WorldWideScience

Sample records for saponins

  1. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  2. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.

  3. Saponins from Chinese Medicines as Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Huang Xu; Ting Li; Chi Man Vivienne Fong; Xiuping Chen; Xiao-Jia Chen; Yi-Tao Wang; Ming-Qing Huang; Jin-Jian Lu

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins) and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin) isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo...

  4. Saponins in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiaogang

    extract) in the environment, and to relate the measurements to the potential risk of the different fractions (saponins and non-saponins) in the saponin-rich plant extract. The toxicity tests were conducted with the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. We confirm......This PhD thesis consists of three parts to illustrate the goal of getting a better understanding of the fate and toxicity of saponins in the aquatic environment. It includes an introduction to the general aspects of saponins, their chemistry and the ecotoxicology concepts, and a second part......-like structure, saponins have a lot of applications, e.g. as foaming agents in consumer products, as adjuvants in the vaccine, as biosurfactants in soil washing and as biopesticides in crop protection. Hence, they may leach into the aquatic environment due to their low octanol/water partition coefficient...

  5. Saponins from Chinese Medicines as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Huang Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions. In addition, related signaling pathways and target proteins involved in the anticancer effects of saponins are also summarized in this work.

  6. Steroidal saponins from Chlorophytum orchidastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Debabrata; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Kaushik, Nutan; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-01-01

    Six new spirostane-type saponins (1-6), named orchidastrosides A-F, and chloromaloside D were isolated from an ethanol extract of the roots of Chlorophytum orchidastrum. The saponins have neotigogenin or neogitogenin as the aglycon and oligosaccharidic chains possessing seven to nine sugar units. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and FABMS and HRESIMS. Compounds 1-6 were tested for cytotoxicity against two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT 116 and HT-29.

  7. Molluscicidal saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1993-01-01

    Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl...

  8. 247 - 250_Tijjani_saponins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    and ground into powder using a porcelain pestle. It was then sealed in a polyethene stored in a dessicator prior to evaluation. Extraction of saponins. The powdered stem-bark (1kg) of the plant exhaustively extracted using petroleum spirit in a Soxhlet extractor. This was to remove the l and other pigments available in the ...

  9. Steroidal saponins from Asparagus acutifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2007-10-01

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6) were isolated from the roots of A. acutifolius L., together with a known spirostanol glycoside (7). Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, FABMS and HRESIMS). Compounds 4-7 demonstrated antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis with MICs values between 12.5 and 100 microg/ml.

  10. Triterpene saponins from Cyclamen trocopteranthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihci-Gaidi, Ghezala; Ozbey, Suheyla; Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-05-01

    Two new triterpene saponins ( 1- 2) together with three known saponins, deglucocyclamin I ( 3), cyclamin ( 4), and mirabilin ( 5), were isolated from the tubers of Cyclamen trocopteranthum. They were elucidated as 3 beta- O-{4- O-[3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl]- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[ beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}-16 alpha-hydroxy-13 beta,28-epoxy-oleanan-30-al ( 1) and 3 beta- O-{4- O-[3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl]- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[ beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)]- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[ beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}-16 alpha-hydroxy-20,30-lactone-olean-12-ene ( 2). Their structures were characterized mainly by a combination of 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques ( (1)H- (1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy. Saponins 1, 3, and 4 showed a weak cytotoxic activity when tested against HT-29 and HCT 116 tumor colon cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  11. Ultraviolet spectroscopic evaluation of bioactive saponin fraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbal therapy is a common practice in Africa. One of the commonly used herbs is Vernonia amygdalina. Processing of the plant for use leads to the loss of phytochemical principles like saponin which has been shown to possess bioactivity. This study was to evaluate and characterize the saponin principles, ...

  12. Triterpene saponins from Cyclamen persicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihci-Gaidi, Ghezala; Pertuit, David; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-07-01

    A new triterpene saponin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxy-13beta,28-epoxy-oleanan-30-al (1), along with four known triterpene glycosides (2-5) were isolated from Cyclamen persicum. Their structures were characterized by a combination of 1D- and 2D-NMR (1H-1H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and MS spectrocopic data. The cytotoxicity of compounds 2 and 4 was evaluated using two human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and HCT 116.

  13. Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D

    2012-08-21

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers.

  14. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time.

  15. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  16. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17α,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Triterpene saponins from Eryngium campestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Murat; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Paululat, Thomas; Abu-Asaker, Mahmoud; Wagner, Hildebert; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2006-07-01

    Five new triterpene saponins, 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-beta,beta-dimethylacryloyl-A1-barrigenol (1), 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (2), 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-acetyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (3), 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-acetyl-22-O-beta,beta-dimethylacryloyl-R1-barrigenol (4), and 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-28-O-acetyl-R1-barrigenol (5), were isolated from the roots of Eryngium campestre. Their structures were established mainly by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-4 and 3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-beta,beta-dimethylacryloyl-A1-barrigenol, previously isolated from the same plant, showed a weak cytotoxicity when tested against HCT 116 and HT 29 human colon cancer cells.

  18. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  19. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  1. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Duan, Ying-Hui; Li, Man-Mei; Tang, Wei; Wu, Xia; Wang, Guo-Cai; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Li, Yao-Lan

    2013-09-01

    Nine new triterpenoid saponins, including four ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptursosides A-D (1-4), four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptoleosides A-D (5-8), and one dammarane-type triterpenoid saponin, heptdamoside A (9), along with two known saponins, asiaticoside D (10) and scheffoleoside B (11), were isolated from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. It is noteworthy in this study that the aglycone of 1-6 is reported for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of the tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin from Schefflera. All the saponins were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, and 2, 6, 7, and 10 showed anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two species of cola, Cola nitida and Cola acuminate, were investigated for their possible relative contents of the secondary plant products:- tannin, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides. The two cola species gave low levels of tannin and oxalate but very high levels of cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides as ...

  3. Dammarane-type saponins from Ziziphus jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi; Wang, Xie-Shu; Hu, Ze-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Two new dammarane-type saponins jujubosides D and E, together with three known compounds, were isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujube. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Compounds 1-5 showed lipoxygenase-inhibiting activity.

  4. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  5. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  6. Ultraviolet spectroscopic evaluation of bioactive saponin fraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet spectroscopic evaluation of bioactive saponin fraction from the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina [Esteraeceae] leaf. Paul Chukwuemeka ADIUKWU 1*, Martina BONSU 1, Inemesit OKON-BEN 1,. Paul PEPRAH 1, Paapa MENSAH-KANE 1, Jonathan JATO 1 and Grace NAMBATYA 2. 1School of Pharmacy ...

  7. Immunomodulatory Activity Of Saponin Mixture Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to assess the immunomodulatory activity of purified saponin mixture (PSM) isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria at three dose levels ranging from 50-150 mg/kg body weight in mice using haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and carbon clearance ...

  8. Screening for Triterpenoid Saponins in Plants Using Hyphenated Analytical Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekzod Khakimov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using hyphenated analytical platforms, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-SPE-NMR/MS, in the example of two different phenotypes of the model plant Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress, glabrous (G and pubescent (P type that are known to differ by their insect resistance. The proposed methodology allows for detailed comparison of saponin profiles from intact plant extracts as well as saponin aglycone profiles from hydrolysed samples. Continuously measured 1D proton NMR data during LC separation along with mass spectrometry data revealed significant differences, including contents of saponins, types of aglycones and numbers of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone. A total of 49 peaks were tentatively identified as saponins from both plants; they are derived from eight types of aglycones and with 2–5 sugar moieties. Identification of two previously known insect-deterrent saponins, hederagenin cellobioside and oleanolic acid cellobioside, demonstrated the applicability of the methodology for relatively rapid screening of bioactive compounds.

  9. Screening for Triterpenoid Saponins in Plants Using Hyphenated Analytical Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus; Bak, Søren; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-24

    Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using hyphenated analytical platforms, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-SPE-NMR/MS, in the example of two different phenotypes of the model plant Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress), glabrous (G) and pubescent (P) type that are known to differ by their insect resistance. The proposed methodology allows for detailed comparison of saponin profiles from intact plant extracts as well as saponin aglycone profiles from hydrolysed samples. Continuously measured 1D proton NMR data during LC separation along with mass spectrometry data revealed significant differences, including contents of saponins, types of aglycones and numbers of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone. A total of 49 peaks were tentatively identified as saponins from both plants; they are derived from eight types of aglycones and with 2-5 sugar moieties. Identification of two previously known insect-deterrent saponins, hederagenin cellobioside and oleanolic acid cellobioside, demonstrated the applicability of the methodology for relatively rapid screening of bioactive compounds.

  10. Potent antitrypanosomal triterpenoid saponins from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, heinsiagenin A 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-Beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)]-B-D-glucopyranoside (1), heinsiagenin A 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-B-D-glucopyranosyl- (1->2)]-[B-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)]-B-D-glucopyranoside (2). 2a-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-o-[a-L-rhamn...

  11. Cytotoxic oleanane triterpenoid saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qinghua; Qian, Yi; Wang, Xuda; Zhang, Qingying; Cui, Jingrong; Tu, Pengfei; Liang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin led to the isolation of ten new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, julibrosides J 37 -J 46 (1-10), along with six known analogues (11-16). In addition, 11 prosapogenins (17-27) were prepared by mild or strong alkaline hydrolysis of the total saponin. The structures of 1-27 were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means, and their cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines, BGC-823, A549, HCT-116, and HepG2 were evaluated. Compounds 5-16 exhibited significant inhibitory activity with IC 50 values ranging from 2.59 to 9.30μM, and 8 turned out to be the most active compound with all IC 50 values <5μM. A preliminary structure-activity relationship of these saponins clearly indicated that the outer monoterpenoid moiety (MT') is a crucial substituent for cytotoxicity, and the linkage sites of the MT' unit greatly influenced the activity. It could also be inferred that the existence of 16-OH of the aglycone almost has no effect on cytotoxicity and the N-acetyl-glucosamine moiety at C-3 seems to enhance activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong-Kyu Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins related to P. ginseng; >80 of them are isolated from raw or processed ginseng, and the others are acid/base hydrolysates, semisynthetic saponins, or metabolites.

  13. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Clematis argentilucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Ma, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Haifeng; Liu, Xinyou

    2014-09-01

    Reinvestigation of the n-BuOH extract of the roots of Clematis argentilucida led to the isolation of a new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin 1 and a new taraxerane-type saponin 2, four known saponins 3-6 first isolated from the species, together with seven saponins 7-13 reported in the previous papers. The structures of saponins 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The ursane-type and taraxerane-type triterpenoid saponins were obtained from genus Clematis for the first time, and the aglycone of saponin 1, 3β,28-dihydroxy-18αH-ursan-20-en was first encountered. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated against human glioblastoma U251MG cell lines. The monodesmosidic saponins 1, 2 and 4-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cells with IC50 values ranging from 6.95 to 38.51 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effect of saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different Radix ranunculi ternati extracts on human gastric cancer BGC823 cells were investigated, different methods were used to extract the saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ranunculi ternati, and MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effects of saponins and ...

  15. Condensed tannins and saponin content in different plant parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the proanthocyanidin (PA; condensed tannin) and saponin contents of different parts of Stylosanthes scabra (Fitzroy) plants harvested from five agro-ecologically different sites in Zimbabwe. Condensed tannins and saponin content of S. scabra leaves and twigs were determined ...

  16. Saponins are involved in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results provided evidence that saponins are implicated in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects observed in our earlier studies on the crude methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this medicinal plant as analgesics and ...

  17. Screening for triterpenoid saponins in plants using hyphenated analytical platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid...... saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using...... hyphenated analytical platforms, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-SPE-NMR/MS, in the example of two different phenotypes of the model plant Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress), glabrous (G) and pubescent (P) type that are known to differ by their insect resistance. The proposed methodology allows for detailed comparison...

  18. Two new triterpene saponins from Eryngium campestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Murat; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Abu-Asaker, Mahmoud; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Calis, Ihsan; Wagner, Hildebert; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2005-10-01

    Two new triterpene saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-beta,beta-dimethylacryloyl-A1-barrigenol (2), were isolated from the roots of Eryngium campestre (Apiaceae). Their structures were established mainly by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry.

  19. Modulation of sodium pumps by steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aloa Machado; Lara, Lucienne da Silva; Previato, Jose Osvaldo; Lopes, Aníbal Gil; Caruso-Neves, Celso; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2004-01-01

    Costus spicatus, used in Brazilian traditional medicine to expel kidney stones, contains steroidal saponins with different chemical characteristics. In spite of its popular utilization as potent diuretic, no scientific reports correlate this activity with the chemical constituents of the extract. Therefore, two steroidal saponins (3 beta,22 alpha,25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2-methoxyfurost-5-en-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->2)-O-[6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (3 beta,22 alpha,25R)-spirostan-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->2)-O-[6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1a), were isolated from the rhizomes of this plant and their effects on the Na+-ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activities of the proximal tubule from pig kidney were evaluated. It was observed that 1 and 1a inhibit specifically the Na+-ATPase activity.

  20. Steroidal saponins from two species of Dracaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougan, Guy Beddos; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Sondengam, Beibam Lucas; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-07-23

    Four new steroidal saponins (1-4) were isolated from the stem and bark of two species of Dracaena: deistelianosides A and B (1 and 2) from D. deisteliana and arboreasaponins A and B (3 and 4) from D. arborea. Six known saponins and one known sapogenin were also isolated. The structures of 1-4 were established as diosgenin 3-O-[3-O-sulfate-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-fucopyranosyl(23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,23alpha,24alpha-tetrol 24-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), pennogenin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-acetyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 24alpha-hydroxypennogenin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4) using extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity of several of these compounds was evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines.

  1. BEBERAPA TUMBUHAN OBAT ASAL KALIMANTAN TIMUR SEBAGAI SUMBER SAPONIN POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Rijai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponin is a class of natural compounds that have activity that is strongly associated with utilization in pharmacy. Exploration has been carried out against a number of secondary metabolite content of medicinal plants in East Kalimantan and some of them found to contain saponins. Plants were found to contain saponins and are considered potential Kokang leaf (Lepisanthes amoena, Kesumbakeling leaf (Bixa orellana, L, Belimbing Wuluh leaf (Averrhoa bilimbi L., Sugi Gadjah leaf (Hyptis capitata, Karamunting leaf (Melastoma malabathricum L, Cempedak bark (Artocarpus champeden, Wijaya Kusuma leaf (Epiphyllum oxipetalum, Langsat seeds (Lansium domesticum, ekor kucing leaf (Acalypha hispida, Kelor bark (Moringa oleifera, Jarong leaf (Stachytarpheta mutabilis, Miana leaf (Coleus atropureus, Jengger Ayam leaf (Celosia cristata, and fruit of Libo (Ficus vargelata. Key words : East borneo medicinal plants, saponins   Abstrak Saponin adalah golongan senyawa alami yang memiliki aktivitas yang sangat terkait dengan pemanfaatan dalam bidang farmasi. Telah dilakukan eksplorasi kandungan metabolit sekunder  terhadap sejumlah tumbuhan obat yang ada di Kalimantan Timur dan beberapa diantaranya terbukti mengandung saponin. Tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang terbukti mengandung sponin dan dianggap potensial adalah daun Kokang (Lepisanthes amoena, daun Kesumbakeling (Bixa orellana, L, daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L., daun Sugi Gadjah (Hyptis capitata, daun Karamunting (Melastoma malabathricum L, kulit batang Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden, daun Wijaya Kusuma (Epiphyllum oxipetalum, biji Langsat (Lansium domesticum, daun ekor kucing (Acalypha hispida, Kulit Batang Kelor (Moringa oleifera, daun Jarong (Stachytarpheta mutabilis, daun Miana (Coleus atropureus, daun Jengger Ayam (Celosia cristata, buah Libo (Ficus vargelata. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan Obat Kaltim; Saponin

  2. Effect of organogenesis on steroidal saponin biosynthesis in calli cultures of Ruscus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Javier; Moyano, Elisabeth; Bonfill, Mercedes; Osuna, Lidia T; Cusidó, Rosa M; Piñol, M Teresa

    2006-04-01

    Calli cultures derived from Ruscus aculeatus rhizomes were investigated for their potential to biosynthesize saponins. The capacity of undifferentiated tissues to form steroidal saponins is very limited, but when the calli developed organogenesis, mainly aerial shoots and roots, the saponin production increased significantly. Plantlets regenerated from aerial shoots of Ruscus calli showed a saponin pattern similar to that of the callus cultures but the levels of saponins found in the aerial part and roots were significantly greater.

  3. Identification of Ruscus steroidal saponins by HPLC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Combarieu, E; Falzoni, M; Fuzzati, N; Gattesco, F; Giori, A; Lovati, M; Pace, R

    2002-12-01

    A novel HPLC-UV method has been developed for the fingerprint analysis of the steroidal saponins in the rhizomes of three Ruscus species (Ruscus aculeatus, Ruscus hypoglossum and Ruscus colchicus). Saponins were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS. During the study a new major saponin was detected in the rhizomes of R. hypoglossum and R. colchicus. The structure of the new compound was defined as 1-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-6-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]-1beta,3beta,22xi,26-tetrahydroxy-furost-5(6)-en-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) by spectral analysis. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Spirostanol saponins of Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, A; Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Magno, S

    1999-08-01

    An investigation of the extracts from bulbs of Allium porrum L. has led to the isolation of four spirostanol saponins. Two of them are new compounds and have been identified as: (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta, 6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O- beta -D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (3) and (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta,6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O- [beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- galactopyranoside} (4). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity.

  5. Bioactive triterpenoid saponins and phenolic compounds against glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuewei; Yu, Siran; Liang, Ying; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2014-11-15

    A total of 54 natural origin compounds were evaluated for their activity in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells. Results showed that four Aesculus polyhydroxylated triterpenoid saponins (3-6), six Gleditsia triterpenoid saponins (7-12), and five phenolic compounds (43-46, 51) had dose-dependent activity suppressing the proliferation of both C6 and U251 cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggested that the acetyl group at C-28 for the Aesculus saponins and the monoterpenic acid moiety for the Gleditsia saponins could be critical for the activity of these active compounds. Aesculioside H (4), gleditsioside A (7), and feuric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester (FADPE, 46) were the three most active compounds from the different types of the active compounds and induced apoptosis and necrosis in glioma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Semisynthesis of Analogues of the Saponin Immunoadjuvant QS-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Walkowicz, William E; Tan, Derek S; Gin, David Y

    2017-01-01

    Saponins are triterpene glycoside natural products that exhibit many different biological properties, including activation and modulation of the immune system, and have therefore attracted significant interest as immunological adjuvants for use in vaccines. QS-21 is the most widely used and promising saponin adjuvant but suffers from several liabilities, such as scarcity, dose-limiting toxicity, and hydrolytic instability. Chemical synthesis has emerged as a powerful approach to obtain homogeneous, pure samples of QS-21 and to improve its properties and therapeutic profile by providing access to optimized, synthetic saponin variants. Herein, we describe a general method for the semisynthesis of these molecules from QS-21, with detailed synthetic protocols for two saponin variants developed in our recent work.

  7. A spirostanol saponin from the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    1999-07-01

    A new spirostanol saponin was isolated from the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus and the structure was assigned as (23S,25R)-spirost-5-ene-3 beta,23-diol 23-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and the result of acid hydrolysis. The saponin is unique in structure having a diglycoside unit at C-23 of the spirostanol skeleton.

  8. Biodegradability of the molluscicidal saponins of Phytolacca dodecandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, P; Chihaka, A; Lemmich, E; Furu, P; Windberg, C; Ingerslev, F; Halling-Sørensen, B

    2000-12-01

    The biodegradability of water-extracted saponins of berries from the Endod plant, Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit, was evaluated under OECD standardized conditions. Persistence of the saponins was evaluated by determination of saponin concentrations in water over a 30-day period, using a quantitative HPLC method and a semiquantitative hemolytic assay, which is considered a potential field method. The two methods were compared. Bioassays were simultaneously conducted using Biomphalaria glabrata fresh water snails to assess the molluscicidal potency over time. All experiments were carried out in water, which was chemically balanced to sustain snails, and to one set river water was added to the medium to mimic natural conditions. (1) Saponin concentrations in water treated with an aqueous extract of P. dodecandra cultivar E44 were stable for 2 days then rapidly decreased during the third and fourth day. Lethal concentrations to snails were LC50 = 9.6 mg/l (95% CI: 6.3 to 19.4) in one set and LC50 = 6.8 mg/l (95% CI: 5.4 to 12.2) in the other. Adding river water to one set of the experiments had no effect on the mean saponin concentration over time (F = 0.02, P = >0.05). (2) Comparison of the hemolytic assay with the HPLC method showed no significant difference in mean saponin concentrations (t = 0.32, P > 0.05, 95% CI: -2.67 to 3.64), and a correlation of r2 = 0.88 between the two methods. (3) The saponin fraction of an aqueous extract of P. dodecandra was readily biodegraded (t1/2 = 15.8 h), and the complete consumption within a 10-day window indicates ready degradability in aquatic environments under aerobic conditions. (4) These results show that the use of Endod berries for snail control in schistosomiasis-infested water bodies is environmentally acceptable. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Triterpenoid saponins from Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the under-ground parts of Hydrocotyle bonariensis led to the isolation of five oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-22-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-28-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-R(1)-barrigenol, and 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-22-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-A(1)-barrigenol, together with the known saniculoside-R1. Their structures were established by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Six compounds were evaluated against two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT 116 and HT-29. Two compounds showed weak cytotoxicity with IC(50) 24.1 and 24.0, 83.0 and 83.6 μM against HT-29 and HCT 116, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Acanthophyllum gypsophiloides Regel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Khatuntseva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new triterpenoid saponins 1 and 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Acanthophyllum gypsophiloides Regel. These saponins have quillaic acid or gypsogenin moieties as an aglycon, and both bear similar sets of two oligosaccharide chains, which are 3-O-linked to the triterpenoid part trisaccharide α-L-Arap-(1→3-[α-D-Galp-(1→2]-β-D-GlcpA and pentasaccharide β-D-Xylp-(1→3-β-D-Xylp-(1→3-α-L-Rhap-(1→2-[β-D-Quip-(1→4]-β-D-Fucp connected through an ester linkage to C-28. The structures of the obtained saponins were elucidated by a combination of mass spectrometry and 2D NMR spectroscopy. A study of acute toxicity, hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, immunoadjuvant and antifungal activity was carried out. Both saponins 1 and 2 were shown to exhibit immunoadjuvant properties within the vaccine composition with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-based immunogen. The availability of saponins 1 and 2 as individual pure compounds from the extract of the roots of A. gypsophiloides makes it a prospective source of immunoactive agents.

  12. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta De Santis; Carmen Maddaluno; Tiziana D’Ambrosio; Agata Rascio; Michele Rinaldi; Jacopo Troisi

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total sap...

  13. Formulation and in vitro absorption analysis of Rhizoma paridis steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jieyin; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; Guo, Huimin; Zhang, Jingze; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-01-30

    Rhizoma paridis steroidal saponins (RPS) have been prepared and identified as the active compounds for antitumor activity in our previous study. However, the low oral bioavailability of the steroidal saponins restricted its using. In the present research, solid dispersion (SD) and phytosome (PHY) formulation of RPS were prepared, and the physicochemical parameters as well as the intestinal absorption in rat everted gut sac model were investigated. Seven agents were selected as the carriers of SD, and poloxamer 407 (P 407) was the most suitable one. SD reduced the particle size of saponins in the water solution, enhanced the solubility of the saponins by about 3.5 folds, and significantly improved the absorption transport of saponins from 48 to 104 μg in everted gut sac of the rat system. PHY significantly enhanced the hydrophilic of saponins but showed little effect on the absorption in small intestine. Jejunum and ileum part absorbed more absolute contents of total saponins than duodenum parts. Six saponins, the main contents of RPS, used as the index of comparing the three forms, were also further investigated in the physico-chemical properties and the absorption tests. n-Octanol/water partition coefficients of the six saponins ordered in RPS, SD and PHY were Chonglouoside H>Dioscin>Polyphyllin D>Gracillin>Paris-VII>Formosanin C. All the saponins possessed the higher absorptive characteristics in SD formulation. The absorption rate of diosgenyl saponins in intestine was more than the pennogenyl saponins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bactericidal studies of saponins from the stem-bark of Adenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phtyochemical screening of methanolic Stem-bark extracts of Adenium obesum indicated the presence of saponins. Consequently, the saponins were extracted using standard procedures. The saponin extract was examined for in vitro antibacterial activity using disc diffusion technique. Activity against five bacterial strains ...

  15. Triterpenoid Saponins from the Pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel acetylated triterpene bisdesmoside saponin is elucidated as named Hederagenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (3→1-[2,4-O-diacetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2→1 [3-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1 along with two known saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(α-L-arabinopyranoside-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2 and hederagenin 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranoside] (3, from the pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi. The structures of these saponins were characterized by means of chemical and spectral methods including advanced 2D NMR studies.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from root bark of Zanha golungensis (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Catherine; Sayagh, Charlotte; Humbert, Franck; Pouny, Isabelle; Delaude, Clément

    2015-01-30

    The chemical investigation of the methanolic extract from root bark of Zanha golungensis Hiern led to the isolation of five new and one known triterpenoid saponins. Their structures were elucidated by full analysis of their spectroscopic data and by partial hydrolysis. These glycosides contain zanhic acid as aglycone, a rare oleanane-type triterpenoid found in species belonging to Sapindaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. Two new saponins are esterified saponins by 3,3-dimethylacryloyl and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-butanoyl residues located on the sugar part. The new compounds were named zanhasaponins D-H following previous isolation of similar compounds from Zanha africana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia fortunei Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Lin; Yang, Zi-Ni; He, Cui; Liao, Hai-Bing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Six previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, fortunosides A-F, together with six known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analyses (1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS) and chemical methods. All isolated triterpenoid saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human liver cancer cell lines (SMMC-7721, Hep3B, HuH7, and SK-Hep-1). Three saponins with the aglycone protoprimulagenin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all of the tested human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 4.76 to 15.12 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxic saponins from bulbs of Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O; Di Rosa, M; Ianaro, A

    2000-08-01

    An extensive phytochemical analysis of the saponin content has been undertaken on leek, Allium porrum L., sown and collected at different seasons. As a result of this investigation, eight saponins (1-8) have been isolated, four of them (5-8) being novel compounds. Compounds 5 and 6, possessing the same tetrasaccharide moiety of compounds 1 and 3, display very unusual spirostane aglycones, 12-ketoporrigenin and 2,12-diketoporrigenin (named porrigenin C), respectively, recently isolated for the first time as free sapogenin in the same plant. Compounds 7 and 8 are rare cholestane bidesmosides possessing a di- and trisaccharide residues linked to a polyhydroxycholesterol aglycone, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds have been determined by nondegradative spectroscopic analysis, mainly based on NMR. All the eight saponins isolated from leek were tested for their cytotoxic activity against two different cell lines in vitro, and compounds 1, 2, and 6 resulted particularly active.

  19. Three new triterpene saponins from roots of Eryngium planum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Masullo, Milena; Thiem, Barbara; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Saponin composition of the roots of Eryngium planum L. was investigated. Triterpene saponins found in E. planum and also present in Eryngium maritimum were different from those described previously in Eryngium campestre L. Three primary saponins were isolated and their tentative identifications, based on the electrospray MS/MS fragmentation patterns, were subsequently confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-acetyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (1) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-A1-barrigenol (2) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (3). Concentrations of the newly identified compounds in aerial parts and roots of both species were estimated using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

  20. Saponins from seeds of Genus Camellia: Phytochemistry and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Tong, Tuantuan; Ren, Ning; Tu, Youying; Li, Bo

    2018-02-16

    Camellia seeds have been traditionally used as oil raw materials in Asia, and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins are the major specialised metabolites in Camellia seeds, and more than seventy saponins have been isolated and characterized. These natural compounds have caught much attention due to their various biological and pharmacological activities, including modulation of gastrointestinal system, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microorganism, antioxidation, neuroprotection, hypolipidemic effects, foaming and detergence, as well as helping the accumulation of pollutants by plants. These compounds have a promising application in medicine, agriculture, industry and environmental protection. The present paper summarized the information from current publications on Camellia seed saponins, with a focus on the advances made in chemical structures, determination methods, bioactivities and toxicity. We hope this article will stimulate further investigations on these compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiilborg, S T; Christensen, S B; Cornett, C; Olsen, C E; Lemmich, E

    1994-06-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, 1H NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HETCOR), established as 3-O-[2',4'-di-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, 3-O-[O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid and 3-O-[3'-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two of the saponins were submitted to a preliminary screening for molluscicidal activity against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata and showed, respectively, strong and weak activity. In addition, four saponins previously reported from other strains of Phytolacca dodecandra were identified.

