation on glucose, except glucosamine, which was produced with higher yields on xylose.

  8. Analysis of survival curves for Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillia irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Danno, Akibumi; Miyazato, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    This study was aimed to understand the survival pattern of some microorganisms which were treated by γ-sterilization. Though most of the works were concentrated and reported with D 10 -values, it was presently found that the γ-irradiated survival curves showed sigmoid pattern and L-values were reached about half of the D 10 -value for each strains. It was further confirmed that if L-values were used for practical sterilization with D 10 -values, the estimation of sterilized levels would become more accurate. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole-animal model system will contribute greatly to the study of molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of the host innate immune system with fungal spores during mucormycosis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Immobilization of Mucor miehei Lipase onto Macroporous Aminated Polyethersulfone Membrane for Enzymatic Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Nurrahmi; Loos, Katja; Wahyuningrum, Deana; Buchari, [No Value; Zulfikar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Immobilization of enzymes is one of the most promising methods in enzyme performance enhancement, including stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still a scientific challenge. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES

  11. First report of association of Mucor circinelloides on noni (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a popular medicinal plant found in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The fruit and juice extracts have properties that are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer (1,4). In our studies on noni juice produced from ...

  12. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis....... An inverse relationship between the pkaR expression level in KFA121 and the hyphal growth unit length was observed in KFA121, suggesting a central role for PKAR in branching. A biochemical analysis of PKAR using antibodies and enzyme assay demonstrated that the level of PKAR is higher in KFA121 under...... indicate that cAMP-dependent PKA in M. circinelloides might be down-regulated during hyphal-tube emergence and that an increase in PKAR levels results in increased branching....

  14. Transglycosidase-like activity of Mucor hiemalis endoglycosidase mutants enabling the synthesis of glycoconjugates using a natural glycan donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kouta; Katoh, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    Glycan conversion of glycoprotein via the transglycosylation activity of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase is a promising chemoenzymatic technology for the production of glycoproteins including bio-medicines with a homogeneous glycoform. Although Endo-M is a key enzyme in this process, its product undergoes rehydrolysis, which leads to a lower yield, and limits the practical application of this enzyme. We developed several Endo-M mutant enzymes including N175Q with glycosynthase-like activity and/or transglycosidase-like activity. We found that the Endo-M N175H mutant showed glycosynthase-like activity comparable to N175Q as well as transglycosidase-like activity superior to N175Q. Using a natural sialylglycopeptide as a donor substrate, N175H readily transferred the sialo-glycan onto an N-acetylglucosamine residue attached to bovine ribonuclease B (RNase B), yielding a nonnative sialoglycosylated RNase B. These results demonstrate that use of Endo-M N175H is an alternative glycoengineering technique, which provides a relatively high yield of transglycosylation product and avoids the laborious synthesis of a sugar oxazoline as a donor substrate. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Purification of a fibrinolytic protease from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 by aqueous two-phase systems (PEG/sulfate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago Pajeú; Sales, Amanda Emmanuelle; Porto, Camila Souza; Brandão, Romero Marcos Pedrosa; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Teixeira, José Antônio Couto; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Converti, Attilio

    2016-07-01

    A fibrinolytic protease from M. subtilissimus UCP 1262 was recovered and partially purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The simultaneous influence of PEG molar mass, PEG concentration and sulfate concentration on the enzyme recovery was first investigated using a 2(3) full factorial design, and the Response Surface Methodology used to identify the optimum conditions for enzyme extraction by ATPS. Once the best PEG molar mass for the process had been selected (6000g/mol), a two-factor central composite rotary design was applied to better evaluate the effects of the other two independent variables. The fibrinolytic enzyme was shown to preferentially partition to the bottom phase with a partition coefficient (K) ranging from 0.2 to 0.7. The best results in terms of enzyme purification were obtained with the system formed by 30.0% (w/w) PEG 6000g/mol and 13.2% (w/w) sodium sulfate, which ensured a purification factor of 10.0, K of 0.2 and activity yield of 102.0%. SDS-PAGE and fibrin zymography showed that the purified protease has a molecular mass of 97kDa and an apparent isoelectric point of 5.4. When submitted to assays with different substrates and inhibitors, it showed selectivity for succinyl-l-ala-ala-pro-l-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide and was almost completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, behaving as a chymotrypsin-like protease. At the optimum temperature of 37°C, the enzyme residual activity was 94 and 68% of the initial one after 120 and 150min of incubation, respectively. This study demonstrated that M. subtilissimus protease has potent fibrinolytic activity compared with similar enzymes produced by solid-state fermentation, therefore it may be used as an agent for the prevention and therapy of thrombosis. Furthermore, it appears to have the advantages of low cost production and simple purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  17. Outbreak of Invasive Wound Mucormycosis in a Burn Unit Due to Multiple Strains of Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides Resolved by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Garcia-Hermoso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are ubiquitous environmental molds responsible for mucormycosis in diabetic, immunocompromised, and severely burned patients. Small outbreaks of invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM have already been reported in burn units without extensive microbiological investigations. We faced an outbreak of IWM in our center and investigated the clinical isolates with whole-genome sequencing (WGS analysis. We analyzed M. circinelloides isolates from patients in our burn unit (BU1, Héééôèéééûéôèôèôôèéôééôéôôèôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France together with nonoutbreak isolates from Burn Unit 2 (BU2, Paris area and from France over a 2-year period (2013 to 2015. A total of 21 isolates, including 14 isolates from six BU1 patients, were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS. Phylogenetic classification based on de novo assembly and assembly free approaches showed that the clinical isolates clustered in four highly divergent clades. Clade 1 contained at least one of the strains from the six epidemiologically linked BU1 patients. The clinical isolates were specific to each patient. Two patients were infected with more than two strains from different clades, suggesting that an environmental reservoir of clonally unrelated isolates was the source of contamination. Only two patients from BU1 shared one strain, which could correspond to direct transmission or contamination with the same environmental source. In conclusion, WGS of several isolates per patients coupled with precise epidemiological data revealed a complex situation combining potential cross-transmission between patients and multiple contaminations with a heterogeneous pool of strains from a cryptic environmental reservoir.

  18. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    de Azevedo Santiago, Andr? Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.

  19. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  20. Host conservatism or host specialization? Patterns of fungal diversification are influenced by host specificity in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae) are perithecial fungi that occur as endophytes, pathogens, and latent saprobes on leaf and stem tissue of plants in the Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. In this study host plant patte...

  1. They seldom occur alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

    2016-01-01

    Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic

  2. Revealing relationships in Trichocomaceae, with emphasis on Penicil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Trichocomaceae are saprobes and have diverse physiological properties. They are capable of growing under extreme conditions, such as extremely low water activities, low temperatures (psychrotolerant), high temperatures (thermotolerant), low acidity levels and/or low oxygen levels.

  3. Revealing relationships in Trichocomaceae, with emphasis on Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Trichocomaceae are saprobes and have diverse physiological properties. They are capable of growing under extreme conditions, such as extremely low water activities, low temperatures (psychrotolerant), high temperatures (thermotolerant), low acidity levels and/or low oxygen levels.

  4. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest an intensification of pollution from upstream to downstream along the watershed and thus reveal the high impact of anthropogenic activities on this urban ecosystem. .... Where S = saprobic index of the station under.

  5. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  6. Cause of Mortality in Thermally Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    11 patients, Cladosporium species from nine patients, Penicillium species from seven patients, and Phycomycetes ( mucor species and rhizopus species...infecting organisms were filamentous fungi, Aspergillus species in 16 and Mucor species in two, and in four patients C(nlida species were the causative...surface. Twelve, or 75 %, of the 16 patients with Aspergillus wound infections died but, somewhat surprisingly, both of the patients with mucor species

  7. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L. and screening for protease activity Isolamento de Mucorales de milho processado (Zea mays L. e seleção quanto à atividade proteásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoraleswere isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.Mucorales foram isolados da farinha de milho, fubá e flocos de milho pré-cozidos pelos métodos de plaqueamento em superfície e em profundidade. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis e Absidia cylindrospora exibiram atividade proteásica.

  8. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  9. Saprobiological analysis of water of the river Krivaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cikotić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During one-year research of zoobenthos macroinvertebrates of the river Krivaja 133 taxons were found with total number of 12,766 entities. Sampling was conducted using kick sampling method that corresponded to the type of running waters such as the river Krivaja. For the purpose of water quality evaluation biotic and saprobity indexes were applied in accordance with taxon of collected organisms. The measured values of saprobity index indicated mild to medium water pollution, i.e. oligo-beta mezosaprobity water. The measured values of Shannon-Weaver diversity index indicated high diversity of organisms, thus good conditions of life in water of the Krivaja and its clean water flow.Applied saprobity and biotic indexes in this research should be aguideline for a future research of our water flows in standardization of waterbio-monitoring legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  11. Isolation and identification of fungal flora associated with groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 25 colonies were isolated from all the samples from which 6 fungal species were identified, namely Mucor, Aspergillus, Rhizophus, Curvularia, Pencillium and Fusarium spp. Of these, Mucor and Rhizopus were most prevalent having been isolated from the three storage facilities studied. Curvularia and Penicillium ...

  12. Oil and Hydrocarbon Spill Bioremediation Product and Application Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    sludge’ Alkanes PsoudomonasPA rthroba eter, A cineeofbacter, yeasts, Penicillium sp ., Cunninghamells blakesleearia, Absidiaglauca, Mucor spif n-Alkanes...Kiebsiella Heiminthosporium Lactobacillus Mucor Leucothrix Oidiadendrumn Moraxella Paecylomyces Nocardia Phialophora Peptococcus Penicillium Pseudomonas...oleovor:nsab 5 ~Beiyerinckias p., Cunnbnghamellsaleegansim IPseudomonas/Alcaligenss sp . A ci otobacter sp ., Arthrobacter sp ,(k 3Aromatics Pseudomonas

  13. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins...

  14. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity. PMID:24031292

  15. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor ...

  16. Biological indices for classification of water quality around Mae Moh power plant, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsarun Junshum and Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The algal communities and water quality were monitored at eight sampling sites around Mae Moh power plant during January-December 2003. Three biological indices, viz. algal genus pollution index, saprobic index, and Shannon-Weaver index, were adopted to classify the water quality around the power plant in comparison with the measured physico-chemical water quality. The result shows that the Shannon-Weaver diversity index appears to be much more applicable and interpretable for the classification of water quality around the Mae Moh power plant than the algal genus pollution index and the saprobic index.

  17. Species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 38 species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest. 24 taxa of lichenized Ascomycota and 14 taxa of lichenicolous and saprobic fungi are the result of the analysis of collected materials as well as additional field studies.

  18. Distribution of iron, cobalt , zinc and selenium in macrofungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2007), s. 249-259 ISSN 1617-416X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ectomycorrhizal fungi * instrumental neutron activation analysis * terrestrial saprobes Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  19. A genetic screen for bioluminescence genes in the fungus Armillaria mellea, through the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated random insertional mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioluminescence is reported from 71 saprobic species of fungi from four, distant lineages in the order Agaricales. Analyses of the fungal luminescent chemistry shows that all four lineages share a functionally conserved substrate and luciferase, indicating that the bioluminescent pathway is likely c...

  20. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota : Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s

  1. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Nam Q.; Barnes, Irene; Chen, ShuaiFei; Pham, Thu Q.; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of

  2. First report of Phyllosticta citricarpa and description of two new species, P. paracapitalensis and P. paracitricarpa, from citrus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarnaccia, V.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Li, H.; Glienke, C.; Carstens, E.; Hattingh, V.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from

  3. De novo assembly and transcriptome characterization of an Armillaria solidipes mycelial fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; Mee-Sook Kim; Rich C. Cronn; Hardeep S. Rai; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria (Fr.) Staude is a widely distributed fungal genus comprising approximately 40 species (Volk and Burdsall 1995) that display diverse ecological behaviors ranging from beneficial saprobe to virulent pathogen. Armillaria solidipes (formerly A. ostoyae; Burdsall and Volk 2008; pending vote to conserve A. ostoyae; Redhead et al. 2011), one of the causal agents of...

  4. The enigma of Calonectria species occurring on leaves of Ilex aquifolium in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechat, C.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Species of Calonectria are common saprobes and plant pathogens on a wide range of hosts occurring in subtropical to tropical regions of the world. The aim of the present study was to resolve the status of new Calonectria collections obtained on Ilex leaves from France. Based on DNA sequence data of

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Human Pathogenic Fungus Geomyces pannorum Sensu Lato and Bat White Nose Syndrome Pathogen Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans

    OpenAIRE

    Chibucos, Marcus C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G.?pannorum has a larger proteome than G.?destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Human Pathogenic Fungus Geomyces pannorum Sensu Lato and Bat White Nose Syndrome Pathogen Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2013-12-19

    We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G. pannorum has a larger proteome than G. destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes.

  7. Armillaria root disease in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hanna; Sara Ashiglar; Anna Case; Mary Lou Fairweather; Chris Hoffman; Mee-Sook Kim; Helen Maffei; Robert Mathiasen; Geral McDonald; Erik Nelson; Amy Ross-Davis; John Shaw; Ned Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria species display diverse ecological behaviors from beneficial saprobe to virulent pathogen. Armillaria solidipes, a causal agent of Armillaria root disease (ARD), is a virulent primary pathogen with a broad host range. ARD is responsible for reduced forest productivity as a result of direct tree mortality and non-lethal cryptic infections that impact growth....

  8. Alternaria redefined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always

  9. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of sexual development in a nematode-associated strain of Fusarium neocosmosporiellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium neocosmosporiellum (formerly Neocosmospora vasinfecta) is a ubiquitous saprobic fungus that has been isolated from plants, fungi, nematodes, dung and soil. This homothallic species is nested in a clade within the F. solani species complex near a lineage of fusaria farmed by ambrosia beetles...

  10. Multi-locus phylogeny and taxonomy of Exserohilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Restrepo, Margarita Ines; Madrid, H.; Tan, Y.P.; da Cunha, K.C.; Gene, Josepa; Guarro, Josep; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    Exserohilum includes a number of plant pathogenic, saprobic and clinically relevant fungi. Some of these species are of great importance in human activities, but the genus has never been revised in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we revise Exserohilum based on available ex-type cultures

  11. Barriopsis iraniana and Phaeobotryon cupressi: two new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from trees in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahzadeh, J.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.; Javadi, A.; Shams-bakhsh, M.; Zare, R.; Phillips:, A.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are well known as pathogens and saprobes of woody hosts, but little is known about the species that occur in Iran. In a recent survey of this family in Iran two fungi with diplodia-like anamorphs were isolated from various tree hosts. These two fungi were fully

  12. Annual Research Progress Report (U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    fungi were recovered from biopsy, and 10 from autopsy tissue. The predominant genus was As r illus. Pathogenic genera included Coccidioides, Mucor and...Alternaria. The most rapid nd lethal fungal mycoses have occurred with Mucor and Rhizopus spp, but’these species are still relatively rare in burn wounds. As...Sepodonium 1 0 0 3 0 0 Penicillium 1 3 0 1 0 1 Alternaria 2 3 1 3 6 1 Trichophyton 0 0 0 1 0 0 Mucor 2 0 0 1 4 0 Rhizopus 2 0 0 0 0 0 Curvularium 2 3 0 0 0

  13. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  14. Effects of Long-Term Kerosene Spillage on Heterotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Kerosene contaminated soil was obtained from four different locations in Calabar while pristine soil served as .... asexual and sexual reproduction structure like sporangia .... Mucor were isolated from both sample types (Table. 4).

  15. Assessment of aflatoxigenicAspergillusand other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Diverse moulds includingAlternaria,Aspergillus,Cercospora,Fusarium,Mucor,Penicillium,RhizopusandTrichodermawere isolated.Aspergilluswas predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenicAspergillusspecies,A. flavusrecorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86...

  16. Antimicrobial properties of three spices used in the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    Xylopia aethiopica) for the fungitixicity of their essential oils against mycelial growth of 3 food-borne fungi; Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans and Mucor hiemalis. The essential oils from all the spices were fungi-toxic at ...

  17. A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rhizopus oligosporus, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei, while Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum represented the bacterial ...

  18. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  19. Lichens and allied fungi of two Regional Parks in Vilnius area (Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Regional Parks – Verkiai and Pavilniai are situated in Vilnius city area comprising territories both of the city itself and Vilnius district and are under strong anthropogenic influence. During the present study 172 species of lichens, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi were revealed in Verkiai RP and 92 species – in Pavilniai RP. Three lichen species – Absconditella pauxilla, Thelenella pertusariella (in Verkiai RP, Bacidia caligans (in Pavilniai RP and one saprobic fungus – Chaenothecopsis debilis (in Verkiai RP are reporded for the first time in Lithuania. Seven lichen species of Lithuanian Red Data Book were recorded, all of them only in Verkiai RP; this indicates less strong anthropogenic impact and better conditions for biodiversity in this Park.

  20. Scedosporiosis in a Combined Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipient: A Case Report of Possible Transmission from a Near-Drowning Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Leek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium spp. are saprobic fungi that cause serious infections in immunocompromised hosts and in near-drowning victims. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of scedosporiosis as they require aggressive immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. We present a case of disseminated Scedosporium apiospermum infection occurring in the recipient of a combined kidney and liver transplantation whose organs were donated by a near-drowning victim and review the literature of scedosporiosis in solid organ transplantation.

