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Sample records for sapp battery site

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  2. Atomic resolution crystal structure of Sapp2p, a secreted aspartic protease from Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Jiří; Pecina, Adam; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Marečková, Lucie; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlina; Lepšík, Martin; Brynda, Jiří

    2015-12-01

    The virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by the production of secreted aspartic proteases, which therefore represent possible targets for drug design. Here, the crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease Sapp2p from Candida parapsilosis was determined. Sapp2p was isolated from its natural source and crystallized in complex with pepstatin A, a classical aspartic protease inhibitor. The atomic resolution of 0.83 Å allowed the protonation states of the active-site residues to be inferred. A detailed comparison of the structure of Sapp2p with the structure of Sapp1p, the most abundant C. parapsilosis secreted aspartic protease, was performed. The analysis, which included advanced quantum-chemical interaction-energy calculations, uncovered molecular details that allowed the experimentally observed equipotent inhibition of both isoenzymes by pepstatin A to be rationalized.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of sAPP ? and sAPP ? in Lewy Body and Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical and Neurochemical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra Mulugeta; Elisabet Londos; Oskar Hansson; Clive Ballard; Ragnhild Skogseth; Lennart Minthon; Kaj Blennow; Henrik Zetterberg; Dag Aarsland

    2011-01-01

    We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the soluble isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP; sAPP ? sAPP ? ) and other CSF biomarkers in 107 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy body dementia (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and normal controls (NC) using commercial kits. DLB and PDD were combined in a Lewy body dementia group (LBD). No differences were observed in sAPP ? and sAPP ? levels between the groups. Significant correlations were observed be...

  4. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  5. Ground Handling of Batteries at Test and Launch-site Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Hohl, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Ground handling of flight as well as engineering batteries at test facilities and launch-site facilities is a safety critical process. Test equipment interfacing with the batteries should have the required controls to prevent a hazardous failure of the batteries. Test equipment failures should not induce catastrophic failures on the batteries. Transportation requirements for batteries should also be taken into consideration for safe transportation. This viewgraph presentation includes information on the safe handling of batteries for ground processing at test facilities as well as launch-site facilities.

  6. Töölepingud tuleb õpetajatega sõlmida tähtajatult / Piret Sapp, Heddi Lutterus ; intervjueerinud Martti Marksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sapp, Piret

    2013-01-01

    Rakvere reaalgümnaasiumi direktor Martti Marksoo saatis Virumaa koolijuhtide nimel haridusministeeriumile viis küsimust, millele vastasid ministeeriumi õigusosakonna juhataja Heddi Lutterus ning ministeeriumi nõunik Piret Sapp

  7. sAPP as a regulator of dendrite motility and melanin release in epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Thomas; Wehner, Sven; Kirfel, Gregor; Jaeger, Klaus; De Luca, Michele; Herzog, Volker

    2003-09-01

    Numerous factors including ultraviolet (UV) radiation and growth factors regulate the specific function of epidermal melanocytes. A recently discovered epidermal growth factor is sAPP, the soluble N-terminal ectodomain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Using whole mount preparations of isolated human epidermis, we detected a small population of basal cells, which expressed exceptionally high levels of APP. These cells were identified as melanocytes, which, similar to keratinocytes and neuronal cells, expressed the three APP isoforms 695, 751, and 770. They differed in their expression pattern from that of neuronal cells by expressing only low levels of APP 695. Melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro released, in addition to keratinocytes, large quantities of sAPP. Because of its growth factor function, we studied possible effects of sAPP on melanocytes. Recombinant sAPP strongly increased lamellipodia activity at dendritic tips, an effect that coincided with increased release of melanin particles. Our observations point to the possible use of APP as an immunocytochemical marker for melanocytes. They suggest that sAPP derived from keratinocytes and/or melanocytes belongs to a family of factors operating in the paracrine and/or autocrine regulation of melanocyte function.

  8. Pro-Cognitive Effects of Non-Peptide Analogues of Soluble Amyloid Peptide Precursor Fragment sAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunova, A A; Komissarova, N V; Nenaidenko, V G; Makhmutova, A A; Beznosko, B K; Bachurin, S O; Anokhin, K V

    2016-08-01

    We studied pro-cognitive effect of two heterocyclic low-molecular-weight compounds that serve as non-peptide analogues of soluble fragment of amyloid peptide precursor (sAPP). Intracerebroventricular and systemic administration of peptide mimetics P2 and P5 improved weak memory on the model of passive avoidance in chicks and in the object location task in mice. Both compounds were effective if administered close to the moment of training or 4 h after it. The time windows and dose range for the pro-cognitive effects of the mimetics were similar to those observed in previous studies with sAPP peptide fragments.

  9. Intracellular sAPP retention in response to Abeta is mapped to cytoskeleton-associated structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Vieira, Sandra Isabel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Guiomar de Oliveira, Márcio A; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B

    2009-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and provides a close association between molecular events and pathology, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the work described here, Abeta did not induce amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, but APP processing/trafficking was markedly affected. In COS-7 cells, Abeta provokes retention of intracellular sAPPalpha (isAPPalpha). Intracellular holo-APP levels remain unchanged, and extracellular total sAPP increases, although extracellular sAPPalpha alone was not altered significantly. In primary neuronal cultures and PC12 cells, isAPP also increased, but this was mirrored by a decrease in extracellular total sAPP. The isAPP retention was particularly associated with the cytoskeletal fraction. The retention "per se" occurred in vesicular-like densities, negative for a C-terminal antibody and strongly positive for the 6E10 antibody, clearly showing abnormal intracellular accumulation of sAPPalpha in response to Abeta. Our data support a dynamic model for intracellular retention of sAPPalpha as an early response to Abeta exposure. Particularly noteworthy was the observation that removal of Abeta reversed the isAPP accumulation. Mechanistically, these findings disclose an attractive physiological response, revealing the capacity of cells to deal with adverse effects induced by Abeta.

  10. Achievements in ISICs/SAPP collaborations for electromagnetic modeling of accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Ge, Lixin; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Schussman, Greg; Ko, Kwok; Collaborators, ISICs/SAPP

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC provides the unique opportunity and the resources for the Electromagnetic System Simulations (ESS) component of High Energy Physics (HEP)'s Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project to work with researchers in the Integrated Software Infrastructure Centres (ISICs) and Scientific Application Pilot Program (SAPP) to overcome challenging barriers in computer science and applied mathematics in order to perform the large-scale simulations required to support the ongoing R&D efforts on accelerators across the Office of Science. This paper presents the resultant achievements made under SciDAC in important areas of computational science relevant to electromagnetic modelling of accelerators which include nonlinear eigensolvers, shape optimization, adaptive mesh refinement, parallel meshing, and visualization.

  11. Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengzhou; Basile, Anthony S; Barger, Steven W

    2007-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves neuronal loss and reduction of synaptic density in specific brain region. Some of the neuronal deaths are associated with excitotoxicity. We previously reported that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induced release of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) co-agonists, including glutamate and D-serine. The induction of D-serine production by Abeta involves transcriptional and/or translational regulation of serine racemase gene. Similarly, we report here that conditioned medium from microglia treated with secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) contained elevated levels of D-serine. In microglia, sAPP increased the steady-state dimeric protein level of serine racemase. Promoter-reporter and mRNA analyses suggested that serine racemase is transcriptionally induced by sAPP. These data extend the link between excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. D-serine may cooperate with glutamate to link neuroinflammation with excitotoxicity, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism applicable to neuronal death in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. [Spatial distribution prediction of surface soil Pb in a battery contaminated site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Guan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the reliability of risk estimation and to improve the accuracy of pollution scope determination in a battery contaminated site with the soil characteristic pollutant Pb, four spatial interpolation models, including Combination Prediction Model (OK(LG) + TIN), kriging model (OK(BC)), Inverse Distance Weighting model (IDW), and Spline model were employed to compare their effects on the spatial distribution and pollution assessment of soil Pb. The results showed that Pb concentration varied significantly and the data was severely skewed. The variation coefficient of the site was higher in the local region. OK(LG) + TIN was found to be more accurate than the other three models in predicting the actual pollution situations of the contaminated site. The prediction accuracy of other models was lower, due to the effect of the principle of different models and datum feature. The interpolation results of OK(BC), IDW and Spline could not reflect the detailed characteristics of seriously contaminated areas, and were not suitable for mapping and spatial distribution prediction of soil Pb in this site. This study gives great contributions and provides useful references for defining the remediation boundary and making remediation decision of contaminated sites.

  13. sAPP modulates iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells by stabilizing the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Park, Yun-Hee; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    A sequence within the E2 domain of soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) stimulates iron efflux. This activity has been attributed to a ferroxidase activity suggested for this motif. We demonstrate that the stimulation of efflux supported by this peptide and by sAPPα is due to their stabilization of the ferrous iron exporter, ferroportin (Fpn), in the plasma membrane of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). The peptide does not bind ferric iron explaining why it does not and thermodynamically cannot promote ferrous iron autoxidation. This peptide specifically pulls Fpn down from the plasma membrane of hBMVEC; based on these results, FTP, for ferroportin-targeting peptide, correctly identifies the function of this peptide. The data suggest that in stabilizing Fpn via the targeting due to the FTP sequence, sAPP will increase the flux of iron into the cerebral interstitium. This inference correlates with the observation of significant iron deposition in the amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. sAPP modulates iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells by stabilizing the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Park, Yun-Hee; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    A sequence within the E2 domain of soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) stimulates iron efflux. This activity has been attributed to a ferroxidase activity suggested for this motif. We demonstrate that the stimulation of efflux supported by this peptide and by sAPPα is due to their stabilization of the ferrous iron exporter, ferroportin (Fpn), in the plasma membrane of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). The peptide does not bind ferric iron explaining why it does not and thermodynamically cannot promote ferrous iron autoxidation. This peptide specifically pulls Fpn down from the plasma membrane of hBMVEC; based on these results, FTP, for ferroportin-targeting peptide, correctly identifies the function of this peptide. The data suggest that in stabilizing Fpn via the targeting due to the FTP sequence, sAPP will increase the flux of iron into the cerebral interstitium. This inference correlates with the observation of significant iron deposition in the amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24867889

  15. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Akintunde, Jacob K.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regula...

  16. Battery. Batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, U.; Thielen, C.

    1992-03-19

    The invention concerns a battery consisting of at least one battery trough, which surrounds individual cells and has a lower inlet opening to connect to a pressurized pipe for a gaseous cooling medium; in its inside it has a lower distribution device for the cooling medium connected to the inlet opening and connected guide ducts taken through the internal space, and at least one upper outlet opening for the cooling medium. To achieve a better cooling system, it is proposed that the battery trough should surround several trough modules, which consist of a module container, whose floor has floor openings flush with the flow ducts between the individual cells and that the distribution device should have vertical separating bars, to the top edge of which the floor of the module container concerned is sealed.

  17. Thermal and electrochemical studies of carbons for Li-ion batteries. 2. Correlation of active sites and irreversible capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.; Yebka, B.; Song, X.; Nazri, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Curtis, D.

    Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) involving air oxidation of fluid coke, coal-tar pitch delayed coke and needle coke suggested that active sites are present which can be correlated to the crystallographic parameters, La and Lc, and the d(002) spacing. This finding was extended to determine the relationship between active sites on carbon and their role in catalyzing electrolyte decomposition leading to irreversible capacity loss (ICL) in Li-ion batteries. Electrochemical data from this study with graphitizable carbons and from published literature were analyzed to determine the relationship between the physical properties of carbon and the ICL during the first charge/discharge cycle. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the active surface area, and not the total BET surface area, has an influence on the ICL of carbons for Li-ion batteries. This conclusion suggests that the carbon surface structure plays a significant role in catalyzing electrolyte decomposition.

  18. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A

    2013-12-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (pbattery leachate (MABL) was significantly (pbattery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

  19. Preparation, characterization and application of modified macroporous carbon with Cosbnd N site for long-life lithium-sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L. M.; He, F.; Cai, W. L.; Huang, J. X.; Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.

    2016-10-01

    A modified macroporous carbon (mMPC) containing Cosbnd Nx site is developed for sulfur retention to enhance cycleability of lithium-sulfur battery. Various nitrogen sites such as graphitic-N, pyrrolic-N, pyridinic-N, pyridinic-N oxide, and Cosbnd Nx are created during macropore formation. The sites without Co show limited polysulfide (PS) adsorption capability because nucleophilic N absorbs PS species via the weak interaction between N and Li in Nsbnd Lisbnd S bondage. The electrophilic Co(II) in Cosbnd Nx absorbs PS species via a strong interaction between S and Co in Ssbnd Co bond. The dual interaction of Cosbnd Nx site with Ssbnd Co and Nsbnd Lisbnd S bondages significantly enhances the PS adsorption. The resultant Li-S battery with the mMPC shows excellent cycleability, exhibiting a very low capacity degradation rate of 0.25 mAh g-1 per cycle after initial 20 cycles. A rate capacity as high as 660 mAh g-1 has been achieved after 300 cycles at 1 C charge-discharge rate.

  20. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  1. Shared Molecular Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Neurofilament-Dependent Transport of sAPP, FUS, TDP-43 and SOD1, with Endoplasmic Reticulum-Like Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neurons, leads to the disorganization of the neurofilament (NF) cytoskeleton and - ultimately - the deterioration of the neuromuscular junction. Some familial cases of ALS are caused by mutated FUS, TDP-43 or SOD1; it is thought that the mutated proteins inflict pathology either by gain or loss of function. The proper function of the neuromuscular junction requires sAPP, a soluble proteolytic fragment of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) - a transmembrane protein implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether sAPP, FUS, TDP-43 and SOD1 are mechanistically linked in a common pathway deregulated in both AD and ALS is not known. We show that sAPP, TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 are transported to neurite terminals by a mechanism that involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like tubules and requires peripherin NFs. The transport of these proteins, and the translocation of the ER protein reticulon 4 (Rtn4) into neurites was studied in CAD cells, a brainstem-derived neuronal cell line highly relevant to AD and ALS. We show that a significant fraction of sAPP is generated in the soma and accumulates in a juxtanuclear ER subdomain. In neurites, sAPP localizes to Rtn4-positive ER-like tubules that extend from the soma into the growth cone and colocalizes with peripherin NFs. Knocking down peripherin disrupts the NF network and diminishes the accumulation of sAPP, TDP-43, FUS, SOD1 and Rtn4 at terminals. We propose that the impediment of a common, ER-mediated mechanism of transport of sAPP, TDP-43, FUS and SOD1, caused by a disrupted NF network, could be part of the mechanisms leading to AD and ALS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Lead and nutrient allocation in vegetables grown in soil from a battery site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sousa Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The steady growth of the Brazilian automotive industry and the resulting development of the battery market, which represent a large proportion of the lead (Pb used in the country, have made battery recycling one of the main sources of Pb soil contamination in Brazil. Plants cultivated in Pb-contaminated soil can take up this metal, which can affect the plant’s nutritional metabolism. The Pb can also be transferred into the edible parts of plants, thereby imposing threats to human health. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of Pb in edible parts of vegetables grown on soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. This study also investigated the effects of Pb on nutrient concentrations in plants. Plant species biomass, Pb concentration, and concentrations of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in plant parts were measured. The results showed that Pb concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables grown in contaminated soil were above the threshold acceptable for human consumption. Among the vegetables evaluated, only lettuce dry matter production was reduced because of the high concentration of Pb in soil. The presence of Pb altered the concentration of micronutrients in the edible parts of kale, carrots, and okra, stimulating higher Mn and Cu concentrations in these plants when cultivated in contaminated soil.

  3. In vivo turnover of tau and APP metabolites in the brains of wild-type and Tg2576 mice: greater stability of sAPP in the beta-amyloid depositing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Corraliza, Jose; Mazzella, Matthew J; Berger, Jason D; Diaz, Nicole S; Choi, Jennifer H K; Levy, Efrat; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Planel, Emmanuel; Mathews, Paul M

    2009-09-22

    The metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau are central to the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined the in vivo turnover of APP, secreted APP (sAPP), Abeta and tau in the wild-type and Tg2576 mouse brain using cycloheximide to block protein synthesis. In spite of overexpression of APP in the Tg2576 mouse, APP is rapidly degraded, similar to the rapid turnover of the endogenous protein in the wild-type mouse. sAPP is cleared from the brain more slowly, particularly in the Tg2576 model where the half-life of both the endogenous murine and transgene-derived human sAPP is nearly doubled compared to wild-type mice. The important Abeta degrading enzymes neprilysin and IDE were found to be highly stable in the brain, and soluble Abeta40 and Abeta42 levels in both wild-type and Tg2576 mice rapidly declined following the depletion of APP. The cytoskeletal-associated protein tau was found to be highly stable in both wild-type and Tg2576 mice. Our findings unexpectedly show that of these various AD-relevant protein metabolites, sAPP turnover in the brain is the most different when comparing a wild-type mouse and a beta-amyloid depositing, APP overexpressing transgenic model. Given the neurotrophic roles attributed to sAPP, the enhanced stability of sAPP in the beta-amyloid depositing Tg2576 mice may represent a neuroprotective response.

  4. In vivo turnover of tau and APP metabolites in the brains of wild-type and Tg2576 mice: greater stability of sAPP in the beta-amyloid depositing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Morales-Corraliza

    Full Text Available The metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP and tau are central to the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have examined the in vivo turnover of APP, secreted APP (sAPP, Abeta and tau in the wild-type and Tg2576 mouse brain using cycloheximide to block protein synthesis. In spite of overexpression of APP in the Tg2576 mouse, APP is rapidly degraded, similar to the rapid turnover of the endogenous protein in the wild-type mouse. sAPP is cleared from the brain more slowly, particularly in the Tg2576 model where the half-life of both the endogenous murine and transgene-derived human sAPP is nearly doubled compared to wild-type mice. The important Abeta degrading enzymes neprilysin and IDE were found to be highly stable in the brain, and soluble Abeta40 and Abeta42 levels in both wild-type and Tg2576 mice rapidly declined following the depletion of APP. The cytoskeletal-associated protein tau was found to be highly stable in both wild-type and Tg2576 mice. Our findings unexpectedly show that of these various AD-relevant protein metabolites, sAPP turnover in the brain is the most different when comparing a wild-type mouse and a beta-amyloid depositing, APP overexpressing transgenic model. Given the neurotrophic roles attributed to sAPP, the enhanced stability of sAPP in the beta-amyloid depositing Tg2576 mice may represent a neuroprotective response.

  5. Anti-site mixing governs the electrochemical performances of olivine-type MgMnSiO4 cathodes for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Masese, Titus; Orikasa, Yuki; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Okado, Tetsuya; Kim, Jungeun; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-21

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are deemed as the next-generation secondary battery systems because of their high theoretical capacity and the terrestrial abundance of magnesium, which is used as the anode in these batteries. The cathode material is an important factor to improve the energy density of the magnesium batteries. In this study, we investigate olivine-type MgMnSiO4 cathode materials owing to their high theoretical capacity (>300 mA h g(-1)). The low-temperature synthesis of MgMnSiO4 suppresses anti-site mixing between Mg and Mn, which drastically improves the charge-discharge capacities of the magnesium battery cathode. Our results show that the suppression of the degree of anti-site mixing between Mg and Mn enhances the diffusion of Mg(2+) during magnesium (de)insertion, and therefore, it is a dominant factor that affects the electrochemical performance of olivine-type MgMnSiO4.

  6. Statin's excitoprotection is mediated by sAPP and the subsequent attenuation of calpain-induced truncation events, likely via rho-ROCK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Zhao, YongBo; Kwak, Young-Don; Yang, Zhangmin; Thompson, Robert; Luo, Zhijun; Xu, Huaxi; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2009-09-09

    The widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, were reported to reduce the incidence of stroke and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known on how statins exert these beneficial effects. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of statins in primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that chronic treatment of neurons with a low dosage of two CNS-permeable statins (lovastatin and simvastatin) selectively reduced NMDA-induced cell death but not the caspase-mediated apoptosis. The protective effects of stains were inhibited by mevalonate, a PI3K inhibitor, and tyrphostin AG538, suggesting roles for cholesterol and insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the neurotoxic response. We further demonstrate that statins block calcium-dependent calpain activation, resulting in complete suppression of protein truncation events on multiple calpain substrates that are involved in neuronal death including CDK5 coactivator p35 cleavage to p25, GSK3 and beta-catenin. This is followed by reduced and increased nuclear translocation of p25 and beta-catenin, respectively. Under excitotoxic conditions, the activities of CDK5 and beta-catenin are exclusively regulated by calpain-mediated cleavage while apoptosis modulates beta-catenin mainly through phosphorylation. Strikingly, our data demonstrate that the calpain-blocking effect of statins is largely mediated by stimulation of alpha-secretase cleavage of APP, resulting in increased secretion of its soluble form, sAPP. Finally, our data suggest that statin-regulated sAPP secretion occurs via activation of the PI3K pathway and inhibition of ROCK signaling. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into statin-mediated neuronal excitoprotection through both cholesterol-dependent and -independent mechanisms and links them to calpain-mediated neuronal death.

  7. (La1-xSrx)0.98MnO3 perovskite with A-site deficiencies toward oxygen reduction reaction in aluminum-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yejian; Miao, He; Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Qin; Li, Shihua; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    The strontium doped Mn-based perovskites have been proposed as one of the best oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (ORRCs) to substitute the noble metal. However, few studies have investigated the catalytic activities of LSM with the A-site deficiencies. Here, the (La1-xSrx)0.98MnO3 (LSM) perovskites with A-site deficiencies are prepared by a modified solid-liquid method. The structure, morphology, valence state and oxygen adsorption behaviors of these LSM samples are characterized, and their catalytic activities toward ORR are studied by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) and aluminum-air battery technologies. The results show that the appropriate doping with Sr and introducing A-site stoichiometry can effectively tailor the Mn valence and increase the oxygen adsorption capacity of LSM. Among all the LSM samples in this work, the (La0.7Sr0.3)0.98MnO3 perovskite composited with 50% carbon (50%LSM30) exhibits the best ORR catalytic activity due to the excellent oxygen adsorption capacity. Also, this catalyst has much higher durability than that of commercial 20%Pt/C. Moreover, the maximum power density of the aluminum-air battery using 50%LSM30 as the ORRC can reach 191.3 mW cm-2. Our work indicates that the LSM/C composite catalysts with A-site deficiencies can be used as a promising ORRC in the metal-air batteries.