  2. Potent antitrypanosomal triterpenoid saponins from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Bachkeet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Jain, Surendra; Cutler, Stephen J.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) and N-(2S, 3R, 4R-3-methyl-4-pentanolid-2-yl)-18-hydroxylanosta-8 (9), 22E, 24E-trien-27-amide-3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola Delile (Rubiaceae). Structural elucidation was based on the analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 1 showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 8.80 μM. Compounds 2–4 showed highly potent antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 values ranging between (2.57–2.84 μM) and IC90 values ranging between (3.36–4.35 μM), which are 5 fold greater than the positive control DFMO (IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 μM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate affinity to μ-opioid receptors with Ki values of 9.936 μM and 0.872 μM, respectively compared to a Ki value of 1.958 nM for the positive control, naloxone HCl. PMID:26524249

  3. New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Herb Hylomecon japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Fei; Gao, Jing-Yu; Wang, Jing; Geng, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Cheng-Xin; Li, Fei; Feng, Lei; Yu, Meng-Juan; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2017-10-23

    Background : Hylomecon japonica , a plant of the Papaveraceae family which is well-known for the alkaloids they produce, is a perennial plant widely distributed in the northeast, central and east regions of China. Although a variety of chemical constituents, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and megastigmoids, have been isolated from H. japonica , the investigation of saponins in H. japonica has not been reported until now. Methods : Various separation techniques, including polyporous resin column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and hemi-preparative HPLC were applied to the isolation of triterpenoid saponins, and chemical methods such as acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS and NMR were applied to their structure elucidation, and the XTT reduction method was used to assay cytotoxicity. Results : Two new triterpenoid saponins, named hylomeconoside A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) which were identified as 3- O -β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-gypsogenin-28- O -β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-quinovopyranoside ( 1 ) and 3- O -β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-gypsogenin-28- O -β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside ( 2 ), and two known triterpenoid saponins identified as dubioside C ( 3 ) and lucyoside P ( 4 ) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence, were isolated from H. japonica. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity on MGC-803 and HL-60 cells, with IC 50 values of 43.8 and 32.4 μg·mL -1 , respectively. Conclusions: Compounds 1 and 2 are new saponins, and 1 is considered to be one of the antitumor principles in this plant. This is the first time that triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from plants of the Papaveraceae family.

  4. A TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FROM SEEDS OF KOLOWE (Chydenanthus excelsus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Rijai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A triterpenoid saponin have been isolated from n-butanol fraction of the seeds of kolowe (Chydenanthus excelsus. The structure was determined as 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3- β - D-glucuronopyranosyloxy]- 22α -O-(2-methylbutiroyloxyolean-12-en-15α,16α,28-tri-hydroxy. Structure elucidation was accomplished by NMR (HMBC, HMQC/HSQC, ROE, ROESY, TOCSY methods, ESIMS, and IR spectroscopic.   Keywords: Chydenanthus excelsus, Lecythidaceae, Triterpenoid saponin

  5. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of molluscicidal saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slacanin, I; Marston, A; Hostettmann, K

    1988-09-02

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of oleanane saponins in Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), a plant with potent molluscicidal properties. The molluscicidal monodesmosidic saponins of the berries were determined at 254 nm as their 4-bromophenacyl derivatives, whereas the non-derivatized bidesmosidic saponins, lacking a free carboxyl group, were determined at 206 nm. A comparison of different extraction procedures showed that with cold water predominantly monodesmosidic saponins were obtained, whereas hot water gave mainly bidesmosidic (non-molluscicidal) saponins.

  6. Saponin and non-saponin fractions of red ginseng ameliorate cisplatin-induced pica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanath, Rekha; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-08-01

    Nausea and vomiting are considered as the foremost unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy experienced by 20-90% of cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of Korean Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) (RG), ginseng saponin (GS) and non-saponin (GNS) on cisplatin (CP)-induced pica and gastric damage in rats were investigated. Rats were treated with RG (25, 50, 100 mg/kg b.wt.), GS (5 and 10 mg/kg 100 mg/kg b.wt.) and GNS (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) before or after a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (6 mg/kg b.wt.). Kaolin together with normal food intake, normal food alone, body weight, histological examination of stomach and small intestine were used as indices of CP-induced pica in rats. Pre-treatment with RG (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) attenuated CP-induced kaolin intake at 24 h. CP-induced kaolin intake decreased upon post-treatment of rats with RG (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) at 48 h. The incidence of body weight reduction at 48 and 72 h diminished in rats post-treated with RG (50 mg/kg b.wt.). Pre-treatment with GS (5 and 10 mg/kg b.wt.) and GNS (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) attenuated CP-induced kaolin intake while normal food intake was not improved in 24 and 48 h. The gastro-protective effects of RG, GS and GNS were further confirmed by histopathological (damage in glandular portion and villi with dilated appearance) findings. The study indicates that both the red GS and GNS improve feeding behavior against CP-induced pica in rats.

  7. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  8. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  9. Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and antioxidative activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia nutshell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5-68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18-2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner.

  10. Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and antioxidative activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Quancheng

    2013-01-01

    Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5-68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18-2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner.

  11. Artefact formation during acid hydrolysis of saponins from Medicago spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tava, Aldo; Biazzi, Elisa; Mella, Mariella; Quadrelli, Paolo; Avato, Pinarosa

    2017-06-01

    Artefact compounds obtained during acid hydrolysis of saponins from Medicago spp. (Fabaceae), have been monitored and evaluated by GC-FID. Their identification has been performed by GC-MS and 1H and 13C NMR. Saponins with different substituents on the triterpenic pentacyclic aglycones were considered, and their hydrolysis products were detected and quantified during 10 h of time course reaction. From soyasapogenol B glycoside the well known soyasapogenols B, C, D and F were obtained together with a previously undescribed sapogenol artefact identified as 3β,22β,24-trihydroxyolean-18(19)-en and named soyasapogenol H. From a zanhic acid saponin two major artefact compounds identified as 2β,3β,16α-trihydroxyolean-13(18)-en-23,28-dioic acid and 2β,3β,16α-trihydroxyolean-28,13β-olide-23-oic acid were obtained, together with some zanhic acid. Other compounds, detected in very small amount in the reaction mixture, were also tentatively identified based on their GC-MS and UV spectra. The other most characteristic saponins in Medicago spp., hederagenin, bayogenin and medicagenic acid glycosides, under acidic condition of hydrolysis, released instead the correspondent aglycones and generated a negligible amount of artefacts. Nature of artefacts and mechanism of their formation, involving a stable tertiary carbocation, is here proposed and discussed for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Detection Of Triterpenoid Saponins In Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed –OH, -C=O, C-H, and ...

  13. Triterpenoidal saponins: bioactive secondary metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum coccineum L., led to the isolation of nine ursane-type triterpene saponins (1-9) including one new: zygophylloside S (1), together with known flavonoid glycoside (10), and sterol glycoside (11). The isolated compounds were tested for ant...

  14. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  15. Two new triterpenoid saponins from rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Lu, Jincai; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Two new 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid-type triterpenoid saponins, raddeanoside Ra (1) and raddeanoside Rb (2), were isolated from the rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated to be 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha...

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Crude Saponin Extracts from Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These plants were the whole plant of Schwenkia americana Linn (WSA), the rhizomes of Asparagus africanus Lam (RAA), the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea Linn (LDC), the stem bark of Ficus iteophylla Miq (BFI) and the leaves of Indigofera pulchra Willd (LIP). A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was ...

  17. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. A Molluscicidal Triterpenoid Saponin from the Fruits of Napoleonaea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the isolation and structural elucidation of. Napoleonaside [1], a new molluscicidal saponin of N. imperialis is reported. EXPERIMENTAL. General: TLC was carried out on Kieselgel 60 F254 precoated glass sheets (Merck) with CHCl3-MeOH-. H2O (4:2:1). Detection was by spraying with 50% aqueous H2SO4 followed by ...

  19. Psychopharmacological properties of the saponin fraction of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychopharmacological effects of a saponin-rich fraction (SFG) obtained from crude methanolic extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark were studied on spontaneous motor activity (SMA), pentobarbitalinduced sleep, motor coordination, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and stereotyped behaviour, catalepsy, forced ...

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of Achyranthes aspera saponin extract in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achyranthes aspera Linn belonging to the family Amaranthaceae is used in the treatment of lipid disorders in the Indian system of medicine. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of saponin extract of A. aspera (SAA) at 1200 mg/kg body weight in male wistar rats fed on high fat (HF) diet for ...

  1. Lipidated Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7–10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology has very recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for Dioscorea villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analogue long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were demonstrated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1–5), while series B (6–10) proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It also may inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

  2. Inhibitory effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the protective effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook (IPTS) against cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Benhnken Design (BBD) was carried out to optimize the extraction of IPTS. Thereafter, H9c2 cell model prepared by hydrogen ...

  3. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing.

  4. Inhibitory effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as well as significant up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results suggest that IPTS can protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis via the inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-induced intrinsic apoptosis. Keywords: Ilex pubescens, Total saponins, Cardiomyocytes, Apoptosis, H9c2 ...

  5. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCO...

  6. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing hypoperfusion of the ...

  7. Toxico-Pathological Effects of Saponins from Massularia acuminata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine ... Saponin confirmed with vanillin-perchloric acid and 6% erythrocyte in phosphate buffered saline significantly (P<0.05) increased serum potassium, sodium, phosphate, urea, creatinine, total and conjugated bilirubin; alkaline and acid phosphatases (ALP and ACP) in the ...

  8. Direct detection of saponins in crude extracts of soapnuts by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Meshari Saad; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Direct detection of saponins in soapnuts (Sapindus mukorossi) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is investigated in this project. Potassium bromide powder was mixed with extracted powder of soapnuts and compressed to a thin pellet for examination process. The outcome of the FTIR spectra of saponin demonstrated characteristic triterpenoid saponin absorptions of OH, C = O, C-H, and C = C, while the glycoside linkages to the sapogenins were indicated by the absorptions of C-O. The significance of this study is that saponin absorption peaks are directly detectable in crude aqueous and 95% ethanol extracts of soapnuts powder using FTIR spectroscopy, thereby eliminating the need of further expensive and exhaustive purification steps. The extracts of soapnuts were screened for saponins along with controls by phytochemical tests, and advanced spectroscopic techniques such as ultra fast liquid chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry were also implemented to validate the saponins.

  9. New steroidal saponins from rhizomes of Costus spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bernadete P; Parente, José P

    2004-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the rhizomes of Costus spiralis Rosc. Their structures were established as (3beta,25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-en-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->2)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (3beta,25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-en-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Their structural identifications were performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (DEPT, COSY, HETCOR and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The steroidal saponins were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanapoom, T; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2001-09-01

    From the pericarps of Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae), three new acetylated triterpene saponins were isolated together with hederagenin and five known triterpene saponins, as well as one known sweet acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside, mukurozioside IIb. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, 23-O-acetyl-hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic data.

  11. Triterpene saponins from Pleurospermum kamtschaticum and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Kyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-01-01

    Eleven new triterpene saponins (1-11), together with fourteen known triterpene and triterpene saponins (12-25) were isolated from a MeOH extract of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum HOFFMANN (Umbelliferae). The chemical structures of the new compounds (1-11) were determined by means of MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, correlated spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), total correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) to be pleurosaponin A (1)-K (11). The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, HCT15) in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay (SRB) assay. All compounds showed little cytotoxicity against tested cell lines (IC(50) >30 µM).

  12. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-08-15

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein.

  13. Three New Triterpenoid Saponins from Notoginseng Medicinal Fungal Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yan, Qing-Xia; Liu, Ying-Ying; Chang, Bai-Jin; Liu, Xin; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2017-12-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins, named ginsenoside-Rh 23 (1), ginsenoside-Rh 24 (2), and ginsenoside-Rh 25 (3), were isolated from notoginseng medicinal fungal substance. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS and chemical analysis. Compounds 1 - 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  15. Two Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new steroidal saponins, named drangustosides A–B (1–2, together with eight known compounds 3–10 were isolated and characterized from the MeOH extract of Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-inflammatory activity by superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits and galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Ming-Der; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liao, Sin-Chung; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Hsu, Li-Chuan; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2008-05-01

    Six saponins, sapinmusaponin K (1) [hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin L (2) [hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabino-pyranoside], sapinmusaponin M (3) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin N (4) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin O (5) [3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], and sapinmusaponin P (6) [3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], along with seven known saponins (7-13), were isolated from fruits and the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and acid hydrolysis. Biological evaluation indicated that saponins 1-4 and 7-13 showed moderate cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines.

  17. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia foenum-graecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu-Mei; Huang, Ri-Zhen; Zhang, Bin; Hua, Jing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Liang, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Eleven oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, foegraecumosides A-K, and eight known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia foenum-graecum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyses and chemical methods. All isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (NCI-H460, MGC-803, HepG2, and T24). Seven saponins containing the aglycone cyclamiretin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all tested human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values of 9.3-24.5 μM. Simultaneously, the cytotoxic activities of foegraecumosides A and B, lysichriside A, ardisiacrispins A and B, cyclaminorin, and 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-cyclamiretin A were tested on drug-resistant lung cancer cell lines (A549 and A549/CDDP, respectively). Ardisiacrispin B displayed moderate cytotoxicity against A549/CDDP, with an IC 50 value of 8.7 μM and a resistant factor (RF) of 0.9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ruscus Genus: A Rich Source of Bioactive Steroidal Saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ruscus (Asparagaceae family) is native to the Mediterranean, Southern and Western Europe and is represented by perennial, rhizomatous, and evergreen shrubs. Among the approximately seven species spread throughout Europe up to Iran, Ruscus aculeatus L. (butcher's broom) is the most widely distributed and appreciated. This review provides an overview of the traditional use of Ruscus spp., the current knowledge of the chemistry of this genus, and the pharmacological studies carried out on Ruscus spp. extracts. The underground parts of Ruscus plants are a source of steroidal saponins that can be classified into two structural classes: the hexacyclic spirostanol saponins and the pentacyclic furostanol saponins. The main aglycones are ruscogenin and neoruscogenin. From the pharmacological point of view, the most studied Ruscus species is undoubtedly R. aculeatus , a very ancient phlebotherapeutic agent. Pharmacological investigations since the discovery of the vasoconstrictive and venotonic properties of ruscogenin and neoruscogenin in the underground parts of R. aculeatus are discussed. Preparations based on Ruscus species are currently used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, haemorrhoids, and orthostatic hypotension. Finally, analytical techniques for the quality control of R. aculeatus extracts are reported. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. In-vitro Pro Apoptotic Effect of Crude Saponin from Ophiocoma erinaceus against Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Elaheh; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharara, Javad; Parivar, Kazem; Asili, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocoma erinaceus Muller &Troschel (Ophiocomidae) is part of the extensive group of echinoderm that contains bioactive metabolites. As the anti cancer potential of brittle star saponin has not been reported against cervical cancer, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anticancer effect of extracted crude saponin. Saponin extraction was conducted using conventional method such as froth test, TLC, FTIR and erythrolysis assay. The Hela-S3 cervical carcinoma and HNCF-PI52 normal cells were treated with different concentrations of saponin fraction for 24 and 48 h. The cytotoxicity was examined by MTT, DAPI, AO/PI, Annexin V-FITC and flow cytometry. In addition, the apoptotic induced pathway was studied using caspase assay, evaluation of ROS generation and Bcl-2 mRNA level. Crude saponin showed cytotoxic properties in Hela-S3 cells (IC50of 23.4 µg/mL) without significant impact against normal cells. In addition, the crude saponin increased sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, ROS generation and caspase-3 and -9 activity (IC50 of 11.10, 11.27 µg/mL). The dose dependent down regulation of Bcl-2 in treated cells demonstrated that saponin fraction can trigger intrinsic apoptotic pathway in cancer cells. This study provides valuable information about the apoptotic inducing effect of saponin fraction, which can offer new insights into the anticancer potential of saponin as a promising candidate against human cervical carcinoma.

  20. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  1. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w. The foaming power of the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1% of 0.5% SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of triterpenoid saponins in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral total saponin of Aralia elata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun; Xue, Juan; Li, Baimei; Lin, Xiaoting; Wang, Zhibin; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Aralia-saponin IV, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, Aralia-saponin A and Aralia-saponin B after the oral administration of total saponin of Aralia elata leaves in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. The analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray ionization source with negative ionization mode. Under the experimental conditions, the calibration curves of four analytes had good linearity values (r > 0.991). The intra- and inter-day precision values of the four analytes were ≤ 11.6%, and the accuracy was between -6.2 and 4.2%.The extraction recoveries of four triterpenoid saponins were in the range of 84.06-91.66% (RSD triterpenoid saponins in rat plasma after oral administration of total saponin of Aralia elata leaves, which helps guiding clinical usage of Aralia elata leaves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Protective effects of Sapindus saponins in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Long, Zi-Jiang; Wang, Ju-Tao; Wang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Jin-Lin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the protective effects of Sapindus saponins in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Thirty-two 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 in each group): model group (placebo), positive control group (27 mg/kg of Captopril Tablets), Sapindus saponins groups (27 mg/kg and 108 mg/kg, respectively). Another 8 healthy Wistar-Kyoto strain (WKY) rats were used as the normal group. The animals were treated for 8 weeks. Blood pressure of rats was determined by non-invasive blood pressure meter (BP-6). Furthermore, the contents of angiotensin II (Ang II) in plasma and myocardial tissue were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the gene expression of receptor angiotensin type 1 (AT1R) in aorta was determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and AT1R in heart was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The protein expression of p-phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK) was determined by Western blotting. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. And the histopathological and morphological changes of aorta and heart tissue samples were assessed semi-quantitatively by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) or Masson staining. Thirty minutes after single or continuous treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was reduced significantly in Sapindus saponins groups. And the contents of AngII, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, the expression of AT1R mRNA, p-p38MAPK and TGF-β1 were significantly suppressed dose-dependently (PSapindus saponins treatment, compared with those of the model group, the cardiac and aortic pathological changes were ameliorated significantly. Our findings suggest that Sapindus saponins might have protective effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats

  4. Chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Porter, Elaine A; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2007-05-04

    The chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins found in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Asparagus officinalis, Convallaria majalis, Digitalis purpurea and Ruscus aculeatus was studied by HPLC-MS using a C-18 reversed-phase column and aqueous acetonitrile or aqueous methanol mobile phase gradients, with or without the addition of 1% acetic acid. The behaviour was compared to that of triterpene saponins found in Aesculus hippocastanum, Centella asiatica, Panax notoginseng and Potentilla tormentilla. Inclusion of methanol in the mobile phase under acidic conditions was found to cause furostanol saponins hydroxylated at C-22 to chromatograph as broad peaks, whereas the peak shapes of the spirostanol saponins and triterpene saponins studied remained acceptable. In aqueous methanol mobile phases without the addition of acid, furostanol saponins chromatographed with good peak shape, but each C-22 hydroxylated furostanol saponin was accompanied by a second chromatographic peak identified as its C-22 methyl ether. Methanolic extracts analysed in non-acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases also resolved pairs of C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy furostanol saponins. The C-22 methyl ether of deglucoruscoside was found to convert to deglucoruscoside during chromatography in acidified aqueous acetonitrile, or by dissolving in water. Poor chromatography of furostanol saponins in acidified aqueous methanol is due to the interconversion of the C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy forms. It is recommended that initial analysis of saponins by HPLC-MS using a C-18 stationary phase is performed using acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phase gradients. The existence of naturally-occurring furostanol saponins methoxylated at C-22 can be investigated with aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases and avoiding methanol in the extraction solvent.

  5. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  6. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize

  7. Surface properties of adsorption layers formed from triterpenoid and steroid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagureva, N.; Tcholakova, S.; Golemanov, K.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants with non-trivial surface and aggregation properties which find numerous important applications in several areas (food, pharma, cosmetic and others). In the current paper we study the surface properties of ten saponin extracts, having different molecular structure

  8. Platyconic Acid A, a Genuine Triterpenoid Saponin from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seok Yoo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A genuine triterpenoid saponin, platyconic acid A (1 was isolated from the roots extract of Platycodon grandiflorum, together with five known saponins: deapioplatycoside E (2, platycoside E (3, platycodin D3 (4, platycodin D2 (5 and platycodin D (6. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidence.

  9. Role of the hydrophobic phase for the unique rheologica properties of saponin adsorption layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.G.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Saponins are a diverse class of natural, plant derived surfactants, with peculiar molecular structure consisting of a hydrophobic scaffold and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. Saponins have strong surface activity and are used as natural emulsifiers and foaming agents in food and

  10. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  11. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  12. Use of antifungal Saponin SC-2 of Solanum chrysotrichum for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saponin SC-2 from Solanum chrysotrichum showed antifungal activity, demonstrated in vitro, which inhibited the growth of dermatophytes, and in vivo, to be effective in the treatment against tinea pedis and pityriasis capitis. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, ...

  13. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  14. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  15. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  16. Acacia concinna Saponins. I. Structures of Prosapogenols, Concinnosides A-F, Isolated from the Alkaline Hydrolysate of the Highly Polar Saponin Fraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GAFUR, Mohammod Abdul; OBATA, Tohoru; KIUCHI, Fumiyuki; TSUDA, Yoshisuke

    1997-01-01

    A highly polar saponin mixture from pods of Acacia concinna (Leguminosae) was hydrolyzed with alkali to yield five new triterpenoidal prosapogenols named concinnosides A (6), B (3), C (7), D (4), and E (8...

  17. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from the buds of Lonicera similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zou, Li-Hua; He, Yu-Lin; Peng, Cheng; Guo, Li; Xiong, Liang

    2017-11-30

    Four new lupane triterpenoid saponins, along with one known lupane and eight hederagenin saponins, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the buds of Lonicera similis Hemsl. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 23-hydroxybetulinic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (lonisimilioside A, 1), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 23-hydroxybetulinic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (lonisimilioside B, 2), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl betulinic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (lonisimilioside C, 3) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl betulinic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (lonisimilioside D, 4), respectively. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates against human cancer cell lines HepG2, MCF-7 and A-549 were evaluated. Only the monodesmosidic saponin with a free carboxyl group at C-28 (12) exhibited significant cytotoxicities against HepG2, MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines with the IC 50 values of 8.98 ± 0.19, 12.48 ± 0.45 and 11.62 ± 0.54 μM, respectively. Furthermore, Hoechst fluorescence 33342 staining was used to demonstrate that 12 could induce HepG2 and A-549 cells apoptosis significantly.

  19. An isoflavan and saponins from Astragalus depressus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamria Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nine known secondary metabolites were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Astragalus depressus L. (Fabaceae family, including one isoflavan, namely pendulone (1 and eight saponins, namely cyclogaleginoside A (2, astrasieversianin II (3, astrasieversianin IV (4, astrasieversianin VII (5, astrasieversianin VI (6, astrasieversianin XIV (7, dehydrosoyasaponin I (8 and soyasaponin I (9. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  20. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry.

  1. Cycloartane triterpenoid saponins from the herbs of Thalictrum fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Si-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Xiao, Min; Jiang, Lin; Luo, Ding; Niu, Qian-Wen; Li, Yao-Lan; Zhang, Xian-Tao; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2017-06-05

    Six new cycloartane triterpenoid saponins, thalisides A-F (1-6), along with four known ones (7-10), were isolated from Thalictrum fortunei. The new structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic data (NMR, IR, UV, and MS). Compounds 1-10 were examined for their in vitro cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines (HepG2, A549) and antiviral activity against influenza A virus (H1N1) and found to be inactive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three new cytotoxic oleanane triterpenoid saponins from Cylindrokelupha dalatensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng-Yun; Liu, Jie; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Ling; Pei, Ling-Peng; Ma, Bai-Ping; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Wen-Bin

    2017-11-07

    Three new minor oleanane triterpenoid saponins, cylindrosides B (1), C (2), and D (3), were isolated from the seed of Cylindrokelupha dalatensis using chromatographic method. Their structures were established on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidences. They displayed significant antitumor activity in vitro against HL60 cancer cell lines and IC 50 values were 7.15 ± 0.63, 10.07 ± 0.97, and 4.74 ± 0.57 μM, respectively, by MTT method.

  3. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  5. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Anti-Trichomonas activity of Sapindus saponins, a candidate for development as microbicidal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pratibha; Singh, Divya; Singh, Man Mohan

    2008-09-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. In view of increased resistance of the parasite to classical drugs of the metronidazole family, the need for new unrelated agents is increasing. This study evaluates anti-Trichomonas activity of Sapindus saponins, a component of a herbal local contraceptive Consap recently marketed in India. The parasites were treated with saponins for MIC determination. Anti-Trichomonas activity of the saponins was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay, the substrate gel electrophoresis method and RT-PCR analysis. The effect of saponins on the mitochondrial potential of the host was determined by florescence-activated cell sorter. Actin cytoskeletal staining was used to determine the effect on parasite cytoskeleton. Using in vitro susceptibility assay, the MIC of Sapindus saponins for T. vaginalis (0.005%) was found to be 10-fold lower than its effective spermicidal concentration (0.05%). Saponins concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to adhere to HeLa cells and decreased proteolytic activity of the parasite's cysteine proteinases. This was associated with decreased expression of adhesin AP65 and membrane-expressed cysteine proteinase TvCP2 genes. Saponins produced no adverse effect on host cells in mitochondrial reduction potential measurement assay. Saponins also reversed the inhibitory mechanisms exerted by Trichomonas for evading host immunity. Early response of saponins to disrupt actin cytoskeleton in comparison with their effect on the nucleus suggests a membrane-mediated mode of action rather than via induction of apoptosis. Findings demonstrate the potential of Sapindus saponins for development as a microbicidal contraceptive for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its microbicidal activity against other sexually transmitted infections.