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  2. Novel Strategies to Enhance Vaccine Immunity against Coccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    Mexico and Central and South America [1]. Coccidioides is a dimorphic ascomycetous fungus with distinct saprobic and parasitic phases and is classified in...lethal spore inoculum. However, sterile immunity was not achieved and pulmonary tissue damage associated with a persistent host inflammatory response...observation will translate to humans. A recent vector-based vaccine against tuberculosis intended to protect by eliciting strong CMI failed in humans despite

  3. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PSAMMOPHILIC CILIATES OF SUMGAIT CASPIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kh. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative data on the species composition and species saprobic indicators of the psammon ciliates from Sumgait coast of the Caspian Sea are given.Methods. “Alive” samples were collected using a small clean plastic wide mouth bottles. Further processing was carried out under laboratory conditions. Small quantities of soil were examined under a binocular microscope MBS-9 . Ciliates detected microvessel caught and fixed castors for further impregnation kinetoma silver nitrate (Chatton et Lwoff, 1930 or silver proteinate. To determine the keys for ciliates used Foyssner’s major publications (Foissner et al., 1991, 1992, 1999 and “Free-living ciliates Atlas” (Alekperov, 2005.Results. We observed 75 species of ciliates during the studies, which species composition and distribution of the collection points are shown in table 1. Diagrams with average data were made relations groups psammophilous ciliates indicators saprobity different zones for each of the sites investigated Sumgait coast.Main conclusions. Environmental analysis using benthic ciliates indicators saprobity different zones showed that as expected, the industrial zone of Sumgayit coast coast, despite the decline in recent years, the total amount of pollution that is still highly contaminated portion of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea.

  4. Post-genomic approaches to understanding interactions between fungi and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald P; Benoit, Isabelle; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Magnuson, Jon K; Panisko, Ellen A; Baker, Scott E; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2011-06-01

    Fungi inhabit every natural and anthropogenic environment on Earth. They have highly varied life-styles including saprobes (using only dead biomass as a nutrient source), pathogens (feeding on living biomass), and symbionts (co-existing with other organisms). These distinctions are not absolute as many species employ several life styles (e.g. saprobe and opportunistic pathogen, saprobe and mycorrhiza). To efficiently survive in these different and often changing environments, fungi need to be able to modify their physiology and in some cases will even modify their local environment. Understanding the interaction between fungi and their environments has been a topic of study for many decades. However, recently these studies have reached a new dimension. The availability of fungal genomes and development of post-genomic technologies for fungi, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled more detailed studies into this topic resulting in new insights. Based on a Special Interest Group session held during IMC9, this paper provides examples of the recent advances in using (post-)genomic approaches to better understand fungal interactions with their environments.

  5. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  6. Water quality in Danube Delta Lakes: An assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAM Orhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the ecological status of selected lakes in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was done based on temporal and spatial variation of macroinvertebrate communities during 2012 and 2013. Macroinvertebrate communities and measures of these communities were evaluated and a baseline characterization of assemblages was determined for the analyzed sites. Each year, three sampling campaigns, one for each ice-free season were organized for data collection. Macroinvertebrate samples have been collected in every lake from three different stations with the use of an Ekmann dredge. The highest taxa richness are recorded in Fortuna and Isac lakes in 2013. Total abundance followed a pattern similar to taxa number with Fortuna and Isac lakes having the highest yearly values (maximum number of individuals – 225 - per sample has been recorded in September 2013, in Isac Lake.Using saprobic index as an indicator of ecological status Isac lake was classifies as moderate and other three lakes, Merhei, Furtuna and Rosu as good ecological status. Lack of correlation between diversity indices and the saprobic values suggests that other assessment methods could be more effective and provide better information than saprobic index does at least for Danube Delta.

  7. [Clinical analyses of the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis: report of 14 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G G; Shi, L; Zhang, Z Y; Wan, Y Z; Li, B; Yu, L; Zhang, E P; Ju, H S; He, M Q; Ji, H Z

    2016-08-07

    Through the retrospective analysis of the clinical data in 14 cases of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS), the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of this disease were evaluated. Fourteen clinically confirmed cases of IFRS since January 2008 to October 2015 were evaluated.collected, the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were analyzed to obtain a more comprehensive understanding for clinical reference. Fourteen patients were confirmed by pathological examination as IFRS, including 9 cases of aspergillus, 4 cases of mucor, and 1 case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis; including 5 cases of acute IFRS, 9 cases of chronic IFRS. All patients were treated with endoscopic surgery and intravenous antifungal therapy. Nine cases of chronic IFRS (including 1 case of mucor, 7 cases of aspergillus and 1 case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis) were cured, but the vision loss, diplopia or blindness, hard palate perforation remained. Five cases of acute IFRS included 3 cases of mucor and 2 cases of aspergillus. Among the 3 cases of mucor, 2 cases were died and 1 case was cured. Among the 2 cases of aspergillus, 1 patient was cured and the other patient died of electrolyte disorder after discharge from hospital. Patients with IFRS usually have diabetes. After the active surgical cleaning of lesion tissue and the systematic antifungal treatment with adequate dosage, these patients would have a better result. IFRS caused by mucor is ofen dangerous.

  8. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: pcj@furb.rct-sc.br

    2003-06-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jane E. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25ºC in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester.

  10. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  11. Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

  12. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  13. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  14. Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial potential of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans, were used as test organisms and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar-well diffusion method. Synergistic ...

  15. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  16. Characterization of moulds associated with processed garri stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of moulds associated with processed white and yellow garri stored at ambient temperature for 40 days was investigated. The moulds isolated from white garri (%) were: Aspergillus spp 35.3, Penicillium spp 23.53, Fusarium spp 2.94, Mucor spp 17.65, Alternaria spp 5.88, Cladosporium sp 2.94 and ...

  17. Assessment of microbial profile of selected proprietary broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal isolates recovered include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium spp, Mucor spp, and Penicillium notatum. Total microbial counts were significantly different (P<0.05) among the selected feed ...

  18. Mycological Assessment of Suya Sold in Some Parts of Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    different locations A total of fifty seven (57) fungi isolates were obtained from suya in all sampled locations. Fungi species such as Candida tropicalis, Penicillium chrysogenum,. Aspergillus niger Mucor spp, Aspergillus flavus ,Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium digitatum,. Fusarium solanii, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus ...

  19. Expansion of Signal Transduction Pathways in Fungi by Extensive Genome Duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrochano, Luis M; Kuo, Alan; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Polaino, Silvia; Salamov, Asaf; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Grimwood, Jane; Álvarez, M Isabel; Avalos, Javier; Bauer, Diane; Benito, Ernesto P; Benoit, Isabelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410023; Burger, Gertraud; Camino, Lola P; Cánovas, David; Cerdá-Olmedo, Enrique; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Domínguez, Angel; Eliáš, Marek; Eslava, Arturo P; Glaser, Fabian; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Heitman, Joseph; Henrissat, Bernard; Iturriaga, Enrique A; Lang, B Franz; Lavín, José L; Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Wenjun; Lindquist, Erika; López-García, Sergio; Luque, Eva M; Marcos, Ana T; Martin, Joel; McCluskey, Kevin; Medina, Humberto R; Miralles-Durán, Alejandro; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Muñoz-Torres, Elisa; Oguiza, José A; Ohm, Robin A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837628; Olmedo, María; Orejas, Margarita; Ortiz-Castellanos, Lucila; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Ruiz-Herrera, José; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa; Sanz, Catalina; Schackwitz, Wendy; Shahriari, Mahdi; Shelest, Ekaterina; Silva-Franco, Fátima; Soanes, Darren; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tagua, Víctor G; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thon, Michael R; Tice, Hope; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960; Wiebenga, Ad|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314110763; Yadav, Jagjit S; Braun, Edward L; Baker, Scott E; Garre, Victoriano; Schmutz, Jeremy; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Idnurm, Alexander; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Gabaldón, Toni; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    Plants and fungi use light and other signals to regulate development, growth, and metabolism. The fruiting bodies of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus are single cells that react to environmental cues, including light, but the mechanisms are largely unknown [1]. The related fungus Mucor

  20. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  1. Does co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with endophytic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth in a polluted environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ważny, Rafał; Rozpądek, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J; Śliwa, Marta; Stojakowska, Anna; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. resulted in increased biomass yield of plants cultivated on the polluted substrate, whereas co-inoculation with T. asperellum and the AM fungus increased plant biomass on the non-polluted substrate. In the presence of Mucor sp., mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule richness were increased in the non-polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. increased Zn concentration in leaves and roots. The concentration of sesquiterpene lactones in plant leaves was decreased by AM fungus inoculation in both substrates. Despite enhanced host plant costs caused by maintaining symbiosis with numerous microorganisms, interaction of wild lettuce with both mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi was more beneficial than that with a single fungus. The study shows the potential of double inoculation in unfavourable environments, including agricultural areas and toxic metal-polluted areas.

  2. Microbial Metabolism. Part 10. Metabolites of 7,8 Dimethoxyflavone and 5-Methoxyflavone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial transformation of 7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (1) by Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 9628) produced five metabolites: 7, 8-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxyflavone (2), 3', 4'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (3), 7, 3'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4), 7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (5) and 8-methoxy-7, 3', 4'-trihy...

  3. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  4. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  5. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  6. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  7. Microbial metabolism part 13 metabolites of hesperetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal culture, Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 2628) transformed hesperitin to four metabolites: 4'-methoxy -5, 7, 8, 3'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (8-hydroxyhesperetin), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (eriodictyol), 4'-methoxy-5, 3'-dihydroxyflavanone 7-sulfate (hesperetin 7-sulfate) and 5, 7, 3'-tri...

  8. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Fungi Associated With Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spoilage fungi isolated were Aspergillus species, Rhizopus, Penicilluim, Fusarium, Eurotium, Mucor, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Actinomyces species. The predominant spoilage fungi in the grains were Aspergillus species. The populations of some spoilage fungi isolated from the grains were not high ...

  9. Activity of Deferasirox in Mucorales: Influences of Species and Exogenous Iron▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E.; Pongas, Georgios N.; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains. PMID:20956598

  10. Activity of deferasirox in Mucorales: influences of species and exogenous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E; Pongas, Georgios N; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2011-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains.

  11. Activity of Deferasirox in Mucorales: Influences of Species and Exogenous Iron▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Russell E.; Pongas, Georgios N.; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains.

  12. In Situ/On-Site Biodegradation of Refined Oils and Fuels (A Technology Review). Volume 2. Appendix A. Supplementary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Naphthalene oxidation predominates in the order Mucorales , which includes species of Cunninghamella, Syncephalastrum, and Mucor (Cerniglia, Hebert, Szaniszlo...naphthal inicum nonl quifaciciens, Pseudomonas desmo 1yticum, P. fluorescens, P. putida biotype B)" ~seudomonas oleovoransg, P. put da ’v, ( Mucorales

  13. Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... C. O. Omoifo. Department of ... stolonifer could utilize glucose for growth, this study examined the effect ... H54Ar meter balance and added to the beaker. The pH was .... This work was done at the MTCC-1, Institute of Microbial. Technology ... Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis. J. Appl.

  14. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h ...

  15. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.

  16. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Gandomi, Behrooz; Sabz, Gholamabbass; Khodami, Bijan; Choopanizadeh, Maral; Jafarian, Hadis

    2015-02-01

    Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performed with two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus. Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3), Aspergillus flavus (n=2), Penicillium sp (n=3) and Alternaria sp. (n=1). Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor. Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementary diagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  18. Microflora diversity on the phyloplane of wild Okra ( Corchorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial genera isolated included; Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Serratia and Proteus. Rhodotorula, Mucor, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Helminthosporium were the genera of fungi isolated. Further studies could help to elucidate major players in wild okra phylloplane ecology. Keywords: Wild Okra ...

  19. Macromycetes of oak-lime-hornbeam woods in the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków (S Poland - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysława Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1994-1996 studies on macromycetes of the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków were made in four plots designated in deciduous forests (Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum with a population of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata (the size of each plot was 1000 m2. The observations were made through an international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". As many as 274 species were recorded, including 234 saprobic, 33 mycorrhizal, and 7 parasitic fungi. Moreover, 15 species of fungi are connected with oak, 24 species of fungi are threatened, and 16 species are new to Poland.

  20. Ein Fließgewässer im urbanen Umfeld. Analyse des ökologischen Zustandes des unteren Belmer Baches (Osnabrück, Niedersachsen) anhand des Makrozoobenthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The organic pollution of the lower Belmer Bach can be attributed to its agriculturally intensively used drainage area. Already before entering the urbanized region, the macrozoobenthos is poor in species due to saprobic pollution and the structural poverty of the waterbed and the banks.......When comparing the species numbers of a reference sampling plot located before the urban region and a sampling plot situated within this region, hardly any differences could be ascertained. The longitudinal isolation and the rise in temperature of i 1 °C in the urban brook section negatively influence its fauna...

  1. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  2. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  3. Impact of morpho-hydraulic structure of small flows river-basins for settlement by benthic invertebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastuchova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We examined two types of potential habitat for macrozoobenthos: 1 morphological units; 2 types of flow as a complex of hydraulic characteristics of habitat. Both types of habitats were analyzed by their physical attributes and macroinvertebrate communities. Froude (Fr) and Reynolds (Re) number turned out to be suitable as a descriptor of the average hydraulic habitat conditions. The structure of the communities involved abundance, food types, substrate, saprobic and current preferences. From directly measured variables the most significant effect had the flow velocity. (author)

  4. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Deng, Shuwen; Machouart, Marie; Voigt, Kerstin; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.

  5. RESEARCH ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN BRATIA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina - Mihaela Truţă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the quality of Bratia River. The present paper was based on the bibliographic material as well as the field research carried out during 2016-2017. The research objectives were the following: identification of qualitative and quantitative structure of phytobenthic biocenoses in the established monitoring points; determination of the phytoplankton algae families in the monitoring stations; identification of the structure of benthic biocenoses in the monitoring points; establishing saprobity indices for each species identified and incorporation of the monitoring sections into the appropriate saprobity class; determining the quality of Bratia River according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU. We have identified 54 species in the phytobenthonic samples, grouped in three phyla: Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. We have also identified 47 species in the structure of benthic zoocenosis belonging to 25 families from 8 genera. The main benthic invertebrate groups in the Bratia River were: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Gammaridae. Oboarele Mari and Gămăceşti recorded a high quality ecological status, while Berevoiesti station had a good ecological status.

  6. Mucorales (Zygomycotina da Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP Mucorales (Zygomycotina of the Atlantic Rainforest in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", Santo André, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Treze táxons de Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distribuídos num total de 266 registros, foram isolados de folhas de Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. colocadas em ambientes terrestre e aquático, e de amostras de solo e de água de riacho, coletadas mensalmente, de julho de 1988 a maio de 1990 na Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, no município de Santo André, SP. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores números de registro de ocorrência foram Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 registros, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 registros e Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 registros. Cinqüenta por cento dos Mucorales encontrados na região são constituídos por espécies que estão sendo citadas pela primeira vez para a Mata Atlântica: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. e Zygorhynchns macrocarpus Ling-Young.Thirteen taxa of Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distributed in 266 occurrences were isolated from leaves of Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. disposed in the terrestrial and aquatic environment, and of soil and stream water samples, monthly taken from July of 1988 to May of 1990, in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", in the municipality of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil. Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 records, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 records and Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 records were the most frequent species. Fifty percent of the Mucorales found are formed by species that are mentioned for the first time in the Atlantic Rainforest: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. and Zygorhynchus macrocarpus Ling-Young.

  7. DNA barcoding in Mucorales: an inventory of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, G; Pawłowska, J; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Wrzosek, M; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Dolatabadi, S; Chakrabarti, A; de Hoog, G S

    2013-06-01

    The order Mucorales comprises predominantly fast-growing saprotrophic fungi, some of which are used for the fermentation of foodstuffs but it also includes species known to cause infections in patients with severe immune or metabolic impairments. To inventory biodiversity in Mucorales ITS barcodes of 668 strains in 203 taxa were generated covering more than two thirds of the recognised species. Using the ITS sequences, Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units were defined by a similarity threshold of 99 %. An LSU sequence was generated for each unit as well. Analysis of the LSU sequences revealed that conventional phenotypic classifications of the Mucoraceae are highly artificial. The LSU- and ITS-based trees suggest that characters, such as rhizoids and sporangiola, traditionally used in mucoralean taxonomy are plesiomorphic traits. The ITS region turned out to be an appropriate barcoding marker in Mucorales. It could be sequenced directly in 82 % of the strains and its variability was sufficient to resolve most of the morphospecies. Molecular identification turned out to be problematic only for the species complexes of Mucor circinelloides, M. flavus, M. piriformis and Zygorhynchus moelleri. As many as 12 possibly undescribed species were detected. Intraspecific variability differed widely among mucorealean species ranging from 0 % in Backusella circina to 13.3 % in Cunninghamella echinulata. A high proportion of clinical strains was included for molecular identification. Clinical isolates of Cunninghamella elegans were identified molecularly for the first time. As a result of the phylogenetic analyses several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes became necessary. The genus Backusella was emended to include all species with transitorily recurved sporangiophores. Since this matched molecular data all Mucor species possessing this character were transferred to Backusella. The genus Zygorhynchus was shown to be polyphyletic based on ITS and LSU data. Consequently

  8. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  9. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40–80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30–150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2–3 times. PMID:27375964

  10. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  12. Invasive Mucormycosis Induced Pneumopericardium: A Rare Cause of Pneumopericardium in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucor and Rhizopus cause life-threatening infections primarily involving the lungs and sinuses, which disseminate very rapidly by necrosis and infarction of the contiguous tissues. We present a case of a 64-year-old African American posttransplant patient who presented with a productive cough and weight loss. He had a past surgical history of renal transplant for renal cell carcinoma and was on dual immunosuppressive therapy, that is, mycophenolate and tacrolimus. During his hospital stay, he developed a pneumopericardium due to the direct extension of a lung lesion. The diagnosis was made by radiological imaging and PCR result which was consistent with Mucor species. He was treated with antifungal therapy. The purpose of this report is to highlight the unusual association of mucormycosis with pneumopericardium.