  8. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  9. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  10. Batteries not included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiante, U.

    1999-01-01

    Serious questions have arisen about the environmental damage caused by cadmium from rechargeable nickel cadmium batteries in municipal solid waste. Sweden, Belgium, several American states and Canadian provinces either have enacted, or are contemplating legislation to address disposal of cadmium-containing batteries. In a preemptive strike, industry is now developing its own recycling initiatives through the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), established in the USA in 1996, and launched in Ontario in September 1997. The primary role of RBRC in Canada is to collect licensee funds from participating battery manufacturers and administer Ni-Cd battery recycling programs. RBRC is also tasked to establish consensus within provincial and federal regulatory bodies with regard to the issue of Ni-Cd battery waste management. Mounting concerns are expressed about conflicting statistics as to the volume of batteries collected for recycling, and more particularly, about the method of recycling that RBRC may be contemplating. The fear is that in the absence of a profitable incentive to battery distributors, or a profitable product that might result from the recycled material, combined with the pressure of the high cost of recycling Ni-Cd batteries, many of the recovered batteries could end up in landfills sites for hazardous wastes. This is especially likely since Ni-Cd batteries are not banned from landfill sites in Ontario. It is the view of this author that while RBRC`s `charge up to recycle` program makes all the right noises, it lacks a meaningful approach to actually increase diversion, measure results, or to prevent Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries from entering the solid waste stream.

  11. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002764.htm Button batteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Button batteries are tiny, round batteries. They are commonly ...

  12. Exposure to leachate from municipal battery recycling site: implication as key inhibitor of steroidogenic enzymes and risk factor of prostate damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, G

    2013-01-01

    Few or no studies have measured the effect of short- and long-term exposure to industrial leachate. Mature male Wistar strain albino rats (175-220 g) underwent sub-chronic exposure to leachate from the Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) via oral administration for a period of 60 days at different doses (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) per kilogram of body weight to evaluate the toxic effects of the leachate on male reproductive function using steroidogenic enzymes and biomarkers of prostate damage. Control groups were treated equally but were given distilled water instead of the leachate. After the treatment periods, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (precycling site induces sub-chronic testicular toxicity by inhibiting key steroidogenic enzymes and activating key markers linked with prostate damage/cancer in rats.

  13. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  14. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  15. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Gordin, Mikhail L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Xu, Terrence [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Chen, Shuru [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Yu, Zhaoxin [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Sohn, Hiesang [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Div.; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Div.; Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAhg-1after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca.6 mAhcm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mgcm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  16. Paintable battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary...

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Influence of Sc3+ doping in B-site on electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhang, Chunming; Lin, Ye; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Dannong

    2014-03-01

    Anode materials Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and Sc-doped Li4Ti4.95Sc0.05O12-δ (LTSO) for lithium-ion batteries are both successfully synthesized by the modified sol-gel method with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as a bi-components chelating agent. The samples are characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, EDX and SEM. The dopant Sc totally enters into the 16d sites of the spinel structure of LTO, and then further affects its morphology and property. The LTSO powder exhibits a 3D network morphology and its grain size is about 200 nm. The LTSO electrode material exhibits an excellent initial discharge capacities of 174 and 94 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 40 C, respectively. The reversible capacities of LTSO at different current rates remain nearly 100% after 50 cycles, which are compared with the capacities of the second cycles. Sc3+ doping can greatly improve the electronic conductivity of LTO which is demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements also reveal that LTSO has small polarization resistance due to the high electrical conductivity and Li-ion apparent diffusion rate.

  19. Battery energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  20. Paintable battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  1. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  2. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  3. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  4. Triphenylamine-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Cathode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Coexistence of Redox Active Sites, High Working Voltage, and High Rate Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe; Yi, Xiaohui; Liu, Zixuan; Shang, Jie; Wang, Deyu

    2016-06-15

    Through rational organization of two redox active building block, a triphenylamine-based metal-organic framework (MOF) material, Cu-TCA (H3TCA = tricarboxytriphenyl amine), was synthesized and applied as a cathode active material for the first time in lithium batteries. Cu-TCA exhibited redox activity both in the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligand radicals (N/N(+)) with separated voltage plateaus and a high working potential vs Li/Li(+) up to 4.3 V, comparing with the current commercial LiCoO2 cathode materials. The electrochemical behaviors of this MOF electrode material at different states of charge were carefully studied by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Long cycling stability of this MOF was achieved with an average Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% for 200 cycles at a 2 C rate. Discussing the electrochemical performances on the basis of capacity contributions from the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligands (N/N(+)) proposes an alternative mechanism of capacity loss for the MOF materials used in lithium batteries. This improved understanding will shed light on the designing principle of MOF-based cathode materials for their practical application in battery sciences.

  5. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  6. Digital Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  9. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  10. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  11. Battery chargers; Chargeurs de batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peutot, Ch. [Lycee Leonard-de-Vinci de Melun, 77 (France)

    2001-05-01

    Two categories of battery chargers exist: external ones and internal ones. In the first category two types are developing today: direct contact chargers for fast and normal charging, and contact-less chargers. The second category is mainly devoted to vehicle applications (automobiles, trains etc..) and must fulfill strict technical-economical criteria (cost, weight, size, vibrations and shocks resistance, service life, power etc..). This article presents todays advance in chargers technology: 1 - general principles (different battery types, charging profiles, multiple chargers); 2 - chargers for low-cost applications (direct chargers, constant voltage chargers, voltage regulated chargers, integrated chargers, applications); 3 - advanced sinusoidal absorption chargers (general scheme, safety constraints, energy conversion structures ('buck', 'boost', 'cuck', 'flyback' switching power supplies), regulation control); 4 - concrete cases: single output and multi-output chargers. (J.S.)

  12. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  13. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution.

  14. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  15. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites, Hazardous Waste Material Storage Sites at Maryland Transit Administrations Washington Boulevard Facility e.g. Crusher, Universal Waste Battery, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information...

  16. Solar battery energizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. E.

    1985-09-03

    A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

  17. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  18. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  19. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  20. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  1. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when c

  2. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  4. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  5. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  6. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  7. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  8. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  9. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  10. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  11. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  12. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  13. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  14. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. 某铅酸蓄电池污染场地表层土壤重金属 Pb 空间分布预测研究%Spatial Distribution Prediction of Surface Soil Pb in a Battery Contaminated Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庚; 牛俊杰; 张朝; 赵鑫; 郭观林

    2014-01-01

    为准确界定某典型蓄电池企业污染场地土壤中特征性污染物 Pb 的空间分布范围,分析和比较了数据拆分后的分区预测模型(OKLG + TIN)、数据正态变换后克里格模型(OKBC )、反距离加权模型(IDW)以及样条函数模型(Spline)对土壤 Pb 污染空间分布预测和污染评价的影响。结果表明,原始数据集具有高偏倚特征,局部区域存在较大的空间变异性;分区预测模型取得了最高的预测精度,预测的污染物空间分布比较符合场地实际污染状况,其它3种模型受适用原理及数据特征影响,预测精度较低,预测结果不能很好反映高污染区域的细部变化特征,不适合该场地 Pb 的空间分布预测与制图。研究结果对于此类型工业污染场地后续的修复范围确定和修复治理决策制定提供了参考。%In order to enhance the reliability of risk estimation and to improve the accuracy of pollution scope determination in a battery contaminated site with the soil characteristic pollutant Pb, four spatial interpolation models, including Combination Prediction Model (OKLG + TIN), kriging model(OKBC ), Inverse Distance Weighting model (IDW), and Spline model were employed to compare their effects on the spatial distribution and pollution assessment of soil Pb. The results showed that Pb concentration varied significantly and the data was severely skewed. The variation coefficient of the site was higher in the local region. OKLG + TIN was found to be more accurate than the other three models in predicting the actual pollution situations of the contaminated site. The prediction accuracy of other models was lower, due to the effect of the principle of different models and datum feature. The interpolation results of OKBC , IDW and Spline could not reflect the detailed characteristics of seriously contaminated areas, and were not suitable for mapping and spatial distribution prediction of soil Pb in this site

  16. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  19. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  20. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  1. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  2. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  3. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  4. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  5. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  6. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  7. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  8. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  9. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  10. Silicon Betavoltaic Batteries Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Murashev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For low-power miniature energy creation sources the particular interest is nickel Ni63. This paper discusses the main types of betavoltaic battery structures with the prospects for industrial application using - isotope of nickel Ni63. It is shown that the prospects for improving the effective efficiency are planar multijunction betavoltaic batteries.

  11. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  12. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  13. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental–impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation. PMID:28348209

  14. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  15. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, G.E. [Energizer, Westlake, OH (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  17. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  18. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  19. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  20. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  1. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  2. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  3. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  4. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries.

  5. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  6. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  8. Power supply system for traction batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkuhn, E. (DETA Akkumulatorenwerk G.m.b.H., Bad Lauterberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1977-12-01

    Battery life is usually shortest in combined systems. The author discusses the causes of battery wear; if the battery is serviced correctly, it is mainly the charging process which is responsible. This process is described and explained. Battery chargers are mentioned where charging voltage and charging current are best adapted to the battery requirements. These battery chargers are also switched off automatically.

  9. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  10. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  11. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  12. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  13. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  14. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  15. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  16. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  17. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  18. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  19. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  20. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  1. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  2. A Robust Hybrid Zn-Battery with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Quan, Junye; Loh, Adeline; Chai, Jianwei; Chen, Ye; Tan, Chaoliang; Ge, Xiaoming; Hor, T S Andy; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Hua; Zong, Yun

    2017-01-11

    Advanced batteries with long cycle life and capable of harnessing more energies from multiple electrochemical reactions are both fundamentally interesting and practically attractive. Herein, we report a robust hybrid zinc-battery that makes use of transition-metal-based redox reaction (M-O-OH → M-O, M = Ni and Co) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to deliver more electrochemical energies of comparably higher voltage with much longer cycle life. The hybrid battery was constructed using an integrated electrode of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays grown on carbon-coated nickel foam, coupled with a zinc plate anode in alkaline electrolyte. Benefitted from the M-O/M-O-OH redox reactions and rich ORR active sites in NiCo2O4, the battery has concurrently exhibited high working voltage (by M-O-OH → M-O) and high energy density (by ORR). The good oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of the electrode and the reversible M-O ↔ M-O-OH reactions also enabled smooth recharging of the batteries, leading to excellent cycling stabilities. Impressively, the hybrid batteries maintained highly stable charge-discharge voltage profile under various testing conditions, for example, almost no change was observed over 5000 cycles at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2) after some initial stabilization. With merits of higher working voltage, high energy density, and ultralong cycle life, such hybrid batteries promise high potential for practical applications.