  7. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  8. Trichomonicidal and parasite membrane damaging activity of bidesmosic saponins from Manilkara rufula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Menezes, Camila Braz; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-01-01

    The infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Treatment relies on one class of drugs, the 5-nitroimidazoles, but resistance is widespread. New drugs are urgently needed. We reported the effect of crude and purified saponin fractions of Manilkara rufula against Trichomonas vaginalis. The compound responsible for antitrichomonal activity was isolated and identified as an uncommon bidesmosic saponin, Mi-saponin C. This saponin eliminated parasite viability without toxicity against the human vaginal epithelial line (HMVII). In addition, the isolated saponin fraction improved the metronidazole effect against a metronidazole-resistant isolate and dramatically reduced the cytoadherence of T. vaginalis to human cells. Investigation of the mechanism of death showed that the saponin fraction induced the parasite death due to profound membrane damage, inducing a disturbance of intracellular content without nuclear damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antitrichomonal activity in the bidesmosic saponins of Manilkara rufula. PMID:29190689

  9. Quantitative thin layer chromatographic analysis of the saponins in tea seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicharoenpong, Chanya; Petsom, Amorn

    2009-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera Abel., which contains saponins, is used extensively in aquaculture to eliminate unwanted fish and harmful insects during the cultivation of prawns, and as a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. For the quality control of such tea seed meal products, a method for the determination of saponin content is required. To develop a simple, sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of saponins in tea seed meal using high-performance thin layer chromatography and densitometry. Powdered tea seed meal samples were extracted with methanol, filtered, evaporated to dryness and the residue taken up in methanol. Samples, together with methanolic solutions of saponin standard, were analysed by HPTLC on silica gel layers eluted with ethyl acetate:methanol:water (6:3:1.5, v/v/v) and detected at 214 nm. The amounts of saponins were determined from the respective calibration curves obtained by plotting the concentrations of saponin standard against peak area. Tea saponin peaks were detected at about R(f )0.40. Good linearity was observed in the range of 0.9-22.2 microg/spot with a correlation coefficient of 0.9978. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.87 and 2.90 microg/spot, respectively. The content of tea saponins in 10 tested samples was found to be between 13.1 and 21.1% w/w. The assay proved to be a specific, sensitive and inexpensive method for the quality control of saponins in tea seed meal. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cuspidate A, new anti-fungal triterpenoid saponin from Lepidagathis cuspidata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Inder Fozdar, Bharat; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Upendra

    2017-04-01

    One new triterpenoid saponin named cuspidate A (1) along with a known oleanane-based triterpenoid saponin clemontanoside-C were isolated from the roots of Lepidagathis cuspidata. The structure of new compound (1) was established after detailed analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. This is the first report on clemontanoside-C from this genus. These saponins were found to be effective against the selected fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolinifer, Penicillum nodatum, Aspergillus fumigates. Compound 1 showed better activity, comparable to the synthetic drug, while compound 2 showed a moderate effect against all studied fungal strains.

  11. TWO EXTRACTION METHODS AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE SAPONIN OF THE SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L., “BOLICHE”

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Ch., G.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Huamán M., J.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Aguirre M., R.; Departamento de Química Analítica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Barrera T., M.; Escuela de Química, FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We used the plant of “boliche” of the region of the northwest of Lima Sapindus Saponaria L. as a raw material for extraction, separation and classification of the saponin obtained. The extraction was performed by two different methods, in order to ascertain the most efficient. One method degrease the sample with chloroform and then extracts the saponin with ethanol in soxhlet, while the other method makes a maceration with ethanol. In both cases we obtain a crude extract of saponins, which is...

  12. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  13. New tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaetn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Hua, Yan; Teng, Rong-Wei; Kong, Yun-Cheung; Chen, Chang-Xiang

    2004-09-01

    Two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapimukoside C (1) and sapimukoside D (2), have been isolated from the roots of Sapindus mukorossi Gaetn. Their structures have been determined, on the basis of spectral and chemical analysis, as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-(21S)-ethoxyl-3 beta-ol (1) and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)]- beta-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucall-7,24-diene-(21S)-methoxyl-3 beta-ol (2).

  14. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Tian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts obtained from Platycodon grandiflorum roots led to isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23,24-pentahydroxyoleanane-28(13-lactone (1 and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23α-tetrahydroxyoleanane-28(13- lactone (2 by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques, as well as chemical means. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against human ECA-109 cells.

  15. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P., E-mail: marenif@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Farmacia; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2010-07-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16alpha, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-Larabinopyranosyl)-16alpha,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  16. Unusual oleanane-type saponins from Arenaria montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-04-01

    Three oleanane-type saponins, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosylechinocystic acid 28-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosylechinocystic acid 28-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaulophyllogenin 28-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (3) were isolated from the whole plant of Arenaria montana. Their unusual structures for the Caryophyllaceae family were established mainly by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are saponins and sapogenins precursors of prednisolone? Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of cortisol into prednisolone in cattle faeces was demonstrated and provided by literature, given the structural similarity of prednisolone with cortisol. In this study, we evaluated a possible neo-formation of prednisolone, as results of a faecal or environmental contamination. A saponine, α-solanine, and a sapogenin, diosgenin, were selected as possible precursors. A simple method without extraction was applied. The analyses were performed by HPLC–MSn to evaluate the possible transformations. The results showed that prednisolone was detected in the faecal suspension spiked with diosgenin at t= 8h, while cortisol was also detected at t = 24h in the sample of faeces spiked with α-solanine. In the feed and in the control samples, no transformations were observed.

  18. Efficacy of the saponin component of Impatiens capensis Meerb.in preventing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Vicki A; Bowers, Christopher P; Kneubehl, Alexander R; Lendrum, Elizabeth C; Young, Linda M; Kinder, David H

    2015-03-13

    Many different tribes of American Indians used jewelweed, Impatiens capensis Meerb, as a plant mash to reduce development of poison ivy dermatitis. Saponins are a natural soapy constituent found within plants. A 2012 study suggested that saponins may be present in jewelweed which could be responsible for its efficacy in preventing rash development following contact with Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy). This study validated this hypothesis and demonstrated additional biological activity of the jewelweed saponin containing extract. Fresh I. capensis leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, with a final separation between water and n-butanol, to obtain a saponin containing extract. The presence of saponins in the extract was demonstrated by the observation of foaming and using a vanillin colorimetric assay for total saponins. Efficacy of the saponin containing extracts in rash reduction was tested by brushing poison ivy (PI) onto the forearms of volunteers (N=23) in six locations and treating these PI exposed areas with distilled water (control), saponin containing extracts, fresh plant mashes, and soaps made with and without plant extracts. Saponin containing extracts were further tested for biological activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and against cancer cell lines A-375, HT-29, and MCF-7. Additionally, because saponins have been shown to have a stimulatory effect in cardiac muscle 2 µl saponin extract was applied superficially to black worms, Lumbriculus variegatus (N=5). Both saponin containing extracts and all soaps tested were effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis; thus, saponin content correlates with PI rash prevention. No apparent antibiosis was observed against any bacteria tested; however, dose response cytotoxicity was documented against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and cytostatic activity was seen against the HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Lumbriculus

  19. Steroidal Saponins from Furcraea hexapetala Leaves and Their Phytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Juan M; Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-11-23

    Four new steroidal saponins (1-4) along with 13 known saponins were isolated from the leaves of Furcraea hexapetala. The new compounds were identified as (20R,22R,25R)-3β-hydroxy-5α-spirostan-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-3β-hydroxy-5α-spirost-20(21)-en-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β-ol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), and (25R)-5β-spirostan-3β-ol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) by spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. Structure-activity relationships for these compounds with respect to phytotoxic effects are discussed.

  20. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E.

  1. Tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Hua, Yan; Liu, Hai-Yang; Teng, Rong-Wei; Kong, Yun-Cheung; Hu, Xiu-Ying; Chen, Chang-Xiang

    2006-10-01

    Six new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapimukosides E-J (1-6) were isolated from the roots of Sapindus mukorossi GAERTN. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectral and chemical analysis.

  2. Research Progress on Natural Triterpenoid Saponins in the Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun-Rong; Long, Fang-Yi; Chen, Chu

    2014-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are glycosides with remarkable structural and bioactive diversity. They are becoming increasingly significant in the treatment of cancer due to their efficacy and safety. This chapter provides an update on the sources, pharmacological effects, structure-activity relationships, and clinical studies of anticancer triterpenoid saponins with a particular focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic properties. The correlative references and study reports described were collected through PubMed. The anticancer triterpenoid saponins enable the inhibition of cancer formation and progression by modulating multiple signaling targets related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metastasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, multidrug resistance, cancer stem cells, and microRNAs. This review provides new insights into the molecular basis of triterpenoid saponins in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  4. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  5. A survey of plants in Gujarat, India, for alkaloids, saponins, and tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalingappa L. Hungund; Chandravadan H. Pathak; Chandravadan H. Pathak

    1971-01-01

    A floristic and phytochemical survey of forests in Gujarat State, India, is being undertaken to identify sources of alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. This note is a report on the results of screening 105 plant species collected from that region.

  6. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2017-07-15

    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  8. Cytotoxic spirostane-type saponins from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Debabrata; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Kaushik, Nutan; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2009-01-01

    Four new spirostane-type saponins named borivilianosides E-H (1-4) were isolated from an ethanol extract of the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum together with two known steroid saponins (5 and 6). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated using mainly 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of borivilianosides F (2), G (3), and H (4) and three known compounds was evaluated using two human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116).

  9. Arboreasides A-E, triterpene saponins from the bark of Cussonia arborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougan, Guy B; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Sondengam, Beibam L; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2009-06-01

    Five new triterpene saponins, arboreasides A-E (1-5), and two known saponins, ciwujianoside C(3) and 23-hydroxyursolic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, were isolated from the bark of Cussonia arborea. The structures were established using extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry.

  10. Immunological Adjuvant Activity of Pectinioside A, the Steroidal Saponin from the Starfish Patiria pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Osamu; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-05-01

    The steroidal saponin, pectinioside A, was isolated from the starfish, Patiria pectinifera. When it was subcutaneously injected into mice with ovalbumin (OVA), it facilitated the production of OVA-specific total IgG and IgG1 but not IgG2a. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that starfish saponin has the potential to be an immunological adjuvant, stimulating Th2 type immune response.

  11. Effect of spermicides on Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro-nonoxynol-9 vs. Sapindus saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, P; Maikhuri, J P; Gupta, G

    2003-08-01

    Saponins extracted from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorosii were tested for their bactericidal/bacteriostatic property against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Nonoxynol-9 was used as a reference compound for the comparison of activity. Lactobacillus colonies were grown on specific medium (Rogosa SL agar) containing different concentrations of saponins and nonoxynol-9 in an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The number and size of colonies were recorded at the end of the experiment and compared with controls. Results indicated that nearly 90% of Lactobacillus colonies with minor reduction in size thrived at 0.05% concentration of saponins whereas only 18% of colonies with approximately 75% reduction in size grew in dishes containing 0.05% nonoxynol-9. At higher concentrations of saponins, there was a gradual, dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonies and at 2.5% concentration there was an approximately 55% reduction in the number and 60% reduction in the size of surviving colonies. No lactobacillus colonies, however, grew in dishes containing 0.1% and higher concentrations of nonoxynol-9. The studies indicate that Sapindus saponins as compared to nonoxynol-9 are far less toxic to lactobacillus species and therefore saponins containing spermicidal preparations are likely to be more vaginal-friendly than equivalent nonoxynol-9 preparations.

  12. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin-Tao; Fang, Ying; Li, Ming-Ming; Yang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1), glycoside St-J (2), anhuienoside E (3), hedera saponin B (4), and flaccidoside II (5) on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor. PMID:24191167

  13. Composition of Quillaja saponin extract affects lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippel, Janine; Gies, Katharina; Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Steffen-Heins, Anja; Drusch, Stephan

    2017-04-15

    Quillaja saponin extract comprises both, surfactants and phenolic compounds, which makes it interesting, in particular, for the formulation of sensitive functional food ingredients and its protection against oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of Quillaja saponin extract in oil/water emulsions. Emulsions stabilised by Quillaja saponin showed decreased oxidation stability due to naturally occurring metals but stability increased to a great extent when a chelating agent was added. Antioxidant efficiency of the saponin extract was determined photometrically by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). EPR spectroscopy applying stable hydrophilic and hydrophobic radicals is advantageous, especially for characterisation of antioxidant efficiency at the interface. The extract showed antioxidant activity towards radicals in both environments, aqueous and hydrophobic, indicating the importance of phenolic compounds for the antioxidant properties of Quillaja saponin extract and their presence at the interface facilitated by saponin molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  15. Inhibition of herbivory on young holly leaves: evidence for the defensive role of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel A; Kimmerer, Thomas W

    1989-03-01

    Response of the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, to young and one year old leaves of Ilex opaca Aiton was studied on three dates during the period of leaf expansion in the spring. Young foliage, which is rich in nutrients but also contains high levels of saponins, was found to be unsuitable for colonization by this oligophagous herbivore until the leaves had matured and levels of saponins had declined. Mites preferentially colonized and had higher survival and reproduction on sclerophyllous, one-year old leaves than on young leaves in early spring. High levels of saponins in young, second-flush leaves of shoots that had earlier been damaged by frost were again correlated with low mite survival in June. Laboratory preference tests with the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, and the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.), indicated that young, saponin-rich holly foliage is especially unpalatable to these highly polyphagous caterpillars. Fifth instar fall webworms required significantly longer to complete their development, attained lower weights, and had greater mortality on artificial diet amended with low concentrations of purified holly saponins than on control diet. These results support the hypothesis that the high levels of saponins in young holly leaves provide protection from herbovores until the leaves have matured and their structural defenses are developed.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida and their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Jing-Qun; Li, Man-Mei; Liu, Qing; Li, Yao-Lan; Fan, Chun-Lin; Pei, Hong; Zhao, Hui-Nan; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-01-01

    A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, flaccidoside IV (1), and three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, flaccidosides V-VII (2-4), along with 17 known saponins (5-21), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida. The structures of the new triterpenoid saponins were determined based on spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All the isolated saponins were tested for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and several bisdesmosidic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (2, 7, and 10) showed significant inhibitory activities, which indicated they had potential anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro.

  17. Steroidal saponins from the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Kameyama, A; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    1998-06-01

    Phytochemical examination of the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus has been undertaken as part of systematic study of plants of the Liliaceae. Six new spirostanol saponins and five new furostanol saponins were isolated, and their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, and hydrolysis. Ruscogenin diglycoside with three acetyl groups attached to the inner galactosyl moiety and its corresponding 26-glucosyloxyfurostanol saponin showed cytostatic activity on leukemia HL-60 cells.

  18. Cell death induction and nitric oxide biosynthesis in white poplar (Populus alba) suspension cultures exposed to alfalfa saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Agoni, Valentina; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Raimondi, Elena; Macovei, Anca; Carbonera, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    The present work reports on the biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins on white poplar (Populus alba, cultivar 'Villafranca') cell suspension cultures. The extracts from alfalfa roots, aerial parts and seeds were characterized for their saponin content by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionisation coupled to mass spectrometry. The quantitative saponin composition from the different plant extracts was determined considering the aglycone moieties and determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Only soyasapogenin I was detected in the seed extract while several other saponins were found in the root and leaf extracts. Actively proliferating white poplar cell cultures were challenged with the different saponin extracts. Only alfalfa root saponins, at 50 µg ml⁻¹, induced significant cell death rates (75.00 ± 4.90%). Different cell subpopulations with peculiar cell death morphologies were observed and the programmed cell death (PCD)/necrosis ratio was reduced at increasing saponin concentrations. Enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) production was observed in white poplar cells treated with root saponins (RSs) at 50 µg ml⁻¹ and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the culture medium was also demonstrated. Saponin-induced NO production was sensitive to sodium azide and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, two specific inhibitors of distinct pathways for NO biosynthesis in plant cells. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  19. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  20. Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Amini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100% ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay and under invert microscopy. Results: The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD 50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells. Conclusions: These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.

  1. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  2. Effects of Saponin from Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds on Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline, HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline, Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg, and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 9th week after treatment. Biochemical characteristics of rats were tested, histopathological sections of liver tissue were observed, and the protein and mRNA expression of related factors of cholesterol in the intestine and liver were determined. One-way ANOVA test (SPSS software version 11.5, Chicago, IL, USA was used to determine statistically significant differences between the HFD and other groups. Results: In saponin groups, the serum lipid, bile acid efflux, anti-peroxide activities, and lipid area of liver tissue improved. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and scavenger receptor class B type I elevated in the liver. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase levels were suppressed in both the serum and liver. However, significant cholesterol efflux was not found and Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 levels elevated in the intestine. Conclusion: The mechanisms of saponin in Fenugreek effect on ameliorating dyslipidemia are probably related to accelerated cholesterol metabolism, inhibited cholesterol synthesis, and facilitated reverse cholesterol transport, but not cholesterol absorption.

  3. Ginseng total saponins enhance neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-qing; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiu-min; Zhao, Shu-zhi; Zhou, Yun; Liu, Shi-jue; Wang, Xiao-tong

    2011-01-27

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most commonly used healing herbs for stroke and chronic debilitating conditions in China. Ginsenosides are the main active principles for ginseng's efficacy, but the mechanisms have not been fully clarified. To test the hypothesis whether or not the administration of Ginseng total saponins (GTS) can enhance neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia, and thereby improve neurological deficits. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of GTS dissolved at a dose of 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1) or normal saline (NS) of same volume 3 days before the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model establishment until the animals were killed at the time points of 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d. The neurological function was assessed blindly. BrdU immunostaining and double staining were performed by following the 3-steps method. (A) GTS-treated rats have better neurological scores compared with those in NS group at 14d time point (pregeneration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

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    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New 30-Noroleanane Triterpenoid Saponins from Holboellia coriacea Diels

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    Wenbing Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins, akebonoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1, akebonoic acid 28-O-(6′′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (Holboelliside A, 2 and 3β,20α,24-trihydroxy-29-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-O-(6′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Holboelliside B, 3 were isolated from the stems of Holboellia coriacea Diels, together with five known compounds, eupteleasaponin VIII (4, 3α-akebonoic acid (5, quinatic acid (6, 3β-hydroxy-30-norhederagenin (7 and quinatoside A (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against three human tumors HepG2, HCT116 and SGC-7901 cell lines in vitro.

  6. New cycloartane saponin and monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Backheet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A new cycloartane-type saponin with unusual hydroxylation at C-17 and a unique side chain, 9 (R), 19, 22 (S), 24 (R) bicyclolanost-3β, 12α, 16β, 17α tetrol-25-one 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two new monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids, 10-methoxy pumiloside (2) and the previously chemically synthesized, 10-methoxy strictosidine (3) along with other five known compounds, 7α-morroniside (4), 7-epi-loganin (5), (7β)-7-O-methylmorroniside (6), 5(S)-5-carboxystrictisidine (7) and apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola (Rubiaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolates was accomplished by extensive (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopic data analysis and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 4–8 were reported for the first time from the genus Mussaenda. Interestingly, this is the first report for the occurrence of the monoterpenoid glucoindole-type alkaloids in the genus which might be useful for the chemotaxonomic evaluation of the genus Mussaenda. All isolates were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activities. Compound 7 showed good antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 and IC90 values of 13.7 and 16.6 µM compared to IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 µM for the positive control DFMO, difluoromethylornithine. PMID:26969788

  7. Screening for feeding deterrent and insect growth regulatory activity of triterpenic saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi.

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    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Dhingra, Swaran; Parmar, Balraj S

    2010-01-13

    Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active in controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L(-1) alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prep-HPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[beta-D-xyl(OAc).beta-D-arabinopyranosyl.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[beta-D-glc.beta-D-glc.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (GI50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton.

  8. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  9. P450s and UGTs: Key Players in the Structural Diversity of Triterpenoid Saponins.

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    Seki, Hikaru; Tamura, Keita; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2015-08-01

    The recent spread of next-generation sequencing techniques has facilitated transcriptome analyses of non-model plants. As a result, many of the genes encoding enzymes related to the production of specialized metabolites have been identified. Compounds derived from 2,3-oxidosqualene (the common precursor of sterols, steroids and triterpenoids), a linear compound of 30 carbon atoms produced through the mevalonate pathway, are called triterpenes. These include essential sterols, which are structural components of biomembranes; steroids such as the plant hormones, brassinolides and the toxin in potatoes, solanine; as well as the structurally diverse triterpenoids. Triterpenoids containing one or more sugar moieties attached to triterpenoid aglycones are called triterpenoid saponins. Triterpenoid saponins have been shown to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancerogenic and antiviral effects. This review summarizes the recent progress in gene discovery and elucidates the biochemical functions of biosynthetic enzymes in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. Special focus is placed on key players in generating the structural diversity of triterpenoid saponins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and the UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Perspectives on further gene discovery and the use of biosynthetic genes for the microbial production of plant-derived triterpenoid saponins are also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Triterpenoid Saponins Isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woo; Park, Sang Jin; Lim, Jong Hwan; Yang, Jae Won; Shin, Jung Cheul; Lee, Sang Wook; Suh, Joo Won; Hwang, Soon B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to significant adverse effects and emergence of resistant strains of currently developed anti-HCV agents, plant extracts have been considered to be potential sources of new bioactive compounds against HCV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of triterpenoid saponins contained in the root extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) on viral enzyme activities and replication in both HCV replicon cells and cell culture grown HCV- (HCVcc-) infected cells. Inhibitory activities of triterpenoid saponins from PG were verified by NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay and were further confirmed in the context of HCV replication. Six triterpenoid saponins (platycodin D, platycodin D2, platycodin D3, deapioplatycodin D, deapioplatycodin D2, and platyconic acid A), PG saponin mixture (PGSM), were identified as active components exerting anti-HCV activity. Importantly, PGSM exerted synergistic anti-HCV activity in combination with either interferon-α or NS5A inhibitors. We demonstrated that combinatorial treatment of PGSM and IFN-α efficiently suppressed colony formation with significant reduction in drug resistant variant of HCV. These data suggest that triterpenoid saponin may represent a novel anti-HCV therapeutic agent. PMID:24489585

  11. [Simultaneous determination of total flavone and total saponin in Gynostemma pentaphyllum by signal multiplier spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui-Hua; Hou, Dong-Yan; Li, Tie-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Yuan

    2006-09-01

    Important chemical constituents analysis for the total flavone and total saponin in Gynostemma pentaphyllum is described. The colour reactions of flavones and saponines with vanillin-perchloric acid in acetic acid produced the good absorptions at 451 and 547 nm, but the absorption peaks too overlapped to be determined simultaneously. A new method for the total flavone and the total saponin in Gynostemma pentaphyllum to be determined by signal multiplier spectrophotometry simultaneously without any preliminary separation was proposed. For quantitative analysis, the rutinum as a standard of the total flavone and the ginsenoside Rb1 as standard of the total saponin were applied. The experiment results showed that the regression equations of concentration and deltaA were obtained: deltaAflavone = 0.0133+4.417 0Cflavone, relation coefficient rflavone = 0.9994, and the total flavone concentrations were in 0-0. 16 microg x mI(-1) with deltaA obeying linear relation; deltaAsaporin = 2.775 5Csaponin -0.8881 x 10(-2), relation coefficient rsaponin = 0.9991, and the total saponin concentrations were in 0-0.30 microg x mL(-1) with deltaA obeying linear relation respectively. The recovery ratio was 104.0%-113.0% and 86.8%-94.6% respectively. The RSDflavone was less than 0.58% (n = 9) and RSDsaponin was less than 0. 35% (n=9) respectively. The proposed method is simple, rapid accurate and feasible.

  12. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

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    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  13. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  14. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

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    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  16. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

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    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  17. Genomic and Coexpression Analyses Predict Multiple Genes Involved in Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoumkina, Marina A.; Modolo, Luzia V.; Huhman, David V.; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Tang, Yuhong; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Saponins, an important group of bioactive plant natural products, are glycosides of triterpenoid or steroidal aglycones (sapogenins). Saponins possess many biological activities, including conferring potential health benefits for humans. However, most of the steps specific for the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. Here, we use comprehensive gene expression clustering analysis to identify candidate genes involved in the elaboration, hydroxylation, and glycosylation of the triterpene skeleton in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Four candidate uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases were expressed in Escherichia coli, one of which (UGT73F3) showed specificity for multiple sapogenins and was confirmed to glucosylate hederagenin at the C28 position. Genetic loss-of-function studies in M. truncatula confirmed the in vivo function of UGT73F3 in saponin biosynthesis. This report provides a basis for future studies to define genetically the roles of multiple cytochromes P450 and glycosyltransferases in triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago. PMID:20348429

  18. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

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    Yongjun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors was investigated by a single-factor test and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of saponin were extraction temperature 68°C, alkali solution pH 9.1, acid isolation pH 4.1, and liquid-solid ratio 15.9 : 1. The extraction rate of saponin was 76.12% at the optimal extraction conditions.

  19. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core

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    Markus Himmelsbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  20. Acylated triterpene saponins from the roots of Securidaca longepedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Pénez, Nicolas; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Delaude, Clément; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylpresenegenin 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-{4-O-[(E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]}-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylpresenegenin 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[(6-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-{4-O-[(E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]}-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylpresenegenin 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-{4-O-[(E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]}-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylpresenegenin 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-{4-O-[(E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]}-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, were isolated from the roots of Securidaca longepedunculata, together with three known compounds. Their structures were established mainly by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiwei; Cui, Jingang; Du, Xiaoye; Yang, Qinbo; Jia, Chenglin; Xiong, Minqi; Yu, Xintong; Li, Li; Wang, Wenjian; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2014-07-03

    Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) has been extensively used as a therapeutic agent to treat a variety of diseases. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) consist of major therapeutically active components of Panax notoginseng. PNS inhibit the growth of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of PNS on breast cancer metastasis. 4T1 cell, a highly metastatic mouse breast carcinoma cell line, was utilized for in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays were first performed to examine the effects of PNS on 4T1 cell viability, migration and invasion, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses were also performed to examine the effects of PNS on the expression of genes associated with tumor metastasis. The effect of PNS on 4T1 tumor cell metastasis was further assessed in spontaneous and experimental metastasis models in vivo. PNS treatment exhibited a dose-dependent effect on impairing 4T1 cell viability in vitro. However, when examined at a lower dose that did not affect cell viability, the migration and invasion of 4T1 cell was remarkably inhibited in vitro. Meanwhile, PNS treatment led to upregulated expression of genes known to inhibit metastasis and downregulated expression of genes promoting metastasis in cultured 4T1 cells. These results suggested a selective effect of PNS on 4T1 migration and invasion. This hypothesis was further addressed in 4T1 metastasis models in vivo. The results showed that the lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by PNS treatment in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis models. Taken together, our results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of PNS on 4T1 tumor metastasis, warranting further evaluation of PNS as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice by saponin extracts combined with heat-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberice, Juliana Vieira; Funes-Huacca, Maribel Elizabeth; Guterres, Sheila Barreto; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2012-10-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a spoilage-causing bacterium in fruit juices. The inactivation of this bacterium by commercial saponin and saponin purified extract from Sapindus saponaria fruits combined with heat-treatment is described. We investigated heat treatment (87, 90, 95, and 99°C) with incubation time ranging from 0 to 50min, in both concentrated and reconstituted juice. Juices were inoculated with 1.0×10(4)CFU/mL of A. acidoterrestris spores for the evaluation of the best temperature for inactivation. For the temperatures of 87, 90, and 95°C counts of cell viability decreased rapidly within the first 10 to 20min of incubation in both concentrated and reconstituted juices; inactivation at 99°C ensued within 1 and 2min. Combination of commercial saponin (100mg/L) with a very short incubation time (1min) at 99°C showed a reduction of 2.34 log cycle for concentrated juice A. acidoterrestris spores (1.0×10(4)CFU/mL) in the first 24h of incubation after treatments. The most efficient treatment was reached with 300, 400 or 500mg/L of purified extract of saponins from S. saponaria after 5days of incubation in concentrated juice, and after 5days with 300 and 400mg/L or 72h with 500mg/L in reconstituted juice. Commercial saponin and purified extracts from S. saponaria had similar inactivation power on A. acidoterrestris spores, without significant differences (P>0.05). Therefore, purified extract of saponins can be an alternative for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the Triterpenoid Saponins Biosynthetic Pathway in Anemone flaccida by Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chuansong; Li, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zeying; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Luo, Biaobiao; Zhang, Qiyun; Hu, Yanru; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as 'Di Wu' in China, is a perennial herb with limited distribution. The rhizome of A. flaccida has long been used to treat arthritis as a tradition in China. Studies disclosed that the plant contains a rich source of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known about triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in A. flaccida. In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from A. flaccida. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97%) showed significant similarity (E-value triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway of A. flaccida were identified, including cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) and the plastidial methylerythritol pathway (MEP). Additionally, a total of 126 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and 32 putative UDP glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates of triterpenoid saponins modifiers. Among them, four of them were annotated as the gene of CYP716A subfamily, the key enzyme in the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, based on RNA-Seq and proteome analysis, as well as quantitative RT-PCR verification, the expression level of gene and protein committed to triterpenoids biosynthesis in the leaf versus the rhizome was compared. A combination of the de novo transcriptome and proteome profiling based on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and iTRAQ technique was shown to be a powerful method for the discovery of candidate genes, which encoded enzymes that were responsible for the biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites in a non-model plant. The transcriptome data of our study provides a very important resource for the understanding of the triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis of A. flaccida.