  13. Ecological screening of lipolytic cultures and process optimization for extracellular lipase production from fungal hyperproducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Niaz, M.; Anwer, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Saleem, M.; Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Present investigation describes the biosynthesis of extracellular lipases by various local fungal strains isolated from various lipid rich habitats of Faisalabad. The isolated cultures of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor mucedo, Alternaria alternata, Trichophyton sp., Fusarium semitectum, E (un-identified), Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus, G (un-identified), F (Mucor sp.) and H (Synnematous) were identified and screened for the extracelluler lipases production. Different environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, amount of substrate and incubation time were optimized for the selected hyper producer. It was found that maximum production of lipases by Trichophyton sp., was obtained after 48 h of batch fermentation. Similarly, the diluent pH of 7.0 and incubation temperature of 30 deg. C were found optimum for enzyme production by the microorganism. The maximum production of lipases during the course of present studies was 65.20 +- 1.13a U/g. (author)

  14. Mucormycosis in a diabetic patient: A case report with an insight into its pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Neelam Afroze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is one of the most rapidly progressing and fulminant forms of fungal infection which usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses following inhalation of fungal spores. It is caused by organisms of the subphylum Mucormycotina, including genera as Absidia, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. The incidence of mucormycosis is approximately 1.7 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year. Mucormycosis affecting the maxilla is rare because of rich blood vessel supply of maxillofacial areas although more virulent fungi such as Mucor can overcome this difficulty. The common form of this infection is seen in the rhinomaxillary region and in patients with immunocompromised state such as diabetes. Hence, early diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening disease and prompt treatment is of prime importance in reducing the mortality rate.

  15. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  16. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Identification of fungal ene-reductase activity by means of a functional screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Alice; Spina, Federica; Brenna, Elisabetta; Crotti, Michele; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Bioeconomy stresses the need of green processes promoting the development of new methods for biocatalyzed alkene reductions. A functional screening of 28 fungi belonging to Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota isolated from different habitats was performed to analyze their capability to reduce C=C double bonds towards three substrates (cyclohexenone, α-methylnitrostyrene, and α-methylcinnamaldehyde) with different electron-withdrawing groups, i.e., ketone, nitro, and aldehyde, respectively. Almost all the fungi showed this reducing activity. Noteworthy Gliomastix masseei, Mucor circinelloides, and Mucor plumbeus resulted versatile and effective, being able to reduce all the model substrates quickly and with high yields. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-01-01

    Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. ...

  19. In Vitro Toxicity and Activity of Dakin’s Solution, Mafenide Acetate, and Amphotericin B on Filamentous Fungi and Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    clinical or in vitro studies did not include molds, but Dakin’s solution has shown activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger but less...molds such as Aspergillus and Mucor spe- cies. This experience is similar to the British military experience with IFIs during their deployments to...activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.17 Other topical agents have been used to treat IFIs, including mafenide acetate and amphotericin B, primarily

  20. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Subroto1); Chusnul Hidayat2); Supriyadi2)

    2008-01-01

    Structured lipid (SL) containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei...

  1. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  2. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Djelal , Hayet; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen dem...

  3. MAQUETTE ORL Décembre 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucorales (1). Les principaux germes responsables de l'infection chez l'homme sont Rhizopus, Mucor et Absidia. (1,2). Ces microorganismes sont ubiquitaires, ils sont omniprésents dans l'environnement sous formes de spores dans l'air, la terre, les végétaux en décomposition et les produits d'origine animale (3).

  4. Biodegradation of Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    different areas of Kuwait. The isolates were identified as Asoeraillus terreus, h. IlabirM, Mucor alobosus, usarium sp . and Penicillium citrinum (94...Thiobacillus delicatus nov. sp . J. Ferment . Technol. 54:181-191 (1976). (39) Harrison, AP. The acidophilic thiobacilli and other acidophilic bacteria...methyl sulfide is oxidized to sulfate by Hnhomicrobium S sp ., Hynhomicrobu EG (21-23), Thiobacillus thioDarus TK-m and Thiobacillus MS1 (24,25), but only

  5. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Yi, Chin A; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joungho

    2006-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures

  6. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel diesters of 4,4'-dihydroxy azoxy benzene with long chain carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzadi, S.; Siddiqi, H.M.; Qasim, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of novel symmetrical azoxy diesters have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4'-dihydroxyazoxy benzene with aliphatic acid halides of varying chain lengths. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by spectral and analytical means. These symmetrical azoxy diesters exhibit good antifungal against six fungal strains (Mucor species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus fumigatus) and antitumor activities while no significant antibacterial activity has been observed. These synthesized compounds are also potent free radical scavengers. (author)

  7. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Barman

    Full Text Available One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%. More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml. Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate.

  8. The deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 又四; 寺下, 隆夫

    1988-01-01

    [Author abstract]Deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits is generally thought to be caused by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue of apparently healthy fruit. Counts of viable airborne microorganisms showed that there were more in plastic greenhouses than in open culure of tomatoes. Altemaria, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Pseudomonas were among t...

  9. Activity of Posaconazole and Other Antifungal Agents against Mucorales Strains Identified by Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacers▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates. PMID:19171801

  10. Activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against Mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-04-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates.

  11. Modification of valencene by bio- and chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Mai

    2013-07-01

    Highly efficient production is discussed of nootkatone, the most important fragrant component of grapefruit and which possesses anti-obesity activity, from valencene, obtained from Valencia orange, by the green alga, Chlorella, and the fungi, Mucor, Botryospaeria and Botryodiplodia. The microorganisms introduce an oxygen atom at an allylic position to give secondary hydroxyl and keto groups. The presented methods are a cheap one step reaction, non-hazardous and very useful for the production of fragrant components from commercially available natural sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.

  12. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans. Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4 · 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum. A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor and a predator species (Duddingtonia for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs.

  13. Identification of Mucorales isolates from soil using morphological and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, A; Zia, M; Bayat, M; Hashemi, J

    2016-03-01

    Soil is the main habitat of saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. Mucoromycotina constitutes a large group of soil fungi, with certain opportunistic members causing systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts. The majority of human and animal infections are caused by the members of the genera Rhizopus , Mucor , Rhizomucor , Lichtheimia ( Absidia) , Cunninghamella, and Mortierella . Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed to isolate and identify the main genera of the order Mucorales, using molecular assays and morphological features . In total, 340 soil samples were collected from seven public parks throughout the city and sidewalk gardens in 14 municipal districts in Isfahan, Iran. All the samples were cultured on the appropriate media, incubated at 27°C for 2- 4 days, and examined daily for visible fungal growth. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied and macroscopic, microscopic, and physiological characteristics were assessed to identify fungal colonies. 400 pure colonies, belonging to the orders Mucorales and Mortierellales, including the genera Lichtheimia , Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Cunninghamella, and Mortierella, were identified . The genus Rhizopus (35.5%) was the most frequent isolate, followed by Mucor (32.25%) and Rhizomucor (27.5%). The results emphasize the importance of opportunistic fungi in public areas and indicate the risk of exposure for immunocompromised individuals.

  14. Identification of Mucorales isolates from soil using morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Ziaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Soil is the main habitat of saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. Mucormycetes are one of the most parts of soil fungi and certain members are among opportunistic fungi and can cause systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. The majority of human and animal infections are caused by members of the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Lichtheimia (Absidia, Cunninghamella and Mortierella. The objective of this research was to isolate and identify the main genera of Zygomycetes, using molecular assay and morphological features. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 soil samples were collected from different sites of seven public parks and 14 municipality districts in Isfahan. All samples were cultured on appropriate media and incubated at 27° C for 2 to 4 days, and then examined daily for visible fungal growth. PCR-RFLP method and macroscopic, microscopic and physiological characteristics were applied to identify fungal colonies. Results: Four hundred pure colonies belonging to six genera of Zygomycetes including Lichtheimia, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Cunninghamella and Mortierella were identified. The genus Rhizopus (35.5% was the most frequent isolate, followed by Mucor (32.25% and Rhizomucor (27.5%. Conclusion: These finding may help us to understand about the importance of opportunistic fungi in public areas and the risk of exposure with immunocompromised persons.

  15. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele, Rivers State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatfeng, Y M; Olama, E H; Ojo, T O

    2009-12-30

    Herbal antimalarials still remain an alternative to our traditional communities who can not afford orthodox antimalarials. This study was aimed at investigating the microbial quality of six herbal antimalarials using standard microbiological methods. Of the six preparations analyzed, "schnapps", palm wine and water were the media of preparation; the water base preparations recorded higher microbial load. The mean microbial load was 159.5 × 10(5) cfu/ml and 217.4 × 10(2)cfu/ml in water and alcohol base preparations respectively. The microbial profile of the preparations showed that the schnapps base preparations were predominantly contaminated with Bacillus sp (Aerobic spore bearers) and Mucor spp. The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor spp. Conclusively, this study underlines the public health importance of these preparations given the high burden of such human pathogen as Ecoli O157H7, Ps aeruginosa, Stahp aureus, etc. in the preparations.

  16. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  17. KOEFISIEN SAPROBIK PLANKTON DI PERAIRAN EMBUNG UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Awaludin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Embung Universitas Negeri Semarang dibangun dengan tujuan sebagai tempat penampungan air hujan dan penyerapan air di Universitas Negeri Semarang dan mempunyai kapasitas penampungan air 5.000 m3. Keberadaan embung tersebut menciptakan suatu ekosistem baru yaitu tempat hidup ikan-ikan di dalamnya. Saprobitas perairan digunakan untuk mengetahui keadaan kualitas air yang diakibatkan adanya penambahan bahan organik dalam suatu  perairan yang biasanya indikatornya adalah jumlah dan susunan spesies dari organisme di dalam perairan tersebut. Plankton dapat digunakan sebagai bioindikator perairan karena memiliki tingkat kepekaan tinggi terhadap adanya pencemaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksplorasi dengan metode survai, dimana penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel dengan purposive sampling. Penempatan stasiun didasarkan atas perkiraan beban pencemar dan aktivitas yang terdapat di sepanjang aliran dari (stasiun satu sampai sembilan, pengambilan sampel dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali dengan selang waktu 2 minggu. Data dalam penelitian ini adalah data kuantitatif berupa jumlah jenis spesies plankton yang ditemukan pada penelitian ini kemudian diinterpretasikan pada tabel hubungan antara koefisien saprobitas perairan dengan tingkat pencemaran perairan. Berdasarkan perhitungan dan analisis nilai koefisien saprobik dari stasiun satu sampai sampai sembilan didapatkan nilai koefisien saprobik plankton berkisar antara -0,4 s/d 0,9. Berdasarkan kriteria tingkat pencemaran menunjukkan bahwa Embung Universitas Negeri Semarang berada dalam kondisi tercemar ringan sampai dengan sedang.Universitas Negeri Semarang Reservoir was constructed for the purpose as rain water reservoirs and water absorption in Universitas Negeri Semarang and has a water storage capacity of 5,000 cubic meters. The existence of such ponds are creating a new ecosystem where fish live in it. Saprobic waters are used to determine the state of water quality resulting from the addition of

  18. Species and ecological diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensch, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2010-01-01

    of this species. Cladosporium tenuissimum and C. oxysporum, two saprobes abundant in the tropics, are epitypified and shown to be allied to, but distinct from C. cladosporioides. Twenty-two species are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic characters and cryptic morphological differences. The most...... important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species within the C. cladosporioides complex, which represents a monophyletic subclade within the genus, are shape, width, length, septation and surface ornamentation of conidia and conidiophores; length and branching patterns of conidial chains and hyphal...... shape, width and arrangement. Many of the treated species, e.g., C. acalyphae, C. angustisporum, C. australiense, C. basiinflatum, C. chalastosporoides, C. colocasiae, C. cucumerinum, C. exasperatum, C. exile, C. flabelliforme, C. gamsianum, and C. globisporum are currently known only from specific...

  19. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Q. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Cylindrocladiella isolates from soils collected in forest nurseries and plantations in Vietnam and Malaysia. This was achieved using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological observations. The study revealed two previously described species, Cy. lageniformis and Cy. peruviana as well as five novel taxa, described here as Cy. arbusta sp. nov., Cy. malesiana sp. nov., Cy. obpyriformis sp. nov., Cy. parvispora sp. nov. and Cy. solicola sp. nov. A relatively small collection of isolates from a limited geographic sampling revealed an unexpectedly high level of Cylindrocladiella diversity suggesting that many more species in this genus await discovery in South-East Asia.

  20. A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, C.L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Boehm, E.W.A.; Burgess, T.I.; de Gruyter, J.; de Hoog, G.S.; Dixon, L.J.; Grube, M.; Gueidan, C.; Harada, Y.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hirayama, K.; Hosoya, T.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Jones, E.B.G.; Kohlmeyer, J.; Kruys, Å.; Li, Y.M.; Lücking, R.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Marvanová, L.; Mbatchou, J.S.; McVay, A.H.; Miller, A.N.; Mugambi, G.K.; Muggia, L.; Nelsen, M.P.; Nelson, P.; Owensby, C A.; Phillips, A.J.L.; Phongpaichit, S.; Pointing, S.B.; Pujade-Renaud, V.; Raja, H.A.; Plata, E. Rivas; Robbertse, B.; Ruibal, C.; Sakayaroj, J.; Sano, T.; Selbmann, L.; Shearer, C.A.; Shirouzu, T.; Slippers, B.; Suetrong, S.; Tanaka, K.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Yonezawa, H.; Zhang, Y.; Spatafora, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive phylogeny derived from 5 genes, nucSSU, nucLSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2, for 356 isolates and 41 families (six newly described in this volume) in Dothideomycetes. All currently accepted orders in the class are represented for the first time in addition to numerous previously unplaced lineages. Subclass Pleosporomycetidae is expanded to include the aquatic order Jahnulales. An ancestral reconstruction of basic nutritional modes supports numerous transitions from saprobic life histories to plant associated and lichenised modes and a transition from terrestrial to aquatic habitats are confirmed. Finally, a genomic comparison of 6 dothideomycete genomes with other fungi finds a high level of unique protein associated with the class, supporting its delineation as a separate taxon. PMID:20169021

  1. Subcutaneous infection by Ochroconis mirabilis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Shi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the taxonomy of Ochroconis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Venturiales, Sympoventuriaceae has been revised with the recognition of an additional genus, Verruconis. Ochroconis comprises mesophilic saprobes that occasionally infect vertebrates which mostly are cold-blooded, while Verruconis contains thermophilic species which is a neurotrope in humans and birds. On the basis of molecular data it is noted that only a single Ochroconis species regularly infects immunocompetent human hosts. Here we report a subcutaneous infection due to Ochroconis mirabilis in a 50-year-old immunocompetent female patient. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that terbinafine was the most effective drug. The patient was successfully cured with oral administration of terbinafine 250 mg daily in combination with 3 times of topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for 9 months.

  2. Phytoplankton of the Boguchany reservoir in 2016-2017 at the stations in front of the hydroelectric dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usoltseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton of the dam area of the Boguchany Reservoir were studied in the first years of operation of the hydroelectric power station in 2016-2017. Two peaks of algal bloom are noted in spring and summer. Mass species were: diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus and dinophyte Gymnodinium baicalense in spring; diatoms Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, blue-green Dolichospermum lemmermannii, D. flosaquae, D. flosaquae f. spiroides and Aphanizomenon flosaquae; green Sphaerocystis planctonica and dinophyte Ceratium hirundinella in summer; diatoms F. crotonensis and A. formosa, cryptophytic Rhodomonas pusilla and Cryptomonas ovata in autumn. The cryptophyte R. pusilla and the Cryptomonas species were dominated under the ice. The maximum number of phytoplankton (9 million cells in liter was recorded in the spring. According to the indixes of saprobity, the purity of water corresponded to II-III quality classes (pure and moderately polluted water.

  3. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons.

  4. UV-B-mediated changes on below-ground communities associated with the roots of Acer saccharum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klironomos, J.N.; Allen, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Little is known about how exposure to UV-B radiation affects rhizosphere microbes. Rhizosphere organisms are fed primarily by root-derived substrates and fulfil functions such as mineralization, immobilization, decomposition, pathogeneity and improvement of plant nutrition; they form the base of the below-ground food web. 2. In this study, we exposed Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B radiation in order to determine if UV-B influences the activities of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria and microbe-feeding arthropods in the rhizosphere. 3. Below-ground organisms are greatly affected by UV-B radiation. Overall, carbon-flow in the plant soil system was shifted from a mutualistic-closed, mycorrhizal-dominated system to an opportunist-open, saprobe/pathogen-dominated one. (author)

  5. Plants promote mating and dispersal of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Springer

    Full Text Available Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp., and Terminalia catappa (almond seedlings. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of Cryptococcus to colonize live plants, leaves, and vasculature. We investigated the ability of Cryptococcus to grow on live seedlings of the angiosperms, A. thaliana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Colophospermum mopane, and the gymnosperms, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir, and Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock. We observed a broad-range ability of Cryptococcus to colonize both traditional infection models as well as newly tested conifer species. Furthermore, C. neoformans, C. deneoformans, C. gattii (VGI, C. deuterogattii (VGII and C. bacillisporus (VGIII were able to colonize live plant leaves and needles but also undergo filamentation and mating on agar seeded with plant materials or in saprobic association with dead plant materials. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow and undergo filamentation and reproduction in saprobic association with both angiosperms and gymnosperms highlights an important role of plant debris in the sexual cycle and exposure to infectious propagules. This study highlights the broad importance of plants (and plant debris as the ecological niche and reservoirs of infectious propagules of Cryptococcus in the environment.