  3. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  4. Calculation of buffer batteries with voltage-adding storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, R.V.; Koloskov, A.A.; Ratner, G.B.; Sharov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is proposed for buffer storage batteries of the NKG type with voltage-adding storage batteries. These batteries (B) guarantee comparatively narrow range of change in the voltage for load with discharge of the storage batteries of the main B to the assigned minimum voltage. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the number of voltage-adding B and the number of storage batteries in each of them. The initial data for calculation are minimum and maximum values of voltage for load and storage batteries of the main B. Expressions have been obtained for determining the depth of the discharge and the final expression for determining the depth of the discharge and the final discharge voltage of the storage batteries of each voltage-adding B. The necessary formulas are presented and the order for making the calculation is given.

  5. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system in

  6. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  7. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  8. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  9. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  10. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  11. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  12. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  13. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  14. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  15. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  16. A new cathode material for super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Weiyi; Sun, He; Lin, Zheshuai; Hu, Liwen; Tu, Jiguo; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2013-11-29

    Due to their small footprint and flexible siting, rechargeable batteries are attractive for energy storage systems. A super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation is proposed in this work with VO2 as cathode and high-purity Al foil as anode. First-principles calculations are also employed to theoretically investigate the crystal structure change and the insertion-extraction mechanism of Al ions in the super-valent battery. Long cycle life, low cost and good capacity are achieved in this battery system. At the current density of 50 mAg(-1), the discharge capacity remains 116 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles. Comparing to monovalent Li-ion battery, the super-valent battery has the potential to deliver more charges and gain higher specific capacity.

  17. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  18. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  19. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  20. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  1. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Batteries and Battery-Powered Devices; and Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations... safe transportation of batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors... clarifications addressing the safe transportation of batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule...

  2. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  3. The nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  4. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  5. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  6. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  7. Accumulator battery. Akkumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poesch, G.; Hoogestraat, G.

    1987-04-02

    According to the invention, the pore volume of the active material is increased not by having more or bigger voids but by inserting open solid particles taking up the battery acid. By inserting mechanically stable solid particles embedding into the active material or meshing with it, mechanically stable electrodes with a large pore volume are obtained. The stability of the active material, in particular of the pasty battery plate material, is least impaired if the particles have a size of 0.5 to 40 ..mu..m and if the powdered lead used for producing the paste is adapted to the shape and amount of the particles with regard to its grain size distribution. The particles may be hollow microspheres or microcapsules with acid-permeable, mechanically resistant walls.

  8. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  9. Electric batteries and the environment. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1987-01-01

    The book deals with the production, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. There are numerous electro-chemical systems, but only few proved to be really good in practice. Most batteries contain lead, cadmium or mercury and must therefore be eliminated in a way doing no harm to the environment. Large quantities of the above named heavy metals are today already being recovered by means of appropriate procedures. The reduction of these heavy metals in batteries is also described to be a contribution to the protection of the environment. (orig.) With 67 figs.

  10. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  11. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-20

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a ..beta..-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case.

  12. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  13. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  14. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  15. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  16. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  17. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  18. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  19. A VRLA battery simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, P.E.; Anbuky, A.H. [Invensys Energy Systems NZ Limited, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2004-05-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet. (author)

  20. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  1. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  2. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  3. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  4. Advanced Battery Diagnosis for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Chudamani

    2008-01-01

    Summary Literatures on battery technologies and diagnosis of its parameters were studied. The innovative battery technologies from basic knowledge to world standard testing procedures were analysed and discussed in the report. The established battery test station and flowchart was followed during the battery test preparation and testing. In order to understand and verify the battery performance, the well established test procedures developed by USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consorti...

  5. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  6. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  7. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a hi

  8. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  9. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  10. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  11. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  12. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  13. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  14. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  15. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  16. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  17. Research on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  18. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  19. Magnesium-antimony liquid metal battery for stationary energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Sirk, Aislinn H C; Sadoway, Donald R

    2012-02-01

    Batteries are an attractive option for grid-scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 °C) magnesium-antimony (Mg||Sb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCl(2)-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  20. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  1. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... quantity, size, watt hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium...

  2. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-ti

  3. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  4. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  5. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    CERN Document Server

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  6. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Lewis Research Center battery overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; the Space Station Freedom (SSF) photovoltaic power module division; Ni/H2 battery and cell design; individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell testing SSF support; the LeRC Electrochemical Technology Branch; improved design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells; advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells; a lightweight nickel-hydrogen cell; bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development and technology; aerospace nickel-metal hydride cells; the NASA Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology Flight Experiment; and the lithium-carbon dioxide battery thermodynamic model.

  8. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  9. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  10. Electro-chemical batteries for guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Jaggi

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro-chemical batteries owing to their simplicity and ease of stowage form one of the sources of electrical power inside a missile. However, all batteries are not suited for this application. This article describes the special features required of a missile borne battery pack and discusses the characteristics of various types of batteries available today in the world. Conclusions have been drawn as to the most suitable types of batteries for missile applications.

  11. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  12. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  13. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  14. Composite materials for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Ren, Jianguo

    2017-03-14

    A process for producing nanocomposite materials for use in batteries includes electroactive materials are incorporated within a nanosheet host material. The process may include treatment at high temperatures and doping to obtain desirable properties.

  15. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  16. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space application...

  17. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  18. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  19. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  20. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  1. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  2. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  3. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  4. Electric batteries and the environment. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1990-01-01

    The book deals with the prodution, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. Subjects: 1. Toxicological aspects of battery substances; 2. legal foundations of environmental protection; 3. off-air purification in battery production; 4. dust monitoring; 5. waste water of the battery industry; 6. safety aspects of battery operation; 7. recycling of battery materials; 8. disposal of used primary batteries. (orig./MM) With 67 figs.

  5. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  6. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  7. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  8. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  9. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  10. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  11. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi

    2009-06-16

    In a society that increasingly relies on mobile electronics, demand is rapidly growing for both primary and rechargeable batteries that power devices from cell phones to vehicles. Existing batteries utilize lightweight active materials that use electrochemical reactions of ions such as H(+), OH(-) and Li(+)/Mg(2+) to facilitate energy storage and conversion. Ideal batteries should be inexpensive, have high energy density, and be made from environmentally friendly materials; batteries based on bulk active materials do not meet these requirements. Because of slow electrode process kinetics and low-rate ionic diffusion/migration, most conventional batteries demonstrate huge gaps between their theoretical and practical performance. Therefore, efforts are underway to improve existing battery technologies and develop new electrode reactions for the next generation of electrochemical devices. Advances in electrochemistry, surface science, and materials chemistry are leading to the use of nanomaterials for efficient energy storage and conversion. Nanostructures offer advantages over comparable bulk materials in improving battery performance. This Account summarizes our progress in battery development using a combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials. We highlight the benefits of nanostructured active materials for primary zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn), lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-Mn), and metal (Mg, Al, Zn)-air batteries, as well as rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Through selected examples, we illustrate the effect of structure, shape, and size on the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. Because of their numerous active sites and facile electronic/ionic transfer and diffusion, nanostructures can improve battery efficiency. In particular, we demonstrate the properties of nanostructured active materials including Mg, Al, Si, Zn, MnO(2), CuV(2)O(6), LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O(2), LiFePO(4), Fe(2)O(3

  12. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  13. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  14. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  15. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Y.H. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: wen_yuehua@126.com; Cheng, J. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xun, Y. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, P.H. [Full Cell R and D Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Yang, Y.S. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-08-20

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O{sub 2}), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes.

  16. Understanding electrochemical potentials of cathode materials in rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, sustainable energy as well as efficient and economical energy conversion and storage technologies has become important work in light of the rising environmental issues and dependence on portable and uninterrupted power sources. Increasingly more researchers are focusing on harvesting and converting solar energy, mechanical vibration, waste heat, and wind to electricity. Electrical energy storage technologies play a significant role in the demand for green and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries, such as Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries, and Mg-ion batteries, reversibly convert between electrical and chemical energy via redox reactions, thus storing the energy as chemical potential in their electrodes. The energy density of a rechargeable battery is determined collectively by the specific capacity of electrodes and the working voltage of the cell, which is the differential potential between the cathode and the anode. Over the past decades, a significant number of studies have focused on enhancing this specific capacity; however, studies to understand and manipulate the electrochemical potential of the electrode materials are limited. In this review, the material characteristics that determine and influence the electrochemical potentials of electrodes are discussed. In particular, the cathode materials that convert electricity and chemical potential through electrochemical intercalation reactions are investigated. In addition, we summarize the selection criteria for elements or compounds and the effect of the local atomic environment on the discharge potential, including the effects of site energy, defects, crystallinity, and microstructure, using LiMn2O4, V2O5, Mo6S8, LiFePO4, and LiCoO2 as model samples for discussion.

  17. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  18. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  19. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  20. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  1. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver;

    of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses......This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...

  2. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  4. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery...

  5. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that of a similar size lead-acid battery under similar charging condition. (d) Batteries must be... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery...

  6. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  7. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  8. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  9. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  10. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  11. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  12. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  13. Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162882.html Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids If swallowed, serious damage ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Tiny button batteries that light up flameless "tea candles" pose a ...

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  15. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  16. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  17. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  18. Next Generation of Launcher & Space Vehicles Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroye, J. F.; Brochard, P.; Grassien, J.-Y.; Masgrangeas, D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents several examples of Saft lithium batteries in use onboard launchers & space vehicles: ATV primary lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2) batteries and Rosetta primary lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries as well as the VEGA rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) avionics & thrust vector control (TVC) batteries.It gives an overview of possible chemistries and tradeoff to address these needs.

  19. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Aishwarya Parasuraman; Tuti Mariana Lim; Suminto Winardi; Helen Prifti

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  20. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin;

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  1. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  2. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  3. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  5. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  6. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  7. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  8. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  9. USED BATTERIES - REMINDER NOTE FROM THE TIS COMMISSION

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid, which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely.The disposal of used batteries in the Host State could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometres from CERN, will dispose of your batteries free of charge.So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environment from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured.It doesn't take much effort to do this in the co...

  10. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  11. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  12. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  13. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  14. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery terminals. (c) Each metallic fuel line and fuel system component within 12 inches and above the... battery must not be directly above or below a fuel tank, fuel filter, or fitting in a fuel line. (e) A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries. 183.420 Section...

  15. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  16. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  17. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  18. History of solid state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Boone B.; Munshi, M. Z.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, batteries have combined liquid electrolytes with solid electrodes because solid electrolytes were too resistive and could not accommodate the volumetric changes associated with the cell reactions. Solid materials utilized as battery electrolytes include: (1) simple ionic salts - silver iodide; (2) double salt compounds - rubidic silver iodide; (3) dispersed phase solid electrolytes - LiI (AL2)3); (4) ceramic compounds - Sodium - Beta - Al2)3; (5) in-situ formed electrolytes - Lithium iodide; (6) glasses - LiI-Li2S-P2S5; (7) polymer electrolytes - (PEO)8LiClO4). Commercialization has been limited because of performance and cost factors.

  19. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  20. Modeling battery cells under discharge using kinetic and stochastic battery models

    OpenAIRE

    Kaj, Ingemar; Konane, Victorien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review several approaches to mathematical modeling of simple battery cells and develop these ideas further with emphasis on charge recovery and the response behavior of batteries to given external load. We focus on models which use few parameters and basic battery data, rather than detailed reaction and material characteristics of a specific battery cell chemistry, starting with the coupled ODE linear dynamics of the kinetic battery model. We show that a related system of PDE...