  4. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

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    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  5. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g-1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF SAPONIN AS DEFAUNATING AGENT ON IN VITRO RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FORAGE AND CONCENTRATE

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    C. Hanim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available nin level in fermentation medium (0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/ml, and many kinds of feed (king grass,rice bran, and king grass:rice bran, 60:40 w/w on protozoa numbers, ammonia concentration, microbialprotein, pH and cellullase activity. Each treatment was consisted of three replicates. Fermentation wasdone in syringe and used in vitro gas production medium. The data obtained were analyzed by varianceanalysis using factorial design (4x3. The differences between mean values were analyzed by Duncan’snew multiple range test (DMRT. The result showed that protozoa numbers decreased 17.22, 42.73 and49.57% (P<0.01 for 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/ml saponin, respectively from 8.19×103/ml in the control. Theaddition of 0.1 mg/l saponin increased ammonia concentration from 33.04 mg/100 ml (without saponinto 37.12 mg/100 ml (P<0,01, whereas the addition of 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml saponin decreased ammoniaconcentrations by 1.69 and 16.50% (P<0.01 compared to the control. Microbial protein, cellullaseactivity and pH were not affected neither by saponin nor kind of feed. Protozoal numbers and ammoniaconcentration in the rumen were lower (P<0.01 with king grass as substrat than that with rice bran, orking grass: rice bran. In general, no interactions between saponin and kind of feed were observed, exceptfor ammonia concentration. It can be concluded that level of 0.2 mg/ml saponin have antimicrobialproperties, particularly in suppressing protozoa, which may prove beneficial to ruminal fermentation andmay lead to lower ruminal ammonia concentration, but it did not have negative effect on pH, microbialprotein and cellullase activity. King grass as a substrate decreases protozoa numbers and ammoniaconcentration.

  7. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

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    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  8. Sapinmusaponins F-J, bioactive tirucallane-type saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Tokuda, Harukuni; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2006-05-01

    Five new tirucallane-type saponins, sapinmusaponins F-J (1-5), were isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. The structures of these saponins were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, TOCSY, and NOESY). Compounds 1-5 showed anti-platelet-aggregation effects, but no obvious cytotoxic activity for platelets as assayed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compounds 1-5 also showed moderate activity in a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay.

  9. A new triterpenoid saponin and an oligosaccharide isolated from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Yang, De-Po; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xue, Xue; Zhu, Long-Ping; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin (1) and a new oligosaccharide (2), together with three known saponins (3-5), have been isolated from n-BuOH extract of the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structures were elucidated using detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra along with their mass spectrometric data and the results of acid hydrolysis. Of the isolated compounds 1 and 3-5 displayed cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell lines in A-549 (lung carcinoma), MDA-231 (breast carcinoma) and PC-3 (prostatic carcinoma).

  10. Double-walled carbon nanotubes suspending by natural active substances (saponins and humic acids

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    Zafour-Hadj-Ziane A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs discovered over the past fifteen years are very interesting materials because of their structural, mechanical, chemical and electronic properties. However, their poor dispersion after synthesis constitutes a real obstacle to their use in varied fields. To respond to a topical issue, we proposed a new concept based on the use of natural active substances such a saponins; biosurfactant extracted from the tree Sapindus Mukorossiand humic acids. The results showed that for a concentration of 1.5 mg/l of saponin and 5 mg/l of humic acids, the stable suspensions were obtained; the zeta potential measurements have justified these results.

  11. Dammarane-type saponins from leaves of Ziziphus spina-christi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Alen; De Mieri, Maria; Di Benedetto, Angela; Gafner, Frank; Hamburger, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Phytochemical profiling of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves led to the characterization of 10 dammarane-type saponins and 12 phenolic compounds. Isolation was achieved by gel chromatography on Sephadex LH20, open column chromatography on silica gel, and semi-preparative HPLC with PDA and ELSD detectors. Structural characterization was performed by extensive 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, and by GC-MS of sugar derivatives. A biosynthetic pathway leading to three previously undescribed sapogenins is proposed. The saponin profiles in Z. spina-christi leaves of four different origins were compared by means of HPLC-ESIMS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  13. Cell wall integrity, genotoxic injury and PCD dynamics in alfalfa saponin-treated white poplar cells highlight a complex link between molecule structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Stefania; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Macovei, Anca; Biggiogera, Marco; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, eleven saponins and three sapogenins purified from Medicago sativa were tested for their cytotoxicity against highly proliferating white poplar (Populus alba L.) cell suspension cultures. After preliminary screening, four saponins with different structural features in terms of aglycone moieties and sugar chains (saponin 3, a bidesmoside of hederagenin; saponins 4 and 5, monodesmoside and bidesmoside of medicagenic acid respectively, and saponin 10, a bidesmoside of zanhic acid) and different cytotoxicity were selected and used for further investigation on their structure-activity relationship. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided for the first time evidence of the effects exerted by saponins on plant cell wall integrity. Exposure to saponin 3 and saponin 10 resulted into disorganization of the outer wall layer and the effect was even more pronounced in white poplar cells treated with the two medicagenic acid derivatives, saponins 4 and 5. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide accumulation were common hallmarks of the response of white poplar cells to saponins. When DNA damage accumulation and DNA repair profiles were evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, induction of single and double strand breaks followed by effective repair was observed within 24h. The reported data are discussed in view of the current issues dealing with saponin structure-activity relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. White poplar (Populus alba L.) suspension cultures as a model system to study apoptosis induced by alfalfa saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    In animal cells, the anticancer function played by plant saponins involves a complex network of molecular processes that still deserves investigation and apoptosis seems to be the outstanding pathway. An intriguing aspect of the biological activity of saponins is related to their effects on genome integrity. As demonstrated by the studies carried out in white poplar (Populus alba L., cv Villafranca) cell suspension cultures, plant cells can as well be used as a model system to unravel the molecular mechanisms activated by plant saponins. These recent studies have evidenced that animal and plant cells share common features in their response to saponins, paving the way for novel opportunities for both basic and applied research. Indeed, there is a certain interest in replacing the animal models for pharmacological research, at least when preliminary large-scale cytotoxicity tests are performed on wide collections of natural extracts and/or purified compounds. The review provides an up-date of the molecular pathways (signal transduction, antioxidant response, DNA repair) associated with plant saponin bioactivity, with an emphasis on apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins. The comparison between animal and plant cells as tools for the study of saponin bioactivity is also discussed in view of the most recent literature and innovative future applications.

  15. [Investigation on the process of sapindus saponin purified with macroporous adsorption resin and screening of its bacteriostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Lei, Peng; Han, Yu-mei; Yan, Dan

    2010-02-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. Bacteriostasis activity of each parts eluted was evaluated by the mean of cup-plate method. 13.6 mL of the extraction of sapindus saponin (crude drugs 0.01 g/mL) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol, most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying, the elutive ratio of saponins was 93.8% and the purity reached 250.1%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify saponins is feasible, and supplies reference to the purification of other types of saponin.

  16. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl(4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, Ma; Sudharshan, Rd; Rasheed, Sa; Pradeep, Ha; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, Ah; Riyaz, Ak; Mansoor, M; Aleem, Ma; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity. Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl(4)-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl(4) introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl(4)-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl(4). The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl(4)-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified.

  17. Investigation of the diurnal, ontogenetic and seasonal variation in the molluscicidal saponin content of Phytolacca dodecandra aqueous berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndamba, J; Lemmich, E; Mølgaard, P

    1994-01-01

    Daily variation in the content of the saponins of the berries of Phytolacca dodecandra was determined in berries harvested at the full grown green unripe stage of development once every two hours. The saponin content was quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis of the molluscicidal monodesmosidic saponins in the aqueous extract of the crushed berries. No significant daily variations were observed in extracts of berries collected at different times of day (P > 0.05 by ANOVA). But, seasonal variation was apparent in extracts prepared from berries harvested from the same plants once every two weeks. Berries of highest saponin content were those harvested during the dry season and just before the onset of the rainy season. The seasonal variation was attributed to increased water stress during the dry season. Very young racemes had the highest saponin content, while mature berries produced the lowest saponin concentration. There was, however, consistency in the berry saponin composition during the day, season and all stages of berry development.

  18. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramos-Morales

    Full Text Available The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS. The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001. The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39% and lower butyrate (-32% and lower ammonia concentration (-64% than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45% and an increase in propionate (+43% molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42% observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05. It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an

  19. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of surface properties for the kinetics of bubble Ostwald ripening in saponin-stabilized foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Mustan, Fatmegul; Pagureva, Nevena; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Pelan, Edward G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.

    2017-01-01

    Bubble Ostwald ripening (OR) leads to a gradual increase of the mean bubble size in foams with time. The rate of OR can be reduced significantly or even arrested completely using appropriate solid particles and/or surfactants as foam stabilizers. In the current paper, we show that saponins, a

  2. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  3. [Effect of Sapindus saponins on myocardial inflammation and left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Long, Zi-Jiang; Liu, Jin-Lin; Bian, Hai; Wang, Ya-Juan; Wang, Liang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Sapindus saponins on myocardial inflammation and left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Forty 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into five groups, placebo as model group, captopril tablets (27 mg/kg) as positive control, low-dose Sapindus saponins (27 mg/kg), medium-dose (54 mg/ kg) and high-dose (108 mg/kg) groups. And another eight healthy Wistar-Kyoto strain (WKY) rats were used as the normal group. The animals were treated for eight weeks, and the detection indexes were as follows: (1) Calculated left ventricular mass index (LVMI); (2) Observed the morphological changes on left ventricular myocardial tissue by HE staining; (3) Observed the collagen distribution in left ventricular myocardial by Masson staining; (4) Detected the protein expression of TGF-beta1 by immunohistochemical assay. Sapindus saponins could effectively reverse the left ventricular hypertrophy phenomenon in SHR, lowered LVMI, inhibited the myocardial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia of collagen fibers, and blocked the expression level of TGF-beta1 in myocardial when compared with the SHR model group, there were significant differences (P Sapindus saponins can reserve the left ventricular remodeling in pathological conditions, its possible mechanism may be related to the inhibition of myocardial tissue inflammation factor of TGF-beta1.

  4. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    Plants produce a vast array of metabolites for basic and specialized metabolism. Many of the specialized metabolites are synthesized for defense purposes, to protect the plant from predators, i.e. mammals or insects. One major group of defense compounds is the triterpenoid saponins, which...

  5. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; San Martin, R.; Doberti, A.

    2000-01-01

    derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant...

  6. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the saponins extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The saponins extract of Carissa edulis Vahl family Apocynaceae was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was studied using hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in ...

  8. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  9. Saponins in the genus Panax L. (Araliaceae): a systematic review of their chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Zhi; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wan-Ying; Ye, Min; Guo, De-An

    2014-10-01

    The Panax genus is a crucial source of natural medicines that has benefited human health for a long time. Three valuable medicinal herbs, namely Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng, have received considerable interest due to their extensive application in clinical therapy, healthcare products, and as foods and food additives world-wide. Panax species are known to contain abundant levels of saponins, also dubbed ginsenosides, which refer to a series of dammarane or oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides. These saponins exhibit modulatory effects to the central nervous system and beneficial effects to patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and also have anti-diabetic and anti-tumor properties. To the end of 2012, at least 289 saponins were reported from eleven different Panax species. This comprehensive review describes the advances in the phytochemistry of the genus Panax for the period 1963-2012, based on the 134 cited references. The reported saponins can be classified into protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, octillol, oleanolic acid, C17 side-chain varied, and miscellaneous subtypes, according to structural differences in sapogenins. The investigational history of Panax is also reviewed, with special attention being paid to the structural features of the six different subtypes, together with their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic characteristics which are useful for determining their structures and absolute configuration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  11. Triterpenoid saponins from the root bark of Schima superba and their cytotoxic activity on B16 melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Zhang, Rong-Liu; Li, Hong-Yu; Hu, Chen; Liu, Bai-Lian; Li, Yao-Lan; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2015-09-02

    Eight new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, schisusaponins A-H, along with eight known triterpenoid saponins, were isolated from the root bark of Schima superb (Theaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. The cytotoxicity of the new compounds against B16 melanoma cells was assessed. Among the isolated new saponins, schisusaponins C and E showed more potent effects (with IC50 values of 10.08 and 10.89 μM) than vinblastine (with an IC50 value of 19.48 μM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  13. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  14. Immunoaffinity Knockout of Saponin Glycosides from Asparagus racemosus to Assess Anti-lipid Peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, Churanya; Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Putalun, Waraporn; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-07-01

    Asparagus racemosus Willd (Asparagaceae family), known as Shatavari, is important in Ayurveda and traditional Thai medicines. The saponin glycosides, shatavarin I and IV are major constituents in its roots and may be responsible for their actions including protection against lipid peroxidation and carcinogenesis. To develop an immunoaffinity column for isolating compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The monoclonal antibody recognising shatavarin IV (mAbShavIV) was coupled to an Affi-Gel Hz gel to isolate compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from the other components of crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The saponin glycosides in each fraction were analysed by mAbShavIV ELISA and LC-MS/MS. The pooled wash-through fractions contained 3% of loaded mAbShavIV reactive saponin glycosides, while eluted fractions released ~ 90% of shatavarin saponin glycosides in a single step. Using thiobarbiturate (TBARs) to measure lipid-peroxidation, the extract, and the pooled wash-through fractions showed moderate protection against Cu+ -induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) (IC50 11.3 ± 1.4 and 12.6 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, the saponin glycosides eluted from the mAbShavIV-column had weaker protectant (IC50 29.7 ± 1.8 μg/mL) suggesting that A. racemosus shatavarins do not inhibit carcinogenesis through preventing lipid peroxidation. The strategy described here demonstrates its utility for isolating a group of related compounds from the rest of the extract with selectivity and recovery rate. Pharmacological efficacy and synergistic effects of the components obtained can be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Saponins can perturb biologic membranes and reduce the surface tension of aqueous solutions: a correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Stefan; Hofmann, Katja; Melzig, Matthias F

    2012-05-01

    Saponins are secondary plant compounds. They have a triterpenoid or steroidal backbone. Sugars are attached to one or more points of this structure, forming chains that can be branched. This appearance leads to amphiphilic properties giving saponins the ability to interact with both lipophilic and hydrophilic structures. The surfactant behavior lets them lower the surface tension in aqueous solutions and form micelles when reaching the critical micelle concentration (cmc). It also lets them interact with biologic membrane layers that usually consist of phospholipids and cholesterol. This action may perturb the membrane and its function leading to membrane perforation or complete lysis. Thus saponins are also known for their cytotoxicity and membranolytic, respectively hemolytic features. In our studies we wanted to answer the question if there is a correlation between the unspecific detergent behavior when lowering the surface tension and the ability to perforate cell membranes and to act cytotoxic. Do saponins showing a considerable reduction in the surface tension also reveal an evident cytotoxicity or/and a marked cell membrane perforation? We tested a variety of saponins with distinct structures. The reduction in the surface tension and the cmc were analyzed on a tensiometer using the Wilhelmy plate method. The general cytotoxicity was determined in a cell model by DNA quantification. The cell membrane toxicity or membrane perforation was explored in a cell model by quantification of the leakage of the intracellular enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The experiments revealed a correlation between the membrane toxicity and the reduction in surface tension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Candidate Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoid Saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum Identified by Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-Hua; Gao, Zheng-Jie; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Zhang, Wei; Shao, Jian-Hui; Hai, Mei-Rong; Chen, Jun-Wen; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Zhang, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese, and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable. A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80%) were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG, and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant. The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  17. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  18. Is fucose the answer to the immunomodulatory paradox of Quillaja saponins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2015-12-01

    Quillaja saponins, e.g. QS-21, are immunomodulating aldehyde-carrying triterpene glycosides, which depending on the acylation state of their single fucosyl residue (Fucp) induce either Th1/Th2 or Th2 immunity. Indeed, their changes in immunomodulation or adjuvanticity from Th1/Th2 to sole Th2 immunity, correlate with the presence of acylated and de-acylated Fucp residues, respectively. Thus, it is possible to infer that the single Fucp residue is responsible for the Th2 immunity biasing induced by de-acylated Q. saponins (QT-0101). That removal of the fucosylated oligosaccharide from de-acylated Q. saponins results once more in the induction of Th1/Th2 immunity supports the Fucp role in polarizing the response toward Th2 immunity. From structural and functional analogies with the helminths' fucosylated glycans, it is possible to infer that these saponins' Fucp must bind to the lectin DC-SIGN on dendritic cells (DC). This binding to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin that shows significant pliability in its binding interactions, must result in polarization toward Th2 while inhibiting Th1 immunity. Apparently, acylation of the Fucp by large fatty acids sterically hinders this sugar from binding to DC-SIGN, preventing a biasing to Th2 immunity. Evidently, de-acylation of Q. saponins may negatively affect vaccines requiring Th1 immunity for immune protection, particularly those against pathogens that use DC-SIGN to infect DCs and modulate Th2 immunity. However, it could be valuable in vaccines that require a sole Th2 immunity, like those against proteinopathies, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it would valuable to elucidate the possible interactions between DC-SIGN and the QT-0101 immunomodulator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( methane emissions in nonlactating dairy cows.

  20. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  1. Combinations of alkaloids affecting different molecular targets with the saponin digitonin can synergistically enhance trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krstin, Sonja; Peixoto, Herbenya Silva; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, the potential synergism of mutual combinations of bioactive alkaloids and alkaloids with a membrane-active steroidal saponin, digitonin, was explored with regard to their effect on T. b. brucei...

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and a new determination method for total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Chen, Yu; Hu, Bohan; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was applied to isolate total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW). The optimal extracting conditions were established as 75% ethanol as solvent, ratio of solid/liquid 1:20 (g/ml), temperature 75 °C, irradiation power 600 W and three extraction cycles of 6 min each. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of DZW processed by four different extractions provided visual evidence of the disruption effect on DZW. Diosgenin was quantified by HPLC and examined further by LC-ESI/MS after acid hydrolysis. Total steroid saponins were calculated using diosgenin from total steroid saponins. The MAE procedure was optimized, validated and compared with other conventional extraction processes. This report provides a convenient technology for the extraction and quantification of total saponins of DZW combining MAE with HPLC and LC-ESI/MS for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo leaf and root transcriptome analysis to identify putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in Hedera helix L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huapeng Sun; Fang Li; Zijian Xu; Mengli Sun; Hanqing Cong; Fei Qiao; Xiaohong Zhong

    2017-01-01

    ... involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis have been discovered and annotated. Here is reported the first study of global transcriptome analyses using the Illumina HiSeqTM 2500 platform for H. helix...

  4. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic...

  5. Enrichment of total steroidal saponins from the extracts of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim by macroporous resin and the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins in the final product by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Gao, Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Pengqi; Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Yanhui; Zhang, Bilin; Wang, Mingchan; Zeng, Aiguo; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    An effective and simple method was established for the separation and enrichment of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. The adsorption and desorption properties of seven macroporous resins were investigated. Among the tested resins, AB-8 resin showed the best adsorption and desorption capacities. The adsorption of steroidal saponins on AB-8 at 25°C was quite consistent with both the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. By optimizing the dynamic adsorption and desorption parameters, the content of steroidal saponins increased from 5.20% in the crude extracts to 51.93% in the final product, with a recovery yield of 86.67%. Furthermore, by scale-up separation, the concentration and recovery of total steroidal saponins were 43.8 and 85.5%, respectively, which suggested that AB-8 resin had great industrial and pharmaceutical potential because of its high efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins was established for the first time, which was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the final product. Based on the methodological validation results, the high-performance liquid chromatography method can be widely applied to the quality control of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim due to its excellent accuracy, stability, and repeatability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Four Triterpenoid Saponins in Aralia elata Leaves by HPLC-ELSD Combined with Hierarchical Clustering Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun; Li, Baimei; Lin, Xiaoting; Xue, Juan; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Hongwei; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2017-05-01

    Aralia elata leaves are known to have several biological activities, including anti-arrythmia, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue, antimicrobial and antiviral effects. Our previous study found that triterpenoid saponins from the leaves of A. elata had antitumor effects. Quantification of the triterpenoids is important for the quality control of A. elata leaves. To establish high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) for the simultaneous determination of four major triterpenoid saponins, including Aralia-saponin IV, Aralia-saponin VI, 3-O-β-d- glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Aralia-saponin TTP)and Aralia-saponin V. The separation was carried out on a Dikma Diamonsil C 18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) efficiently with gradient elution consisting of acetonitrile and water. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (R 2  > 0.9996) within the ranges of tested concentrations. This validated method was applied to determine the contents of the four major triterpenoid saponins in 53 samples from different regions of northeast China. Hierarchical clustering analysis was first used to classify and differentiate Aralia elata leaves. The method developed was successfully applied to analyse four major triterpenoid saponins in Aralia elata leaves which is helpful for quality control of the herb. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. PENGARUH KOMPOSISI MEDIA TANAM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KANDUNGAN SAPONIN PADA DUA VARIETAS TANAMAN GENDOLA (Basella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listin Fitrianah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for raw materials increase with increasing drug utilization of traditional medicine is increasing. Gendola is one type of potential medicinal plants, which have two varieties of the red gendola (Basella rubra L. and white gendola (Basella alba L.. Saponin is one of the secondary metabolites from plants gendola. Appropriate planting medium is also a prerequisite of success, especially crop cultivation in containers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and compare the composition of growing media on growth and saponin content in two varieties of plants gendola.The study was conducted in a plastic house agriculture Faculty of University orchard trial Trunojoyo Madura University Madura College of Agricultural Experiment Garden Trunojoyo Madura which lies at an altitude of ± 3 meters above sea level. The study began in November 2011  until Februari 2012. The method used was a factorial experiment based Randomized Design (CRD with three replicates consisting of two treatment factors, the first factor is gendola different varieties of plants and the second factor is the combination of different growing.The result showed that the treatment plant varieties and combinations of place influende on plant length,  leaf number, leaf area, all part plant fresh weight and all part plant dry weight. Red gondolas varieties yield components of growth, biomass weightand content of saponins in the leaves is high. Growing composition 1 : 1 (½ sections of land: ½ cow manure gave the highest growth component in plant fresh weight and all part plant dry weight. Treatment plant varieties and combination of composition of saponin in the leaves but a very real influence on each treatment factor. The highest saponin content of the red varieties while growing composition 2 : 1 (2/3 parts soil : 1/3 cow manure and the planting composition 1 : 2 1/3 part of land : 2/3 cowmanure gives the value highest. Control treatment is growing

  9. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p < 0.05). Results showed that none of the varieties we studied can be classified as "sweet". Nine varieties were classified as "low-sapogenin". We recommend six of the varieties be subjected to saponin removal process before consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate and cluster the different genotypes according their sapogenin profile as a way of predicting the possible utility of separate quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  10. Characterization of two minor saponins from Cordia piauhiensis by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata P; Silveira, Edilberto R; Lemos, Telma Leda G; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2005-06-01

    A careful NMR analysis with full assignment of the 1H and 13C spectral data for two minor saponins isolated from stems of Cordia piauhiensis is reported. These saponins were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized as 3beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]pomolic acid 28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1) and 3beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oleanolic acid 28-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2). Their structures were established using a combination of 1D and 2D (1H, 1H-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, gs-HMQC and gs-HMBC) NMR techniques, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemical evidence. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Digital gene-expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, so people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol [1]. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol [2]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol metabolism effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in liver and ovary tissues using digital gene-expression (DGE profiling analysis. The liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study to identify digital gene expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the PLOS ONE [3]. The data generated in our work provide meaningful information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE.

  12. Sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from Sheareria nana S. Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongyan; Shen, Junmei; Zhang, Feng; Liang, Jingyu; Xia, Zhengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three novel neo-clerodane diterpenoids Sheareria A-C (1-3) together with three known triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the whole herb of Sheareria nana S. Moore. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical method. This is the first natural sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids. This is the first report of all these compounds from this plant. These neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from S. nana S. Moore may be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for the genus. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. To date, this is the first report on the phytochemical and biological activity of secondary metabolites from S. nana S. Moore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Interfacial properties of Quillaja saponins and its use for micellisation of lutein esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippel, Janine; Lehmann, Maren; von Klitzing, Regine; Drusch, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Natural food colourants, colouring foods and bioactive food ingredients need to be solubilised for their incorporation in food. Aim of the present study was to investigate the micelle-forming properties of saponins from Quillaja saponaria Mollina (QS) in order to solubilise a lutein ester extract for its incorporation in food matrices. QS showed a high surface activity and functionality with respect to micellisation as derived from interfacial tension measurements and subsequent data fitting to the classical Frumkin model. The composition of the aqueous phase affected the lutein ester incorporation as revealed by particle size, zeta potential and colour measurements. In terms of morphology of lutein ester loaded saponin micelles (LMS), cryo-TEM micrographs showed depending on the composition of the medium both, spherical and elongated branched micelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (psources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins produced less methane per unit of total gas than that of control (psources in mitigating methane was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  16. Metabolic switching of astringent and beneficial triterpenoid saponins in soybean is achieved by a loss-of-function mutation in cytochrome P450 72A69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryoichi; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Mukaiyama, Kyosuke; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Sayama, Takashi; Kaga, Akito; Anai, Toyoaki; Sawai, Satoru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kazuki; Ishimoto, Masao

    2017-02-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are major components of secondary metabolites in soybean seeds and are divided into two groups: group A saponins, and 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) saponins. The aglycone moiety of group A saponins consists of soyasapogenol A (SA), which is an oxidized β-amyrin product, and the aglycone moiety of the DDMP saponins consists of soyasapogenol B (SB). Group A saponins produce a bitter and astringent aftertaste in soy products, whereas DDMP saponins have known health benefits for humans. We completed map-based cloning and characterization of the gene Sg-5, which is responsible for SA biosynthesis. The naturally occurring sg-5 mutant lacks group A saponins and has a loss-of-function mutation (L164*) in Glyma15g39090, which encodes the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP72A69. An enzyme assay indicated the hydroxylase activity of recombinant CYP72A69 against SB, which also suggested the production of SA. Additionally, induced Glyma15g39090 mutants (R44* or S348P) lacked group A saponins similar to the sg-5 mutant, indicating that Glyma15g39090 corresponds to Sg-5. Endogenous levels of DDMP saponins were higher in the sg-5 mutant than in the wild-type lines due to the loss of the enzyme activity that converts SB to SA. Interestingly, the genomes of palaeopolyploid soybean and the closely related common bean carry multiple Sg-5 paralogs in a genomic region syntenic to the soybean Sg-5 region. However, SA did not accumulate in common bean samples, suggesting that Sg-5 activity evolved after gene duplication event(s). Our results demonstrate that metabolic switching of undesirable saponins with beneficial saponins can be achieved in soybean by disabling Sg-5. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Two antiproliferative saponins of Tarenna grevei from the Madagascar dry forest [1

    OpenAIRE

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Razafitsalama, L. Jérémi; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Rakotobe, Etienne; Kingston, David G.I.

    2012-01-01

    Antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the endemic Malagasy Rubiaceous plant Tarenna grevei led to the isolation of two new antiproliferative oxygenated oleanane triterpene saponins. The structures of the two active compounds were elucidated as 23-hydroxylongispinogenin 3-O-βD-glucopyranoside (1) and longispinogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) by analyses of their spectral data including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemical evide...

  18. Kandungan Saponin Buah, Daun dan Tangkai Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnida, Fahrunnida

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has been used for traditional medicine, especially to heal stiff, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, acne, tinea versicolor, high blood pressure, and dental pain and cough. This property is predicted comes from its secondary metabolites. Saponin is a compound group of secondary metabolites which is known to have antitussives and expectorants effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity for cancer therapy. However, scientific infor...