  6. [Use of macroalgae for the evaluation of organic pollution in the Preto river, northwest of São Paulo State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi Júnior, O; Branco, H Z; Dip, M R

    1994-01-01

    The Preto River, located in the northwest of São Paulo State, receives a total wastewater load of 15.150 kg DBO day-1, from which 13.685 kg DBO day-1 (90.5%) corresponds to domestic sewage, and the city of São José do Rio Preto contributes with 12.400 kg DBO day-1 (90% of domestic sewage). During the period from August 1990 through January 1991, monthly sampling was carried out to evaluate the use of macroalgae as bioindicator of organic pollution. Five sampling sites were established along the main river and the following variables were analised: temperature, conductance, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, total and fecal coliforms, and composition and abundance of macroalgal communities. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (four different approaches) and converted to biological indices (species deficit, relative pollution, saprobity, diversity and uniformity indices). A wide range in water quality was found (particularly for conductance, oxygen, BOD and COD) among the sampling sites, which were classified into three groups (polluted, moderately polluted and unpolluted/weakly polluted). As regards the occurrence and abundance of macroalgae the Rhodophyta were found only in unpolluted or weakly polluted sites, whereas Cyanophyta occurred mostly under high pollution load; the Chlorophyta species were observed under a wide range of conditions. Among the biological indices, saprobity was the most sensitive and correlated to all water variables and the other indices. Cluster analyses showed that the composition of macroalgal communities was consistent with the levels of organic pollution in the Preto River.

  7. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  8. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  9. Species Identification and Delineation of Pathogenic Mucorales by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jin; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Yu, Jin

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering six genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library (v1.0) to identify all 111 isolates. To increase the identification rate, we created a compensatory in-house database, the Beijing Medical University (BMU) database, using 13 reference strains covering 6 species, including M. irregularis , Mucor hiemalis , Mucor racemosus , Cunninghamella bertholletiae , Cunninghamella phaeospora , and Cunninghamella echinulata All 111 isolates were then identified by MALDI-TOF MS using a combination of the Bruker library and BMU database. MALDI-TOF MS identified 55 (49.5%) and 74 (66.7%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, using the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1.0 alone. A combination of the Bruker library and BMU database allowed MALDI-TOF MS to identify 90 (81.1%) and 111 (100%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, with a significantly increased accuracy rate. MALDI-TOF MS poorly identified Mucorales when the Bruker library was used alone due to its lack of some fungal species. In contrast, this technique perfectly identified M. irregularis after main spectrum profiles (MSPs) of relevant reference strains were added to the Bruker library. With an expanded Bruker library, MALDI-TOF MS is an effective tool for the identification of pathogenic Mucorales. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Application of the EPR technique to examine free radical qualities reducing infection of spring wheat grain with pathogenic fungi by He-Ne laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagoś, M.; Koper, R.; Sujak, A.; Misiak, L.E.; Kowalczuk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of spring wheat grain, Jasna cv., infected with pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium, Mucor) were examined using an EPR technique. Considering the quantity of generated free radicals the fungi belonged to most toxine generating. Their toxicity was connected with the number of free radicals generated in examined grain. Grain was irradiated with He-Ne laser at known wavelength, power density and time of exposure what gave the mycostatic effect appearing in decrease of free radicals in grain samples. However, this process was not stable as the increase of free radicals was observed again with the regrowth of fungi after some days

  11. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  12. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  13. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed “twisted ribbon” appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improtant because treatment is different than that for more common mycoses such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. We present an informative and illustrative case of zygomycosis in a patient with HIV infection and liver transplantation.

  14. Control del desarrollo de hongos contaminantes de alimentos mediante iones dosificados por materiales microporosos.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiericatti, Carolina Andrea Antonia; Chiericatti, Carolina Andrea Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto inhibitorio de Ag y Cu incorporado en matrices microporosas sobre el crecimiento de diferentes hongos, que son problemáticos en las industrias alimenticias de nuestra zona. Se estudiaron las especies fúngicas: Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii y Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Los Hongos filamentosos fueron aislados de productos lácteos que provocaron alteración a baja tensión de oxígeno y las levaduras f...

  15. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  16. MIKROFLORA PADA TEMPOYAK The Microflora of Tempoyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tempoyak is a traditional Bengkulu fermented food prepared from spontaneous fermentation of durian (Durio zibethi- nus by wild microorganisms. Tempoyak is found not only in Bengkulu but also as long as Sumatera island with differ- ent names, and also in Malaysia. Tempoyak is a Melayu term meaning fermented durian. The research was conducted to identify microflora in tempoyak, and to select the species of microorganisms which were able to ferment durian ef- fectivelly. The data in this study were laboratory analysis. Samples were collected weekly in a month from productions centre of tempoyak and traditional markets, and analyzed microbiologically to determine and identify the bacteria, yeasts and molds in tempoyak. There were four specieses of lactic acid bacteria found in fermented durian namely Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. While two specieses which were not lactic acid bacteria namely Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus varians. One species of yeast was Kluyveromyces marxianus. The molds were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila, Mucor roxii, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp. Among these specieses three specieses were produced lactic acid namelly Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila,and Mucor roxii. While Aspergillus ripens and Penicillium sp did not pro- duce lactic acid so these specieses might not function in fermentation process. ABSTRAK Tempoyak adalah makanan khas Bengkulu, yang dibuat dari fermentasi spontan daging buah durian (Durio zibet- hinus oleh mikroorganisme liar. Tempoyak juga bisa dijumpai di berbagai daerah Indonesia di sepanjang pulau Sumatera dengan nama yang berbeda, bahkan sampai ke Malaysia. Istilah tempoyak berasal dari terminolgi Melayu yang artinya adalah durian fermentasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi mikroorganisme yang terdapat pada tempoyak. Data dari penelitian ini adalah data primer dari analisa

  17. Caracterización de microorganismos involucrados en la descomposición de material vegetal consumido por Oso Andino Tremarctos ornatus (Ursidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleni Fierro Toscano

    2005-07-01

    menores a seis meses. Cocobacilos Gram (+ solo aparecieron en hojas entre uno y tres meses y los bacilos Gram (+ exclusivamente en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos se presentaron únicamente en la muestra de hoja de cinco y seis meses en descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, de los cuales se identificaron Mucor spp. y Thricoderma spp. Los otros dos morfotipos no fueron identificados. Thricoderma spp. se encuentra asociado a por lo menos un hongo más.

  18. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  19. MR imaging findings of orbitofacial infarction secondary to rhinoorbital mucormycosis : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jong Kwan; Lee, Jae Hee; Jeon, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyong Mee; Kim Ki Jun; Lee, Sung Yong; Choi, Kyu H.

    2000-01-01

    Rhino-orbital mucormycosis is the most frequently fatal fungal infection commonly occurring in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and those who are immunocompromised, and requires prompt treatment. We describe a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis with orbital cellulitis and paranasal sinusitis, as seen on initial MR images, which on follow-up images had evolved to orbitofacial infarction. MR imaging was useful for the demonstration of orbitofacial infarction, seen as areas of lack of enhancement and thus suggesting vascular involvement by mucor hyphae. (author)

  20. MR imaging findings of orbitofacial infarction secondary to rhinoorbital mucormycosis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jong Kwan; Lee, Jae Hee; Jeon, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyong Mee; Kim Ki Jun; Lee, Sung Yong [Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu H. [Kangnam' s St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Rhino-orbital mucormycosis is the most frequently fatal fungal infection commonly occurring in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and those who are immunocompromised, and requires prompt treatment. We describe a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis with orbital cellulitis and paranasal sinusitis, as seen on initial MR images, which on follow-up images had evolved to orbitofacial infarction. MR imaging was useful for the demonstration of orbitofacial infarction, seen as areas of lack of enhancement and thus suggesting vascular involvement by mucor hyphae. (author)

  1. Renal mucormycosis in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M.; Leiva, M.C.; Acebal, M.; Algarra, J.; Luis, M.C. de.

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of renal mucormycosis in al HIV-positive patient presenting evidence of AIDS, with involvement of no other organs. Intravenous showed left kidney to be enlarged and nonfunctioning: US disclosed and enlarged organ, with no hydronephrosis and showing loss of corticomedullary differentiation: CT revealed the presence of a large mass of the density of water surrounded by peripheral enhancement. After surgical treatment, the necrotic tissue was found to contain hyphae corresponding to a mucor fungus. The patient improved significantly with amphotericin B. the radiological findings are discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  2. Paecilomyces pyelonephritis in a patient with urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sriram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal organisms are increasingly implicated in nosocomial urinary tract infections. Although Candida, Mucor and Aspergillus are the most commonly identified species, rare fungi are also occasionally observed to infect humans. Misidentification of the organism could result in treatment with an inappropriate antifungal agent, which could result in a florid fungal pyelonephritis. We report the occurrence of fungal pyelonephritis in a patient with stone disease secondary to Paecilomyces variotii . This case report emphasizes the need for an accurate identification of the organism and early and appropriate treatment.

  3. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans.

  4. Craniofacial mucormycosis following assault: an unusual presentation of an unusual disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melsom, S.M.; Khangure, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A case of craniofacial mucormycosis following assault is discussed. A female diabetic developed peri-orbital cellulitis adjacent to a scalp wound which progressed to a necrotizing fasciitis. This did not respond to treatment. Subsequently the patient developed a hemiparesis, with CT imaging showing peri-orbital and paranasal sinus inflammatory changes, evidence of cavernous sinus invasion and development of a middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The patient died shortly afterwards. The imaging findings and their relationship to the pathological spread of mucor infection are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

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    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  6. Chitin deacetylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, E.; Araki, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses chitosan which is a unique polysaccharide in that it possesses free amino groups. The authors state that most of the amino sugar residing in naturally occurring polysaccharides is believed to be N-acylated. An enzyme catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan was first demonstrated in an extract of Mucor rouxii. A similar enzyme was found in the culture filtrate of a plant pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. They present the chitin deacetylase activity assayed by measuring the radioactivity of [ 3 H] acetic acid liberated from a water-soluble chitin derivative, glycol [acetyl- 3 H] chitin

  7. Microbial accumulation of uranium from nuclear liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation includes the isolation, identification and the fluctuations of the population densities of microorganisms in the nuclear liquid waste released by some laboratories of Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. The efficiency of uranium accumulation on isolates (22 bacterial strains, 24 fungal strains and 6 yeast strains) was assessed in aqueous solution using fluorometric techniques. Two of the isolated microoganisms namely Bacillus sp. -15B and Mucor sp.16F showed exceptionally high attitude towards uranium accumulation. Optimal conditions required for efficient accumulation and recovery of uranium was then studied using the two selected isolates. 10 figs.; 162 refs.; 16 tabs

  8. Gamma-irradiation induced mutagenesis on some microbial strains of interest in food biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.; Ferdes, M.; Dumitru, E.; Mencinicopschi, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper there were presented the results concerning gamma-ray effects on some microbial strains which are of interest in food biotechnologies. The irradiations are performed to a Co-60 source, under several condition, at dose rates between 0.1-2.0 kGy/h and in a dose range between 0.1-20.0 kGy. The microbial strains are of Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus and Monascus rubens from IFC collection. There were established the survival curves and the optimum irradiation doses for mutagenic effects. There were isolated, analysed and characterised some mutant strains, with better properties in obtaining food enzymes and pigments. (orig.)

  9. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

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    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  10. ESolvent-free, enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from mango, neem, and shea oils via response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Nde, Divine Bup; Astete, Carlos; Boldor, Dorin

    2015-01-01

    Mango, neem and shea kernels produce non-conventional oils whose potentials are not fully exploited. To give an added value to these oils, they were transesterified into biodiesel in a solvent-free system using immobilized enzyme lipozyme from Mucor miehei. The Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the methyl ester (ME) yields as influenced by enzyme concentration?EC, temperature?T, added water content?AWC, and reaction time?RT. Biodiesel yields were quantified by 1H NMR spectrosc...

  11. Métodos alternativos para la preservación de hongos filamentosos

    OpenAIRE

    Godínez, S.; Calderón, M.

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se utilizaron las especies Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger y Mucor pusillus conservadas durante ocho años por los métodos de suelo, gel de sílice y liofilización, durante siete años por el método de suelo tradicional y modificado y por seis años en agua destilada, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de estas técnicas de preservación sobre las características de dichas cepas al cabo de un larg...

  12. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis b motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiota of an unpasteurised cellar-stored goat cheese from northern Sweden

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    Klara Båth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study reports on lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and moulds isolated from three artisanal Swedish cellar-stored goat cheeses aged for 1, 3 and 5 months. Starter culture LAB dominated in the younger cheeses, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, common in raw goats’ milk, had persisted from the unpasteurised milk into all the cheeses. Non-starter LAB dominated in the 5 month cheese, in particular, Lactobacillus sakei, a meat-associated LAB not previously isolated from cheese. Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium and Mucor species were dominant among the yeasts and moulds, respectively. The cheese rind was not formed primarily from Penicillium species as in traditional cheeses such as Camembert – rather, mycelium from Mucor mucedo contributed to rind formation. Mould species known to produce sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins or ochratoxin A in cheese were not isolated in this study; growth of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli may have been inhibited by the cool conditions in the earth-cellar (4–6 °C.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Air Conditioners in Tutorial Rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowre Govindasamy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness about health problems caused by air conditioner is very important. Thus, it is crucial to have knowledge about proper maintenance of air conditioner. At the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, air conditioners are used in every tutorial rooms. This study was performed to provide adequate information on the fungi, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor, found in air conditioners. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was used to identify the presence and the type of pathogenic fungi from air conditioners in tutorial rooms. Thirty-four samples were collected from the air outlet grille of the air conditioners and cultured on Sabouraud agar at 27°C for 2 weeks. Fungi presence were then identified microscopically Results: The results showed that the majority of air conditioners in tutorial rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, University Padjadjaran contained many types of fungus that grew in Sabouraud agar. From 34 samples, thirty two samples were positive and 2 samples were negative. Various fungus have been identified, those were Penicillium (37.5%, Aspergillus (25%, Mucor (2.5% and unidentified (35% Conclusions : The majority of air conditioners in tutorial rooms of the Faculty of Medicine, University Padjadjaran contained many types of opportunistic fungus. [AMJ.2014;1(1:21–4

  15. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  16. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  17. Inquérito sobre fungos anemófilos na fronteira Brasil - Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Arão Pecher

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito, sobre fungos anemófllos, em três vilarejos situados na fronteira Brasil-Colômbia, zona muito quente e úmida, durante o mês de julho de 1978. Em apenas uma coleta feita, em diferentes pontos, foram cultivadas colônias pertencentes a dezoito gêneros diferentes de fungos anemófllos, com predominância de Mucor (64,3%, Cândida (54,8%, Rhodotorula (38,1% e Penicillium (38,1%.An inquiry of anemophilous fungi was carried out in small towns located at the Brasilian- Colombian border, a hot and humid zone, during the month of July, 1978. In just one collection, carried out at different sites, colonies were cultivated, and belonged to eighteen different species of anemophilous fungi with predominance of Mucor (64.3%, Candida (54.8%, Rhodotorula (38.1% and Penicillium (38.1%.

  18. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Akram, A.; Qureshi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  19. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  20. Antagonism of rice phylloplane fungi against Cercospora oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, A.; Hadiwiyono

    2018-03-01

    Narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora oryzae Miyake is one of the important obstacle in rice cultivation that can decrease the productivity up to 40%. It has been known well that some phylloplane fungi are antagonistic to some leaf diseases. Phylloplane fungi of rice however haven’t been studied much and poorly understood as biological control agent of rice pathogen such C. oryzae. The research aimed to study the antagonism of some phylloplane fungi of rice against C. oryzae. At least 14 isolates of phylloplane fungi were collected which consisted of six pathogenic and eight nonpathogenic variants. All of nonpathogenic isolates were antagonistic against C. oryzae both in vitro and only one isolate could not inhibit the infection of the pathogen in vivo. Some isolates were identified as Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma. The isolate of Mucor and Fusarium could inhibit the highest growth of pathogen on potato dextrose medium that were at 36.0% and 35.5% respectively. Whereas on artificial inoculation on rice, some isolates such Penicillium and Fusarium could inhibit most effectively and were significantly different to Mencozeb application with dosage 5g L-1.

  1. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity ofCitrus aurantifolia and its Phytochemical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi khan Pathan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Citrus aurantifolia Linn (CA against some microorganisms - bacteria and fungus were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Mucor spp and Pencillium. Methods: 100 毺 l of 10 mg CA were assessed against eight test microorganisms by agar well Diffusion Method. Gentamicin and Ketoconazole 10 mg/ml were used as standards. A different solvent was used to obtain CA leaf extract by using maceration technique. Results: %yield obtained for dried leaf extract of CA with chloroform, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and aqueous ethanol was approximately 15%, 18%, 09%, 11% and 24% respectively. Due to its high yield value hydroalcoholic extract of CA was used for estimating the antimicrobial activity and its phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening of CA plant reveals the presence of Alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the hydroalcoholic extract of CA leaf exhibit antibacterial activity on Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity among Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Mucor species. These recognized a good support to the use of this plant in herbal medicine and as base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine.