  1. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  2. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  3. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  4. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Budhi Anto; Edy Hamdani; Rizki Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  5. Paper-based batteries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu H; Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2014-04-15

    There is an extensively growing interest in using paper or paper-like substrates for batteries and other energy storage devices. Due to their intrinsic characteristics, paper (or paper-like) batteries show outstanding performance while retaining low cost, multifunctionality, versatility, flexibility and disposability. In this overview, we review recent achievements in paper (or paper-like) batteries as well as their applications. Various types of paper power devices are discussed including electrochemical batteries, biofuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and nanogenerators. Further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also discussed.

  6. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  7. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  8. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents......This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...

  9. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  10. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  11. Zinc-bromine battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  12. The General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Lucille

    The development and use of the GATB in the United States is presented by a Canadian author. The history of establishing the norms for the GATB is also discussed. The use of the GATB as a counseling and selection tool is outlined while another section of the article points out the advantages and disadvantages of the test battery. There are also…

  13. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  14. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  15. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  16. Redox flow batteries: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Adam Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Mench, Matthew M [ORNL; Meyers, Jeremy [University of Texas, Austin; Ross, Philip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gostick, Jeffrey T. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Liu, Qinghua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of RFBs with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  17. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  18. Button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michael J; Ricca, Robert L; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2017-08-30

    As the demand for small electronics continues to grow so does the risk of oesophageal ingestion of button batteries. These small but powerful sources of energy are ubiquitous in every household and when swallowed, especially in small children, have been shown to create significant injury in a short amount of time leading to long-term morbidity and possible death. This review highlights the latest findings regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of ingested button batteries. Updated epidemiology from the National Capital Poison Center, new bench research looking at injury patterns and possible mitigation strategies, updated ideas on management algorithms including the use of a trauma protocol, close-look second endoscopy and management of button batteries in the lower gastrointestinal tract are reviewed in this paper. Despite advances in the understanding of injury mechanics and innovations leading to early diagnosis and improved management of button battery ingestion, parental and provider education remain the most important tools to keep children well tolerated from the sequelae of these potentially fatal events. Collaboration between healthcare experts, public health and industry is essential to find a safe answer to this ongoing threat.

  19. A nanoview of battery operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen Brian

    2016-01-01

    The redox-active materials in lithium-ion batteries have relatively poor electronic and ionic conduction and may experience stress from charge-discharge volume changes, so their formulation into structures with nanosized features is highly desirable. On page 566 of this issue, Lim et al. (1...

  20. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  1. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  2. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  3. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  4. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  5. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  6. Ferrocene-Promoted Long-Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yingying; Liu, Wen; Yang, Ke R; Jiang, Jianbing; Fan, Qi; Weng, Zhe; Zhong, Yiren; Wu, Zishan; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S; Zhou, Henghui; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-11-14

    Confining lithium polysulfide intermediates is one of the most effective ways to alleviate the capacity fade of sulfur-cathode materials in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. To develop long-cycle Li-S batteries, there is an urgent need for material structures with effective polysulfide binding capability and well-defined surface sites; thereby improving cycling stability and allowing study of molecular-level interactions. This challenge was addressed by introducing an organometallic molecular compound, ferrocene, as a new polysulfide-confining agent. With ferrocene molecules covalently anchored on graphene oxide, sulfur electrode materials with capacity decay as low as 0.014 % per cycle were realized, among the best of cycling stabilities reported to date. With combined spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations, it was determined that effective polysulfide binding originates from favorable cation-π interactions between Li(+) of lithium polysulfides and the negatively charged cyclopentadienyl ligands of ferrocene.

  7. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  8. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  9. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  10. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  11. Porous membranes in secondary battery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Yuan, Zhizhang; Zhao, Yuyue; Zhang, Hongzhang; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-04-18

    Secondary batteries have received huge attention due to their attractive features in applications of large-scale energy storage and portable electronic devices, as well as electrical vehicles. In a secondary battery, a membrane plays the role of separating the anode and cathode to prevent the occurrence of a short circuit, while allowing the transport of charge carriers to achieve a complete circuit. The properties of a membrane will largely determine the performance of a battery. In this article, we review the research and development progress of porous membranes in secondary battery technologies, such as lithium-based batteries together with flow batteries. The preparation methods as well as the required properties of porous membranes in different secondary battery technologies will be elucidated thoroughly and deeply. Most importantly, this review will mainly focus on the optimization and modification of porous membranes in different secondary battery systems. And various modifications on commercial porous membranes along with novel membrane materials are widely discussed and summarized. This review will help to optimize the membrane material for different secondary batteries, and favor the understanding of the preparation-structure-performance relationship of porous membranes in different secondary batteries. Therefore, this review will provide an extensive, comprehensive and professional reference to design and construct high-performance porous membranes.

  12. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the size and type of battery installation that it serves. Chargers incorporating grounded... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers...

  14. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  15. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  16. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  17. Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

    1999-02-03

    The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

  18. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today......’s hydride batteries, but a much poorer stability towards repeated charge/discharge cycling. The aim was to see if the cycleability of CaNi5 could be enhanced enough by modifications to make the compound a suitable electrode material. An alloying method based on mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill...... by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated...

  19. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  20. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  1. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  2. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries. Three parallel strategies will be followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC materials will allow the performance, stability and cyclability of state of the art cells to be improved. (ii) Understanding ageing...... of degradation processes. (iii) Reduction of battery cost; a way to reduce costs, increase battery residual value and improve sustainability is to consider second life uses of batteries used in EV. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary...

  3. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  4. Battery powered BION FES network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J H; Mobley, J P; Wolfe, J; Regev, E; Perron, C Y; Ananth, R; Matei, E; Glukhovsky, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    The Alfred Mann Foundation is completing development of a coordinated network of BION microstimulator/sensor (hereinafter implant) that has broad stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. The network consists of a master control unit (MCU) in communication with a group of BION implants. Each implant is powered by a custom lithium-ion rechargeable 10 mW-hr battery. The charging, discharging, safety, stimulating, sensing, and communication circuits are designed to be highly efficient to minimize energy use and maximize battery life and time between charges. The stimulator can be programmed to deliver pulses in any value in the following range: 5 microA to 20 mA in 3.3% constant current steps, 7 micros to 2000 micros in 7 micros pulse width steps, and 1 to 4000 Hz in frequency. The preamp voltage sensor covers the range 10 microV to 1.0 V with bandpass filtering and several forms of data analysis. The implant also contains sensors that can read out pressure, temperature, DC magnetic field, and distance (via a low frequency magnetic field) up to 20 cm between any two BION implants. The MCU contains a microprocessor, user interface, two-way communication system, and a rechargeable battery. The MCU can command and interrogate in excess of 800 BlON implants every 10 ms, i.e., 100 times a second.

  5. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  6. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  7. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  8. The battery that will save the electric powered automobile; La batterie qui sauvera la voiture electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-05-15

    Twelve years have been necessary to conceive a battery with polymer metal lithium ( anode in metal lithium, electrolyte in polymer). This new battery will be more compact, its weight will be 150 kilograms instead of 400 kg for cadmium nickel batteries and 650 kg for lead batteries. Its autonomy will be 250 to 300 kilometers. Its price of utilization will be one euro for 100 kilometers. (N.C.)

  9. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

  10. Battery Simulation and Investigation Utilizing Matlab Simulink

    OpenAIRE

    Klussmann, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. As a self-sufficient power system, a satellite has to be equipped with an electrical energy storage system enabled with a rechargeable battery. To improve the quality of the energy supply at space satellite systems the new high performance battery cell technology, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), is presented and investigated in this work. Evaluation factors of battery cells for an assessment of the technology are explained ...

  11. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  12. Improved Thermal-Switch Disks Protect Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Bragg, Bobby

    1990-01-01

    Improved thermal-switch disks help protect electrical batteries against high currents like those due to short circuits or high demands for power in circuits supplied by batteries. Protects batteries against excessive temperatures. Centered by insulating fiberglass washer. Contains conductive polymer that undergoes abrupt increase in electrical resistance when excessive current raises its temperature above specific point. After cooling, polymer reverts to low resistance. Disks reusable.

  13. Selective Collection of Used Portable Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    POPIŢA Gabriela-Emilia; Antoanela POPOVICI; Raluca HAŢEGAN

    2010-01-01

    One of the main sources of pollution with heavy metals in municipal landfills, is the used portable batteries. Ananalysis of soil pollution with heavy metals from the waste landfills show that the predominantly heavy metals are: lead,zinc, cadmium, manganese and nickel.The selective collection of portable batteries has been required by EU legislation (2006) transposed in Romanianlegislation (2008), and is important because of heavy metals content of portable batteries. Under the law, the mini...

  14. Modeling lithium/hybrid-cathode batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomadam, Parthasarathy M.; Merritt, Don R.; Scott, Erik R.; Schmidt, Craig L.; Skarstad, Paul M. [Medtronic Energy and Component Center, 6700 Shingle Creek Pkwy, Brooklyn Center, MN 55430 (United States); Weidner, John W. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    This document describes a first-principles-based mathematical model developed to predict the voltage-capacity behavior of batteries having hybrid cathodes comprising a mixture of carbon monofluoride (CF{sub x}) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO). These batteries typically operate at moderate rates of discharge, lasting several years. The model presented here is an accurate tool for design optimization and performance prediction of batteries under current drains that encompass both the application rate and accelerated testing. (author)

  15. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  16. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  17. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  18. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    SYSTEM DESIGN USING LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES AND ONE CHARGER PER BATTERY by Frank E. Filler December 2009 Thesis Advisor: Alexander L. Julian...Author: Frank E. Filler Approved by: Alexander L. Julian Thesis Advisor Roberto Crisiti Second Reader Jeffrey B. Knorr Chairman...Battery Management System BNC Bayonet Neill -Concelman CC Constant Current CCCV Constant Current Constant Voltage CV Constant Voltage D

  19. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  20. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  1. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  3. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  4. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  6. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  7. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  8. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  9. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  10. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2012-12-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  11. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  12. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  13. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  14. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  15. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  16. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  17. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  18. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  19. Behavior data of battery and battery pack SOC estimation under different working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-12-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of battery behavior. The constant current condition and the dynamic stress test (DST) condition were carried out to analyze the battery discharging and charging features. The datasets were achieved at room temperature, in April, 2016. The shared data contributes to clarify the battery pack state-of-charge (SOC) and the battery inconsistency, which is also shown in the article of "An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model" (X. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. Yang, et al., 2016) [1].

  20. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  1. Sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-15

    Overcharge protection, and especially the chargeability of a sealed Ni/Cd battery with high currents is improved by rolling a carbon-containing powdered material into the surface of the negative electrode, which material catalyzes the reduction of oxygen. Wetting of the electrode with a Tylose dispersion prior to application of the powder (by powdering, vibration or in an agitator) improves the adhesion of the powder. The cadmium electrode thus prepared combines in itself the functions of a negative principal electrode and of an auxiliary oxygen electrode.