  19. Effect of aspirin on the pharmacokinetics and absorption of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihao; Pang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Bai, Jie; Li, Pengyue; Li, Danqi; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Xiaonan

    2018-02-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins, a traditional Chinese medicine extraction, and aspirin are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved, when Panax notoginseng saponins was taken together with aspirin. To investigate the interaction of the two drugs in vivo, the concentration of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd. in blood were simultaneously measured by UPLC/MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal standard saikosaponin A standard. The separation of six components was achieved by using an ACQUITY UPLC ®BEH C18 column (1.7μm 2.1×100mm) by gradient elution using water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.2% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The transport of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd. in MDCK -MDR1 cell monolayer was also used to verify the conclusion of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and study the mechanism of drug interaction. The concentrations of the five components increased in a certain extent when the two drugs administered together in rats. The values of apparent permeability coefficients were significantly increased when the two drugs were used together. Aspirin and salicylic acid could destroy the tight junction protein and open the intercellular space to increase the absorption of Panax notoginseng saponins. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction in vivo existed between Panax notoginseng saponins and aspirin. The drug-drug interaction mainly occurred in the process of absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemoporation using saponins or cholates: an alternative method for transformation of bacterial

    OpenAIRE

    Irman, Andreja; Lunder, Mojca; Radić, Nataša; Ravnikar, Matjaž; Štrukelj, Borut

    2015-01-01

    A new method for fast transformation of competent bacterial cells has been developed. The transformation is induced with cholic acid analogues or saponins which cause reversible disruption of the bacterial membrane. This method shortens the time of transformation without significant loss of transformation efficiency in comparison to heat shock method and is the first reported chemically-induced transformation. New data about interactions between cholates and biomembranes is revealed that may ...

  1. Chemoporation using saponins or cholates: an alternative method for transformation of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnikar, Matjaz; Irman, Andreja; Radić, Natasa; Lunder, Mojca; Strukelj, Borut

    2009-12-01

    A new method for fast transformation of competent bacterial cells has been developed. The transformation is induced with cholic acid analogues or saponins which cause reversible disruption of the bacterial membrane. This method shortens the time of transformation without significant loss of transformation efficiency in comparison to heat shock method and is the first reported chemically-induced transformation. New data about interactions between cholates and biomembranes is revealed that may contribute to better understanding of bacterial transformation.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Saponin Nanoparticle for Application in Plasmid DNA Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hair Bejo, Mohd; Abdullahi Kamba, Shafiu; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Nonviral delivery system receives attention over the last decade. Chitosan (CS) is a cationic polymer whereas saponin (SP) is classified as glycoside. In this study, a spherically-shaped CS-SP nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. The ability of the nanoparticle to protect DNA from enzymatic degradation, its thermostability and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The particle size was found below 100 nm as determined by Zetasizer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field scanning ...

  3. Aculeoside B, a new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin from the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Kameyama, A; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    1998-10-01

    From the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus, a new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin named aculeosides B (2) was isolated, and its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR techniques. Aculeoside A (1), which was previously isolated from the same plant source, exhibited inhibitory activity on cell growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an IC50 value of 0.48 microgram mL(-1), while aculeoside B (2) was inactive.

  4. Newest Strategies in the Search for Bioactive Saponins from the Tropical Plant Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    This review will focus on newest results leading to the discovery of new bioactive saponins by using a combination of successive advanced procedures in extraction, isolation, structure elucidation and bioassays. Microwave- and ultrasonic-assisted extractions, two recent advanced methods have been increasingly used in the last decade. Then, a multistep purification procedure was achieved by flash chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, low, medium- and high-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel and reversed-phase silica gel RP-18 (VLC, LPLC, MPLC, HPLC). These successive chromatographic steps have been implemented in the author's laboratory in order to avoid the time-consuming traditional partitions between butanol and water, dialysis procedures or precipitations in diethyl/ether. The structural elucidation of complex saponins possessing from 5 to 8 sugar units is performed by a combination of extensive spectroscopic techniques including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry (FAB-MS HRESIMS). The bioassays have been mainly carried out in the field of cancerology and inflammation, two closely related areas, and also in the field of immunology with recent literature results on Quillaja saponins in order to explore some structure/activity relationships. The more recent results of the author's laboratory will be presented with examples of saponins from the tropical plant biodiversity (Pittosporaceae, Polygalaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Apiaceae, Dioscoreaceae, and Asparagaceae). Furthermore, some new trends reported in the literature will be briefly reviewed concerning dereplication, and metabolomic approachs which are currently of considerable importance in the field of natural product discovery.

  5. New dammarane-type saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yao-Haur; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-06-15

    Five new dammarane-type saponins, 3beta,7beta,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3beta,7beta,20(S),22,23-pentahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3beta,7beta,20(S),22,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 25-methoxy-3beta,7beta,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 25-methoxy-3beta,7beta,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, named sapinmusaponins A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5), respectively, together with three known phenylpropanoid glycosides (6-8), were isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. The structures of these saponins were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Preliminary bioassay data revealed that saponins 1 and 3-5 showed moderate cytotoxic activity (ED50 approximately 9-18 microg/mL) against human tumor cell lines (Hepa59T/VGH, NCI, HeLa, and Med) and that 1-5 were inactive in vitro against HIV replication in H9 lymphocytes.

  6. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Isolation and Identification Of Triterpenoid Saponin From Baringtonia asiatica Kurz Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meity N Tanor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the content of the triterpenoid saponin compound from Barringtonia asiatica seeds collected from coastal of Malalayang beach, Manado, North Sulawesi. The method of extraction was the maceration with methanol solvent. The identification of the isolate was by thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, and GCMS. The phytochemistry test result of B. asiatica seed extract contained the compounds of alkaloid, saponin, and tannin. Then, the compound was separated by a thin layer chromatography method with a solvent system of methanol:chloroform:water. It produced three nodes that were spread around polar (Rf 0.24, semipolar (Rf 0.6 and non-polar (Rf 0.78 areas. Meanwhile, the process of column chromatography could only separate two chemical components namely semipolar (Rf 0.6 and polar (Rf 0.76. The identification with GCMS resulted in three compounds of Triterpenoid saponins, namely 2.4-bis-(1.1-dimethyl ethyl-,methylcarbamate; 4-Dodecylphenol; and 2.6 bis-(1.1-dimethylethyl-4-methyl-, methylcarbamate.

  9. Triterpenoid saponins with anti-inflammatory activities from Ilex pubescens roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Gao, Hui; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2017-02-01

    Seven triterpenoid saponins, named ilexsaponin I-O, along with twelve known ones, were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by TLC and HPLC. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the triterpenoid saponins were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated saponins, seven compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Ilexsaponin I and β-d-glucopyranosyl 3-β-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy]-olea-12-en-28-oate exerted more potent anti-inflammatory effects than the other compounds tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR assignment of the absolute configuration of C-25 in furostanol steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Piacente, Sonia; De Voss, James J

    2012-05-01

    The chemical shifts of the geminal proton resonances of H(2)-26 (δa and δb) are a widely used predictor of C-25 stereochemistry in furostanol steroidal saponins, being in general more resolved in 25S than 25R compounds. Unexpectedly, we found that application of this empirical rule in different solvents led to conflicting assignments of stereochemistry. An experimental survey revealed that, while the chemical shifts of H(2)-26 exhibit a dependence on C-25 configuration, it is less pronounced in methanol-d4 than pyridine-d5 solvent, and thus the general rule derived for pyridine-d5 fails when NMR spectra are acquired in methanol-d4. We propose a modified empirical method for the direct assignment of C-25 stereochemistry in furostanol saponins in methanol-d4 (Δ(ab)=0.45-0.48 ppm for 25S; Δ(ab)=0.33-0.35 ppm for 25R), and provide several detailed examples. In addition, the absolute configuration of compound 8, a steroidal saponin isolated in previous work from Ruscus colchicus, is corrected from 25R to 25S stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Saponin permeabilization of rough microsomes from rat liver reveals a novel prothrombin pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, S; Wierød, L; Skotte, A; Rob, J A; Helgeland, L

    2001-06-15

    Saponin permeabilization of rough microsomes in the presence of high salt revealed a novel pool of prothrombin associated by ionic interactions to the microsomal membrane. The lumenal content was obtained by treating rough microsomes with 0.32% saponin in a low salt (0.05 M KCl) buffer. By a subsequent treatment with 0.32% saponin in a slightly alkaline high salt buffer a fraction of peripherally associated membrane prothrombin was released from rough microsomes. Finally, the membrane-bound fraction was solubilized with 2.5% Triton X-100. The lumenal content fraction, the peripherally membrane-associated and the membrane-bound fraction from normal rats contained 55%, 29% and 16% of the total rough microsomal prothrombin, respectively. The corresponding fractions from warfarin-treated rats contained 86%, 5% and 9% of the total prothrombin. Following (14)C-gamma-carboxylation of intact microsomes for 30 min, the novel membrane-associated and the membrane-bound pool contained 42% and 33%, respectively, of labeled prothrombin. A similar distribution was found with warfarin-treated rats.

  12. Simplification of a haemolytic micromethod for toxic saponin quantification in alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simplification of a haemolytic micromethod is presented. In the orginal method, alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. leaf sap is spotted on the plate covered with a blood-gelatine suspension. In the presented method, the mashed alfalfa pulp is used instead of sap. Due to saponin diffusion and the reaction with erythrocytes, a haemolytic ring appears, which has a width proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. It is shown that the width of haemolytic ring does not depend on the sample weight ranging from 20 to 100 mg. This allows for the omission of laborious sap pressing and sample quantification. Individual alfalfa plants with different saponin contents were tested using leaf sap and leaf pulp for analyses. Good agreement was found with sap and leaf pulp methods. The correlation obtained by both methods was high, r = 0.87. The modified method requires only a small amount of plant material and makes the analyses of large numbers of individual plants per day possible. The method is especially recommended for breeding purposes.

  13. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, MA; Sudharshan, RD; Rasheed, SA; Pradeep, HA; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, AH; Riyaz, AK; Mansoor, M; Aleem, MA; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

    2012-01-01

    Aim This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Results Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Conclusion The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified. PMID:22888266

  14. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

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    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  15. Effects of quillaja and yucca saponins on communities and select populations of rumen bacteria and archaea, and fermentation in vitro.

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    Patra, A K; Stiverson, J; Yu, Z

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate quillaja (QSP) and yucca saponin (YSP) products with respect to their effects on diversity of rumen bacteria and archaea, abundance of selected microbes, and feed degradability and fermentation. Both QSP and YSP at doses 0-0.6 g l(-1) tended to increase degradability of feed substrate in in vitro rumen cultures, but to different extents. Neither one of the saponins affected the concentrations of ammonia, total volatile fatty acids, or molar proportion of acetate. However, QSP increased molar proportion of propionate and decreased that of butyrate, whereas YSP tended to decrease that of butyrate. As determined by qPCR, QSP and YSP did not affect the abundance of total bacteria or Ruminococcus albus. The QSP did not affect the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes or genus Prevotella, but tended to decrease that of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, whereas YSP significantly increased the abundance of R. flavefaciens and Prevotella, and numerically increased that of F. succinogenes. Both saponins increased archaeal abundance, although to small magnitudes (0.3-0.4 log). The protozoal populations were decreased significantly by QSP, but not by YSP. Based on DGGE and T-RFLP analysis, both saponins altered the bacterial community and species organization, but less so the archaeal community. This study demonstrated that saponins, although not effective in mitigating methane emission, may improve feed utilization at low doses, and modulate ruminal microbial communities in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study suggest that saponins at low doses may directly stimulate the growth of some rumen bacteria including cellulolytic bacteria, thus improving digestibility of feeds, independent of their defaunation activity. In contrast, saponins at high doses modulate rumen fermentation characteristically similar to defaunation. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Tea saponin reduced methanogenesis in vitro but increased methane yield in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Martin, C

    2017-03-01

    The effect of tea saponin supplementation in the ruminant diet on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestive processes is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this plant extract on methanogenesis, total-tract digestibility, and lactating performances of dairy cows. The work included 2 independent and successive experiments. First, the effect of 7 tea saponin doses (from 0 to 0.50 g/L) on methane emissions and protozoa concentrations was tested in 2 repeated in vitro batch culture incubations using bovine rumen contents as inoculum and a cereal mixture as substrate. After 18 h of incubation, total gas production and composition as well as rumen fermentation parameters and protozoa concentration were analyzed. Increasing dosage of the plant extract reduced methane production and protozoa concentration, with a maximum reduction of 29% for CH4 (mL/g of substrate) and 51% for protozoa (10(5)/mL). Tea saponin did not affect volatile fatty acids concentration, but marginally decreased total gas production by 5% at the highest dose. Second, a 2-period crossover design experiment was carried out with 8 lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet (54% corn silage, 6% hay, and 40% pelleted concentrates on a dry matter basis) without (control) or with 0.52% tea saponin (TSP). Each experimental period lasted 5 wk. Animals were fed ad libitum during the first 3 wk of the period (wk 1, 2, and 3) and restricted (95% of ad libitum intake) during the last 2 wk (wk 4 and 5). Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Methane emissions were quantified using open chambers (2 d, wk 4). Total-tract digestibility and nitrogen balance were determined from total feces and urine collected separately (5 d, wk 5). Rumen fermentation parameters and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding (1 d, wk 5). Milk production, dry matter intake, and feed efficiency were reduced with TSP (-18, -12, and -8%, respectively

  17. Structure-biological activity relationships in triterpenic saponins: the relative activity of protobassic acid and its derivatives against plant pathogenic fungi.

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    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Parmar, Balraj S

    2010-08-01

    Triterpenic saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. and Diploknema butyracea JF Gmelin were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. The study of the structure-antifungal activity relationships of protobassic acid saponins was widened by including semi-synthetic derivatives. Diploknema butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifungal activity against three fungi (ED(50) 230-455 microg mL(-1)), whereas S. mukorossi saponin was effective against two fungi (ED(50) 181-407 microg mL(-1)). The n-butanol extract after preparative HPLC separation provided two saponins from D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-xylopyranosyl]-arabinopyranoside (MI-I), and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosyl-xylopyranosyl-arabinopyranosyl]-apiofuranoside (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from S. mukorossi saponin mixture was identified as 3-O-[O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Monodesmosides resulting from the partial degradation of hederagenin and hydroxyprotobassic acid bisdesmosides exhibited significant reduction in antifungal effect. Further removal of sugar moiety yielded complete loss in activity. The antifungal activity of the triterpenic saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties, and esterification of the hydroxyl group led to change in antifungal activity. Sapindus mukorossi saponin, which is effective against Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Briton Jones and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., can be exploited for the development of a natural fungicide. A sugar moiety is a prerequisite for the antifungal activity of triterpenic saponin. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  19. Evaluation of Fermentability Process of a Ration Consist of Different Levels of Saponin and Tannic Acid According to in vitro Condition

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    M.M. Moheghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted for evaluation the effect of different levels of saponin (0, 30 and 60 g per kg DM and tannic acid (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 g per kg DM on rumen fermentability parameters. In the first stage, gas production at 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after incubation was measured. Constant rate of gas production decreased with increasing of saponin and tannic acid to the batch culture Compared the to control treatment, although this value increased in the saponin treatment alone. Cumulative gas production with tannic acid with or without saponin at 24, 48 and 96 hours after incubation increased in comparison with the to control treatment additon low levels of saponin (30 g per kg DM with tannic acid had the most cumulative gas production at this times. In the second stage, according to batch culture pH, Nitrogen-ammonia and degradability potential of dry matter was determined. The pH was the less for all of the treatments than control treatment but there wasn’t a significant difference between treatments. Nitrogen-ammonia concentration with increasing of saponin and tannic acid levels was decreased compare to control group and saponin with tannic acid treatments had the most concentration. Degradability potential of DM in all of the treatments was higher than control group, but this higher value was specific for saponin with tannic acid treatments. Short chain fatty acids, metabolism energy and organic matter digestibility concentrations for all of the treatments was higher than control group, but this values at the different levels of saponin with tannic acid together was higher than tannic acid or saponin alone. The obtained results indicated that combination of saponin and tannic acid at low level could affect rumen fermentation pattern and nutrient digestibility positively.

  20. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

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    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  1. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  2. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-05

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

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    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  4. Determination of antibacterial activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC. Guill and Perr

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    Theresa Ibibia Edewor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the antibacterial property and quantify the contents of the total phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC. Guill and Perr. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the method described by Harborne in 1999. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used for assaying the antibacterial activity. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were employed for the estimation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Vanillinacetic acid and perchloric acid mixture was employed in the determination of the total saponin content. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and steroids in the methanolic extract while alkaloids were absent. Only steroids were identified in the n-hexane extract. The methanolic leaf extract was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris while the n-hexane was inactive. The total phenolic content obtained was (47.75 ± 0.12 mg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract, the total flavonoid content was (121.50 ± 0.11 mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, while the total saponin content was (63.42 ± 0.15 mg ginsenoside Rb 1 equivalent/mg extract. Conclusions: The leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus have high contents of saponins and flavonoids.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

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    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  7. A simple and rapid method to identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata using ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Li, Wei; Wang, Hanqing; Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Xie, Peng; Koike, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia plant species have been used in traditional medicines, and their bioactive constituents of 13,28-epoxy triterpenoid saponins have excellent biological activities for new drug development. In this study, a fast and simple method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was developed to simultaneously identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata extracts. In total, 22 triterpenoid saponins, including two new compounds, were identified from A. crenata. The method exhibited good linearity, precision and recovery for the quantitative analysis of eight marker saponins. A relative quantitative method was also developed using one major saponin (ardisiacrispin B) as the standard to break through the choke-point of the lack of standards in phytochemical analysis. The method was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze saponins in commercially available plant samples. This study describes the first systematic analysis of 13,28-epoxy-oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins in the genus Ardisia using LC-ESI-MS. The results can provide the chemical support for further biological studies, phytochemotaxonomical studies and quality control of triterpenoid saponins in medicinal plants of the genus Ardisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

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    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  9. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  10. The effect of ensiling and haymaking on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in two Brachiaria grass species

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    Flavia Gontijo de Lima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria (signalgrass is now the most widely used tropical grass genus in Central and South America. However, Brachiaria spp. can cause hepatogenous photosensitization in livestock. Steroidal saponins, specifically protodioscin, present in Brachiaria spp. may be responsible for liver injury and subsequent photosensitization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ensiling Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha or making hay from Brachiaria decumbens on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in these grasses. Brachiaria grass had no detectable levels of the saponin protodioscin after 24 days of ensiling. In addition, in Brachiaria decumbens, the concentration of the protodioscin decreased 48% over the first three days after haymaking and then remained constant. These results suggest that livestock consuming Brachiaria either as silage or hay may have reduced risk of intoxication by protodioscin.

  11. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  12. Characterization of spirostanol saponins in Solanum torvum by high-performance liquid chromatography/evaporative light scattering detector/electrospray ionization with multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Jianguang; Xu, Deran; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2008-08-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light scattering detector and electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ELSD/ESI-MS(n)) was used to identify spirostanol saponins in a saponin extract of Solanum torvum. The fragmentation behavior of saponins was studied using ESI-MS(1-3) in positive ion mode. The MS(n) spectra of the [M+H](+) ions provide structural information including aglycone type and the nature and sequence of sugars. The use of ELSD allowed the profiling of the nonchromophore-containing saponins in this plant. The MS analysis established in this study with known saponins was successfully applied to tentatively identify two new siprostanol glycosides, neosolaspigenin 6-O-beta-D-quinovopyranoside and solagenin 6-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-O-beta-D-quinovopyranoside]. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. 45Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, M A; Diecke, F P

    1983-04-01

    45Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Ca sequestering system. 45Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. 45Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The 45Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning.

  14. [Research of sapindus saponins on endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Long, Zi-Jiang; Gao, Hua-Wu; Bian, Hai; Wang, Ya-Juan; Wang, Liang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the regulation on endothelial function of sapindus saponins in spontaneously hypertensive rats by studying the reactivity on different vasoconstrictor and dilator, and the content of the active substances. Forty 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into five groups, one with placebo as model group, one with captopril tablets (27 mg x kg(-1)) as positive control, one with low-dose sapindus saponins (27 mg x kg(-1)), one with medium-dose (54 mg x kg(-1)), one with high-dose (108 mg x kg(-1)). And another eight healthy Wistar-Kyoto strain (WKY) rats were used as the normal group. The animals were treated for eight weeks, and the indicators to be detected were as follows: (1) the response of thoracic aorta on different vasoconstrictors Ang II (1 x 10(-9) -1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1)), PE (1 x 10(-8) 1 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1)), KCl (20 -120 mmol x L(-1)); (2) the endothelium-dependent or non-endothelium-dependent vasodilation response of thoracic aorta on Ach (1 x 10-(10)-1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1)) or SNP (1 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-3) mol x (L(-1); (3) the content of NO, 6-KPG1alpha, ET-1 and TXB2 in serum was determined by Elisa. In SHR model group, the response of thoracic aorta on Ang II, PE and KCl was increased, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation on Ach was reduced, but the effects on SNP was not obvious, the content of ET-1 and TXB2 was increased, and the content of NO and 6-KPG1alpha was reduced, Vs the normal control group, there were significant differences (P sapindus saponins protected the endothelial function in SHR, the mechanisms were relevant to the protection of endothelial function.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of the triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway in Anemone flaccida by transcriptome and proteome profiling

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    Xuebo Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted the tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model medicinal plant, A. flaccida. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and iTRAQ technique, a total of 46,962 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average sequence length of 1,310 bp, along with 1473 unique proteins from proteomic analysis. Among the A. flaccida transcripts, 36,617 (77.97 % showed significant similarity (E-value<1e-5 to the known proteins in the public database. Of the total 46,962 unigenes, 36,617 ORFs (open reading frame were predicated. By the RPKM (reads per kilobases per million reads statistics, 14,004 isoforms (unigenes were found to be upregulated, and 14,090 isoforms (unigenes were downregulated in the rhizome as compared to those in the leaf. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, all possible enzymes involved in the triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway of A. flaccida were identified, including cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA and the plastidial methylerythritol pathway (MEP. Additionally, a total of 126 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and 32 putative UDP glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates of triterpenoid saponins modifiers. Among them, 4 of them were annotated as the gene of CYP716A subfamily, the key enzyme in the oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, based on RNA-Seq and proteome sequencing, as well as quantitative RT-PCR verification, the expression level of gene and protein commit to triterpenoids biosynthesis in the leaf versus the rhizome was compared.

  16. Two antiproliferative saponins of Tarenna grevei from the Madagascar dry forest [1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Brodie, Peggy J; Callmander, Martin W; Razafitsalama, L Jérémie; Rasamison, Vincent E; Rakotobe, Etienne; Kingston, David G I

    2012-06-01

    Antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the endemic Malagasy Rubiaceous plant Tarenna grevei led to the isolation of two new antiproliferative oxygenated oleanane triterpene saponins. The structures of the two active compounds were elucidated as 23-hydroxylongispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and longispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) by analyses of their spectral data including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemical evidence. Compounds 1 and 3 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with IC50 values of 7.6 and 4 microM, respectively.

  17. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of new saponins from Cordia piauhiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata P; Silveira, Edilberto R; Uchôa, Daniel Esdras de A; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-08-01

    Two new bidesmoside triterpenoid saponins were isolated from stems of Cordia piauhiensis. Their structures, characterized as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl pomolic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), were unequivocally established after extensive NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135 degrees, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY, and NOESY) studies. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

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    Amita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion method.

  19. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-Zheng; Wan, Kai-Hua; Yan, Qing-Wei; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Feng, Tong-Tong; Dai, Mian; Zhong, Rui-Jian

    2017-06-25

    Five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, oleiferasaponins D 1 -D 5 (1-5), were isolated from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-5 were evaluated against five human tumor cell lines (HCT-116, HepG2, BGC-823, NCI-H1650, and A2780). Compounds 1-2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 3.31 to 10.23 μM. Compounds 3-5 showed moderate cytotoxic activities toward the tested cell lines.

  20. Two new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from notoginseng medicinal fungal substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Jia, Ai-Ling; Wang, Xin-Wen; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, namely ginsenoside Rk 6 (1) and ginsenoside-Rh 22 (2), were isolated from notoginseng medicinal fungal substance. The structures of 1 and 2 were established as 3β,6α,12β,26-tetrahydroxydammar-20(21),24(25)(E)-diene-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 3β,6α, 20(S)-trihydroxy-12(R),23(R)-expoxy-13(S),17(S)-dammar-24-ene-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical analysis, respectively.

  1. Triterpenoid Saponins from the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis and Their Cytotoxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Shi-Tao; Guo, Cong; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Cui, Wen-Jin; Wang, Shu-Hui; Deng, Zhe; Chen, Chang; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2018-02-01

    Six new triterpenoid saponins, aesculusosides A-F (1-6), together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. The new structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with previously reported data. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 cell line by an MTT assay, and compounds 15, 16, 19, and 23-25 exhibited inhibitory activities against MCF-7 with IC 50 values ranging from 7.1 to 31.3 μM.

  2. New triterpenoid saponins from the steaming treated roots of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng-Zhen; Qiao, Yi-Jun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Further phytochemical investigation of the steaming treated roots of Panax notoginseng (Araliaceae) led to the identification of two new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, notoginsenoside SP20 (1) and SP21 (2). In addition, a pair of new phenolic glycosides (3a and 3b) was also isolated together with two known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by HRESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7712, A-549, MCF-9 and SW480).

  3. Two new triterpenoid saponins from the leaves of Bupleurum lancifolium (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, Amel; Derbré, Séverine; Medjroubi, Kamel; Laouer, Hocine; Séraphin, Denis; Akkal, Salah

    2017-10-01

    Chemical investigation of the leaves of Bupleurum lancifolium led to the isolation and identification of two triterpenoid saponins previously undescribed named 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) along with the two known compounds isorhamnetin 3-rutinoside (3) and rutin (4). Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS analysis as well as 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  4. Saponinas antifúngicas de Swartzia langsdorffii Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Regina de Marqui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-b-D-(6'-methyl-glucopyranosyl-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  5. Paris Saponin I Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shuichuan; Du, Leiwen; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Xinhai; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background Dose-related toxicity is the major restriction of cisplatin and cisplatin-combination chemotherapy, and is a challenge for advanced gastric cancer treatment. We explored the possibility of using Paris saponin I as an agent to sensitize gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, and examined the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and Annexin V/PI staining. The P21waf1/cip1, Bcl-2...

  6. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  7. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  8. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  10. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available M Srinivasa Rao,1 B Syed Asad,1 MA Fazil,1 RD Sudharshan,1 SA Rasheed,1 HA Pradeep,1 S Aboobacker,2 AH Thayyil,1 AK Riyaz,1 M Mansoor,1 MA Aleem,1 K Zeeyauddin,3 M Lakshmi Narasu,4 A Anjum,1,5 M Ibrahim1,51Nizam Institute of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 2Department of Pharmacology, Jamiya Salafiya College of Pharmacy, Kerala; 3Department of Pharmacology, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 4Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh; 5Asian Institute of Advanced Scientific and Pharmaceutical Research, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAim: This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.Methods: Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70% by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal sleeping time in rats.Results: Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate

  12. Isolation and structural characterization of echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins from the Australian medicinal and food plant Acacia ligulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Ndi, Chi P.; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis. These are the first isolated...... compounds from A. ligulata and the first fully elucidated structures of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia sensu stricto having echinocystic acid reported as the aglycone. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a human melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL28) and a diploid fibroblast...