  2. Statistically defining optimal conditions of coagulation time of skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, M.; Ozdemir, Z.O.; Eroglu, E.; Guney, I

    2014-01-01

    Milk consist huge amount of largely water and different proteins. Kappa-kazein of these milk proteins can be coagulated by Mucor miehei rennet enzyme, is an aspartic protease which cleavege 105 (phenly alanine)-106 (methionine) peptide bond. It is commonly used clotting milk proteins for cheese production in dairy industry. The aim of this study to measure milk clotting times of skim milk by using Mucor Miehei rennet and determination of optimal conditions of milk clotting time by mathematical modelling. In this research, milk clotting times of skim milk were measured at different pHs (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0) and temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 degree C). It was used statistical approach for defining best pH and temperature for milk clotting time of skim milk. Milk clotting activity was increase at acidic pHs and high temperatures. (author)

  3. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar Rodríguez, M.; Pérez, Daniel; Javier Chaves, Felipe; Esteve, Eduardo; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Xifra, Gemma; Vendrell, Joan; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Chacón, Matilde R.; Fernández Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The human intestine is home to a diverse range of bacterial and fungal species, forming an ecological community that contributes to normal physiology and disease susceptibility. Here, the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in obese and non-obese subjects was characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-based sequencing. The results demonstrate that obese patients could be discriminated by their specific fungal composition, which also distinguished metabolically “healthy” from “unhealthy” obesity. Clusters according to genus abundance co-segregated with body fatness, fasting triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. A preliminary link to metabolites such as hexadecanedioic acid, caproic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid was also found. Mucor racemosus and M. fuscus were the species more represented in non-obese subjects compared to obese counterparts. Interestingly, the decreased relative abundance of the Mucor genus in obese subjects was reversible upon weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that manipulation of gut mycobiome communities might be a novel target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26455903

  4. Can fungi compete with marine sources for chitosan production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, V; Pathan, E K; Deshpande, M V

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source. Zygomycetous fungi such as Absidia coerulea, Benjaminiella poitrasii, Cunninghamella elegans, Gongrenella butleri, Mucor rouxii, Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus oryzae have been studied extensively. Isolation of chitosan are reported from few edible basidiomycetous fungi like Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Other organisms from mycotech industries explored for chitosan production are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other wine yeasts. Number of aspects such as value addition to the existing applications of fungi, utilization of waste from agriculture sector, and issues and challenges for the production of fungal chitosan to compete with existing sources, metabolic engineering and novel applications have been discussed to adjudge the potential of fungal sources for commercial chitosan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of mucorales from clinical specimens: a 4-year experience in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Kim, Young Kwon; Ki, Chang Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis, a fatal opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Early diagnosis based on exact identification and multidisciplinary treatments is critical. However, identification of Mucorales fungi is difficult and often delayed, resulting in poor prognosis. This study aimed to compare the results of phenotypic and molecular identification of 12 Mucorales isolates collected from 4-yr-accumulated data. All isolates were identified on the basis of phenotypic characteristics such as growth rate, colony morphology, and reproductive structures. PCR and direct sequencing were performed to target internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or D1/D2 regions. Target DNA sequencing identified five Lichtheimia isolates, two Rhizopus microsporus isolates, two Rhizomucor pusillus isolates, one Cunninghamella bertholletiae isolate, one Mucor fragilis isolate, and one Syncephalastrum racemosum isolate. Five of the 12 (41.7%) isolates were incorrectly identified on the basis of phenotypic identification. DNA sequencing showed that of these five isolates, two were Lichtheimia isolates, one was Mucor isolate, one was Rhizomucor isolate, and one was Rhizopus microspores. All the isolates were identified at the species level by ITS and/or D1/D2 analyses. Phenotypic differentiation and identification of Mucorales is difficult because different Mucorales share similar morphology. Our results indicate that the molecular methods employed in this study are valuable for identifying Mucorales.

  6. Faster chitosan production by mucoralean strains in submerged culture Rápida produção de quitosana por linhagens de Mucorales em cultura submersa

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    Rosa Valéria da Silva Amorim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of chitosan was conducted using two Mucoralean strains, Mucor racemosus and Cunninghamella elegans. Chitosan was extracted from mycelia of M. racemosus and C. elegans at different growth phases on YPD medium. In both fungi, chitosan was rapidly produced, while highest yield of extractable chitosan was found in 24h of cultivation in submerged culture. The yield of chitosan isolated from dry mycelia of M. racemosus was about 40% higher than from C. elegans. The degree of N-acetylation of chitosan was 49% in M. racemosus and 20% in C. elegans, and the D-glucosamine contents were about 48% and 90%, respectively.A produção microbiológica da quitosana foi realizada usando-se duas linhagens de Mucorales, Mucor racemosus and Cunninghamella elegans. Quitosana foi extraída a partir dos micélios de M. racemosus e C. elegans em diferentes fases de crescimento em meio YPD. Para ambos os fungos, quitosana foi rapidamente produzida, com rendimentos de quitosana mais elevados após 24h de cultivo em cultura submersa. O rendimento de quitosana isolada a partir de micélio seco de M. racemosus foi cerca de 40% maior do que de C. elegans. O grau de N-acetilação da quitosana foi 49% em M. racemosus e 20% em C. elegans, e os conteúdos de D-glicosamina foram cerca de 48 and 90%, respectivamente.

  7. Model of the synthesis of trisporic acid in Mucorales showing bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S; Schroeter, A; Schimek, C; Vlaic, S; Wöstemeyer, J; Schuster, S

    2012-12-01

    An important substance in the signalling between individuals of Mucor-like fungi is trisporic acid (TA). This compound, together with some of its precursors, serves as a pheromone in mating between (+)- and (-)-mating types. Moreover, intermediates of the TA pathway are exchanged between the two mating partners. Based on differential equations, mathematical models of the synthesis pathways of TA in the two mating types of an idealised Mucor-fungus are here presented. These models include the positive feedback of TA on its own synthesis. The authors compare three sub-models in view of bistability, robustness and the reversibility of transitions. The proposed modelling study showed that, in a system where intermediates are exchanged, a reversible transition between the two stable steady states occurs, whereas an exchange of the end product leads to an irreversible transition. The reversible transition is physiologically favoured, because the high-production state of TA must come to an end eventually. Moreover, the exchange of intermediates and TA is compared with the 3-way handshake widely used by computers linked in a network.

  8. Fungal infection by Mucorales order in lung transplantation: 4 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F M F D; Camargo, P C L B; Costa, A N; Teixeira, R H O B; Carraro, R M; Afonso, J E; Campos, S V; Samano, M N; Fernandes, L M; Abdalla, L G; Pêgo-Fernandes, P M

    2014-01-01

    Mucorales is a fungus that causes systemic, highly lethal infections in immunocompromised patients. The overall mortality of pulmonary mucormycosis can reach 95%. This work is a review of medical records of 200 lung transplant recipients between the years of 2003 and 2013, in order to identify the prevalence of Mucorales in the Lung Transplantation service of Heart Institute (InCor), Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, by culture results from bronchoalveolar lavage and necropsy findings. We report 4 cases found at this analyses: 3 in patients with cystic fibrosis and 1 in a patient with bronchiectasis due to Kartagener syndrome. There were 2 unfavorable outcomes related to the presence of Mucorales, 1 by reduction of immunosuppression, another by invasive infection. Another patient died from renal and septic complications from another etiology. One patient was diagnosed at autopsy just 5 days after lung transplantation, with the Mucor inside the pulmonary vein with a precise, well-defined involvement only of donor's segment, leading to previous colonization hypothesis. There are few case reports of Mucorales infection in lung transplantation in the literature. Surveillance for the presence of Mucor can lead to timely fungal treatment and reduce morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised patients, especially lung transplant recipients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

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    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  10. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  11. Isolation and identification of fungi from a meju contaminated with aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Jung; Chung, Soo Hyun; Lee, Hyo Ku; Chun, Hyang Sook; Hong, Seung Beom

    2012-12-01

    A home-made meju sample contaminated naturally with aflatoxins was used for isolation of fungal strains. Overall, 230 fungal isolates were obtained on dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar plates. Morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of a partial beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were used for the identification of the isolates. The fungal isolates were divided into 7 genera: Aspergillus, Eurotium, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Curvularia. Three strains from 56 isolates of the A. oryzae/flavus group were found to be aflatoxigenic A. flavus, by the presence of the aflatoxin biosynthesis genes and confirmatory aflatoxin production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The predominant isolate from DRBC plates was A. oryzae (42 strains, 36.2%), whereas that from DG18 was A. candidus (61 strains, 53.5%). Out of the 230 isolates, the most common species was A. candidus (34.3%) followed by A. oryzae (22.2%), Mucor circinelloides (13.0%), P. polonicum (10.0%), A. tubingensis (4.8%), and L. ramosa (3.5%). A. flavus and E. chevalieri presented occurrence levels of 2.2%, respectively. The remaining isolates of A. unguis, P. oxalicum, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum, A. acidus, E. rubrum, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus, and C. inaequalis had lower occurrence levels of < 2.0%.

  12. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  13. Extent of Microbial Contamination of Refined and Unrefined Vegetable oils sold in South-west Nigeria

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    Oluwafemi Flora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oils constitute a major source of plant-based protein. A major limitation to optimal oil consumption in sub-tropical region is fungal infestation and consequent mycotoxin contamination. Ten refined and eight unrefined vegetable oils were randomly purchase from open markets and screened for microbial contamination using standard microbial procedures. Twenty six fungi isolates were obtained from the vegetable oil samples, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (43.0%, Mucor (17.9%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7%, Aspergillus niger (7.1%, Aspergillus flavus (7.1%, Penicillium spp (7.1%, Aspergillus oryzae (3.6%, Mucor (17.9% and Rhizopus spp (3.6%. Five out of the ten refined vegetable oil samples had no fungal contamination. A. flavus and A. oryzae were absent in all the refined oil samples while A. niger was absent in all the unrefined oil samples. Isolation of mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. is of vital importance in the food industry. Education and training of processors and consumers is recommended.

  14. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

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    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  15. Hydrobiological study of the small stream on the Czech–Moravian Highlands

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    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was investigated in the years 2007–2008. Research included also physico-chemical factors of water (temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen saturation. Altogether, 144 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in the Fryšávka Rivulet: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (6 taxa, Hirudinea (1 taxon, Mollusca (5 taxa, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Decapoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (18 taxa, Plecoptera (18 taxa, Heteroptera (1 taxon, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Planipennia (1 taxon, Trichoptera (36 taxa, Coleoptera (8 taxa, Diptera (44 taxa. Altogether, 76 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in Medlovka brook: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (2 taxa, Mollusca (1 taxon, Isopoda (1 taxon, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (14 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Trichoptera (17 taxa, Coleoptera (6 taxa, Diptera (22 taxa.The average abundance of zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was 3208 ind.m−2, the average biomass was 7.5 g . m−2, respectively. The same values for the Medlovka brook were: abundance 3238 ind.m−2 and biomass 5.8 g . m−2. The average value of the saprobic index for the whole Fryšávka Rivulet was 1.25 (oligosaprobity, for the Medlovka brook 1.42 (oligosaprobity.

  16. Multi-locus sequence typing provides epidemiological insights for diseased sharks infected with fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Debourgogne, Anne; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Zaffino, Marie; Sutton, Deanna; Burns, Rachel E; Frasca, Salvatore; Hyatt, Michael W; Cray, Carolyn

    2018-07-01

    Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium. Genetic relationships between fungal strains were determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on DNA sequencing at five loci, followed by comparison with sequences of 50 epidemiologically unrelated FSSC strains. Our genotyping approach revealed that F. keratoplasticum and F. solani haplotype 9x were most commonly isolated. In one case, the infection proved to be with another Hypocrealian rare opportunistic pathogen Metarhizium robertsii. Twice, sharks proved to be infected with FSSC strains with the same MLST sequence type, supporting the hypothesis the hypothesis that common environmental populations of fungi existed for these sharks and would suggest the longtime persistence of the two clonal strains within the environment, perhaps in holding pools and life support systems of the aquarium. This study highlights how molecular tools like MLST can be used to investigate outbreaks of microbiological disease. This work reinforces the need for regular controls of water quality to reduce microbiological contamination due to waterborne microorganisms.

  17. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  18. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yung-Chul; Won, Doo-Hee; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Kong, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI) applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent) to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods. PMID:23202765

  19. Phytoplankton Assessment in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

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    SPIRIDON Cosmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ”plankton” refers to those microscopic aquatic forms having little or no resistance to currents and living free-floating and suspended, in open or pelagic waters. Phytoplankton development has different consequences depending on biomass quality and quantity, the overgrowth result being eutrophication process. The eutrophication intensity can cause both a lower water transparency, by excessive algal growth, to fish death in the area. In this study, it was presented the ecological status and phytoplankton biomass dynamic, in the Danube branches from upstream to downstream. The measurements have been made in 2013, in March, June, September and November, using spectrofluorometer for algal biomass determination and a microscope for qualitative analyses of phytoplankton species. Shannon-Wiener index was calculated to compare phytoplankton species diversity. Also, the biodegradable organic matter loading the ecosystem was determined by computing the Saprobic index. The values obtained do not exceed the eutrophication limits according to the Water Framework Directive, transposed into Romanian legislation by Order 161/2006, with normal concentrations for rheophile ecosystems, as Danube's branches. In this area, water currents and high water turbidity inhibit phytoplankton growth, in contrast to lacustrine ecosystems, where light penetration to depths favors the development of different phytoplankton groups.

  20. Aboveground Deadwood Deposition Supports Development of Soil Yeasts

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    Thorsten Wehde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular saprobic fungi (yeasts inhabit soils worldwide. Although yeast species typically occupy defined areas on the biome scale, their distribution patterns within a single type of vegetation, such as forests, are more complex. In order to understand factors that shape soil yeast communities, soils collected underneath decaying wood logs and under forest litter were analyzed. We isolated and identified molecularly a total of 25 yeast species, including three new species. Occurrence and distribution of yeasts isolated from these soils provide new insights into ecology and niche specialization of several soil-borne species. Although abundance of typical soil yeast species varied among experimental plots, the analysis of species abundance and community composition revealed a strong influence of wood log deposition and leakage of organic carbon. Unlike soils underneath logs, yeast communities in adjacent areas harbored a considerable number of transient (phylloplane-related yeasts reaching 30% of the total yeast quantity. We showed that distinguishing autochthonous community members and species transient in soils is essential to estimate appropriate effects of environmental factors on soil fungi. Furthermore, a better understanding of species niches is crucial for analyses of culture-independent data, and may hint to the discovery of unifying patterns of microbial species distribution.

  1. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  2. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  3. Status kualitas Sungai Musi bagian hilir ditinjau dari kom unitas fitoplankton

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    Hilda Zulkifli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Musi river is the main source of water for society and industry on the downstream area, and also becomes the waste disposal area for domestic/industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of Musi river on the downstream area based on phytoplankton community (from the Pulokerto district to downstream of musi river on Tanjung Buyut Village. The sample of water surface and plankton were taken compositely on 18 stations. The water quality analysis is held on LIPI Bogor, while the identification of microscopic community of phytoplankton is held on BRPPU Mariana. The result of research showed that phytoplankton community on observed locations comprises of Chlorophyta with 18 genus (45.34%, followed by Cyanophyta with 7 genus (26.09%, Baccillariophyta with 14 genus (25.81% and Euglenophyta with 2 genus (2.17%. The Oscillatoria (Cyanophyta is found on most of observed locations. Based on the examination of saprobic status, Pulokerto station is categorized as “moderate polluted” or (ά/ß –mesosaprobik dan ß/ά –mesosaprobik, while closer to downstream of Musi river is categorized as “low polluted” or (oligo/ß –mesosaprobic.

  4. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  5. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  6. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  7. DEVELOPMENT ELECTRONIC MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF WATER OBJECTS OF THE VOLGA RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Isenalieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of this work was the comprehensive study of the ecological state of water objects of the Volga River delta. Methods. The following methods were used: field (collection, observation, organoleptic, uniform chemical analysis techniques are based on colorimetric, settlement, photometric, spectrometric measurement methods. Results. On the basis of results of researches for 2010-2014 performed a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the content of hydro-chemical indicators of environmental quality in waters of the Volga River delta and the residential areas of the background. Applying an integrated approach to the study of biological indicators of water quality. Created digitized map of the quality of aquatic ecosystems of the Volga River delta. Displaying modern ecological condition of watercourses investigated, determined the degree of contamination, the overall trophic and saprobic. Main conclusions. The work has identified adverse environmental situation in water objects of the Astrakhan and the surrounding areas. Average annual concentrations of toxicological substances water objects in the background zone 10 times less than in the water objects of settlements. As a result of work on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 created information environment "Eco-monitor", which is a systematic set of information, and quantitatively characterizing the ecological status of water objects. Created on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 information environment monitoring system of waterways allows for a temporary and spatial analysis, to assess the quality of different streams in the control sections.

  8. Organica micropollutants in the aquatic environment: identification of cationic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levsen, K.

    1992-08-01

    The data (concentrations, pollution loads) measured for the 560 km flowing stretch of the river Elbe on the territory of the former GDR were compiled and evaluated according to primary statistical aspects. The longitudinal section was prepared for major variables with regard to the flow for Q50% and Q5%. The distribution of concentration in various measuring points was shown by means of box plots. Interdependencies between concentration and flow as well as water temperature were investigated and used for assessing diffuse matter input. In addition to determining the saprobic index, the biological control of water pollution comprised the assessment of the macrozoobenthos in the area of sewage discharge, chlorophyll measurements, an inventory of the fish population, analysis of pollutant accumulation in fish and in zoobenthos as well as virus detection. The water quality of the river Elbe was evaluated in compliance with the binding E.C. guidelines and national regulations/recommendations revealing an extreme pollution level which impairs or excludes various utilizations of the Elbe water. (orig.). 73 refs., 11 tabs., 48 figs [de

  9. Sporothrix brunneoviolacea and Sporothrix dimorphospora, two new members of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, H; Gené, J; Cano, J; Silvera, C; Guarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Sporothrix inflata is a saprobic member of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii species complex, reported mainly from soil. Ophiostoma bragantinum, an ascomycete described from Brazil, has been proposed as its possible teleomorph. Previous studies revealed that Sporothrix inflata is phenotypically and genetically variable, suggesting the existence of cryptic species. During a continued survey on the biodiversity of microfungi from different countries, seven isolates morphologically similar to S. inflata were obtained from soil samples collected in Spain and USA. In this study their phenotypic features and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. DNA sequence data of two nuclear loci revealed that these isolates correspond to two unnamed clades in S. inflata s.l., one of which also included the type strain of Humicola dimorphospora, a species that traditionally has been considered a synonym of S. inflata. These two groups are proposed herein as Sporothrix brunneoviolacea sp. nov. and Sporothrix dimorphospora comb. nov. S. brunneoviolacea is characterized phenotypically by the production of a diffusible violet-brown pigment in culture and mostly globose, pigmented, lateral blastoconidia. On the other hand S. dimorphospora lacks diffusible pigments and shows mostly subglobose to obovoid pigmented lateral blastoconidia. In contrast to the type strain of S. inflata S. brunneoviolacea and S. dimorphospora assimilate raffinose. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the proposed anamorph-teleomorph connection between S. inflata and O. bragantinum might not be correct.