  2. Confession of a Magnesium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Claudiu B; Gregory, Thomas; Oliver, Allen G; Muldoon, John

    2015-09-17

    Magnesium is an ideal metal anode that has nearly double the volumetric capacity of lithium metal with a very negative reduction potential of -2.37 vs SHE. A significant advantage of magnesium is the apparent lack of dendrite formation during charging, which overcomes major safety and performance challenges encountered with using lithium metal anodes. Here, we highlight major recent advances in nonaqueous Mg electrochemistry, notably the development of electrolytes and cathodes, and discuss some of the challenges that must be overcome to realize a practical magnesium battery.

  3. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-10-25

    A secondary battery including a cathode having a primary cathode active material and an alkaline source material selected from the group consisting of Li.sub.2O, Li.sub.2O.sub.2, Li.sub.2S, LiF, LiCl, Li.sub.2Br, Na.sub.2O, Na.sub.2O.sub.2, Na.sub.2S, NaF, NaCl, and a mixture of any two or more thereof; an anode having an anode active material; an electrolyte; and a separator.

  4. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  5. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  6. Battery Cell Thermal Runaway Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We currently have several methods for determining total energy output of an 18650 lithium ion cell. We do not, however, have a good method for determining the fraction of energy that dissipates via conduction through the cell can vs. the energy that is released in the form of ejecta. Knowledge of this fraction informs the design of our models, battery packs, and storage devices; (a) No longer need to assume cell stays together in modeling (b) Increase efficiency of TR mitigation (c) Shave off excess protection.

  7. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    developed by the battery industry include thionyl chloride , sulfuryl chloride , sulfur dioxide, carbon monofluoride, and manganese dioxide. These cells have......Frederick W. Williams Senior Scientific Staff Office Chemistry Division Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation Gerard G. Back Hughes Associates

  8. 49 CFR 393.30 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.30 Battery installation... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 393.30 Section 393.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  9. Bunsen's Batteries and the Electric Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the observation of the production of electric sparks and the early history of battery design. Detail is provided about laboratory experiments performed by Robert Bunsen, who spent a great deal of time developing an efficient and comparatively cheap battery. (36 references) (DDR)

  10. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  11. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  12. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  13. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  14. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  15. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  16. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Martin; Brodd, Ralph J

    2004-10-01

    Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

  17. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  18. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  19. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  20. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  1. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  2. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  3. Coordinated discharge of a collection of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, Shivakumar; Gimdogmus, Omer; Hartley, Tom T.; Veillette, Robert J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3904 (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Collections of batteries are used to supply energy to a variety of applications. By utilizing the energy in such a collection efficiently, we can improve the lifetime over which energy can be supplied to the application. We say that the discharge of a collection of batteries is coordinated when, at the end of discharge, the difference in the remaining capacity of individual batteries is small. This paper presents a decision-maker based on a goal-seeking formulation that coordinates the discharge of a collection of batteries. This formulation allows us to use a simple battery model and simple decision-making algorithms. We present results from MATLAB simulations that demonstrate the performance of the decision-maker when energy is drawn out of the collection in three different discharge scenarios. The new decision-maker consistently improves the discharge efficiency obtained using scheduling methods. Our results show that when the discharge is coordinated, the lifetime of the collection is extended. (author)

  4. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  5. Na-Zn liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junli; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new kind of membrane free liquid metal battery was developed. The battery employs liquid sodium and zinc as electrodes both in liquid state, and NaCl-CaCl2 molten salts as electrolyte. The discharge flat voltage is in the range of about 1.4 V-1.8 V, and the cycle efficiency achieved is about 90% at low discharge current densities (below 40 mA cm-2). Moreover, this battery can also be charged and discharged at high current density with good performance. The discharge flat voltage is above 1.1 V when it is discharged at 100 mA cm-2, while it is about 0.8 V with 100% cycle efficiency when it is discharged at 200 mA cm-2. Compared to other reported liquid metal battery, this battery has lower cost, which suggests broad application prospect in energy storage systems for power grid.

  6. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mushra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  7. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  8. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  9. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  10. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  11. Aqueous batteries based on mixed monovalence metal ions: a new battery family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-08-01

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, new concepts are urgently needed to build batteries with high energy density, low cost, and good safety. Here, we demonstrate two new aqueous batteries based on two monovalence metal ions (Li(+) /K(+) and Na(+) /K(+) ) as charge-transfer ions, Ni1 Zn1 HCF/TiP2 O7 and Ni1 Zn1 HCF/NaTi2 (PO4 )3 . These new batteries are unlike the conventional "rocking-chair" aqueous metal-ion batteries based on the migration of one type of shuttle ion between cathode and anode. They can deliver specific energy of 46 Wh kg(-1) and 53 Wh kg(-1) based on the total mass of active materials; this is superior to current aqueous battery systems based on sodium-ion and/or potassium-ion technologies. These two new batteries together with the previously developed Li(+) /Na(+) mixed-ion battery not only constitute a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broaden our horizons for battery research.

  12. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Silent Power, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  13. Battery electrolytes. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    Many types of solid, liquid and gaseous battery electrolytes are described and analyzed in the cited abstracts. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also delineated. Included are 196 citations.

  14. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  15. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... battery size and chemistry. The high energy density (i.e., high energy to weight ratio) of lithium... batteries are often used in medical devices, computer memory and as replaceable batteries (AA and AAA size... numbers, types, and sizes of lithium batteries moving in transportation have grown steadily in recent...

  16. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials...batteries. Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials... synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given below for each class of materials.Various macrocycles, their synthesis

  17. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  18. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-batteries. 273.2 Section...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.2 Applicability—batteries. (a) Batteries covered under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries,...

  19. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  20. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  1. Button battery ingestion-case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanshettar, Ss; Patil, Sv; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper.

  2. 40 CFR 799.9620 - TSCA neurotoxicity screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA neurotoxicity screening battery... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9620 TSCA neurotoxicity screening battery. (a) Scope. This... battery consists of a functional observational battery, motor activity, and neuropathology. The functional...

  3. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  4. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  6. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  7. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  8. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Jiulin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Ding, Fei [Tianjin Inst. of Power Sources (China); Chen, Xilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nasybulin, Eduard N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Yaohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harbin Inst. of Technology (China); Zhang, Jiguang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  9. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  10. DS-2 Mars Microprobe Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H.; Kindler, A.; Deligiannis, F.; Davies, E.; Blankevoort, J.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In January of 1999 the NM DS-2 Mars microprobe will be launched to impact on Mars in December. The technical objectives of the missions are to demonstrate: key technologies, a passive atmospheric entry, highly integrated microelectronics which can withstand both low temperatures and high decelerations, and the capability to conduct in-situ, surface and subsurface science data acquisition. The scientific objectives are to determine if ice is present below the Martian surface, measure the local atmospheric pressure, characterize the thermal properties of the martian subsurface soil, and to estimate the vertical temperature gradient of the Martian soil. The battery requirements are 2-4 cell batteries, with voltage of 6-14 volts, capacity of 550 mAh at 80C, and 2Ah at 25C, shelf life of 2.5 years, an operating temperature of 60C and below, and the ability to withstand shock impact of 80,000 g's. The technical challenges and the approach is reviewed. The Li-SOCL2 system is reviewed, and graphs showing the current and voltage is displayed, along with the voltage over discharge time. The problems encountered during the testing were: (1) impact sensitivity, (2) cracking of the seals, and (3) delay in voltage. A new design resulted in no problems in the impact testing phase. The corrective actions for the seal problems involved: (1) pre weld fill tube, (2) an improved heat sink during case to cover weld and (3) change the seal dimensions to reduce stress. To correct the voltage delay problem the solutions involved: (1) drying the electrodes to reduce contamination by water, (2) assemblage of the cells within a week of electrode manufacture, (3) ensure electrolyte purity, and (4) provide second depassivation pulse after landing. The conclusions on further testing were that the battery can: (1) withstand anticipated shock of up to 80,000 g, (2) meet the discharge profile post shock at Mars temperatures, (3) meet the required self discharge rate and (4) meet environmental

  11. Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-06-11

    Energy storage for stationary use is gaining traction both at the grid scale and distributed level. As renewable energy generation increases, energy storage is needed to compensate for the volatility of renewable over various time scales. This requires energy storage that is tailored for various energy to power (E/P) ratios. Other applications for energy storage include peak shaving, time shifting, load leveling, VAR control, frequency regulation, spinning reserves and other ancillary applications. While the need for energy storage for stationary applications is obvious, the regulations that determine the economic value of adding storage are at various stages of development. This has created a reluctance on the part of energy storage manufacturers to develop a suite of storage systems that can address the myriad of applications associated with stationary applications. Deployment of battery energy storage systems in the transportation sector is ahead of the curve with respect to the stationary space. Batteries, along with battery management systems (BMS) have been deployed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). HEVs have now been deployed for 12 years, while PHEVs for 8 and EVs for 4 years. Some of the batteries are approaching end of life within the vehicle, and are ready to be taken off for recycling and disposal. Performance within a vehicle is non-negotiable in terms of miles traveled per charge, resulting in the batteries retaining a significant portion of their life. For stationary applications, the remaining energy and power of the battery can still be used by grouping together a few of these batteries. This enables getting the most of these batteries, while ensuring that performance is not compromised in either the automotive or stationary applications. This work summarizes the opportunities for such re-purposing of automotive batteries, along with the advantages and limitations

  12. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  13. Verification of Safety Margins of Battery Banks Capacity of Class 1E DC System in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukman, Abdulrauf [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Oon-Pyo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to Ref 'Station blackout (SBO) is generally a plant condition with complete loss of all alternating current (AC) power from off-site sources, from the main generator and from standby AC power sources important to safety to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses. Direct current (DC) power supplies and uninterruptible AC power supplies may be available as long as batteries can supply the loads, alternate AC power supplies are available'. The above IAEA document indicated the importance of batteries during SBO. Prior to the Fukushima accident, most batteries might be designed with coping capability of four hours. However, the accident showed the need for the coping capability to be increased to at least eight hours. The purpose of this research is to verify the safety capacity margin of the nuclear qualified battery banks of class 1E DC system and test the response to SBO using the load profile of a Korean design nuclear power plant (NPP). The capacity margins of class 1E batteries of DC power system batteries in a nuclear power plant were determined using the load profile of the plant. It was observed that if appropriate manufacturer Kt data are not available, the accuracy of the battery capacity might not be accurately calculated. The result obtained shows that the batteries have the coping capability of two hours for channel A and B, and eight hours for channel C and D. Also capacity margin as show in figure show a reasonable margin for each batteries of the DC system.

  14. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, S; Jeyakumar, A Ebenezer

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space applications. This study is indented to develop ANN model for about 25000 cycles, cycled under various temperature, Depth Of Discharge (DOD) settings with constant charge voltage limit to predict the retained capacity and End of Discharge Voltage (EODV). To extract firm conclusion and distinguish the capability of ANN method, the predicted values are compared with experimental result by statistical method and Bland Altman plot.