  13. A new steroidal saponin with antiinflammatory and antiulcerogenic properties from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2011-12-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrumL. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison of known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-spirostan-3-yl O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-galactopyranoside. Results of the present study indicated that the steroidal saponin showed haemolytic effects in the in vitro assays and demonstrated antiinflammatory activity and gastroprotective property using in vivo models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticonvulsant mechanism of saponins fraction from adventitious roots of Ficus religiosa: possible modulation of GABAergic, calcium and sodium channel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damanpreet Singh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In our previous studies, quantified saponins-rich fraction from adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L., Moraceae, showed anticonvulsant effect in acute, as well as chronic mice models of epilepsy. The present study was designed to reveal putative anticonvulsant mechanism of quantified saponins-rich fraction using target specific animal models. The anticonvulsant effect of quantified saponins-rich fraction was initially studied in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol test at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p. doses. Based on the results of initial anticonvulsant testing, different groups of mice were injected with vehicle or quantified saponins-rich fraction (4 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min prior to an injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (100 mg/kg; s.c., bicuculline (5 mg/kg; i.p., strychnine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg; i.p., BAY k-8644 (37.5 µg; i.c.v., veratridine (500 µg/kg; i.p. and the convulsive episodes were studied. Treatment with the extract (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg showed significant protection in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion tests, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quantified saponins-rich fraction at 4 mg/kg dose showed significant increase in latency to clonic convulsions, decrease in seizure severity and increase in average wave amplitude in bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine tests, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. However, SRF treatment failed to abolish N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and strychnine-induced convulsions, indicated by insignificant change in the appearance of turning behavior and onset of tonic extension, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. From the results of present study, it is concluded that quantified saponins-rich fraction suppress maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine-induced convulsions, indicating its GABAergic, Na+ and Ca2+ channel modulatory effects. Further it can be correlated that quantified saponins

  15. [Steroidal saponins from the plant Agave brittoniana with activity against the parasite Trichomona vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, José Orestes; Meneses, Alfredo; Simonet, Ana María; Macías, Francisco Antonio; Nogueiras, Clara; Gómez, Alicia; Escario, José A

    2008-12-01

    The genus Agave (Agavaceae), includes more than 300 species; around 16 of them show an homogeneous distribution throughout Cuba. Agave brittoniana (ssp. brachypus), is an endemic subspecies that grows in the central region of the country and its leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of parasitic diseases. The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the disease known as trichomoniasis, that infects the genital tract. To test in vitro the plant against Trichomona vaginalis, the dried and powdered leaves were extracted three times with ethanol-water (7:3) by maceration at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the extract was suspended in distilled water, defatted with n-hexane, and extracted with water-saturated n-butanol. After solvent removal, a portion of the n-butanol extract was hydrolyzed. After extraction with ethyl acetate the hydrolysis products were compared with authentic sapogenins samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the sapogenins (yuccagenin and diosgenin) were isolated and their structures were confirmed. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The n-butanol extract was subjected to a separation process through column chromatography to obtain five fractions. After multiple separation processes by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the most active one produced one refined fraction that contained two saponins with the same aglycone (diosgenin) and one yuccagenin based saponin. Best results of the activity were obtained with the yuccagenin derived glycoside.

  16. Fertigation of ‘BRS Princesa’ banana with humic substance and saponin-based plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Magalhães de Melo*

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of humic substances and plant extract has been increasing mainly in organic crop systems without scientific-based recommendations. Research is necessary to evaluate the feasibility and the recommendations of these substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of humic substances (humic and fulvic acids applied by fertigation with and without saponin-based plant extracts on growth and yield of ‘BRS Princesa’ banana. The experiment was carried out using the banana cultivar ‘BRS Princesa’, at a spacing of 2.0 × 2.5 m, fertigated by drip irrigation in a Dystric Densic Xantic Ferralsol, at the Recôncavo da Bahia, Brazil. Treatments consisted of five doses of humic substances (0.0; 70; 105; 140, and 210 L ha-1cycle-1 applied with and without a saponin-based plant extract in a randomized block design in split-plot scheme. The following growth variables were evaluated: number of leaves, pseudostem height, pseudostem diameter, and length and width of the third leaf. The number of fruits/hand and hands/bunch, hand and bunch yield, and length and fruit diameter of the second central hand were evaluated during harvest. The doses of humic substances influenced only pseudostem height. Hand yield, as well as fruit length and diameter of ‘BRS Princesa’ banana were higher in plants fertigated with humic substance and plant extract in comparison with plants fertigated with only humic substance.

  17. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  18. Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Shinobu, Cristiane S; Silva, Luiz F A; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ferreira, Izabel C P

    2007-12-01

    Extracts from the dried pericarp of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were investigated for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans and C. non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single clinical isolated of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate of C. parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH extract and one fraction showed strong activity against all isolates tested. Further column-chromatography on silica gel separation of this fraction afforded two pure triterpene acetylated saponins: 3-O-(4-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin (1) and 3-O-(3,4-di-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabynopyranosyl-hederagenin (2). The structures of the compounds were based on spectral data ((1)H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS), and on with literature. The saponins isolated showed strong activity against C. parapsilosis.

  19. Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-08-13

    Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail.

  20. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of six saponins from Sapindus trifoliatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Rajesh K; Roy, Abhijeet D; Roy, Raja; Joshi, S K; Srivastava, Vandita; Arora, Sudershan K

    2005-12-01

    Complete 1H and 13C spectral assignments are reported for six saponins from the pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus (Hindi name: Reetha) collected from Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, India, using only 1D and 2D NMR methods. The structures of the compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-ara-binopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylop-yranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinop-yranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopy-ranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopy-ranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-diacetyl-alpha-L-arabinop-yranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinop-yranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and he-deragenin 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. It is concluded that saponins of this complexity approach the limit of structural complexity, which can be solved by NMR alone, precisely and quickly. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [The antistress effect of the saponinic summ extracted from roots of Aralia mandshurica cultivated in Moldavia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena; Zagnat, M; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, R; Stănescu, Ursula; Grigorescu, Em

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the saponinic summ extracted from roots of Aralia mandshurica have been studied in experimentally animals exposed to stress. The experiment was carried out on 4 groups of animals divided into 24 lots of 12 white rats each with experimentally induced chronic inflammation or/and exposed to stress induced by exposure to continuous dark or light. The drugs (Levamisole (LVM) (10mg/kg bw/day), Indometacin (IND) (1.42 mg/kg bw/day), Extract of the roots of Aralia mandshurica (SAR) (26.25 mg/kg bw/day) and saline solution (0.5 mL/100 g bw/day) were administered orally for 14 days, in unique daily dose. Blood samples were taken from rats' retroorbital plexus before the beginning of the treatment protocol (M0) and at the finish of the treatment (M1) in order to assay differential cell count, peripheral neutrophils activity (NBT test) and serum complement activity. The SAR extracts exert influence on immunity defence cellular's components without influence on humoral efects, no matter of experimentally conditions. They determined decreasing of the percentage of the neutrophils in peripheral blood (at the lower levels than Indometacin (IND). The experimental results demonstrated immunomodulatory effect of this saponine extract.

  2. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Meduteni, Kayode; Yunusa, Isa

    2013-07-01

    To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  3. New Sweet-Tasting Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from "Tugancao" (Derris eriocarpa How).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Sun, Guo; Gu, Jian-Long; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2017-03-22

    With the aim to investigate the sweet-tasting compounds in Derris eriocarpa How (a substitute for licorice in "Zhuang" and "Dai" ethnopharmacy in Guangxi and Yunnan provinces of China) as well as to ascertain why the stem of D. eriocarpa can be used to substitute for licorice in the sweetness taste aspect, taste sensory-guided fractionation was conducted to isolate sweet constituents from the extract of D. eriocarpa. Four sweet-tasting triterpenoid saponins were obtained, including millettiasaponin A (1) and three new saponins named derrisaponins A-C (2-4). The sweetness potency was evaluated by a human sensory panel test. The sweetness intensities of compounds 1-4 were determined to be approximately 150, 80, 2, and 0.5 times relative to sucrose at the concentration of 1%, respectively, of which compounds 1 and 2, with a free carboxyl group at the C-30 position, showed more potent sweetness intensity. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed no acute toxic activity at doses of 250 and 400 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, assessed through caudal vein injection to ICR mice. The contents of the sweetest compounds in stems were analyzed quantitatively as 352.80 mg/kg for compound 1 and 1887.60 mg/kg for compound 2 performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-Di; Hong, Jing-Yi; Bao, Feng-Da; Xing, Na; Wang, Ling-Tian; Sun, Zhong-Hao; Luo, Yun; Jiang, Hai; Xu, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Nai-Liang; Wu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Gui-Bo; Yang, Jun-Shan

    2017-09-11

    Four new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopoursaponins A-D (1-4), six new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopodiside VII-XII (5-10), as well as eight known triterpene analogues (11-18), were isolated from the aerial parts of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. The structures of the new compounds were determined based on extensive spectral analyses, including 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, 2D TOCSY, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC), HR-ESI-MS and chemical methods. Compounds 1-18 were evaluated for their protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and cytotoxicities against murine mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. Compounds 8, 9 and 18 exhibited significant protective effects, while compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC 50 value of 7.4 μm compared to 7.6 μm for the positive control 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  5. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Stintzing, Florian C; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-13

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MS n ) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals.

  6. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Calabro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866 led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A–G (1–7. All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A–D (1–4 all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2′, poecillastrosides E–G (5–7 are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3′ between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  7. Isolation, Identification and Cytotoxicity of a New Noroleanane-Type Triterpene Saponin from Salicornia bigelovii Torr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqin Guan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicornia bigelovii Torr. has been consumed not only as a popular kind of vegetable, but also as a medicinal plant to treat hypertension, cephalalgia, scurvy and cancer. The present study was designed to investigate its chemical components and cytotoxic activity. A new noroleanane-type triterpene saponin, bigelovii C (1, was separated and purified from Salicornia bigelovii Torr., along with four known triterpene saponins 2–5. The structure of bigelovii C was elucidated as 3-O-(6-O-butyl ester-β-D-glucuropyranosyl-23-aldehyde-30-norolean-12, 20 (29-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, according to various spectroscopic analysis and chemical characteristics. Besides Compounds 3 and 5, bigelovii C had potent cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast cancer, Lovo (colon cancer and LN229 (glioblastoma, especially MCF7. Bigelovii C inhibited the growth of MCF7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased upon bigelovii C treatment. Rh123 staining assay indicated that bigelovii C reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mechanism of cell death by bigelovii C may be attributed to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-7 and PARP. These results suggested that bigelovii C may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a potential chemopreventative agent for cancer.

  8. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzotti, Virginia; Barile, Elisa; Antignani, Vincenzo; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., var. Voghiera, typical of Voghiera, Ferrara (Italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside A1/A2 and voghieroside B1/B2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside C1/C2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside D1/D2 and E1/E2, based on gitogenin aglycone. In addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-O-trisaccharide and gitogenin 3-O-tetrasaccharide. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of two eugenol diglycosides were also found for the first time in Allium spp. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity towards two fungal species, the air-borne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Content of the Saponin Protodioscin in Brachiaria spp. from the Eastern Plains of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nhora M.

    2017-01-01

    Protodioscin is used as a marker of saponin content that could cause hepatotoxicity in ruminants. In Brachiaria spp. from two regions of the Colombian Eastern Plains (east mountain range of the Andean—“piedemonte” and Ariari River Valley) were determined this metabolite at 14 and 28 days post-cutting under different climatic conditions. No protodioscin was detected in B. dictyoneura or B. humidicola. In B. brizantha, B. decumbens and B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha (hybrid), protodioscin content corresponded to an interaction between species, post-cutting time and season. Concentrations ≥1% (minimum toxic level) were recorded in B. decumbens and the hybrid, and to a lesser extent in B. brizantha. The concentration of protodioscin was higher at 28 days, when the pastures are suitable for consumption. B. brizantha accumulated the lowest saponin concentration, whereas the hybrid had the highest levels, particularly in the “piedemonte” and during drought (3.37%). Dry season favored the protodioscin concentration in B. decumbens (in river valley) and in the hybrid (in “piedemonte”). In the latter, there was a positive correlation with temperature and a negative with humidity, which are typical characteristics of dry periods. This is the first report of protodioscin content in the hybrid. PMID:28703748

  10. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Kevin; Kalahroodi, Elaheh Lotfi; Rodrigues, Daniel; Díaz, Caridad; Cruz, Mercedes de la; Cautain, Bastien; Laville, Rémi; Reyes, Fernando; Pérez, Thierry; Soussi, Bassam; Thomas, Olivier P

    2017-06-26

    The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866) led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A-G (1-7). All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A-D (1-4) all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2', poecillastrosides E-G (5-7) are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3' between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D NMR) and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  11. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. Superiority of SDS lysis over saponin lysis for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottle by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Garnaud, Cécile; Raykova, Mariya; Bailly, Sébastien; Bidart, Marie; Maubon, Danièle

    2017-05-01

    Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here, a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures is proposed. Four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by MS directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating two lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and two protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP) are compared. One hundred and sixty-eight identification tests are carried out on 42 strains. Overall, there are correct identifications to the species level in 90% samples for the SDS-LP, 60% for the SDS-FP, 48% for the saponin LP, and 43% for the saponin FP. Adapted scores allowed 92, 86, 72, and 53% identification for SDS-LP, SDS-FP, saponin LP, and saponin FP, respectively. Saponin lysis is associated with a significantly lower score compared to SDS (0.87 [0.83-0.92], p-value SDS lysis instead of saponin lysis and the application of this rapid and cost-effective protocol in daily routine for microbiological agents implicated in septicemia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  15. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  16. Cytotoxic activity of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla against human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468

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    Fiaz Alam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate Gaultheria trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human breast cancer cell lines. In MTT assay, cell viability was inhibited by G. trichophylla crude extract (500 µg/mL and saponins (200 µg/mL in a dose dependent manner with maximum inhibition of (82% and 85% and (71% and 42% against MCF-7 and MDA MB-468, respectively. In neutral red uptake assay, the cell viability was inhibited by crude extract and saponins (100 µg/mL in a similar manner with maximum inhibitions of (96% and 93% and (87% and 61% against MCF-7 and MDA MB-468, respectively, with respect to 91% and 93% inhibition by actinomycin-D (4 µM. The DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (10 µg/mL staining of MCF-7 cells treated with crude saponins showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation indicating apoptosis and in contrast, MDA MB-468 showed necrosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. trichophylla provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  17. Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Huang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Jian; Lin, Qing-Sheng

    2007-04-01

    Semen Ziziphus jujube (SZJ), the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa, is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine used for its action on insomnia. In order to analyze the effective component, we investigated and compared the sedative and hypnotic effects of three kinds of compounds, flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides were extracted from SZJ and orally administered to mice separately at 17 g kg(-1) per day for certain days before animal tests. Spontaneous motility and coordinated movement tests were used to observe the effects of the three kinds of compounds on the mouse behavior, and sodium barbital-induced sleeping time of mouse were tested to analyze the effects of the three kinds of compounds on the sleep of mouse. Results show that flavonoids and saponins caused a significant reduction of walking time and coordinated movement ability of mouse, significantly prolonged its sleeping time at 40 mg kg(-1), ip, subthreshold dose and increased the sleeping number of animals at 50 mg kg(-1), ip, superthreshold dose induced by coeliac injection of sodium barbital. Polysaccharides did not show any significance in all animal tests. Comparative analysis showed that saponins had a more effective sedative and hypnotic function than that of flavonoids, polysaccharides did not show a sedative and hypnotic effect.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of the saponin derivative GPI-0100 as an immunostimulating and dose-sparing adjuvant for pandemic influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Bungener, Laura; ter Veer, Wouter; Coller, Beth-Ann; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2011-01-01

    With the current global influenza vaccine production capacity the large demand for vaccines in case of a pandemic can only be fulfilled when antigen dose sparing strategies are employed. Here we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the potential of GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic saponin derivative,

  19. Analytical methods for determination of alkaloids and saponins from roots of Caulophyllum thalictroids (L) Michx using UPLC HPLC and HPTLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison study of analytical methods including HPLC, UPLC and HPTLC are presented in this paper for the determination of major alkaloid and triterpene saponins from the roots of Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. (blue cohosh) and dietary supplements claiming to contain blue cohosh. The meth...

  20. De novo characterization of Panax japonicus C. A. Mey transcriptome and genes related to triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Wu, Yayun; Jin, Jian; Hu, Bingxiong; Zeng, Wanyong; Zhu, Wenjun; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2015-10-23

    Panax japonicus C.A.Mey, the traditional medicinal herb in the Araliaceae family, has been used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory and haemostatic agent in China for more than thousand years. Its clinical effects are mainly due to the presence of triterpenoid saponins. However, little is known at the genetic level about how saponins are biosynthesized in this plant. We have therefore performed the de novo transcriptome assembly and high throughput RNA-seq analysis for P. japonicus. 66,403 unigenes were assembled from 19.6 Gbp raw data, and 34,639 unigenes were annotated. After annotation, 29 unigenes involved in putative backbone biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponin were selected. Additionally, 34 Cytochrome P450 and 18 UDP-glycosyltransferase unigenes were predicted based on the annotation, which were related to the saponin backbone modification. The expression level of related key genes were further verified by qPCR analysis. The results of this study provide the most comprehensive expressed sequence resources for P. japonicus, which will enlarge the available P. japonicus gene pool and facilitate further genome-wide research and analyses in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. De novo leaf and root transcriptome analysis to identify putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in Hedera helix L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huapeng; Li, Fang; Xu, Zijian; Sun, Mengli; Cong, Hanqing; Qiao, Fei; Zhong, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Hedera helix L. is an important traditional medicinal plant in Europe. The main active components are triterpenoid saponins, but none of the potential enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis have been discovered and annotated. Here is reported the first study of global transcriptome analyses using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 platform for H. helix. In total, over 24 million clean reads were produced and 96,333 unigenes were assembled, with an average length of 1385 nt; more than 79,085 unigenes had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Differentially Expressed Gene analysis identified 6,222 and 7,012 unigenes which were expressed either higher or lower in leaf samples when compared with roots. After functional annotation and classification, two pathways and 410 unigenes related to triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis were discovered. The accuracy of these de novo sequences was validated by RT-qPCR analysis and a RACE clone. These data will enrich our knowledge of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and provide a theoretical foundation for molecular research on H. helix.

  2. Verbesinosides A-F, Novel 15,27-Cyclooleanane Saponins from the American Native Plant Verbesina virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesinosides A-F (1-6), six novel 15,27-cyclooleanane-type triterpenoid saponins carrying different aromatic acyl moieties on the aglycone, were isolated from the leaf and flower of Verbesina virginica. Their structures were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical methods....

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  4. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  5. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  6. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  7. Effects of adaptation of in vitro rumen culture to garlic oil, nitrate and saponin and their combinations on methanogenesis, fermentation, and abundances and diversity of microbial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of garlic oil (0.25 g/L, nitrate (5 mM and quillaja saponin (0.6 g/L, alone and in binary or ternary combinations, on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and abundances of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures. Potential adaptation to these compounds was also examined by repeated transfers of the cultures on alternate days until day 18. All treatments except saponin alone significantly decreased methanogenesis. Ternary combinations of garlic oil, nitrate, and saponin additively/synergistically suppressed methane production by 65% at day 2 and by 40% at day 18. Feed digestion was not adversely affected by any of the treatments at day 2, but was decreased by the combinations (binary and ternary of garlic oil with the other inhibitors at days 10 and 18. Saponin, alone or in combinations, and garlic oil alone lowered ammonia concentration at day 2, while nitrate increased ammonia concentration at days 10 and 18. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was decreased by garlic oil alone or garlic oil-saponin combination. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate were affected to different extents by the different treatments. The abundances of methanogens were similar among treatments at day 2; however, garlic oil and its combination with saponin and/or nitrate at day 10 and all treatments except saponin at day 18 significantly decreased the abundances of methanogens. All the inhibitors, either alone or in combinations, did not adversely affect the abundances of total bacteria or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. However, at day 18 the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were lowered in the presence of garlic oil and saponin, respectively. The results suggest that garlic oil-nitrate-saponin combination (at the doses used in this study can effectively decreases methanogenesis in the rumen, but its efficacy may decrease while inhibition to feed digestion can increase over time.

  8. Effect of saponin on the transmucosal passage of beta-lactoglobulin across the proximal small intestine of normal and beta-lactoglobulin-sensitised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, J M; Wal, J M; Miller, K; Atkinson, H; Grigoriadou, F; Wijnands, M V; Penninks, A H; Wortley, G; Johnson, I T

    1997-02-28

    The ability of saponins and glycoalkaloids to permeabilise the mammalian intestinal barrier has been previously demonstrated in vitro, leading to the hypothesis that membranolytic saponins may facilitate transfer to the tissues of otherwise excluded macromolecules. An enhanced uptake of, for instance, potentially allergenic species from the lumen is one of the factors that may affect the induction of food allergy, and its presentation in already sensitised individuals. In the experiments described here, an increase in the transmucosal uptake of the milk allergen beta-lactoglobulin (beta LG) was assessed in non-sensitised and sensitised Brown Norway rats in the presence of Gypsophila saponin. Isolated jejunal loops were exposed in vivo to either beta LG followed by saponin, saponin followed by beta LG or the two compounds simultaneously. Portal vein blood samples were collected and assayed for beta LG and rat mucosal mast cell protease (RCMP II) activity. Mucosal tissue was also examined histologically and assayed for histamine content. Sham-operated animals, exposed to physiological buffer alone, were included as controls and beta LG measurements corrected for this component which was negligible. No transfer of beta LG occurred in the absence of saponin in non-sensitised rats, whereas a significant enhancement was observed in the presence of saponin. beta LG was detected in the portal circulation of sensitised rats exposed to beta LG alone; however addition of saponin to the intestinal lumen further enhanced this uptake, possibly by an independent mechanism. Histological examination of the mucosal epithelium exposed to saponin revealed damage, especially at the villus tips. Mucosal histamine and serum RCMP II concentrations were consistent with the differences observed between sensitised and non-sensitised animals. It is concluded that exposure to food constituents capable of permeabilising the mucosal epithelium may increase the risk of sensitisation to dietary

  9. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdelrahman

    Full Text Available The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  10. Osteoprotective effects of Cimicifuga racemosa and its triterpene-saponins are responsible for reduction of bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Stecher, Günther; Kammann, Markus; Haunschild, Jutta; Eder, Nicole; Stahnke, Vera; Wessels, Johannes; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2012-07-15

    Elderly people often develop visceral obesity accompanied by osteoporosis. Visceral adipocytes secrete a number of adipokines and cytokines which augment the development of arteriosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Bone marrow fat cells also secrete these pro-inflammatory cytokines which stimulate osteoclast and inhibit osteoblast activity. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats also develop general and bone marrow obesity and osteoporosis both of which can be partially prevented by estradiol (E2) and the special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) BNO 1055. Whether this extract or the thereof isolated triterpene-saponins or polar substances can also prevent bone marrow obesity and thereby the development of osteoporosis was compared with the effects of estradiol (E2). Rats were ovx and fed with food containing either CR BNO 1055 or its triterpene-saponin or polar constituents or with E2 for 4 weeks. Histomorphometry and STRUT analyses were applied to histological preparations to determine the amount of trabecles, hematopoietic and fat tissue in the bone marrow. Ovx rats lost significant amounts of trabecular BMD, surface and nodes while the number of free trabecular ends and fat load in the marrow increased. This was totally prevented by E2 and partially by CR BNO 1055 and the triterpene-saponin but not by the polar fraction. High serum osteocalcin and CrossLaps levels were reduced by E2 and the S-fraction. It is well established that E2 prevents osteoporosis. It is also known that CR BNO 1055 does not contain estrogenic substances. CR BNO 1055 and the triterpene-saponin-fraction reduced the development of osteoporosis most likely by a reduction of the bone marrow fat load and possibly by reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the triterpene-saponin-fraction may serve as a basis for a new osteoporosis preventing preparation also in human patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Saponin Isolation as Main Ingredients of Insecticide and Collagen Type I From Crown of Thorn–Starfish (Acanthaster planci)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarko, Anondho; Januardi Ginting, Mikael; Sahlan, Muhamad; Krisanta Endah Savitri, Imelda; Florensia, Yunita; Sudiarta, Maria Regina; Pastika, Satria; Rafiki, Fakhri; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-10-01

    The outbreaks of crown of thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) resulted in the severe destruction of coral reefs in a large number of Indonesia’s marine ecosystem, especially in the western part. At the moment, control efforts are proven to be ineffective because of its high cost and labor intensive. Recent research found that A. planci contain saponins that act as cytotoxic compound and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide to eradicate Kalotermitidae pest. Saponins extracted by maceration using ethanol 96.0% with a total yield of saponins 9.04% and 4.66% for two test. Purification of saponin was achieved by utilization of activated carbon with a mass of carbon:volume sample 1:2 (w/v) and stirred for 20 minutes. Sapogenin can be isolated by hydrolyzing using hydrochloric acid, and thus 168.4 mg sapogenin is obtained. In addition to saponins, A. planci also contains collagen Type I. Collagen isolation by multistage extraction began with extracting the collagen with alkaline solvent, with water, NaOH 0.1 M, and Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the solvent variations. The second step is acid-enzymatic extraction by pepsin digestion in 0.5 M acetic acid. Collagen extract will be further purified by salting out and dialysis method to obtain pure collagen yield called Pepsin Solubilized Collagens (PSC). Characterization of PSC consists of quantitative and qualitative analysis such as Lowry method, gel electrophoresis, UV spectroscopy, amino acid composition analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result shows Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the best extraction solvent with 2.26% yield of PSC.

  12. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-17

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy

  13. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  14. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-01

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this

  15. Revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated saponin from Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecio, Łukasz; Jędrejek, Dariusz; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated steroidal saponin isolated from grains of Avena sativa L. were elucidated. Their structures and complete NMR assignments are based on 1D and 2D NMR studies and identified as nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-6-O-sulfoglucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Chemical structures, production and enzymatic transformations of sapogenins and saponins from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerad, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal herb traditionally used in Asiatic countries for its multiple therapeutic properties, essentially due to its accumulation of specific pentacylic triterpenoid saponins, mainly asiaticoside and madecassoside and the corresponding sapogenins. This review summarizes the updated knowledge about the chemical structures of about forty centelloids, found as minor metabolites in Centella, and all derived from ursane and oleane ring patterns. Similarly, the most recent genetic and enzymatic features involved in their biosynthesis is reviewed, in relation with their biotechnological production developed, either from in vitro plant cultures or undifferentiated cells, in order to be independent of natural sources and to provide a continuous and reliable source of centelloids. Finally, a short survey of the biotransformations of some centelloids, either in animal, human or microorganisms is reviewed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Cyathula officinalis and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun-Tao; Yan, Wen-Jing; Qi, Chu-Lu; Hou, Ji-Qin; Zhong, Yan-Ying; Li, Hui-Jun; Wang, Hao; Li, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Cyathula officinalis. Compounds were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. One new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, 28-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] hederagenin (1), was isolated from the roots of Cyathula officinalis. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells. Compounds 2, 4, and 6 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxic and Hypoglycemic Activity of Triterpenoid Saponins from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Tai-Mei; Yang, Shao-Lan; Du, Feng-Yu; Zhao, Lei; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Xin-Fu

    2017-09-21

    One new and three known triterpenoid saponins were isolated and identified from Camellia oleifera seeds through IR, NMR, HR-ESI-MS and GC-MS spectroscopic methods, namely oleiferasaponin A₃, oleiferasaponin A₁, camelliasaponin B₁, and camelliasaponin B₂. The structure of oleiferasaponin A₃ was elucidated as 16α-hydroxy-21β- O -angeloyl-22α- O -cinnamoyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β- O -[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-gluco-pyranosiduronic acid. Camelliasaponin B₁ and camelliasaponin B₂ exhibited potent cytotoxic activity on three human tumour cell lines (human lung tumour cells (A549), human liver tumour cells (HepG2), cervical tumour cells (Hela)). The hypoglycemic activity of oleiferasaponin A₁ was testified by protecting pancreatic β-cell lines from high-glucose damage.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and in rats plasma pharmacokinetic study of a new triterpenoid saponin from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yina; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Qianlan; Lu, Yongzhuang; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-02-01

    One new oleanolic acid triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl olean-11, 13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid, (hereafter referred to as DS-1) was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus superbus (D. superbus). DS-1 plays an important role in the bioactivity of D. superbus. Thus, a sensitive, reliable and accurate reversed-phased liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative ion mode was developed and validated for the quantification and pharmacokinetic study of DS-1 in rats plasma. The pharmacokinetic profile showed that DS-1 was rapidly absorbed and eliminated in plasma, indicating that significant accumulation of the compound in biological specimen is unlikely. In addition, poor absorption into systemic circulation was observed after oral administration of DS-1, resulting in low absolute bioavailability (0.92 %).