  10. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  11. Using of zooplankton indicators in assessing the quality of waters in two lakes in the Gulf of Finland basin

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    Kulakov Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012–2015 zooplankton studies were carried out and the quality of the waters of the Kopanskoe and the Gorovaldayskoe lakes belonging to the Gulf of Finland basin (Leningrad region was assessed. Under the frame of long-term monitoring studies on these waterbodies, such work has not previously been carried out. The sampling stations were located in the coastal part of the waterbodies. Zooplankton of the lakes included 46 taxons of species and subspecies ranks, it was typical of the North-West of Russia and represented mainly by eurybiontic species with high ecological plasticity. In Gorovaldayskoe lake most affected by the anthropogenic influence, in comparison with the Kopanskoe, showed the lowest species richness and the lowest values of the biodiversity index. Nevertheless, the mass development of Cladocera, which made the main contribution to the population and the biomass of the community, promoted the active development of the processes of biological self-purification of this lake, as evidenced by a decrease by coefficient trophicity. According to the saprobity index in the waters of the studied lakes belonged to the oligosaprobic – β-mesosaprobic zone.

  12. The Assessment of Biological and Pollution Index of Estuaries Around Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjono, A.; Wahyuni, O.; Purwantini, S.

    2018-02-01

    Estuary is a place of accumulation of the population’s actitivites produced by domestic, industry or agriculture. This research was conducted to three of estuary of the rivers around the waters of Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES). They were estuaries of Baru river, Banjir Kanal Timur (BKT) and Siangker in west monsoon from October to December 2015. The purpose of this research was to analyze pollution index, the abundance of microorganisms either phytoplankton or zooplankton, the content of heavy metal in sediment and sea water, biological index that included diversity (H), uniformity (e), dominance (D), Saprobik Index (SI), and the Total of Saprobik Index (TSI) in the waters either HTL (High Tide Level) or LTL (Low Tide Level). The concentration of heavy metal in both sea water and sediments were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result obtained from 12 parameters which were tested showed that the three waters can be categorized at heavily polluted condition at each value from 12.52 to 24.98. The concentration of heavy metal at sea water during HTW and LTW ranging from Cd is around 0.033 and 0. 048 mg/kg, Cu 0.047 and 0.07 mg/kg, Pb 0.48 and 0.71 mg/kg, and Zn 0.043 and 0.057 mg/kg. The saprobity value index based on the existence of phytoplankton or zooplankton was ranging of Oligosaprobik at low pollution or has not been polluted yet.

  13. Cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chang, Shen-Shin; Lee, Po-Chang; Chao, Sheau-Chiou

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of acquiring unusual opportunistic infections. Diagnosis of the etiology of infection may be difficult in clinical manifestations, which need further histological and biological investigations. We recently treated a male renal transplant recipient with a cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species. The diagnosis was based on microscopy and culture of the skin lesions. Treatment with oral itraconazole for 5 weeks was ineffective, then clinical improvement was achieved by combination of amphotericin B wet-packing and systemic antifungal therapy with oral voriconazole. Alternaria species are ubiquitous plant-inhabiting saprobes, which are increasingly associated with opportunistic phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompromised individuals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case report noting sporotrichoid pattern as the manifestation of cutaneous alternariosis. In this context, we reviewed recent renal-transplant-related cutaneous alternariosis reported in the English-language literature during 1995 to 2011 to summarize its clinical features and outcomes, and to guide clinicians in the care of kidney transplant patients with cutaneous alternariosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Dynamics of zooplankton community of Lake Tarasmozero in long-term anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchko Yaroslav Alexandrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of zooplankton studies in Lake Tarasmozero (Lizhma river basin are presented. Wastes from the trout-breeding complex "Kedrozero" have been collected in this pond since 1992. The obtained data showed that from 1989 to 2012 a number of changes in zooplankton community take place and it is the evidence of the gradual increase in the trophic status of the reservoir. The average biomass of zooplankton increased from 500 to 1000 mg/m3. According to the trophic index (Myaemets, 1979, Tarasmozero is replaced into the category of mesotrophic water reservoirs (0.5 - 1.0. Saprobity index raised from 0.95 to 1.42. In the composition of the zooplankton there noted such species, as Polyarthra luminosa, Filinia longiseta, Trichocerca insignis, Daphnia longispina, Cyclops kolensis, which serve as indicators of increased trophic level in the conditions of moderate latitudes. After the trout farm started off, Bcrus/Brot indicator considerably decreased indicating to increasing role of rotifers in the formation of the total biomass of the zooplankton. Currently, the dominant species include D. longispina, Bosmina longirostris, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Asplanchna priodonta. In spite of the fact that the current changes are not catastrophic, it is reasonable to monitor regularly the initial links of the trophic chain of the reservoir ecosystem

  15. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

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    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  16. Radioecological impact of effluents from a nuclear facility being decommissioned in the Antas river hydro graphic basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radioecological impact of effluents in the Antas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronque, Leilane Barbosa; Azevedo, Heliana de; Lopes do Nascimento, Marcos Roberto; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Rodgher, Suzelei; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna Helena

    2008-01-01

    The Antas reservoir receives the treated effluents which come from acid drainage of uranium ore from the UTM-INB (Ore Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries), located in Caldas, Minas Gerais. This study was conducted in order to determine the possible environmental impact caused by discharge of the treated liquid effluent from the UTM into the Antas reservoir. Biological (ciliated protozoa and Peridinium sp. phytoflagellate) and physicochemical variables (manganese, zinc, sulfate, uranium, dissolved oxygen and temperature), trophic state and saprobity indexes were evaluated. Sampling in reservoir (Cab, P41, P14S, and P14F points) took place during the dry winter season (July 2006). Each day, samples were collected four times (6:00 am, 12:00 pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 am). Biological variables analyzed at the Antas reservoir classified it as an oligo trophic and beta-mesosaprobic environment. Chemical parameters indicate failures in the nuclear facility effluent treatment plant, showing that effluents outside of standard limits established by Brazilian current legislation for Class II water are being discharged at point P41. These results agree with biological analyses, since point P41 has the lowest diversity and biomass values for ciliated protozoa organisms, indicating possible environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to effluent discharge by this mining company.(author)

  17. Structure of the macrozoobenthos as an indicator of different types of pollution in running waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladica M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobiological research on streams with different dominant forms of pollution (anthropogenic eutrophication, organic pollution, toxic pollution, trans-saprobic pollution in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula (territory of Serbia and Montenegro indicates that these different forms of pollution can be detected on the basis of structure of the macrozoobenthos community and individual indicator taxa. It is established from the obtained results that the greatest community diversity occurs in the case of anthropogenic eutrophication or weak organic pollution as a dominant process, where phytophilous and/or detritophagic forms (Cloeon, Polypedilum, Asellus, Stylaria, Erpobdella, Gammarus are dominant in the community. In the cases of very strong organic pollution, the macrozoobenthos community is characterized by mass development of certain taxa of the group Oligochaeta (Tubificidae and Chironomidae larvae {Chironomus gr. thummi. Depending on the strength and contribution of organic, toxic, and/or transsaprobic components, toxic pollution and mixed pollution arc characterized by a more or less heterogeneous and nonspecific population. However, a common feature is the presence of a small number of taxa with populations of a relatively low density, or the occurrence of individual specimens belonging to different groups of animals.

  18. Impact of chromium and aluminium pollution on the diversity of zooplankton: a case study in the Chimaliapan wetland (Ramsar site) (Lerma basin, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Gerardo; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Jiménez-Contreras, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Biological monitoring and the use of biotic indices are important in evaluating the health of aquatic systems. However, zooplankton are rarely included in biomonitoring protocols. We conducted a one-year study (March 2008-February 2009) at two sites from the Chimaliapan wetland, with concentrations of aluminium (Al) and chromium (Cr) above and within the permissible limits, respectively. Metals in the sediment and water were analyzed from three locations per site every two months. In addition to analyses of the abundance and diversity of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, we sampled 11 physicochemical variables in the water and six from the sediments. The metal concentration in the polluted site (significantly above the permissible limits) ranged between 7266-8174 mg Kg(-1) of Al and 14.6-18.3 mg Kg(-1) of Cr. We found 92 species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. The Brillouin index for both sites ranged from 3.9-5.4, the Shannon-Wiener index from 4.2-5.5 while the Brachionus-Trichocerca ratio ranged between 1.0 and 1.7. The Wetland Zooplankton Index was significantly different among the sites; 2.63 at site 1 and 2.13 at site 2. The saprobic index was 3.2 for both sites. Data analyses using multifactorial techniques suggested that zooplankton can be used to evaluate the impact of the metals aforementioned, since these organisms are generally more sensitive than other groups and also have a high ecological relevance.

  19. Compilation, evaluation and assessment of the existing data on the pollution load affecting the water quality of the central stretch of the river Elbe on the basis of uniform common criteria (preliminary study). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhr, H.; Buettner, O.; Dreyer, U.; Krebs, D.; Spott, D.; Suhr, U.; Weber, E.

    1993-01-01

    The data (concentrations, pollution loads) measured for the 566 km flowing stretch of the river Elbe on the territory of the former GDR were compiled and evaluated according to primary statistical aspects. The longitudinal section was prepared for major variables with regard to the flow for Q50% and Q5%. The distribution of concentration in various measuring points was shown by means of box plots. Interdependencies between concentration and flow as well as water temperature were investigated and used for assessing diffuse matter input. In addition to determining the saprobic index, the biological control of water pollution comprised the assessment of the macrozoobenthos in the area of sewage discharge, chlorophyll measurements, and inventory of the fish population, analysis of pollutant accumulation in fish and in zoobenthos as well as virus detection. The water quality of the river Elbe was evaluated in compliance with the binding E.C. guidelines and national regulations/recommendations revealing an extreme pollution level which impairs or excludes various utilizations of the Elbe water. (orig.) [de

  20. Comparative Analysis of 35 Basidiomycete Genomes Reveals Diversity and Uniqueness of the Phylum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Otillar, Robert; Fagnan, Kirsten; Boussau, Bastien; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Held, Benjamin; Nagy, Laszlo; Floudas, Dimitris; Morin, Emmanuelle; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Martin, Francis; Blanchette, Robert; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycete fungi including 6 newly sequenced genomes. The genomes of basidiomycetes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. A phylogenetic tree of Basidiomycota was generated using the Phyldog software, which uses all available protein sequence data to simultaneously infer gene and species trees. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) comprising proteins found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay among the members of Agaricomycotina subphylum. There is a correlation of the profile of certain gene families to nutritional mode in Agaricomycotina. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of such profiles, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has liginolytic class II fungal peroxidases. Furthermore, we find that both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics in growth assays. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the high value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  1. Deep Ion Torrent sequencing identifies soil fungal community shifts after frequent prescribed fires in a southeastern US forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn P; Callaham, Mac A; Oliver, Alena K; Jumpponen, Ari

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a common management tool to control fuel loads, ground vegetation, and facilitate desirable game species. We evaluated soil fungal community responses to long-term prescribed fire treatments in a loblolly pine forest on the Piedmont of Georgia and utilized deep Internal Transcribed Spacer Region 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing afforded by the recent Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). These deep sequence data (19,000 + reads per sample after subsampling) indicate that frequent fires (3-year fire interval) shift soil fungus communities, whereas infrequent fires (6-year fire interval) permit system resetting to a state similar to that without prescribed fire. Furthermore, in nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses, primarily ectomycorrhizal taxa were correlated with axes associated with long fire intervals, whereas soil saprobes tended to be correlated with the frequent fire recurrence. We conclude that (1) multiplexed Ion Torrent PGM analyses allow deep cost effective sequencing of fungal communities but may suffer from short read lengths and inconsistent sequence quality adjacent to the sequencing adaptor; (2) frequent prescribed fires elicit a shift in soil fungal communities; and (3) such shifts do not occur when fire intervals are longer. Our results emphasize the general responsiveness of these forests to management, and the importance of fire return intervals in meeting management objectives. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  3. Cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of acquiring unusual opportunistic infections. Diagnosis of the etiology of infection may be difficult in clinical manifestations, which need further histological and biological investigations. We recently treated a male renal transplant recipient with a cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species. The diagnosis was based on microscopy and culture of the skin lesions. Treatment with oral itraconazole for 5 weeks was ineffective, then clinical improvement was achieved by combination of amphotericin B wet-packing and systemic antifungal therapy with oral voriconazole. Alternaria species are ubiquitous plant-inhabiting saprobes, which are increasingly associated with opportunistic phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompromised individuals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case report noting sporotrichoid pattern as the manifestation of cutaneous alternariosis. In this context, we reviewed recent renal-transplant-related cutaneous alternariosis reported in the English-language literature during 1995 to 2011 to summarize its clinical features and outcomes, and to guide clinicians in the care of kidney transplant patients with cutaneous alternariosis.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  5. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  6. THE HALOPHILICITY OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SALINE SOILS OF SOUTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvesitadze E.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the isolation, purification, determination of taxonomical characteristics and application in soil improvement and other biotechnological processes halophilic microscopic fungi strains isolated from saline soils of Eastern Georgia (middle part of South Caucasus, where their existence is maximally supposed. In all soilclimatic zones the dominate forms of spread fungi are genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, followed by Trichoderma and Mucor. Other genera are met less intensively. The genera Aspergillus is widely spread in chestnut soils and in chernozem, in green forest soils the genera Penicillium is prevailing. The salinity of soil, lake or any other objects from which the isolation of microscopic fungi is performed greatly determines halophilisity of isolated strains. Finally, the collection of halophilic microscopic fungi has been created accounting 96 isolates of extreme halophiles, halophiles and week halophiles.

  7. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  8. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  9. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation and Some Environmental Conditions on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins Producing Moulds in Corn Meal and Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Mucor were the most common genera isolated from wheat flour and corn meal. Aspergillus flavus, A.ocllraceus, P. viridieatum,. P.islalldicum, F. monilforme, F. tricinctum,and F. equisetie were aflatoxin B, ochratoxin A and zearalenone producers. Irradiation at a dose 5 kGy reduced the total fungal counts relative to un-irradiated controls. There was no growth at 7.0 kGy. At 18% moisture level, there was no deterioration at 34 degree C for 3 kGy irradiated samples after 2 weeks of storage. A dose of 5 kGy inhibited the toxigenic mould growth in wheat flour and corn meal stored for 12 months at 18% moisture content and at 25 degree C

  10. Influence of autoclaved saprotrophic fungal mycelia on proteolytic activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Dahm, Hanna; Werner, Antoni

    2007-07-01

    The production of proteolytic enzymes by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi i.e., Amanita muscaria (16-3), Laccaria laccata (9-12), L. laccata (9-1), Suillus bovinus (15-4), Suillus bovinus (15-3), Suillus luteus (14-7) on mycelia of Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens and Mucor hiemalis and sodium caseinate, yeast extract was evaluated. The strains of A. muscaria (16-3) and L. laccata (9-12) were characterized by the highest activity of the acidic and neutral proteases. Taking the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi into consideration, the mycelium of M. hiemalis was the best inductor for proteolytic activity. The examined ectomycorrhizal fungi exhibited higher activity of acidic proteases than neutral ones on the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi, which may imply the participation of acidic proteases in nutrition.

  11. Effects of water activity on the performance of potassium sorbate and natamycin as preservatives against cheese spoilage moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín P.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of the food preservatives potassium sorbate and natamycin, combined with different levels of ionic (sodium chloride and non-ioinic (glycerol water activity (aw, on growth of fungi involved in cheese spoilage. In general, the combined effect of water stress and presence of preservatives enhanced fungal inhibition. However, some doses of potassium sorbate (0.02% and natamycin (1, 5 and 10 ppm were able to stimulate growth of Aspergillus varians, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. roqueforti at aw values in the range of 0.93–0.97. P. solitum was the only species whose growth was consistently reduced by any doses of preservative. The results also showed that sodium chloride and glycerol differentially affected the efficacy of preservatives. This study indicates that aw of cheese is a critical parameter to be considered in the formulation of preservative coatings used against fungal spoilage.

  12. [Indoor air studies of mould fungus contamination of homes of selected patients with bronchial asthma (with special regard to evaluation problems)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, K; Kurowski, V; Ohgke, H

    1996-02-01

    Investigations of indoor air of the homes of seven patients with asthma bronchiale who showed up with positive reactions following intracutaneous application of fungal allergens revealed that their places of residence were contaminated by fungal and bacterial spores. The number of colony forming units of mesophilic fungal spores of the indoor air ranged from 100 to 1000 CFU/m3 and this was much higher than the mould flora of the outdoor air determined simultaneously. The major fungi species found by the indoor investigation were: Penicillium sp. > Aspergillus sp. > Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Chrysonilia sp., Verticillium sp. > Geotrichum sp., Trichoderma sp. In two cases Thermoactinomyces species could be detected in the indoor air. The main cause of fungal contamination were moist building materials on room walls, insufficient air ventilation, bad maintenance of the circulating air-machines and insufficient room hygiene (e.g. biological garbage in the kitchen).