  15. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  16. Proton enhanced dynamic battery chemistry for aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Liu, Qi; Rong, Yangchun; Chen, Haomin; Yang, Jing; Jia, Chuankun; Yu, Li-Juan; Karton, Amir; Ren, Yang; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Adams, Stefan; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Water contamination is generally considered to be detrimental to the performance of aprotic lithium-air batteries, whereas this view is challenged by recent contrasting observations. This has provoked a range of discussions on the role of water and its impact on batteries. In this work, a distinct battery chemistry that prevails in water-contaminated aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries is revealed. Both lithium ions and protons are found to be involved in the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, and lithium hydroperoxide and lithium hydroxide are identified as predominant discharge products. The crystallographic and spectroscopic characteristics of lithium hydroperoxide monohydrate are scrutinized both experimentally and theoretically. Intriguingly, the reaction of lithium hydroperoxide with triiodide exhibits a faster kinetics, which enables a considerably lower overpotential during the charging process. The battery chemistry unveiled in this mechanistic study could provide important insights into the understanding of nominally aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries and help to tackle the critical issues confronted.

  17. Proton enhanced dynamic battery chemistry for aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Liu, Qi; Rong, Yangchun; Chen, Haomin; Yang, Jing; Jia, Chuankun; Yu, Li-Juan; Karton, Amir; Ren, Yang; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Adams, Stefan; Wang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Water contamination is generally considered to be detrimental to the performance of aprotic lithium–air batteries, whereas this view is challenged by recent contrasting observations. This has provoked a range of discussions on the role of water and its impact on batteries. In this work, a distinct battery chemistry that prevails in water-contaminated aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries is revealed. Both lithium ions and protons are found to be involved in the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, and lithium hydroperoxide and lithium hydroxide are identified as predominant discharge products. The crystallographic and spectroscopic characteristics of lithium hydroperoxide monohydrate are scrutinized both experimentally and theoretically. Intriguingly, the reaction of lithium hydroperoxide with triiodide exhibits a faster kinetics, which enables a considerably lower overpotential during the charging process. The battery chemistry unveiled in this mechanistic study could provide important insights into the understanding of nominally aprotic lithium–oxygen batteries and help to tackle the critical issues confronted. PMID:28165008

  18. Battery life-cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.

    1988-07-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) estimates have been prepared for 17 combinations of battery or fuel-cell technologies and load-levelling, stand-alone power system, or electric vehicle applications. In addition, LCCs for gas-fired turbine, compressed-air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, and internal combustion engine technologies were estimated for comparative purposes. The objectives in preparing the estimates were to determine the relative economics among alternative battery systems and to compare battery systems economics with competing energy technologies.

  19. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  20. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-01-01

    , therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies withspecific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery...... been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries...

  1. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  2. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process....... It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature...

  3. Automation of a coke battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Mil' ko, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    This paper discusses methods of remote control of machines used for discharging coke ovens. The system, developed by the Construction Office of AiM Giprokoks, consists of a number of detecting and transmitting coupling coils and oscillators installed at various places on a coke battery. A scheme of the automated remote control system is given. Method of placing coupling coils and covering them to prevent damages is explained. Principles of coupling coil operation are described. By means of coupling coils exact position of a quenching car, coke discharging machine, and machine removing the coke oven door, can be controlled. When the position of a machine is not exact, operation of other machines is blocked. Operation of the system is regarded as satisfactory. Principles of operation of another system in which, instead of coupling coils coupling bars are installed, are evaluated. Bars control position of machines. The system has numerous weak points and its introduction is not recommended. (In Russian)

  4. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    by annealing at 700°C for 12 hours. The alloys appeared to be nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size around 10 nm before annealing. Special steel containers was developed for the annealing of the metal powders in inert atmosphere. The use of various annealing temperatures was investigated......This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today...... was developed. The parameters milling time, milling intensity, number of balls and form of the alloying metals were investigated. Based on this a final alloying technique for the subsequent preparation of electrode materials was established. The technique comprises milling for 4 hours twice possibly followed...

  5. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  6. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  7. Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. This study presents a prospective life cycle assessment for the production of a sodium-ion battery with a layered transition metal oxide as a positive electrode material and hard carbon as a negative electrode material on the battery component level. The complete and transparent inventory data are disclosed, which can easily be used as a basis for future environmental assessments. Na-ion batteries are found ...

  8. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  9. Evaluation of battery packs for liquid microclimate cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Walter B., Jr.; Avellini, Barbara A.

    1995-05-01

    The Navy clothing and Textile Research Facility conducted a literature and industry survey to determine the best commercially available battery technology for use with liquid microclimate cooling systems (MCS), and a laboratory evaluation of a battery pack utilizing that technology. Nickel/cadmium batteries were determined to be the best battery technology commercially available at the present time. However, several other battery technologies are nearing commercialization and may be available in the near future.

  10. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  11. Assessing electric vehicles battery second life remanufacture and management

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electric cars are entering into the automotive market. However, their prices are still expensive mostly due to the battery cost. Additionally, electric vehicle batteries are considered not useful for traction purposes after they have lost a 20% of its capacity. Having still an 80% of its capacity, these batteries may work on stationary applications with lower requirements than electric mobility. In order to recover part of the battery costs came out the idea of giving batteries a second l...

  12. ?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

  13. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  14. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The poster presents a methodology to account for thermal effects on battery cells to improve the typical thermal performances in a pack through heating calculations generally performed under the operating condition assumption. The aim is to analyze the issues based on battery thermo......-physical characteristics and their impact on the electrical state of battery cells(Khan, Mulder et al. 2013, Khan, Andreasen et al. 2014, Khan et al. 2014, Khan, Mulder et al. 2014, Khan, Nielsen et al. 2014). Based on this analysis, we derive strategies in achieving the goal, and then propose a battery thermal management...

  15. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  16. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  17. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  18. Sealed Cylindrical Silver/Zinc Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RBC Technologies has significanly improved the cycle life and wet life of silver/zinc battery technology through novel separator and anode formulations. This...

  19. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  20. Multi-Cell Thermal Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-cell thermal battery (MCTB) is a device that can recover a large fraction of the thermal energy from heated regolith and subsequently apply this energy to...

  1. Design of a thermophotovoltaic battery substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Edward F.; Becker, Frederick E.; Shukla, Kailash C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1999-03-01

    Many military platforms that currently use the BA-5590 primary battery or the BB-390A/U rechargeable battery are limited in performance by low storage capacity and long recharge times. Thermo Power Corporation, with team members JX Crystals and Essential Research Inc. is developing an advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) battery substitute that will provide higher storage capacity, lower weight, and instantaneous recharging (by refueling). The TPV battery substitute incorporates several advanced design features including: an evacuated and sealed enclosure for the emitter and PV cells to minimize unwanted convection heat transfer from the emitter to PV cells; selective tungsten emitter with a well matched gallium antimonide PV cell receiver; optical filter to recycle nonconvertible radiant energy; and a silicon carbide thermal recuperator to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases.

  2. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  3. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  4. 'Button' Batteries Pose Serious Risk to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Pose Serious Risk to Children Toddlers may swallow the tiny batteries used to power many common household objects To use the sharing features ...

  5. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  6. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R

    2013-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  7. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    CERN Document Server

    Braff, W A; Buie, C R

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm$^{-2}$ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92\\% at 25\\% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  8. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  9. Predicting Battery Life for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a novel battery health management technology for the new generation of electric unmanned aerial vehicles powered by long-life, high-density,...

  10. Battery-cell thermal test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum-enclosed system is used to analyze instantaneous thermal and electrical characteristics of batteries. Data can be used to determine efficiency and provide for more effective utilization of available power.

  11. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  12. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  13. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  14. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  15. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm(-2) . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 400 Wh/kg Secondary Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Summary Lithium-ion battery technology will not provide significant breakthroughs beyond 200 Wh/kg. It will not provide adequate specific energy and cycle life for...

  17. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  18. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  19. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  20. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  1. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  2. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N; Das, S K; Archer, L A

    2011-12-21

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl(3) in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V(2)O(5) nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 273 mAh g(-1) after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  3. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneedhakrishnan, Jayaprakash; Das, Shyamal K; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl₃ in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V₂O₅ nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g⁻¹ in the first cycle and 273 mAh g⁻¹ after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  4. Battery-Less Electroencephalogram System Architecture Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7909•DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Battery-Less ElectroencephalogramSystem Architecture Optimization by Peter Gadfort and Renooka...DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Battery-Less ElectroencephalogramSystem Architecture Optimization by Peter GadfortSensors and Electron Devices... Architecture Optimization Peter Gadfort and Renooka Karmarkar ARL-TR-7909 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13 June 2016 – 26 September

  5. Upgrading Li-battery performance via nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Lithium batteries,as a main or back-up power source for mobile communication devices,portable electronic devices and the like,have attracted much attention in the scientific and industrial fields due to their high electromotive force and high energy density.To meet the demand for batteries with higher energy density and improved cycle characteristics in recent years,many attempts have been made to develop new electrode materials or design new structures of electrode materials.

  6. Survey of Commercial Small Lithium Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Arnold M. Stux KAren Swider-lyonS Chemical Dynamics and Diagnostics Branch Chemistry Division i...stored per mole of material, M.W. is its molecular weight, and F is the Faraday constant (96,485 C/mol). The theoretical specific capacity of...phosphate, LiFePO4 , which will lead to higher power, but lower energy batteries. The driver for battery improvement will continue to be the toy and

  7. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  9. Radioisotope battery using Schottky barrier devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasse, F.K. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia); Tse, A.N.

    1976-05-01

    Based on the well-known betavoltaic effect, a new nuclear battery, which uses a Schottky barrier, has been used in place of the more standard p-n junction diode, along with /sup 147/Pm metal film rather than Pm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ oxide, as in the commercially available Betacel. Measurement of absorption, conversion efficiency, thickness, etc., as functions of resistivity and other cell parameters, and assessment of performance are being researched to design a prototype battery.

  10. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  11. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  12. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: lisha_csu@163.com [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  13. Performance Comparison of Commercial Mobile Phone Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Azrulnizam; Buniran, Surani; Sulaiman, Mohd Ali

    2002-12-01

    Mobile phone is not only accepted as a communication apparatus, but also as a contemporary life style. Multifunctional mobile phone requires high energy density battery and at the same time, the miniaturization of the device requires slimmer and lighter battery. There are many brands of lithium-ion battery manufactured by different companies available in the market. In order to focus on the perspective of the battery performance, a study on the performance of the commercial battery was conducted. Various brands and designs of lithium-ion batteries manufactured by different companies from different countries were purchased from open market. Samples were analyzed based on the cycle life and discharging rate. The cycle life tests were performed with 1C current discharge, whereas the discharge rate was performed using discharge current at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C. Recovery capacity at high rate discharge, 2C is about 90 to 96% of 0.2C capacity. Cycle life performance is above 300 cycles and some good sample can achieve more than 500 cycles.

  14. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  15. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  16. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-12-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  17. Lithium-Air Batteries with Hybrid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-07

    During the past decade, Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptionally high capacity. Introducing aqueous solutions and ceramic lithium superionic conductors to Li-air batteries can circumvent some of the drawbacks of conventional Li-O2 batteries such as decomposition of organic electrolytes, corrosion of Li metal from humidity, and insoluble discharge product blocking the air electrode. The performance of this smart design battery depends essentially on the property and structure of the cell components (i.e., hybrid electrolyte, Li anode, and air cathode). In recent years, extensive efforts toward aqueous electrolyte-based Li-air batteries have been dedicated to developing the high catalytic activity of the cathode as well as enhancing the conductivity and stability of the hybrid electrolyte. Herein, the progress of all aspects of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes is reviewed. Moreover, some suggestions and concepts for tailored design that are expected to promote research in this field are provided.