  20. Three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Celosia cristata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jifa; Guo, Kai; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Miansong; Shi, Yaping; Liu, Changheng; Xiao, Linlin; Sun, Zhenliang

    2018-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 1-butanol soluble fraction of 60% ethanol extract of the seeds of Celosia cristata L. led to the identification of three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins. Using 1 D and 2 D NMR experiment methods, ESI-MS analysis and acid hydrolysis, their structures were identified as 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-2β-hydroxy-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-2β, 23-dihydroxy-oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-2-hydroxyl-medicagenic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyide (3), respectively.

  1. Triterpenoid saponins from the pulp of Sapindus mukorossi and their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingwen; Chen, Ying-Ying; Jiao, Qi-Yang; Khan, Afsar; Li, Feng; Han, De-Feng; Cao, Gui-Dong; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Under the guidance of anti-fungal bioassay, four previously undescribed oleanane-type and one lupane-type triterpenoid saponins, along with twelve known analogues, were isolated from the extract of Sapindus mukorossi pulps. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. In vitro biotests, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranoside showed inhibitory activity against Trichophyton rubrum with MIC 80 value of 8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranoside exhibited inhibitory activity against both Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans with MIC 80 values of 8 μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Haemolytic activity and immunological adjuvant effect of a new steroidal saponin from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira da Silva, Bernadete; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Parente, José Paz

    2012-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-3-{(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxyspirostan-2-one (1). Results of the present study indicated that 1 exhibited haemolytic activity in the in vitro assays, and immunological adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  4. Oleanane saponins from Bellis sylvestris Cyr. and evaluation of their phytotoxicity on Aegilops geniculata Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiumano, Vittorio; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Tsafantakis, Nikolaos; Pacifico, Severina; Esposito, Assunta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Six oleanane saponins were isolated for the first time from leaves of Bellis sylvestris Cyr., the southern daisy. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 2D-NMR experiments, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC, CIGAR, H2BC, and HSQC-TOCSY, along with Q-TOF HRMS² analysis. All of the compounds are constituted by bayogenin as aglycone, and characterized by the presence of an oligosaccharide moiety, consisting of two to four sugar unities esterified at the C-28 carboxyl carbon. One of the isolated compounds is a bisdesmoside containing an additional sugar moiety at the C-3 carbon. The phytotoxic activity assayed against Aegilops geniculata Roth., a coexisting test species, has been evaluated revealing that all the compounds, at the highest concentrations, showed strong phytotoxicity against the leaf development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Triterpenoid Saponins from Green Vegetable Soya Beans and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiuhua; Deng, Kejun; Zhao, Jianping; Chen, Yiyi; Xin, Xuhui; Liu, Yanli; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shilin; Wang, Taoyun; Xu, Qiongming

    2017-12-20

    Ten compounds were isolated and identified from green vegetable soya beans, of which five are new triterpenoid saponins (1-5) and five are known compounds (6-10). The chemical structures of the five triterpenoid saponins (1-5) were elucidated to be 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 1; 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 2; 22-keto-3β,24-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 3; 3β,22β,24-trihydroxy oxyolean-18(19)-ene-29-acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 4; and punicanolic acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 5 from the spectroscopic data (IR, GTC/FID, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The nitric oxide release inhibitions of compounds 1-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were evaluated, and the data suggested that compounds 1, 2, and 5 might possess moderate anti-inflammatory activities, with IC 50 values of 18.8, 16.1, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  6. The effect of Medicago arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa saponins on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. tulipae apt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was shown that total saponins originated from M. hybrida and M. sativa substantially limited mycelium growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae and symptoms of fusariosis on tulip bulbs. Out of 15 individual tested saponins originated from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa, four compounds: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin, hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, medicagenic acid, medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae on PDA medium. The total saponins from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa inhibited the number of colony forming units of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in artificially infested substrate. The use of saponins originated from Medicago as a fungicide is suggested.

  7. Studies on the biochemical action of ginseng saponin. I. Purification from ginseng extract of the active component stimulating serum protein biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, H; Hiai, S; Odaka, Y; Yokozawa, T

    1975-05-01

    Systematic isolation and purification of the biologically active component of ginseng extract were followed by observing the incorporation of labeled leucine into serum protein at 6 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection in a mouse. Ginseng saponin mixture (fraction 5) exhibited high activity for such incorporation. Seven saponins were isolated from fraction 5 by means of preparative TLC, and assayed. Administration of all these saponins (ginsenoside-Rb2, Rc, Rc2, Rd, Re, and Rg1)except for ginsenoside-Rb1, caused an increase of leucine incorporation over that in control animals. The incorporation rate was directly proportional to the dose in the case of ginsenoside-Rd, which had the highest activity. The increase specific radio-activity of serum protein was not due to a decrease in the pool size of free amino acids in the liver. It was conclusively shown that the active component stimulating serum protein biosynthesis is saponin.

  8. Effects of saponins and glycoalkaloids on the permeability and viability of mammalian intestinal cells and on the integrity of tissue preparations in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gee, J.M.; Wortley, G.M.; Johnson, I.T.; Price, K.R.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Houben, G.F.; Penninks, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of potato and tomato glycoalkaloids and a saponin mixture from Gypsophila were investigated in cytotoxicity studies (neutral red uptake, mitochondrial MTT reduction and release of lactate dehydrogenase), using cultured cell lines of rat and human intestinal mucosal epithelium.

  9. UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and qRT-PCR in enzyme gene screening with key role in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of Polygala tenuifolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, named Radix Polygalae, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoid saponins are some of the most important components of Radix Polygalae extracts and are widely studied because of their valuable pharmacological properties. However, the relationship between gene expression and triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in P. tenuifolia is unclear.In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis was performed to identify and quantify the different chemical constituents of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. tenuifolia. A total of 22 marker compounds (VIP>1 were explored, and significant differences in all 7 triterpenoid saponins among the different tissues were found. We also observed an efficient reference gene GAPDH for different tissues in this plant and determined the expression level of some genes in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Results showed that MVA pathway has more important functions in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of P. tenuifolia. The expression levels of squalene synthase (SQS, squalene monooxygenase (SQE, and beta-amyrin synthase (β-AS were highly correlated with the peak area intensity of triterpenoid saponins compared with data from UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis.This finding suggested that a combination of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and gene expression analysis can effectively elucidate the mechanism of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and can provide useful information on gene discovery. These findings can serve as a reference for using the overexpression of genes encoding for SQS, SQE, and/or β-AS to increase the triterpenoid saponin production of P. tenuifolia.

  10. UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and qRT-PCR in enzyme gene screening with key role in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of Polygala tenuifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Li, Xiaowei; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Peng, Bing; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2014-01-01

    The dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, named Radix Polygalae, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoid saponins are some of the most important components of Radix Polygalae extracts and are widely studied because of their valuable pharmacological properties. However, the relationship between gene expression and triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in P. tenuifolia is unclear. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS)-based metabolomic analysis was performed to identify and quantify the different chemical constituents of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. tenuifolia. A total of 22 marker compounds (VIP>1) were explored, and significant differences in all 7 triterpenoid saponins among the different tissues were found. We also observed an efficient reference gene GAPDH for different tissues in this plant and determined the expression level of some genes in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Results showed that MVA pathway has more important functions in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of P. tenuifolia. The expression levels of squalene synthase (SQS), squalene monooxygenase (SQE), and beta-amyrin synthase (β-AS) were highly correlated with the peak area intensity of triterpenoid saponins compared with data from UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis. This finding suggested that a combination of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and gene expression analysis can effectively elucidate the mechanism of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and can provide useful information on gene discovery. These findings can serve as a reference for using the overexpression of genes encoding for SQS, SQE, and/or β-AS to increase the triterpenoid saponin production of P. tenuifolia.

  11. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panax notoginseng (Burk F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS, which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158 and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082 gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next

  12. Rapid Detection and Characterisation of Triterpene Saponins from the Root of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Lin, Zhanqing; Zha, Wenjuan; Lian, Tou; You, Shanshan

    2016-05-01

    Triterpene saponins are the major bioactive components in the root of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel (RPC), and have been reported to possess antitumor and immunological adjuvant activities. However, the isolation, purification and elucidation procedures of triterpene saponins from RPC are difficult and time consuming due to high polarity and structural similarity. To develop an analytical strategy for discovering and elucidating triterpene saponins in RPC. Methanolic extract of RPC is analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). The MS and MS/MS experiments are conducted using the negative-ionisation mode, in order to provide molecular-mass information and production spectra for the structural elucidation of compounds. Based on retention times, accurate mass and mass spectrometric fragmentation, 24 triterpene saponins are identified or tentatively elucidated from RPC, of which nine triterpene saponins were not reported previously. The HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS could be employed as a rapid, effective technique to screen and identify triterpene saponins in RPC without tedious and time-consuming isolation of pure constituents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Simultaneous separation of triterpenoid saponins and flavonoid glycosides from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfang; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-10-01

    Glycosides including triterpenoid saponins and flavonoid glycosides are the main constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (licorice) and exhibit prominent pharmacological activities. However, conventional methods for the separation of glycosides always cause irreversible adsorption and unavoidable loss of sample due to their high hydrophilicities. The present paper describes a convenient method for the simultaneous separation of triterpenoid saponins and flavonoid glycosides from licorice by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. Ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (2:3:5, v/v) with 10 mM TFA in the upper organic stationary phase and 10 mM ammonia in the lower aqueous mobile phase was used as the biphasic solvent system. Three triterpenoid saponins and two flavonoid glycosides including licorice-saponin A3 (63.3 mg), glycyrrhizic acid (342.2 mg), 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl]glycyrrhetic acid (56.0 mg), liquiritin apioside (232.6 mg), and liquiritin (386.5 mg) were successfully obtained from licorice ethanol extract (2 g) in one step. This method subtly takes advantage of the common acidic properties of triterpenoid saponins and flavonoid glycosides, and obviously is much more efficient and convenient than the previous methods. It is also the first time that the separation of acidic triterpenoid saponins by using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography has been reported. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. SUPPLEMENTATION EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND SAPONIN EXTRACTS TO DIETS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO ON In vitro RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yogianto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of combining tannin and saponin extracts onruminal methane emission of diets with different proportion of forage to concentrate in the in vitrofermentation. The experiment was conducted in a factorial block design. The first factor was theproportion of forage:concentate in diets (70:30 and 30:70 and the second was addition of tannin andsaponin extracts (control, tannins, saponins, tannins + saponins in the dose of 2 mg/ml. Variablesobserved were gas production kinetics, methane production, dry matter digestibility (DMD, organicmatter digestibility (OMD and ammonia concentration. Results revealed that addition of tannins,saponins and their combination generally lowered total gas and methane production during 24 and 48 hof incubation period in both types of diets (P<0.05, but combination of tannins and saponins comparedwith their separated forms did not show any significant differences. The addition of tannins, saponinsand their combination reduced DMD, OMD and ammonia significantly (P<0.05. It can be concludedthat the addition of tannin, saponin and their combination at a dose of 2 mg/ml could reduce methaneemission but followed by a decline in the DMD, OMD and ammonia.

  15. Saponin-Based Nanoemulsification Improves the Antioxidant Properties of Vitamin A and E in AML-12 Cells

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    Qaisra Naheed Choudhry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed to investigate the protective effects of saponin-based nanoemulsions of vitamin A and E against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in AML-12 cells. Saponin nanoemulsions of vitamin A (SAN and vitamin E (SEN were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. SEN and SAN protect AML-12 cells against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage more efficiently via scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS, and reducing DNA damage, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. These results provide valuable information for the development of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that would improve the antioxidant properties of vitamin A and E.

  16. The bHLH transcription factors TSAR1 and TSAR2 regulate triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Jan; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, José; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stresses by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. Hormonal elicitors, such as jasmonates, trigger a complex signaling circuit leading to the concerted activation of specific metabolic pathways. However, for many specialized metabolic pathways, the transcription factors involved remain unknown. Here, we report on two homologous jasmonate-inducible transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family, TRITERPENE SAPONIN BIOSYNTHESIS ACTIVATING ...

  17. The Apoptotic Effect of D Rhamnose β-Hederin, a Novel Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponin on Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenbin; Liang, Xiu-Qing; Xue, Jin-Qiu; Shi, Liang; Wang, Ying; Ding, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in development of natural products as anti-cancer and chemopreventive agents. Many triterpenoids have been proved as potential agents for chemoprevention and therapy of breast cancer. Ginsenosides from ginseng, which mostly belong to dammarane-type triterpenoids, have gained great attention for their anti-breast cancer activity with diverse mechanisms. However, studies of other kinds of triterpenoid saponins on breast cancer are limited. Previously, we purified and identified a novel oleanane-type triterpene saponin named D Rhamnose β-hederin (DRβ-H) from Clematis ganpiniana, a Chinese traditional anti-tumor herb. In the present study, DRβ-H showed strong inhibitory activity on the growth of various breast cancer cells and induced apoptosis in these cells. DRβ-H inhibited PI3K/AKT and activated ERK signaling pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 synergistically enhanced DRβ-H-induced apoptosis whereas MEK inhibitor U0126 reduced the apoptosis rate. Moreover, DRβ-H regulated the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, DRβ-H induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential which released Apaf-1 and Cytochrome C from the inter membrane space into the cytosol, where they promoted caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. This is the first report on the pro-apoptotic effects of DRβ-H, a novel oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, on breast cancer cells and its comprehensive apoptosis pathways. It implied that oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin DRβ-H could be a promising candidate for chemotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:24603880

  18. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Barkat Ali; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyrant...

  19. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthetic Pathway Profiling and Candidate Gene Mining of the Ilex asprella Root Using RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiasheng; Xu, Hui; Ma, Xinye; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Ilex asprella, which contains abundant α-amyrin type triterpenoid saponins, is an anti-influenza herbal drug widely used in south China. In this work, we first analysed the transcriptome of the I. asprella root using RNA-Seq, which provided a dataset for functional gene mining. mRNA was isolated from the total RNA of the I. asprella root and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Then, the cDNA library was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, which generated 55,028,452 clean reads. De novo assembly of these reads generated 51,865 unigenes, in which 39,269 unigenes were annotated (75.71% yield). According to the structures of the triterpenoid saponins of I. asprella, a putative biosynthetic pathway downstream of 2,3-oxidosqualene was proposed and candidate unigenes in the transcriptome data that were potentially involved in the pathway were screened using homology-based BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Further amplification and functional analysis of these putative unigenes will provide insight into the biosynthesis of Ilex triterpenoid saponins. PMID:24722569

  20. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra

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    Shahida Akter Mitu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  1. Phytochemical analysis of the triterpenoids with cytotoxicity and QR inducing properties from the total tea seed saponin of Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Ma, Zhong-Jun; Chu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xian

    2013-01-01

    The tea seed triterpene saponin (TS) from Camellia sinensis was found to exhibit better antitumor activity in vivo in S180 implanted ICR mice and QR inducing activity for hepa lclc7 cells respectively compared with the total tea seed saponin (TTS), hydrolysate of the TTS and tea seed flavonoid glycosides (TF). By bioassay-guided isolation, the TS fraction was separated and seven major components were purified and identified as theasaponin E1 (1), theasaponin E2 (2), theasaponin C1 (3), assamsaponin C (4), theasaponin H1 (5), theasaponin A9 (6), and theasaponin A8 (7), among which compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from this genus for the first time. The antitumor bioassay of the isolated compounds showed that compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited potential activities against the human tumor cell lines K562 and HL60. Furthermore, compound 1 (the major constituent with a mass content of over 1%) showed significant QR inducing activity with an IR value of 4.2 at 4μg/ml. So it can be concluded that tea seed especially the compound 1 (theasaponin E1) could be used as an antitumor agent and a chemoprevention agent of cancer. The preliminary structure-activity relationship in the anti-tumor activity and QR inducing activity of tea saponins was discussed briefly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Beata; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on β-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Evaluation of foam properties of saponin from Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae fruits

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    Gizele Scotti do Canto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds able to form abundant foam, a desirable quality required in some chemical, foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical processes. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae known as mate, is a South American widely cultivated specie due to the preparation of a tea-like beverage from its leaves. Moreover, its green fruits are a rich source of non-toxic and very low haemolytic saponins. In this study, mate saponin fraction (MSF was evaluated as a foam former, focusing on its foamability, foam lifetime, and film drainage in the presence of different electrolytes (ionic strength I = 0.024 M. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and polysorbate 80 (Poly-80 were used as reference surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC, the minimum attainable surface tension (γCMC, surface excess concentration (Γ and cross-section molecular surface (A values of MSF were comparable to those of Poly-80. The foamability of MSF and both reference surfactants was equivalent. The addition of MgCl2 resulted in a negative effect on MSF foamability. The salts NaCl, KBr, and KNO3 exhibited a negative influence on MSF foam lifetime. Similar behavior was observed for MSF film drainage (order of activity: Na2HPO4 > MgCl2 ≈ NaCl ≈ KNO3 > KBr, where a primary fast film drainage rate was followed by film thinning stabilization after around 5 min. The behavior described above seems to be uncorrelated to the solutions' zeta potential.As saponinas são compostos naturais capazes de formar espuma abundante, qualidade desejável exigida em alguns processos químicos, alimentícios, cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae, mais conhecida como mate, é uma espécie largamente cultivada devido ao consumo do chimarrão. Além disso, seus frutos verdes representam uma fonte rica de saponinas pouco tóxicas e pouco hemolíticas. Nesse trabalho avaliou-se a fração de saponinas de mate (MSF como formadora de espuma, com

  5. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae

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    Blenzar A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocide effects of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. In an attempt to elaborate a strategy of integrated pest management on vegetable crops in Morocco, insecticidal activities of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. fruits against eggs and adults of Bemisia tabaci infesting tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, were carried out under controlled conditions. Alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids, dissolved in ethanol at 1%, were tested at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g.l-1. The three compounds affected egg and adult survival, significantly. The mortality of embryo and adult varied according to the compound considered and for each compound according to concentration and exposure duration. For eggs, the corrected mortality varied from 35 to 59% for alkaloids, 14 to 31% for saponins and 10 to 14% for flavonoids. In adults, the mortalities were spread from 29% to 86%, 14 to 48% and 6 to 29% with alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids, respectively. Significant correlation between egg and adult mortality, due to the compounds tested, were observed. However, eggs required higher concentrations than adults; the LC50 was 13.78 vs. 6.83 g.l-1 for alkaloids, 98.63 vs. 32.28 g.l-1 for saponins and nontoxic vs. 120.65 g.l-1 for the flavonoids. Therefore, alkaloids were shown more effective against B. tabaci than saponins or flavonoids. However, the LT50 estimated for compounds, killing more than 50% of the population studied, was sufficient for viruliferous adults to inoculate TYLCV to plants before they died. The use of these compounds in integrated pest management merit further study.

  6. Quillaja saponin: A prospective emulsifier for the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Siram; Raghavan, Chellan Vijaya; Marslin, Gregory; Rahman, Habibur; Selvaraj, Divakar; Balakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Franklin, Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Quillaja saponin (QS) is a non-ionic amphiphilic surfactant of natural origin. In the present study, we evaluated its potential to form solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in the presence of stearic acid (SA) as a lipid carrier and imatinib mesylate (IM) as a model drug. IM loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IMSLNs) were prepared using the hot homogenisation method. Characterisation of IMSLNs revealed that they were quasi-spherical in shape, neutrally charged and 143.5-641.9nm in size. Haemolysis, a toxicity issue of QS was not observed in SLNs. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity analyses performed in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 revealed that IMSLNs were more toxic than IM. On the other hand, in vitro viability studies in the RAW264.7 cell line did not show any sign of toxicity by IMSLNs. Our results indicate that QS hold great potential in nano drug delivery as an emulsifier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane Disintegration Caused by the Steroid Saponin Digitonin Is Related to the Presence of Cholesterol

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    Ikhwan Resmala Sudji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we studied the molecular mechanisms of the monodesmosidic saponin digitonin on natural and artificial membranes. We measured the hemolytic activity of digitonin on red blood cells (RBCs. Also different lipid membrane models (large unilamellar vesicles, LUVs, and giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs in the presence and absence of cholesterol were employed. The stability and permeability of the different vesicle systems were studied by using calcein release assay, GUVs membrane permeability assay using confocal microscopy (CM and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS and vesicle size measurement by dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results support the essential role of cholesterol in explaining how digitonin can disintegrate biological and artificial membranes. Digitonin induces membrane permeability or causes membrane rupturing only in the presence of cholesterol in an all-or-none mechanism. This effect depends on the concentrations of both digitonin and cholesterol. At low concentrations, digitonin induces membrane permeability while keeping the membrane intact. When digitonin is combined with other drugs, a synergistic potentiation can be observed because it facilitates their uptake.

  8. Comparison of modified starch and Quillaja saponins in the formation and stabilization of flavor nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Bing, Lu; Reineccius, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Modified starch (MS) and Quillaja saponins (QS) were compared to fabricate and stabilize orange oil nanoemulsions using microfluidization. Ester gum (EG) was incorporated in the oil phase at variable proportions (0-60%) as Ostwald ripening inhibitor and viscosity modifier. Optimal viscosity ratios of dispersed to continuous phase (ηd/ηc) were identified as 0.8-3.1 and 2.1-3.3 with MS and QS as emulsifier, respectively. QS was found superior to MS in fabricating nanoemulsion with smallest MDD of 69 nm and turbidity of 102 NTU at 0.05% of dispersed phase. With EG incorporated in the oil phase, QS stabilized nanoemulsions were stable during 2 weeks of storage at 23 °C; whereas MS stabilized nanoemulsions showed significant increases in MDD and turbidity. Zeta potential measurements showed QS imparted higher droplet charge (>-20 mV) than MS (<-5 mV) at pH 3.6 indicating MS stabilized nanoemulsions were destabilized by coalescence due to insufficient interfacial charge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics study of bio-adhesive tablet of Panax notoginseng saponins

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    Feng Hanzhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS is the main active gradient of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng. Although its prominent therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated by various researchers, the broader application is restricted by the low bioavailability of PNS. This article aims to discuss PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS to beagle dogs and improve its bioavailability in comparison with normal tablet. The bio-adhesive tablet was prepared according to our previous patent, using chitosan as main excipient. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysis of PNS in dog's plasma was developed in our previous study, and was validated to apply in the pharmacokinetics study in this work. Three ingredients: Notoginsenoside R1 (R1, Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1 (Figure 1, were chosen as indicators of PNS to analyze it in vivo. Statistically significant increase (P

  10. Periploca forrestii Saponin Ameliorates Murine CFA-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqin; Li, Minghui; He, Qiuhong; Yang, Xinping; Ruan, Fang; Sun, Guangchen

    2016-01-01

    Periploca forrestii Schltr. has been used as a Chinese folk medicine due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as promoting wounds and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antiarthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and its active compound Periplocin has still not been demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the antiarthritic effects of PFS in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by intragastric administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of Periplocin were also examined in LPS-induced AIA splenocytes and synoviocytes. PFS significantly ameliorated joint swelling; inhibited bone erosion in joints; lowered levels of IL-6 and TGF-β1 in AIA rat splenocyte; and reduced joint protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3 and IKKα. Using LPS-induced AIA splenocytes, we demonstrate that Periplocin suppressed the key proinflammatory cytokines levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and IL-13 and IL-22 and transcription factor levels of T-bet, GATA3, and C-Jun genes. Periplocin also suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from synoviocytes. Our study highlights the antiarthritic activity of PFS and its derived Periplocin and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of Periploca forrestii Schltr. as an alternative modality for the treatment of RA.

  11. Antifungal activity of sterols and dipsacus saponins isolated from Dipsacus asper roots against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nam Hee; Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Nguyen, Van Thu; Min, Byung-Sun; Le Dang, Quang; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-09-01

    The in vivo antifungal activity of crude extracts of Dipsacus asper roots was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita and Rhizoctonia solani using a whole-plant assay method. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts, at 1000μg/mL, suppressed the development of tomato gray mold (TGM) and tomato late blight (TLB) by 90%. Through bioassay-guided isolation, five antifungal substances were isolated from the D. asper roots and identified as β-sitosterol (1), campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3), cauloside A (4) and a novel dipsacus saponin, named colchiside (3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-23-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-(6-O-acetyl)-glucopyranosyl hederagenin) (5). Of those, cauloside A (4) displayed the greatest antifungal efficacy against rice blast, TGM and TLB. Colchiside (5) moderately suppressed the development of TLB, but exhibited little effect against the other diseases. The synergistic effects of the isolated compounds against TLB were also assessed. Synergistic and additive interactions were observed between several of the sterol compounds. This study indicated that the crude extracts of, and bioactive substances from, the roots of D. asper suppress TGM and TLB. In addition, cauloside A (4) and colchiside (5) could be used as antifungal lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Saponin Nanoparticle for Application in Plasmid DNA Delivery

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    Faruku Bande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonviral delivery system receives attention over the last decade. Chitosan (CS is a cationic polymer whereas saponin (SP is classified as glycoside. In this study, a spherically-shaped CS-SP nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. The ability of the nanoparticle to protect DNA from enzymatic degradation, its thermostability and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The particle size was found below 100 nm as determined by Zetasizer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and field scanning electron microscopy (FSEM results. The surface charge ranges from 43.7 mV to 38.5 mV before and after encapsulation with DNA plasmid, respectively. In terms of thermostability, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC revealed that CS-SP nanoparticle had a melting temperature of 110°C, with rapid decomposition occurring at 120°C. Encapsulation of DNA with the synthesized nanoparticle was evidenced by changes in the FTIR spectra including characteristic peaks at 3267.39 and 1635.58 cm−1, wavenumbers. Additional peak was also observed at 1169.7 cm−1 following encapsulation. Electrophoretic mobility showed that CS-SP nanoparticle protected plasmid DNA from enzymatic degradation, while cell viability assays confirmed that the synthesized nanoparticle exhibited low cytotoxicity at different concentrations in avian cells. Taken together these, CS-SP nanoparticle showed potentials for applications as a DNA delivery system.

  13. Cardioprotector Activity of an Esteroidal Saponin: A Scientific and Technological Prospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Michely Laiany Vieira; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels that account for a major cause of premature death worldwide. Diosgenin saponin is a steroid for therapeutic application in different clinical settings such as cardiovascular diseases, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia control, antimicrobial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review of Diosgenin, its pharmaceutical applications and perspectives on the application in the cardiovascular system diseases. Periodic basis ScienceDirect, PubMed and Virtual Health Library were used as well as the European Office of the technological bases Patent Office, World Intellectual Property Organization, the Office US Patent and Trademark Office and the Brazilian database National Institute of Industrial Property. The keywords used were Diosgenin, cardiovascular system, hypertension, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia and their correlations in English and Portuguese, with publications from January 2010 to June 2015. After analysis of the technological and scientific bases, the results show that there is a limited number of patents showing that the Diosgenin action on the cardiovascular system is centered in the areas for chemical studies of steroid Diosgenin. In the scientific basis, the results show that there is an interesting Diosgenin action on the cardiovascular system. Therefore, studies with Diosgenin are promising on account of its significant pharmacological potential from scientific and technological viewpoints, reaching for a technology transfer to generate economic and industrial growth. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

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    Xu He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total saponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of doublecortin (DCX + neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX + neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These findings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX + cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  15. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  16. Structures of acetylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, rarasaponins IV, V, and VI, and anti-hyperlipidemic constituents from the pericarps of Sapindus rarak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Yasunobu; Morikawa, Toshio; Xie, Yuanyuan; Okamoto, Masaki; Hamao, Makoto; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yuan, Dan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-02-01

    The methanolic extract and its saponin fraction (methanol-eluted fraction) of the pericarps of Sapindus rarak DC. were found to suppress plasma triglyceride elevation in olive oil-treated mice. From the active fraction, three new acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, rarasaponins IV (1), V (2), and VI (3), were isolated. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The principle saponin constituents, hederagenin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4) and hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-di-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (5), showed inhibitory effects on plasma triglyceride elevation at a dose of 200 mg/kg, per os.