  13. Homage to Robert Hooke (1635-1703): new insights from the recently discovered Hooke Folio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms were first observed by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek between 1665 and 1678. In 1665, Hooke published Micrographia, which depicted the details of 60 objects as seen in the microscope. One chapter was devoted to the microfungus Mucor, the first microbe observed by the human eye. Leeuwenhoek, despite having no scientific training, became the first to observe protozoa, red blood cells, the sperm cells of animals, and bacteria, which he described in numerous letters to the Royal Society of London. In 1677, Hooke became Secretary of the Royal Society and, in the same year, confirmed some of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries. The discovery in 2006 of more than 650 pages of Hooke's missing records (the "Hooke Folio") allows us to verify the proceedings of Royal Society meetings and promises to be an important new source of Hooke's views on the renaissance of science in the 17th century.

  14. The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, fellows of the Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Howard

    2004-05-01

    The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. Later, Leeuwenhoek observed and described microscopic protozoa and bacteria. These important revelations were made possible by the ingenuity of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in fabricating and using simple microscopes that magnified objects from about 25-fold to 250-fold. After a lapse of more than 150 years, microscopy became the backbone of our understanding of the roles of microbes in the causation of infectious diseases and the recycling of chemical elements in the biosphere.

  15. A multi-criteria analysis approach for ranking and selection of microorganisms for the production of oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farah B; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-08-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms have potential to be used to produce oils as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides and Chlorella zofingiensis), yeasts (Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), and fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Mucor plumbeus) were investigated for their ability to produce oil from glucose, xylose and glycerol. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and preference ranking organization method for the enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE) with graphical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), was used to rank and select the preferred microorganisms for oil production for biodiesel application. This was based on a number of criteria viz., oil concentration, content, production rate and yield, substrate consumption rate, fatty acids composition, biomass harvesting and nutrient costs. PROMETHEE selected A. oryzae, M. plumbeus and R. mucilaginosa as the most prospective species for oil production. However, further analysis by GAIA Webs identified A. oryzae and M. plumbeus as the best performing microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  17. Radiochemical methods for studying lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reactions involving lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids, which are of commendable interest in biotechnology, have been monitored and assayed by radiochemical methods using 14 C-labeled substrates. Medium chain (C 12 plus C 14 ) triacylglycerols were reacted in the presence of an immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei and hexane at 45 0 C with methyl [1- 14 C]oleate, [1- 14 C]oleic acid, [carboxyl- 14 C]trioleoylglycerol, [1- 14 C]octadecenyl alcohol, and [U- 14 C]glycerol, each of known specific activity. The reactions were monitored and the rate of interesterification determined by radio thin layer chromatography from the incorporation of radioactivity into acyl moieties of triacylglycerols (from methyl oleate, oleic acid, and trioleoylglycerol), alkyl moieties of wax esters (from octadecenyl alcohol), and into glycerol backbone of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols (from glycerol). (orig.)

  18. Persistent environmental pollutants. Detoxification by means of fungi; Persistente Umweltschadstoffe. Detoxifizierung durch Pilze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sietmann, Rabea; Schauer, Frieder [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie

    2010-01-15

    Microorganisms either may use environmental pollutants as a source of carbon or attack pollutants oxidatively in the presence of a growth substrate. Furthermore, accumulated toxic products partly can be removed from a cell and oxidized or mineralized by microorganisms. The structural chemical analysis of the accumulated metabolites is performed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). This analysis supplies information on the mechanism of degradation of the environmental pollutants. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the use of fungi (aspergillus, candida, cunninghamella, fusarium, mucor, paecilomyces, penicillium, pycnoporus, trametes, trichosporon) in the degradation of biphenyl and its derivatives. The following mechanisms of degradation are discussed: Primary oxidation, hydroxylation, ring scission, formation of conjugates, oligomerisation and dehalogenation.

  19. Dos momentos de la medicina colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Soriano Lleras

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available El doctor Nicolás Osorio publicó en el número 37, serie IV, correspondiente al 15 de mayo de 1876, de la "Revista Médica", una nota titulada "Enfermedad del cabello llamada en el Cauca Piedra", en el cual después de hacer una somera descripción de los caracteres del cabello afectado y de hacer constar que no encontró en los tubérculos de los cabellos afectados ninguno de los géneros puccina, mucor, aspergillio, oidium, acho- rion, microsporo y trichophyton, concluye que la causa de la dolencia es desconocida; que no es enfermedad contagiosa y que hasta ese momento no había sido descrita.

  20. A New Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma Kongii in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Isolation and Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlYahya, F.A; ElHussieni, S.M; Ibrahim, A.A; Ibrahim, Y.E

    2007-01-01

    A total of 164 soil and root samples of different plant groups were collected from Abu-Arish governorate , Jazan province South West Saudi Arabia during the period of 2004-2005. Each sample contained feeder roots and approximately 250 g soil, taken from a depth of 20 cm of the soil surface. Samples were analyzed by two different media. Culture fungi on Malt Extract Agar identified by Biolog Systems and culture fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar medium containing chloramphenicol were identified by microscopic characterization. Results showed that, 11 different types of fungi isolated from tested samples, Fusarium spp (40%), Rhizoctonia solani,(12%) Trichoderma spp (12%), Macrophomina phaseoina. (7 %), Aspergillus spp (18 %) were the predominant fungal species. Helminthosporium spp (3%), Alternaria alternate (2%), Pythium spp (2%), Curviularia spp (2%), Cladsporium spp. (1%) and Mucor spp. (1%) were less frequent. (author)

  1. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  2. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  4. Jamur Perusak Pendap Makanan Khas Tradisional Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

    2016-04-01

    ABSTRACT. Pendap is a traditional Bengkulu food prepared from fermentation of fish. The research was conducted to identify molds caused spoilage of pendap, and to select the species of molds which were able to use for other process in microbiology. The data in this study were laboratory analysis. Samples were collected weekly in a month from productions centre of Pendap  and traditional markets, and analyzed microbiologically to determine and identify the  molds which were contaminated. There were four specieses of molds found in pendap after three days storage in room condition, namely Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp, Aspergillus terreus, and Penicillim sp. While two specieses which were not produce toxin and the other two were known as the molds which were produced mycotoxin.

  5. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  6. Affinity chromatography with pseudobiospecific ligands on high-performance supports for purification of proteins of biotechnological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Iannucci

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance affinity matrices were obtained by attaching pseudobiospecific ligands to hollow-fibre membranes. The neutral protease contained in FlavourzymeTM was purified to homogeneity with Yellow 4R-HE affinity hollow-fibre membranes. Immobilisation of Red HE-3B allowed purification of a milk-clotting enzyme obtained by solid-state culture of Mucor bacilliformis. Copper immobilisation through iminodiacetic acid allowed fractionation of Biocon Bioconcentrated PlusTM to separate the pectinesterase-containing fraction. The productivity of the developed processes - 1900, 94 and 750 U/ml.min, respectively - was 10- to 15-fold higher than that achieved with the same ligands immobilised on agarose-based soft gels, mainly due to the shortening of the purification processes.

  7. IDENTIFIKASI KAPANG PADA KECAP KEDELAI MANIS PRODUKSI LOKAL KEDIRI DENGAN METODE PENGENCERAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durroh Humairoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kecap kedelai merupakan salah satu produk fermentasi yang telah dikenal sejak ribuan tahun yang lalu di berbagai negara termasuk Indonesia. Namun kecap kedelai manis merupakan produk kecap kedelai yang merupakan produk khas Indonesia. Faktor keamanan pangan berkaitan dengan tercemar tidaknya pangan oleh cemaran mikrobiologis, logam berat, dan bahan kimia yang membahayakan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jumlah kapang dan jenis kapang yang ditemukan pada sampel kecap produk lokal Kediri. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pengenceran hingga 101 dari 10 sampel kecap kedelai manis produksi lokal Kediri dengan merek yang berbeda. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa pada sampel kecap kedelai manis ditemukan jumlah kapang sebanyak < 50 koloni/ml pada setiap sampelnya dan jenis kapang yang ditemukan meliputi Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., dan Mucor sp. sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kecap produksi Kediri aman dikonsumsi karena sesuai standar yang ditetapkan Pemerintah dalam SNI 3543: 2013.   Kata kunci: Jumlah koloni, Jenis kapang, Kecap kedelai manis, produk lokal Kediri

  8. Fungi isolated from Stewartia pseudocamellia Max. seeds and their pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kurzawińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of studies was to determine typical composition of fungi occurring on seeds of Stewartia pseudocamellia.The studies conducted on 100 disinfected and 100 nondisinfected seeds of these plants.Isolates of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Cylindrocarpon radicicola and Rhizoctonia solani were characterized by pathogenicity towards the investigated Stewartia pseudocamellia. In the laboratory experiment, 204 isolations of microorganisms were obtained that belonged to 20 species and form of fungi and bacteria. Among fungi there were both of parasite (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and typical saprophytic (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp., Mucor spp.. The dominant fungus on seeds was Alternaria alternata. Among the investigated isolates only one isolate (R4 Rhizoctonia solani, was strongly pathogenic, isolates (A1 Alternaria alternata were weakly pathogenic to seedlings of Stewartia pseudocamellia.

  9. ASYMMETRIC SULFOXIDATION OF ALBENDAZOLE TO RICOBENDAZOLE BY FUNGI: EFFECT OF pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX. ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+-ABZSOX and (--ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%.

  10. The synthesis of carbon-14 labeled pravastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, M.A.; Dean, D.C.; Ellsworth, R.L.; Melillo, D.G.; Marks, T.; White, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    An asymmetric route to [ 14 C]β-hydroxycompactin 1 bearing the (S)-2-methyl-[1- 14 C]butanoate side chain has been developed. Methylation of [N-[1- 14 C]butyryl]-4-(S)-phenylmethyl-2-oxazolidinone 4 afforded a 95:5 mixture of diastereomeric [N-(S,R)-2-methyl-[1- 14 C]butyryl]-4-(S)-phenylmethyl-2-oxazolidi nones 5,6 which were separated by preparative HPLC. Oxidative cleavage of 5 afforded optically pure (S)-2-methyl-[1- 14 C]butanoic acid. Acylation of alcohol 9 with optically pure (S)-2-methyl-[1- 14 C] butyryl chloride afforded ester 10. Removal of the silyl ether produced diastereomerically pure compactin 11. Hydroxylation was carried out by biotransformation with Mucor hiemelus to afford diastereomerically pure [[1- 14 C]butanoate]β-hydroxycompactin, [ 14 C]Pravastatin 1. (Author)

  11. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  12. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  13. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of the genus Gilbertella and related genera within the order Mucorales based on 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, T; Acs, Klára; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Nagy, Erzsébet; Vágvölgyi, Cs

    2003-01-01

    The complete ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region coding the ITS1, the ITS2 and the 5.8S rDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from two strains of Gilbertella persicaria, six strains in the Mucoraceae (Mucor piriformis, M. rouxii, M. circinelloides, Rhizomucor miehei, R. pusillus and R. tauricus) and four strains representing three species of the Choanephoraceae (Blakeslea trispora, Choanephora infundibulifera and Poitrasia circinans). Sequences of the amplified DNA fragments were determined and analysed. G. persicaria belongs to the monogeneric family (Gilbertellaceae), however, originally it was described as Choanephora persicaria. The goal of this study was to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among fungi belonging to Gilbertellaceae, Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae. Our results support that the "intermediate" position of this family is between Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae.

  15. An integrated genomic and transcriptomic survey of mucormycosis-causing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C.; Soliman, Sameh; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lee, Hongkyu; Daugherty, Sean; Orvis, Joshua; Shetty, Amol C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hazen, Tracy H.; Etienne, Kizee A.; Kumari, Priti; O'Connor, Timothy D.; Rasko, David A.; Filler, Scott G.; Fraser, Claire M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Skory, Christopher D.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Bruno, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. Here we sequence 30 fungal genomes, and perform transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains and with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion, to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing to pathogenesis. Analysis of the host transcriptional response to Mucorales reveals platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) signaling as part of a core response to divergent pathogenic fungi; inhibition of PDGFRB reduces Mucorales-induced damage to host cells. The unique presence of CotH invasins in all invasive Mucorales, and the correlation between CotH gene copy number and clinical prevalence, are consistent with an important role for these proteins in mucormycosis pathogenesis. Our work provides insight into the evolution of this medically and economically important group of fungi, and identifies several molecular pathways that might be exploited as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27447865

  16. Specific characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales in the use of textiles and laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonaka, Atsushi; Koga, Jinichiro; Baba, Yuko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Murashima, Koichiro; Kubota, Hidetoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2006-04-01

    We examined the characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases (glycoside hydrolases family 45; GH45) from Mucorales belonging to Zygomycota in the use of textiles and laundry. The defibrillation activities on lyocell fabric of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales, such as RCE1 and RCE2 from Rhizopus oryzae, MCE1 and MCE2 from Mucor circinelloides, and PCE1 from Phycomyces nitens, were much higher than those of the other family 45 endoglucanases. By contrast, family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales were less resistant to anionic surfactant and oxidizing agent, main components in detergents, than the other family 45 endoglucanases. RCE1 consists of two distinct modules, a catalytic module and a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1), and these common specific characteristics were considered to due to the catalytic module, but not to the CBM1.

  17. Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L. y cebolla (Allium cepa L. deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepaL. dehydrated

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    S.R. Fuselli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L. y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.. Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos.A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp

  18. Activity of Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis Essential Oils against Bacteria, Molds and Yeasts

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis, widely employed in the cosmetic and perfume industry, were analyzed for composition and tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from clinical and environmental specimens. The analyses were carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Mucor sp. and Trichothecium roseum. Both EOs showed similar percentages of total monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole and β-caryophyllene in S. dolomitica and bornyl acetate and camphor in S. somalensis. The selected EOs have no relevant antifungal or antibacterial activities if compared to conventional drugs.

  19. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

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    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  20. Kinetics of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Vincenza; Ricca, Emanuele; De Paola, Maria Gabriela; Curcio, Stefano; Iorio, Gabriele

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the reaction of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides with ethanol in a reaction medium containing hexane at a temperature of 37 degrees C has been studied. The enzyme was Lipase from Mucor miehei, immobilized on ionic exchange resin, aimed at achieving high catalytic specific surface and recovering, regenerating and reusing the biocatalyst. A kinetic analysis has been carried out to identify the reaction path; the rate equation and kinetic parameters have been also calculated. The kinetic model has been validated by comparison between predicted and experimental results. Mass transport resistances estimation was undertaken in order to verify that the kinetics found was intrinsic. Model potentialities in terms of reactors design and optimization are also shown.

  1. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  2. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Chinese Rice Wine Collected at Yichang City and Suzhou City in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Gong, Yanli; Li, Yajie; Pan, Zejiang; Yao, Yi; Li, Ning; Guo, Jinling; Gong, Dachun; Tian, Yihong; Peng, Caiyun

    2017-08-28

    Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae were the dominant fungi in rice wine from Suzhou city, compared with R. oryzae , Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor indicus , and Rhizopus microsporus in rice wine from Yichang city. Bacterial diversity was greater than fungal diversity in both communities. Citrobacter was the most abundant genus. Furthermore, Exiguobacterium, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus , and Lactococcus were highly abundant in both communities.

  3. Aislamiento e identificación de hongos asociados a esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, causante de la pudrición blanca de la cebolla, en la zona alta de Cartago, Costa Rica

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    María del Milagro Granados

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron e identificaron hongos asociados a esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, causante de la pudrición blanca de la cebolla, con el fin de determinar la existencia de hongos con potencial antagónico nativos en la zona alta de Cartago. Se estudiaron 10 fincas durante febrero-mayo de 2002. Cada una se dividió en 3 áreas de acuerdo al nivel de incidencia histórica de la enfermedad (bajo, intermedio, alto. En cada área se realizó un trampeo de hongos mediante la técnica de entierro de esclerocios; además se hizo muestreo de plantas enfermas, se colectó suelo para cuantificar densidad de inóculo y para realizar análisis microbiológicos, químico sencillo, de textura y determinación de materia orgánica. Los géneros encontrados en el trampeo fueron Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp. y Trichoderma spp.; en bulbos enfermos se aislaron Fusarium spp., Monilia sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium spp., Pythium sp., Rhizopus sp., y Trichoderma spp. Los géneros Gliocladium sp., Penicillium spp. y Trichoderma spp. también se hallaron en el análisis microbiológico de suelo. Las poblaciones más altas de microorganismos se recuperaron en el área intermedia de todas las fincas. Este trabajo comprueba que es posible aislar hongos con potencial antagónico, como Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium sp. y Paecilomyces sp., en suelos a los que por muchos años se les ha aplicado una gran cantidad de fungicidas.

  4. Functional analysis of the Phycomyces carRA gene encoding the enzymes phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase.

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    Catalina Sanz

    Full Text Available Phycomyces carRA gene encodes a protein with two domains. Domain R is characterized by red carR mutants that accumulate lycopene. Domain A is characterized by white carA mutants that do not accumulate significant amounts of carotenoids. The carRA-encoded protein was identified as the lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase enzyme by sequence homology with other proteins. However, no direct data showing the function of this protein have been reported so far. Different Mucor circinelloides mutants altered at the phytoene synthase, the lycopene cyclase or both activities were transformed with the Phycomyces carRA gene. Fully transcribed carRA mRNA molecules were detected by Northern assays in the transformants and the correct processing of the carRA messenger was verified by RT-PCR. These results showed that Phycomyces carRA gene was correctly expressed in Mucor. Carotenoids analysis in these transformants showed the presence of ß-carotene, absent in the untransformed strains, providing functional evidence that the Phycomyces carRA gene complements the M. circinelloides mutations. Co-transformation of the carRA cDNA in E. coli with different combinations of the carotenoid structural genes from Erwinia uredovora was also performed. Newly formed carotenoids were accumulated showing that the Phycomyces CarRA protein does contain lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities. The heterologous expression of the carRA gene and the functional complementation of the mentioned activities are not very efficient in E. coli. However, the simultaneous presence of both carRA and carB gene products from Phycomyces increases the efficiency of these enzymes, presumably due to an interaction mechanism.