  18. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  19. Progress in Modeling and Simulation of Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of batteries, in conjunction with theory and experiment, are important research tools that offer opportunities for advancement of technologies that are critical to electric motors. The development of data from the application of these tools can provide the basis for managerial and technical decision-making. Together, these will continue to transform batteries for electric vehicles. This collection of nine papers presents the modeling and simulation of batteries and the continuing contribution being made to this impressive progress, including topics that cover: * Thermal behavior and characteristics * Battery management system design and analysis * Moderately high-fidelity 3D capabilities * Optimization Techniques and Durability As electric vehicles continue to gain interest from manufacturers and consumers alike, improvements in economy and affordability, as well as adoption of alternative fuel sources to meet government mandates are driving battery research and development. Progress in modeling and simulation will continue to contribute to battery improvements that deliver increased power, energy storage, and durability to further enhance the appeal of electric vehicles.

  20. Determination of battery stability with advanced diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Torres-Castro, Loraine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dufek, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walker, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ho, Chinh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries for use in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has seen considerable expansion over the last several years. It is expected that market share and the total number of BEVs will continue to increase over coming years and that there will be changes in the environmental and use conditions for BEV batteries. Specifically aging of the batteries and exposure to an increased number of crash conditions presents a distinct possibility that batteries may be in an unknown state posing danger to the operator, emergency response personnel and other support personnel. The present work expands on earlier efforts to explore the ability to rapidly monitor using impedance spectroscopy techniques and characterize the state of different battery systems during both typical operations and under abusive conditions. The work has found that it is possible to detect key changes in performance for strings of up to four cells in both series and parallel configurations for both typical and abusive response. As a method the sensitivity for detecting change is enhanced for series configurations. For parallel configurations distinct changes are more difficult to ascertain, but under abusive conditions and for key frequencies it is feasible to use current rapid impedance techniques to identify change. The work has also found it feasible to use rapid impedance as an evaluation method for underload conditions, especially for series strings of cells.

  1. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  2. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  3. Multicell LiSOCl sub 2 reserve battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A. R.; Garoutte, K. F.

    Recent development work on reverse lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that were traditionally fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. A comparison between Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements is presented.

  4. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements Revision D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements document has been prepared for use by designers of battery-powered vehicles, portable equipment, and experiments intended for crewed spaceflight. The purpose of the requirements document is to provide battery designers with information on design provisions to be incorporated in and around the battery and on the verification to be undertaken to demonstrate a safe battery is provided. The term "safe battery" means that the battery is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and use; safe to be used in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle; and safe to be mounted or used in unpressurized spaces adjacent to habitable areas. Battery design review, approval, and certification is required before the batteries can be used for ground operations and be certified for flight.

  5. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrício, João, E-mail: joao.patricio@chalmers.se [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åberg, Helena [The Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  6. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material.

  7. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  8. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. J.

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  9. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state-of-th...

  10. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  11. Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gonu; Oh, Misol; Park, Yiseul

    2016-09-15

    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a "solar water battery". The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E(0) (O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge.

  12. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  13. Factors on Storage Performance of MH-Ni Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong; Jia Chunming; Xing Zhiqiang; Li Li; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The open voltage of batteries shows different status after MH-Ni batteries are stored for a period of time.Some batteries with 0, 0.9 ~ 1.1V and above 1.1 V were chosen to study their corresponding internal resistances, open voltages and the reduction of capacities, etc.On the basis of battery reaction principle, battery samples were analyzed,and factors causing different storage performance were found out.Therefore, some references on the improvement of battery storage performance were provided.

  14. Sodium-sulfur batteries for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueber, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Power levels for future space missions will be much higher than are presently attainable using nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries. Development of a high energy density rechargeable battery is essential in being able to provide these higher power levels without tremendous weight penalties. Studies conducted by both the Air Force and private industry have identified the sodium-sulfur battery as the best candidate for a next generation battery system. The advantages of the sodium-sulfur battery over the nickel-cadmium battery are discussed.

  15. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg(-1)(total electrode) while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg(-1)(total electrode), which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  16. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  17. Historical review on special batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ken' ichi; Takuwa, Tsuneo

    1988-04-12

    Special batteries are explained in summary, and the related technologies are reviewed. Sea water cells bring in and activate sea water for use as the electrolyte. They can be stored for a long time as no specific electrolyte is required, and have been used as power sources for rescure wireless systems and torpedos. They are used also as the power sources for marine drifting lights, observation equipment at the south pole base, and various kinds of telemeters. Lithium cells are enjoying rapid increase in demand since they have large energy density and high voltage with the ability of supplying stable voltage for a long period. As to the thermobattery, the electrolyte instantaneously melts at the time of use to generate electricity. It has such merits as long term storage, large current discharge, etc. Silver oxide cells have high energy density, and were developed in U.S.A. for military purposes. In Japan, they were develped and proudced as the power sources for artificial satellites and electric furnaces for space material experiment rockets. The cell was delivered also as the power source for a deep sea rescue vehicle. (9 figs, 4 photos, 1 tab, 5 refs)

  18. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0

  19. Application of nonwovens in batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H.G. [Freudenberg Nonwovens, Weinheim (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens are textile products that are manufactured directly from fibers. According to ISO 9092: 1988 nonwovens are defined as a manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly oriented fibers, bonded by friction, and/or cohesion, and/or adhesion excluding paper and products which are woven, tufted, stitchbonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments, or felted by wetmilling whether or not additionally needled. The fibers may be of natural or man-made origin. They may be staple or continuous filaments or be formed in situ. The production of nonwovens can be described as taking place in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of the stages. The three stages are: web formation, web bonding, and finishing treatments. The opportunity to combine different raw materials and different techniques accounts for the diversity of the industry and its products. This diversity is enhanced by the ability to engineer nonwovens to have specific properties and to perform specific tasks. This paper describes the production and applications of nonwovens in primary and secondary electric batteries.

  20. High Threshold for Lead Accumulators Helps the Battery Industry to Recover in Q2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Along with release of relevant access conditions of the lead acid accumulator industry and increasing popularity of new-type batteries including lithium battery and lead-carbon battery, etc., the battery industry recovered in the first

  1. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  2. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  3. A Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material for use in hybrid lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixin; Ji, Xiaobo; Pan, Chengchi; Zhu, Yirong; Chen, Qiyuan; Banks, Craig E

    2013-09-14

    A NASICON-structure Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material prepared by carbothermal reduction method is employed in a hybrid-ion battery with Li-involved electrolyte and anode. The ion-transportation mechanism is firstly investigated in this complicated system for an open three-dimensional framework Na3V2(PO4)3. Ion-exchange is greatly influenced by the standing time, for example, the 1 hour battery presents a specific capacity of 128 mA h g(-1) while the 24 hour battery exhibits a value of 148 mA h g(-1) with improved rate and cycling performances over existing literature reported Li-ion batteries. In the hybrid-ion system, an ion-exchange process likely takes place between the two Na(2) sites in the rhombohedral structure. NaLi2V2(PO4)3 could be produced by ion-transportation since the Na(+) in the Na(1) site is stationary and the three Na(2) sites could be used to accommodate the incoming alkali ions; Li(x)Na(y)V2(PO4)3 would come out when the vacant site in Na(2) was occupied depending on the applied voltage range. The reported methodology and power characteristics are greater than those previously reported.

  4. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  5. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  6. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  7. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  8. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  9. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  10. PIC BASED SOLAR CHARGING CONTROLLER FOR BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Jaya N. Ingole

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar resource is unlimited the government is trying to implement the use of Solar panels as an energy source in rural and sub urban areas for lighting the street lights, but the battery used to store the power gets affected due to overcharge & discharges. This paper presents the use of PIC16F72 based solar charger controller for controlling the overcharging and discharging of a solar cell. It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. First, the variable supply is fixed at 12.8V dc—the voltage of a fully charged battery— and linked to the battery point of the circuit. Cut Off of battery from load voltage is 10.8 volt. A PIC16F72 for small size and inbuilt analog inputs is used to determine voltage level of battery and solar panel..It also describes how the disadvantages of analog circuit are overcome by this controller. The flow chart is also provided.

  11. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  12. Lithium Ion Batteries Used for Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Chen, X. Jie; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Christian, James F.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear forensics includes the study of materials used for the attribution a nuclear event. Analysis of the nuclear reaction products resulting both from the weapon and the material in the vicinity of the event provides data needed to identify the source of the nuclear material and the weapon design. The spectral information of the neutrons produced by the event provides information on the weapon configuration. The lithium battery provides a unique platform for nuclear forensics, as the Li-6 content is highly sensitive to neutrons, while the battery construction consists of various layers of materials. Each of these materials represents an element for a threshold detector scheme, where isotopes are produced in the battery components through various nuclear reactions that require a neutron energy above a fundamental threshold energy. This study looks into means for extracting neutron spectral information by understanding the isotopic concentration prior to and after exposure. The radioisotopes decay through gamma and beta emission, and radiation spectrometers have been used to measure the radiation spectra from the neutron exposed batteries. The batteries were exposed to various known neutron fields, and analysis was conducted to reconstruct the incident neutron spectra. This project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, grant number HDTRA1-11-1-0028.

  13. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  14. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  15. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  16. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries and Sodium-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Sodium-ion intercalation cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    The Li-ion battery is one of the most important rechargeable energy storage devices due to its high energy density, long cycle life, and reliable safety. Although the performances of Li-ion batteries have been improved dramatically, the limit in terms of the energy density still needs to be resolved to meet the growing demands for large-scale mobile devices. Choosing the cathode material is the most pivotal issue in achieving higher energy, since the energy density is directly correlated to the specific capacity of the cathode. Intercalation-based cathode materials have been widely utilized in commercial products; however they yield a limited capacity due to restricted crystallographic sites for Li-ions. In this thesis, the NiF2 and NiO doped NiF2/C conversion materials, which display substantially greater capacities, are intensively studied using various synchrotron X-ray techniques and magnetic measurements. The enhanced electronic conductivity of NiO doped NiF2/C is associated with a significant improvement in the reversible conversion reaction. While bimodal Ni nanoparticles are maintained for NiO doped NiF2/C upon the discharge, for pure NiF2 only smaller nanoparticles remain following the 2nd discharge. Based on the electronic conductivity, it is demonstrated that the size of Ni nanoparticles is associated with the conversion kinetics and consequently the reversibility. Although Li-ion batteries offer the highest energy density among all the secondary batteries, the amount of the reserves and the cost associated with the Li sources are still a concern. In the second part of the thesis, P2 type Na2/3[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 is investigated to understand the structural stability in the Na-ion batteries. Significantly improved battery performances are obtained by excluding the phase transformation region. In addition, the structural evolution of the P2-Na0.8[Li0.12Ni0.22Mn0.66]O 2 is tracked by in situ technique and revealed no phase transformation during the cycling. It

  17. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  18. Batteries made in Germany; Batterien made in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2011-06-15

    Electromobility has opened up a huge market for batteries. German manufacturers are trying to grab a market share. Serial production of lithium ion batteries will start this very year in Kamenz in the German state of Sachsen.

  19. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligiannis, F.; Frank, H.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Willson, J. [SAFT America, Inc., Cockeysville, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  20. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.