  5. Comparative performance of microbial lipases immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane polyvinyl alcohol particles

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    Laura Maria Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipase from Mucor miehei and Candida rugosa were immobilized by covalent binding onto magnetized polysiloxane polyvinyl alcohol particles (POS-PVA. The resulting immobilized derivatives were evaluated in aqueous solution (olive oil hydrolysis and organic solvent (butyl butyrate synthesis. Higher catalytic activities were found when the coupling procedure was made with M. miehei lipase. Immobilized M. miehei lipase also showed a better operational stability and a higher half-life than C. rugosa lipase after the successive batches of esterification. The performance of C. rugosa immobilized derivative was constrained by the low lipase loading used in the immobilizing step. Further information regarding the both immobilized derivatives was also obtained through chemical composition (FTIR.Lipases microbianas de Mucor miehei e Candida rugosa foram imobilizadas por ligação covalente em partículas magnetizadas de polisiloxano-álcool polivinílico (POS-PVA. Os derivados imobilizados resultantes foram avaliados em solução aquosa (hidrólise de azeite de oliva e em solvente orgânico (síntese de butirato de butila. As maiores atividades catalíticas foram encontradas quando o procedimento de ligação foi realizado com lipase de M. miehei. O derivado imobilizado de lipase de M. miehei também apresentou melhores resultados de estabilidade operacional e tempo de meia-vida do que o de lipase de C. rugosa, após sucessivas bateladas de esterificação. O desempenho do derivado imobilizado de C. rugosa foi restringido pelo baixo carregamento de lipase usado na etapa de imobilização. Informações adicionais a respeito de ambos derivados imobilizados também foram obtidas através da composição química (FTIR.

  6. Analysis of the effect of soil saprophytic fungi on the eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Hernández, José A; Arroyo, Fabián L; Miguélez, Silvia; Romasanta, Ángel; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María S

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. Three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, Mucor circinelloides, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Verticillium sp., on the eggs of B. procyonis. Firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by placing 1 mL with 2 × 10(6) spores of each fungus in Petri plates with water-agar (2 %) and simultaneously adding 200 eggs of Baylisascaris/plate. Two in vivo probes were carried out, by spraying the fungal spores (3 mL containing about 2 × 10(6) spores/mL) on the feces of raccoons and coatis (Nasua narica) passing eggs of B. procyonis in a zoological park; the other assay consisted of evaluating the activity of the fungi after adding sand to fecal samples from raccoons. An ovicidal type 3 activity characterized by morphological damage of the eggshell with hyphal penetration, internal egg colonization, and embryo alteration was observed for all the tested fungi. In the plate assays, viability of Baylisascaris eggs reduced significantly by 53-69 % with Mucor, 45-62 % with Paecilomyces, and 52-67 % with Verticillium. A similar ovicidal effect was detected in the feces with sand. These results demonstrate the usefulness of spraying spores of M. circinelloides, Pa. lilacinus, or Verticillium sp. on the feces of animals infected by Baylisascaris to decrease the numbers of viable eggs and, thus, the risk of infection.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata DURING STORAGE

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    Patricia F. Omojasola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Penicillum notatum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Total Viable Counts ranged from 3.0-120.0 cfu g-1 and coliform counts ranged from 0.00 - 18.80 cfu g-1 pre-storage to 0.10-219 cfu g-1 and 0.0-31.0 cfu g-1 post storage respectively. The physico-chemical parameters analysed were moisture content which ranged between 14.38-17.10% pre-storage to 13.43-24.96% post-storage; crude protein: 5.81-7.53% and 2.11-6.75%; crude fat: 0.35-0.71% and 0.07-0.61%; ash content: 3.30-5.18% and 1.17-4.77%; crude fibre: 0.77-1.45%; carbohydrate: 70.18-74.00% and 70.93-75.17% pre-storage and post-storage content respectively. Levels of Aflatoxin B1 were also monitored throughout the storage period. Insect infestation of the samples occurred during the storage period. Four species were identified; these were Tribolium casteneum, Dinoderus porcellus, Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus zeamais. The traditional practice of open air sun-drying of yam chips should be discouraged, rather oven drying is recommended to minmize microbial contamination. In addition, sorting to exclude extreneous material and minimize mouldiness and insect infestation is suggested.

  8. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  9. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

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    Edy Subroto1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid (SL containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol. Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h. In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h. Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50C, triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.

  11. Mucormicosis yeyunal en paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin Jejunal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma

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    B. Madrigal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso de mucormicosis intestinal en un hombre de 46 años de edad, diagnosticado de enfermedad de Hodgkin clásica, estadio IV-B. Durante la primera fase de la quimioterapia, sufrió una hemorragia digestiva masiva secundaria a una úlcera yeyunal por zigomicosis tipo mucor, diagnosticada por biopsia endoscópica. El paciente fue tratado con antifúngicos y resección quirúrgica del intestino afectado. En la cirugía, se apreció una doble perforación yeyunal cubierta. El estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza confirmó el diagnóstico previo. Tras un año de seguimiento, el paciente está recuperado y su linfoma de Hodgkin en remisión completa. Tras una extensa revisión de la literatura, según nuestro conocimiento, este es el segundo caso publicado en la literatura de mucormicosis intestinal en un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin.We report a case of intestinal mucormycosis in a 46-year-old male diagnosed with classical Hodgkin's disease, IV-B stage. During the first phase of chemotherapy he had a massive digestive bleeding event secondary to a jejunal ulcer, and zygomicosis mucor-type was diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with antifungal drugs and surgical resection of the intestine involved. At surgery a double covered perforation of the jejunum was seen. Pathological examination confirmed the previous diagnosis. After one year of follow-up the patient is doing well, and his lymphoma is on remission. To our best knowledge this is the second case of intestinal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma reported in the medical literature.

  12. Capítulo 7 - Zigomicose Chapter 7 - Zygomycosis

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    Cecília Bittencourt Severo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A zigomicose (mucormicose é uma infecção rara, mas altamente invasiva, causada por fungos da ordem Mucorales (gêneros Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces e Syncephalastrum. Esse tipo de infecção é usualmente associado a doenças hematológicas, cetoacidose diabética e transplante de órgãos. A apresentação clínica mais frequente é a mucormicose rinocerebral, com ou sem envolvimento pulmonar. A zigomicose pulmonar ocorre mais frequentemente em pacientes com neutropenia profunda e prolongada e pode se apresentar como infiltrado lobar ou segmentar, nódulos isolados, lesões cavitárias, hemorragia ou infarto. As manifestações clínicas e radiológicas são na maioria dos casos indistinguíveis daquelas associadas com aspergilose invasiva. Este artigo descreve as características gerais da zigomicose pulmonar, com ênfase no diagnóstico laboratorial, e ilustra a morfologia de algumas lesões.Zygomycosis (mucormycosis is a rare but highly invasive infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales, which includes the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces and Syncephalastrum. This type of infection is usually associated with hematologic diseases, diabetic ketoacidosis and organ transplantation. The most common form of presentation is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, with or without pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary zygomycosis is more common in patients with profound, prolonged neutropenia and can present as segmental or lobar infiltrates, isolated nodules, cavitary lesions, hemorrhage or infarction. The clinical and radiological manifestations are often indistinguishable from those associated with invasive aspergillosis. This article describes the general characteristics of pulmonary zygomycosis, emphasizing laboratory diagnosis, and illustrates the morphology of some lesions.

  13. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating DNA in serum for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Laurence; Larosa, Fabrice; Lepiller, Quentin; Legrand, Faezeh; Rocchi, Steffi; Daguindau, Etienne; Scherer, Emeline; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Leroy, Joel; Grenouillet, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the detection of circulating DNA from the most common species of Mucorales for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in at-risk patients. We retrospectively evaluated a combination of 3 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays using hydrolysis probes targeting Mucor/Rhizopus, Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia), and Rhizomucor for circulating Mucorales detection. Serial serum samples from 10 patients diagnosed with proven mucormycosis (2-9 samples per patient) were analyzed. No cross-reactivity was detected in the 3 qPCR assays using 19 reference strains of opportunistic fungi, and the limit of detection ranged from 3.7 to 15 femtograms/10 µL, depending on the species. DNA from Mucorales was detected in the serum of 9 of 10 patients between 68 and 3 days before mucormycosis diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and/or positive culture. All the qPCR results were concordant with culture and/or PCR-based identification of the causing agents in tissue (Lichtheimia species, Rhizomucor species, and Mucor/Rhizopus species in 4, 3, and 2 patients, respectively). Quantitative PCR was negative in only 1 patient with proven disseminated mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia species. Our study suggests that using specific qPCR targeting several species of Mucorales according to local ecology to screen at-risk patients could be useful in a clinical setting. The cost and efficacy of this strategy should be evaluated. However, given the human and economic cost of mucormycosis and the need for rapid diagnosis to initiate prompt directed antifungal therapy, this strategy could be highly attractive.

  14. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  15. Utility of intraoperative frozen sections in surgical decision making for acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, Peter; Lin, Diana Murro; Al-Khudari, Samer; Rajan, Kumar; Reddy, Swathi; Gattuso, Paulo; Tajudeen, Bobby; Batra, Pete S

    2017-05-01

    Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) represents a fulminant, potentially fatal, disease process in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis often rests on high index of clinical suspicion, with relative paucity of data on the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of intraoperative frozen sections. Retrospective review was performed for 18 cases undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for AIFRS. Reliability of intraoperative frozen section diagnosis was evaluated for all patients using final pathology as the gold standard. A total of 66 frozen sections were performed. Diagnostic accuracy of frozen sections illustrated sensitivity of 72.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.85), specificity of 100% (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.00), positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.00), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 64.7% (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.80). There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity of frozen sections in cases of Mucor and Aspergillus at 68.8%% and 76.2%, respectively (p = 0.61). This study represents the largest series assessing the diagnostic accuracy of frozen section analysis in AIFRS. Frozen section analysis is an effective tool for guiding intraoperative decision making in patients with AIFRS with a high PPV. A Low NPV underscores the importance of clinical suspicion and intraoperative decision making based on endoscopic findings when negative frozen section results are encountered. Further, frozen section analysis appears to be equally effective in detecting either Mucor or Aspergillus. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. BASAL MEDIA FORMULATION USING CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS AS CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCE FOR THE GROWTH OF SOME FUNGI SPECIES

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    B.J. Akinyele2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of developing alternative media to commercial potato dextrose agar was assessed using, Canavalia ensiformis (Linn (jack beans as carbon and nitrogen source. Six leguminous meal media were used as substitute for either carbon or nitrogen or both, while potato dextrose broth (PDB was used as a positive control and basal medium as a negative control. Six species of fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Meria coniospora, Mucor sp, Neurospora crassa and Rhizopus oryzae were aseptically inoculated into the formulated media and allowed to grow. Their mycelia dry weights were taken after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Growth of all fungal species was observed to be slightly lower, about the same or better in the formulated media relative to the control. Aspergillus flavus had its highest biomass of 1.70g in the media formulated with Canavalia ensiformis as the carbon source relative to 1.42g as the standard at the 120 hour. A. niger had a growth of 0.62g relative to 0.61g at 120 hours of the control. Meria coniospora had a growth of 0.27g relative to 0.38g at 120 hours. Mucor sp had a growth of 0.54g relative to 0.44g at 120 hours. Neurospora crassa had a growth of 1.05g relative to 0.24g at 120 hours. Rhizopus oryzae had a growth of 0.14g relative to 0.25g at 120 hours. The study revealed that Canavalia ensiformis contains minerals and nutrients that is able to provide the nutritional requirements of these fungi. Thus, it can be used as an alternative material in the preparation of culture media for in vitro cultivation of these fungi for teaching and research purposes.

  17. Hidrólisis del aceite de coco (Cocos nucífera L mediante enzimas estereoespecíficas y sin especificidad posicional.

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    Rodríguez, R.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic fatty acid composition of coconut oil provides mainly short- and medium- chain fatty acids when incorporated to the diet. These fatty acids have nutritional advantages because their metabolic disposition allows the rapid obtention of energy, mainly at the hepatic level. The obtention of short- and medium- chain fatty acids from coconut oil as substrate, may be of importance because the different nutritional, pharmacological, and technological uses of these fatty acids. In the present work, the effect of two type of lipases on the hydrolysis of coconut oil was studied; a lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea showing no positional specificity, and a lipase from Mucor miehei with sn-1',3' specificity in its free and immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The lipase from Candida cylindracea allows the hydrolysis of 85%-90% of the triacylglycerols after 47-50 hours, the fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate being similar to the composition of the oil. The remaining monoacylglycerols show a prevalent composition of short- (C6-C8 -and medium- chain (C10-C14 fatty acids. Lipase from Mucor miehei allows 65% of hydrolysis, which is obtained after 30 hours of incubation when the free form of the lipase is assayed, and after 10 hours for the immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate is similar for the two enzymes and different to the composition of the oil, being C8-C14 the most prevalent fatty acids. The remaining monoacylglycerol, as product of the action of both forms of the enzyme, is almost enterely composed by lauric acid (C12:0, implicating that the sn-2' position is the most favoured for this fatty acid in the coconut oil triacylglycerols. The usefulness of lipases for the obtention of especific fractions of some fatty acids is discussed. The utility of the lipase from Mucor miehei for the obtention enriched fractions of lauric acid, which can be liberated after

  18. Zooplankton and zoobenthos of the Mokra Sura river

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    V. Yakovenko

    2017-12-01

    saprobity indices in these sites. According to CICS index, the sites of 3 km and 2 km upstream from the river mouth were the purest ones as indicated by the greatest development of filter feeding crustaceans and the lowest indices of saprobity compared to the other sites studied. These results indicate a very effective biogenic detoxification and precipitation of toxic substances entering the river in the above-mentioned areas, as well as dilution effects of large water masses from the Dnieper River in the mouth areas of its tributaries Originality. For the first time, the ecological state of the selected sites of the Mokra Sura River was assessed on the basis of the results of a comprehensive study of the structural and functional indicators of zooplankton and zoobenthos during the maximum development of their hydrobiocenosis. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for hydroecological monitoring to detect the dangerous ecological state of small rivers and to prevent further degradation of the ecosystems of small rivers as well as for calculation of fish losses caused by sewage water effects.

  19. Diatomáceas de tanques do cactário do Jardim Botânico, Guanabara, Brasil

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    Luis Tavares de Lyra

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisou a microflora de três tanques situados no Cactário do Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara. Tanque nº 1. Apresentou desenvolvimento muito intenso da microfibra nos mseses mais frios. As diatomáceas foram muito freqüentes. As espécies indicadoras de saprobidade foram as seguintes: Gomphonema gracile Ehr., pinnularia maior. (kutz Cleve, Gomphonema parvulum (kutz Grunow, Navicula mutica Kutz., Pinnularia borealis Ehr., Pinnularia microstauron (Ehr Cleve, Pinnularia acrospheria Breb., Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehr Grunow, Nitzschia palea Kutz., Eutonia pectinalis (Kutz Rabenh. Tanque nº 2. As diatomáceas indicadoras de águas contaminadas, anotamos como segue: Eutonia pectinalis (Kutz Rabenh., Gomphonema parvulum (kutz Grunow, Hanstzschia amphioxys (Ehr Grunow, Navicula mutica Kutz, Pinnularia borealis Ehr., Pinnularia maior (Kutz Cleve, Pinnularia microstauron (Ehr Cleve. Tanque nº 3. Foi bastante reduzida a freqüência da microflora. Comparando-o com os tanques nº 1 e 2, as diatomáceas e clorofícias observadas, mostraram-se diminuídas nos meses mais quentes. Encontramos as seguintes espécies oligosaprobias: Eunotia pectinalis (Kutz Rabenh., Gomphonema gracile ehr., Gomphonema parvulum (Kutz Grunow Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehr Grunow, Pinnularia borealis Ehr., Pinnularia maior (Kutz Cleve. Foram consideradas também as clorofíceas quanto ao regime de saprobidade do material estudado. Eutonia augusta f. crenulata Cleve-Euler e Eutonia veneris var. exsecta Clever-Euler encontradas em nossas amostras, são novas para o Brasil. Um total de 71 espécies foram determinadas de 21 coletas realizadas durante o período de 36 meses.The author analysed the microflorafrom three ponds situated in the Cactarium from the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara. Pond nº 1 - This pond showed a very intensive development of the microflora in the coldermonths. The diatoms were very frequent. Those diatoms that indicate saprobic

  20. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations.

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    Weber, Gero; Christmann, Nicole; Thiery, Ann-Cathrin; Martens, Dieter; Kubiniok, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites. The macroinvertebrate population was also surveyed in 16 of these streams. Evidence was found of 41 substances in total. Most dominant substances include atrazine, isoproturone, quinmerac and tebuconazol as well as metabolites of dimethenamid, chloridazon and metazachlor. At 9 of the 23 sampling points, over 10 plant protection products and metabolites were found. Only 17% of the water bodies investigated contained fewer than 5 substances. Around half of the bodies of water investigated show noticeably high concentrations of metabolites of plant protection products. Maximum concentrations exceeding environmental quality standards or the Health-oriented Guideline Values were measured for 13 substances at individual sampling points. Analysis of the biological data for only 4 of the water bodies investigated resulted in the Ecological Status Class (ESC) "good". All others fell short of the quality target, although they were classified as "good" or "very good" according to the Saprobic index. SPEAR pesticides as a measurement of the sensitivity of the biocoenosis to pesticides shows their influence in a few water bodies. Likewise, high toxic unit values have also been calculated, indicating the presence of toxic substances at relevant concentrations. However, an actual correlation between SPEAR pesticides and toxic unit could not be derived. Clearly in these very headwater streams other