  17. From Plant Extract to a cDNA Encoding a Glucosyltransferase Candidate: Proteomics and Transcriptomics as Tools to Help Elucidate Saponin Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and other parts of Asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. The bioactive compounds present in C. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins, including glycosylation, remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. This chapter describes an approach that integrates partial enzyme purification, proteomics methods, and transcriptomics, with the aim of reducing the number of cDNA candidates encoding for a glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis and facilitating the elucidation of the pathway in this medicinal plant.

  18. Gleditsia Saponin C Induces A549 Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Cascade and Suppresses Tumor Growth on Xenografts Tumor Animal Model

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    Ye Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds and possess the most promising anti-cancer function. Here, a saponin gleditsia saponin C (GSC, extracted from gleditsiae fructus abnormalis, could induce apoptosis of lung tumor cell line A549 via caspase dependent cascade and this effect could be prevented by the caspase inhibitors. In addition, GSC induced cell death companied with an increase ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Meanwhile, GSC suppressed TNFα inducing NF-κB activation and increased the susceptibility of lung cancer cell to TNFα induced apoptosis. Furthermore, on mouse xenograft model, GSC significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced cancer cell apoptosis, which validated the anti-tumor effect of GSC. Based on these results, GSC might be a promising drug candidate of anti-lung cancer for its potential clinical applications.

  19. Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L.

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    Joyce K. Tsuzuki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from the dried pericarp of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae fruits were investigated for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans and C. non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single clinical isolated of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate of C. parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH extract and one fraction showed strong activity against all isolates tested. Further column-chromatography on silica gel separation of this fraction afforded two pure triterpene acetylated saponins: 3-O-(4-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1->3-alpha-Lrhamnopyranosyl-(1->2-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin (1 and 3-O-(3,4-di-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1->3-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2-alpha-L-arabynopyranosyl-hederagenin (2. The structures of the compounds were based on spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS, and on with literature. The saponins isolated showed strong activity against C. parapsilosis.Extratos do pericarpo de frutos de Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae foram testados para a atividade antifúngica sobre isolados clínicos de leveduras de Candida albicans e C. não-albicans obtidos de secreção vaginal de mulheres com Candidíase Vulvovaginal. Foram avaliados quatro isolados clínicos de C. albicans, um de cada uma das espécies C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis e uma cepa referência de C. albicans ATCC 90028. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi biomonitorado contra um isolado clínico de C. parapsilosis, apresentando forte atividade. O extrato butanólico e uma fração apresentaram forte atividade contra todos os isolados testados. Posterior análise desta fração via cromatografia em sílica gel (CHCl3:CH3OH, 1:1, v/v resultou no

  20. Evaluation of the Spermicidal and Contraceptive Activity of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zongliang; Wang, Leiguang; Zhou, Rui; Qiu, Yi; Yang, Liuna; Zhang, Chanyu; Cai, Min; Mi, Mantian; Xu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract of Platycodon grandiflorum has been reported to have effective spermicidal activity. This study was designed to evaluate the spermicidal and contraceptive activity, as well as the safety, of Platycodin D (PD), a major saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum. Methods Using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) test criteria, the sperm-immobilizing activity of PD was studied using highly motile human sperm. The sperm viability was assessed by fluorescent staining using SYBR-14 (living sperm) and propidium iodide (dead sperm). The sperm membrane integrity was assessed by evaluating the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) and examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated in rats using post-intrauterine PD application. The comet assay was employed to determine whether PD caused DNA damage in the sperm. Vaginal biopsies were also performed to determine whether the PD gel induced vaginal inflammation. Results A dose-dependent effect of PD on the sperm motility and viability was observed. The maximum spermicidal effect was observed with a 0.25 mM concentration of PD. More than 70% of the PD-treated sperm lost their HOS responsiveness at a concentration of 0.20 mM PD, indicating that PD caused injury to the sperm plasma membrane. TEM and SEM revealed significant damage to both the head and tail membranes of the sperm. PD decreased the fertility to zero in rats, was non-DNA damaging and was not harmful to the vaginal tissue in the rats. Conclusion PD has significant spermicidal activity that should be explored in further studies. PMID:24303079

  1. Evaluation of the spermicidal and contraceptive activity of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract of Platycodon grandiflorum has been reported to have effective spermicidal activity. This study was designed to evaluate the spermicidal and contraceptive activity, as well as the safety, of Platycodin D (PD, a major saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum. METHODS: Using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA test criteria, the sperm-immobilizing activity of PD was studied using highly motile human sperm. The sperm viability was assessed by fluorescent staining using SYBR-14 (living sperm and propidium iodide (dead sperm. The sperm membrane integrity was assessed by evaluating the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS and examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated in rats using post-intrauterine PD application. The comet assay was employed to determine whether PD caused DNA damage in the sperm. Vaginal biopsies were also performed to determine whether the PD gel induced vaginal inflammation. RESULTS: A dose-dependent effect of PD on the sperm motility and viability was observed. The maximum spermicidal effect was observed with a 0.25 mM concentration of PD. More than 70% of the PD-treated sperm lost their HOS responsiveness at a concentration of 0.20 mM PD, indicating that PD caused injury to the sperm plasma membrane. TEM and SEM revealed significant damage to both the head and tail membranes of the sperm. PD decreased the fertility to zero in rats, was non-DNA damaging and was not harmful to the vaginal tissue in the rats. CONCLUSION: PD has significant spermicidal activity that should be explored in further studies.

  2. The hederagenin saponin SMG-1 is a natural FMLP receptor inhibitor that suppresses human neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wang, Chien-Chiao; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Wu, Yi-Hsiu

    2010-10-15

    The pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn is traditionally used as an expectorant in Japan, China, and Taiwan. Activated neutrophils produce high concentrations of the superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and elastase known to be involved in airway mucus hypersecretion. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory functions of hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (SMG-1), a saponin isolated from S. mukorossi, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in human neutrophils. SMG-1 potently and concentration-dependently inhibited O(2)(*-) generation and elastase release in N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils. Furthermore, SMG-1 reduced membrane-associated p47(phox) expression in FMLP-induced intact neutrophils, but did not alter subcellular NADPH oxidase activity in reconstituted systems. SMG-1 attenuated FMLP-induced increase of cytosolic calcium concentration and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, and AKT. However, SMG-1 displayed no effect on cellular cAMP levels and activity of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase. Significantly, receptor-binding analysis showed that SMG-1 inhibited FMLP binding to its receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, neither phorbol myristate acetate-induced O(2)(*-) generation and MAPKs activation nor thapsigargin-caused calcium mobilization was altered by SMG-1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SMG-1 is a natural inhibitor of the FMLP receptor, which may have the potential to be developed into a useful new therapeutic agent for treating neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardenolide glycosides of Thevetia peruviana and triterpenoid saponins of Sapindus emarginatus as TRAIL resistance-overcoming compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Takashi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2009-08-01

    A screening study for TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity was carried out, and activity-guided fractionations of Thevetia peruviana and Sapindus emarginatus led to the isolation of four cardenolide glycosides (1-4) and four triterpenoid saponins (5-8), respectively. In particular, cardenolide glycosides (1 and 2) from T. peruviana were shown to have a significant reversal effect on TRAIL resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and real-time PCR showed that thevefolin (2) enhanced mRNA expression of death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5. In addition, 1H and 13C NMR characterizations are shown for thevefolin (2) for the first time.

  4. Synthesis, Formulation, and Adjuvanticity of Monodesmosidic Saponins with Olenanolic Acid, Hederagenin and Gypsogenin Aglycones, and some C-28 Ester Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greatrex, Ben W.; Daines, Alison M.; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    and cholesterol, and the structures analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. 3-O-(Manp(13)Glcp)hederagenin was found to produce numerous ring-like micelles when formulated, while C-28 choline ester derivatives preferred self-assembly and did not interact with the liposomes. When alone and in the presence...... of cholesterol and phospholipid, the choline ester derivatives produced nanocrystalline rods or helical micelles. The effects of modifying sugar stereochemistry and the aglycone on the immunostimulatory effects of the saponins was then evaluated using the activation markers MHC class II and CD86 in murine bone...

  5. The quality of meat from sheep treated with tannin- and saponin-based remedies as a natural strategy for parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, D M R; Tansawat, R; Cornforth, D; Ward, R; Bella, M; Luciano, G; Priolo, A; Villalba, J

    2014-02-01

    Lambs were assigned to four groups of seven and treated as follows for 12 days: control group (BP) was fed beet pulp; group T (tannin remedy) received the BP diet including 80 g/kg of quebracho extract; group S (saponin remedy) received the BP diet including 15 g/kg of quillaja extract; and group C had a free choice between T and S remedies. Lipid oxidation was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T lambs (Pcontrol containing tannins and saponins do not detrimentally affect sheep meat quality. © 2013.

  6. Potent effects of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino against streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Lin, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino (TSDN) against type 2 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin (STZ) with high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats were treated with TSDN. Some biochemical parameters, target proteins and genes were investigated. The results showed that TSDN decreased the levels of food/water intake, fasting blood glucose and serum lipid parameters, ameliorated oral glucose and insulin tolerance test levels, markedly increased body weight and serum insulin, reduced excess free radicals and affected ossification and renal protection. Histopathological examination indicated that TSDN increased liver glycogen, decreased the production of lipid vacuoles and lightened liver damage. Further investigation showed that TSDN down-regulated the protein expressions of NF-κB, GRP78, ATF6, eIF2 and the levels of MAPK phosphorylation and up-regulated the protein expressions of IRS-1, GLUT-4, p-Akt and p-AMPK. In addition, TSDN obviously decreased the gene expressions of TNF-a, IL-6, PEPCK, G6Pase, GSK-3β and GSK-3β activity, and increased the gene expressions of PFK, PK and GK activity. These findings show the anti-diabetic activity of total saponins from D. nipponica Makino, which should be developed as a new potent drug for treatment of diabetes mellitus in future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gastrointestinal Absorption and Metabolic Dynamics of Jujuboside A, A Saponin Derived from the Seed of Ziziphus jujuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Panpan; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Guijie; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhou, Aimin; Xie, Junbo

    2017-09-27

    Jujuboside A (JuA), an active saponin, is responsible for the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Zizyphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS). In this study, the gastrointestinal absorption and metabolic dynamics of JuA were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the bioavailability was 1.32% in rats, indicating only a trace amount of JuA was able to be absorbed. Further investigation revealed that its poor bioavailability was not caused by malabsorption but by the metabolic process. JuA was hydrolyzed largely in the stomach before being absorbed into the different parts of the intestine (especially duodenum and colon), and the gastric environment played a vital role in this process. Furthermore, the metabolites, jujuboside B (JuB) and jujubogenin, exhibited significant effects on the expression and activation of γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors. Our findings demonstrate that the metabolites of the saponin, not the original molecule, should be responsible for the specific bioactivities.

  8. Effects of tea saponins on rumen microbiota, rumen fermentation, methane production and growth performance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Kun; Ye, Jun-An; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2012-04-01

    Reducing methane emission from ruminant animals has implications not only for global environmental protection but also for efficient animal production. Tea saponins (TS) extracted from seeds, leaves or roots of tea plant are pentacyclic triterpenes. They have a lasting antiprotozoal effect, but little effect on the methanogen population in sheep. There was no significant correlation between the protozoa counts and methanogens. The TS decreased methanogen activity. It seems that TS influenced the activity of the methanogens indirectly via the depressed ciliate protozoal population. The TS addition decreased fungal population in the medium containing rumen liquor in in vitro fermentation, but no such effect was observed in the rumen liquor of sheep fed TS. Tea saponins had a minor effect on the pattern of rumen fermentation and hence on nutrient digestion. When added at 3 g/day in diets, TS could improve daily weight gain and feed efficiency in goats. No positive associative effect existed between TS and disodium fumarate or soybean oil on methane suppression. Inclusion of TS in diets may be an effective way for improving feed efficiency in ruminants.

  9. Effects of Saponins on Lipid Metabolism: A Review of Potential Health Benefits in the Treatment of Obesity

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    Mariangela Marrelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene. Many pharmacological properties have been reported for these compounds, such as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies about the anti-obesity therapeutic potential of saponins isolated from medicinal plants. Results on the in vitro and in vivo activity of this class of phytochemicals are here presented and discussed. The most interesting findings about their possible mechanism of action and their potential health benefits in the treatment of obesity are reported, as well.

  10. Optimization of Saponin Extraction Conditions with Camellia sinensis var. assamica Seed and its Application for natural detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wanying; Yewei, Huang; Ji, Aibing; Peng, Wenshu; Liu, Cong; Zeng, Ying; Yang, Ruijuan; Yan, Liang; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2017-10-09

    The Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilization. The C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of nonionic surfactant. In this study, The CSS extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated. The optimized extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04°C, extraction time of 4.97h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g(-1) . The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14g kg(-1) in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal ability of the CSS detergent was significantly stronger than the commercial detergent. A natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation of saponin stabilized nanoemulsion by ultrasonic method and its role to protect the degradation of quercitin from UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Khushwinder; Kumar, Raj; Mehta, S K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare quercitin (QT) loaded o/w nanoemulsion using food grade surfactants (saponin and tween 80). The prepared nanoemulsion) was stable up to 30 days. The average particle size of the nanoemulsion was 52 ± 10 nm. The formation of saponin stabilized nanoemulsion was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Quercitin (QT) trapped nanoemulsion showed higher stability on exposure to UV light (254 nm) as compared to water/ethanol system. The degradation rate was found to decrease from 9 ± 1%, 11 ± 1% at pH 7.4, 8.0 respectively as compared to 42 ± 2% in water/ethanol system. Attempt was also made to study the interaction of QT with two different bile salts (sodium cholate and sodium taurocholate). The free radical scavenging activity of DPPH quercitin and curcumin was compared in NEm media. The obtained IC50 value of quercitin, curcumin and ascorbic acid are 28.88 ± 1, 45.53 ± 2 and 51.51 ± 2 μM respectively. The values of binding constant for sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium taurocholate (NaTC) are 2.66 × 10(5) and 2.72 × 10(4) M(-1) respectively. Sodium cholate (NaC) was found to show strong interaction towards quercitin (QT) due to more electron density on oxygen atom of carboxylate ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Panax Notoginseng Saponins as a Novel Nature Stabilizer for Poorly Soluble Drug Nanocrystals: A Case Study with Baicalein

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    Yuanbiao Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at seeking a nature saponin-based stabilizer for drug nanosuspensions. A poorly soluble drug (baicalein, BCL was used as a model drug. BCL nanosuspensions with particle size of 156 nm were prepared by means of homogenization and converted into BCL nanocrystals (BCL-NC stabilized with panax notoginseng saponins (PNS. It was found that PNS was able to prevent the aggregation of BCL-NS during storage and improve the redispersibility of BCL-NC after freeze-drying and spray-drying, compared with polymer stabilizer PVPK30. The freeze-dried and spray-dried BCL-NC with PNS exhibited excellent performance as evidenced by scanning_electron_microscope (SEM analysis. It was the reason that PNS possessed the interfacial property (41.69 ± 0.32 mN/m and electrostatic effect (−40.1 ± 1.6 mV, which could easily adsorb onto the surface of hydrophobic BCL nanocrystals and prevent from its aggregation. It is concluded that PNS can be used as an effective nature stabilizer for production of drug nanocrystals.

  13. Treatment with ginseng total saponins improves the neurorestoration of rat after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bao-Ying; Liu, Xian-Jin; Qiang, Ren; Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Xu, Li-Hua; Wang, Guo-Hua; Li, Xia; Peng, Bin

    2014-09-11

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is a traditional medicinal herb that has been widely used in Asia for the treatment of many diseases through its effects of reinforcing vitality, strengthening the bodily resistance to pathogenic factors, engendering body liquids and allaying thirst, relieving uneasiness of the body and mind and benefiting intelligence, reducing body weight and prolonging life. Ginsenosides are the most important biologically active substances in ginseng. Many reports have suggested that ginsenosides could exert prominent neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects, promote neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) proliferation and promote neurite outgrowth and neuronal network formation. The present study aimed to investigate whether treatment with ginsenosides could facilitate NSC proliferation in the hippocampal formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and contribute to the recovery of neurological functions including learning and memory. The modified Feeney׳s method was used to induce a TBI in rats. Ginseng total saponins (GTS) were treated intraperitoneally twice a day for 1 week after the TBI. The neurological functions, morphology of the hippocampus, expression of nerve growth-related factors and number of NSCs in the hippocampal formation ipsilateral to the trauma were determined. We determined 1) GTS (5-80 mg/kg) treatment after a TBI improved the recovery of neurological functions, including learning and memory, and reduced cell loss in the hippocampal area. The effects of GTS at 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg were better than the effects of GTS at 5 and 10 mg/kg. 2) GTS treatment (20 mg/kg) after a TBI increased the expression of NGF, GDNF and NCAM, inhibited the expression of Nogo-A, Nogo-B, TN-C, and increased the number of BrdU/nestin positive NSCs in the hippocampal formation. GTS treatment in rats after a TBI alleviated the secondary brain injury and ameliorated the neurological functions with an effective dose limit of 5-80 mg

  14. Qualitatively and quantitatively investigating the regulation of intestinal microbiota on the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingcheng; Chen, Huimin; Kang, Dian; Shao, Yuhao; Shen, Boyu; Li, Xinuo; Yin, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Zhangpei; Li, Haofeng; Rao, Tai; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji; Liang, Yan

    2016-12-24

    Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-challenged and pseudo germ-free (pseudo GF) rats, which prepared by treating TNBS and antibiotic cocktail, respectively, were employed to investigate the influence of intestinal microflora on the PNS metabolic profiles. Firstly, the bacterial community structures of the conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rat intestinal microflora were compared via 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technique. Then, the biotransformation of protopanaxadiol-type PNSs (ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rd), protopanaxatriol-type PNSs (ginsenoside Re, Rf, Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1) and Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) in conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rat intestinal microbiota was systematically studied from qualitative and quantitative angles based on LC-triple-TOF/MS system. Besides, glycosidases (β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase), predominant enzymes responsible for the deglycosylation of PNSs, were measured by the glycosidases assay kits. Significant differences in the bacterial community structure on phylum, class, order, family, and genera levels were observed among the conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rats. Most of the metabolites in TNBS-challenged rat intestinal microflora were identified as the deglycosylation products, and had slightly lower exposure levels than those in the conventional rats. In the pseudo GF group, the peak area of metabolites formed by loss of glucose, xylose and

  15. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Takei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-γ production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-γ and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion

  16. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Masao; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Umeyama, Akemi

    2008-04-18

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-gamma production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction). Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-gamma and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion. In the CTL

  17. Evaluation of the Nitric Oxide and Nitrite Scavenging Capability, N-Nitrosamine Formation Inhibitory Activity, and Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System Extraction of Total Saponins from Coreopsis tinctoria Flowering Tops by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruiling; Yao, Xincheng; Liu, Xieying; Zhang, Yushang; Ying, Xue

    2017-08-30

    Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFs) is a popular health product as herbal tea or as a traditional medicinal herb that is rich in saponins and exerts substantial biological activity. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was utilized to extract total saponins from CTFs and optimize the extraction process by response surface methodology. Moreover, the nitric oxide and nitrite scavenging capability, and N-nitrosamine formation inhibitory activity of total saponins were evaluated. Results showed that the optimal conditions for total saponins were 37.76% (w/w) ammonium sulfate and 35.62% (w/w) ethanol in ATPS coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum yield of total saponins of 33.4 g/kg can be obtained from the CTFs raw material. The nitric oxide radical scavenging, nitrite scavenging, and N-nitrosamine inhibitory activities (SC50) were 287.92 ± 7.42, 191.63 ± 7.69, and 1787.4 ± 51.26 μg/mL, respectively. The total saponins has a certain nitric oxide and nitrite scavenging capability, and N-nitrosamine formation inhibitory activity in vitro. Given these activities, research on saponins from CTFs provides profound and lasting implications for the novel applications of C. tinctoria.

  18. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  19. [Effects of sapindus saponins on inflammatory response mediated by Ang II/p38MAPK pathway and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Long, Zi-Jiang; Liu, Jin-Lin; Gao, Hua-Wu; Wang, Ya-Juan

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of sapindus saponins on myocardial inflammation mediated by Ang II/ p38MAPK signal pathway and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats. And also to explore the correlation of cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation. Thirty-two 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups, one with placebo as model group, one with captopril tablets (27 mg x kg(-1)) as positive control, one with low-dose sapindus saponins (27 mg x kg(-1)), one with high-dose (108 mg x kg(-1)). And another eight healthy Wistar-Kyoto strain (WKY) rats were used as the normal group. The animals were treated for eight weeks, and the indicators detected were as follows: (1) left ventricular mass index (LVMI); (2) the content of Ang II and hs-CRP in plasma were determined by ELISA; (3) the protein expression of AT1R and VEGF were determined by immunohistochemical method; (4) the protein expression of p-p38MAPK in myocardial cells was determined by Western blot. Sapindus saponins reduced LVMI, and blocked the expression level of Ang II, AT1R, p-p38MAPK, VEGF and hs-CRP in myocardial tissue. Vs the SHR model group, there were significant differences (P sapindus saponins could inhibited cardiac hypertrophy, the possible mechanisms may be related to the inhibition on inflammatory response mediated by Ang II/p38MAPK pathway.

  20. Selective antileishmania activity of 13,28-epoxy-oleanane and related triterpene saponins from the plant families Myrsinaceae, Primulaceae, Aceraceae and Icacinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Marieke; Foubert, Kenn; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Pieters, Luc; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2009-10-01

    Maesa saponins with the 13,28-epoxy-oleanane triterpene core skeleton were described recently to possess strong and selective in vitro and in vivo antileishmania activity. In the absence of direct chemical derivatization possibilities, a structure-based literature search was carried out to explore a structure-activity relationship. Crude alcohol extracts from several plant species of Myrsinaceae, Primulaceae, Aceraceae and Icacinaceae were evaluated for in vitro activity against Leishmania infantum intracellular amastigotes and cytotoxicity on MRC-5(SV2) cells, while the saponin content was evaluated qualitatively by TLC. A clear correlation was found between the presence of close analogue 13,28-epoxy-oleanane triterpene saponins and potent and selective antileishmania activity. This was most striking in Maesa species, except for M. macrosepala. Interesting activities were also found in extracts that did not exactly match the TLC characteristics of the Maesa saponin references, as was the case for Ardisia angusta, A. amherstiana, A. caudata, A. gigantifolia, A. roseiflora, Myrsine affinis, Acer brevipes and A. laurinum var. petelotii. This study indicates that the 13,28-epoxy-oleanane triterpene moiety is essential for selective antileishmania potential and that several other plant species could still be explored for antileishmania drug discovery. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  2. Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  3. On-line stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the separation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyuan; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Hu, Chunxiu; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    A method based on stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (2D LC-ESI MS) was established and applied to analyze triterpenoid saponins from the main root of ginseng. Due to the special structure of triterpenoid saponins (they contain polar sugar side chains and nonpolar aglycones), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used for the two dimensions, respectively. A trap column was used to connect the two dimensions. The dilution effect, which is one of the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D LC methods, was largely avoided. The peak capacity of this system was 747 and the orthogonality was 56.6 %. Compared with one-dimensional HILIC or RP LC MS analysis, 257 and 185 % more mass spectral peaks (ions with intensities that were higher than 1,000) were obtained from the ginseng main root extracts, and 94 triterpenoid saponins were identified based on MS(n) information and summarized aglycone structures. Given its good linearity and repeatability, the established method was successfully applied to classify ginsengs of different ages (i.e., years of growth), and 19 triterpenoid saponins were found through statistical analysis to vary in concentration depending on the age of the ginseng.

  4. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  5. Cytotoxic activity of extracts and crude saponins from Zanthoxylum armatum DC. against human breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468) and colorectal (Caco-2) cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum Us Saqib, Qazi; Waheed, Abdul

    2017-07-17

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC has been an important traditional plant known for its medicinal properties. It is well known for its antimicrobial, larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. The potential anticancer effects of the methanol extract and the crude saponins from fruit, bark and leaves of Z. armatum on breast (MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7) and colorectal (Caco-2) cancer cell lines using MTT, neutral red uptake(NRU) and DAPI stain assays were evaluated. In MTT assay the methanol extract of fruit (Zf), bark (Zb) and leaves (Zl) of Zanthoxylum armatum, showed significant and dose dependent growth inhibition of MCF-7, MDA MB-468 and Caco-2 cancer cell lines in a dose of 200 μg/ml and above. The saponins (Zf.Sa, Zb.Sa and Zl.Sa) showed significant activity against MDA MB-468 (95, 94.5 and 85.3%) as compared to MCF-7 (79.8, 9.43, 49.08%) and Caco-2 (75.8, 61.8, 68.62%) respectively. The extracts were further tested in more sensitive NRU assay and its was found that Zf extract showed higher cytotoxic activity as compared to Zb and Zl extracts with 100 μg/ml concentration. The breast cancer cell lines showed more sensitivity toward the crude saponins from fruit and bark with maximum inhibition of up to 93.81(±2.32) % with respect to 71.19(± 2.76) of Actinomycin-D. DAPI staining experiment showed that saponins from fruit induced apoptosis mode of cell death in all three types of cell lines while saponins form leaves and bark showed similar results against MDA MB-468 indicated by nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. The effect of saponins from fruit, bark and leaves (Zf.Sa, Zb.Sa and Zl.Sa) against Caco-2 cell lines inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 53.16 (±3.31) %, 66.43 (± 3.24) and 45.96 (± 10.67) respectively with respect to Actinomycin-D (4 μM) which showed the growth inhibition of 65.40(±4.29) %. The current study clearly demonstrates that the extract and crude saponins from fruit, bark and leaves of traditional medicinal plant Zanthoxyllum armatum DC

  6. Removal of Cu, Pb and Zn by foam fractionation and a soil washing process from contaminated industrial soils using soapberry-derived saponin: a comparative effectiveness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Huang, Yuh Ming; Hsu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Ching-I; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Li, Chun-Yi; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chang, Young-Fo; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of using the eco-friendly biodegradable surfactant saponin (a plant-based surfactant) from soapberry and surfactin from Bacillus subtilis (BBK006) for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated industrial soil (6511mgkg(-1) copper, 4955mgkg(-1) lead, and 15090mgkg(-1) zinc) by foam fractionation and a soil flushing process was evaluated under variation of fundamental factors (surfactant concentration, pH, temperature and time). The results of latter process showed that 1-2% Pb, 16-17% Cu and 21-24% Zn was removed by surfactin after 48h, whereas the removal of Pb, Cu and Zn was increased from 40% to 47%, 30% to 36% and 16% to 18% in presence of saponin with an increase from 24 to 72h at room temperature by the soil washing process at pH 4. In the foam fractionation process, the metal removal efficiencies were increased with increases in the saponin concentration (0.075-0.15gL(-1)) and time (24-72h), whereas the efficiency was decreased with increasing pH (4-10) and temperature (>40°C). The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu and Zn were increased significantly from 57% to 98%, 85% to 95% and 55% to 56% with an increase in the flow rate from 0.2 to 1.0Lmin(-1) at 0.15gL(-1) saponin (pH 4 and 30°C). The present investigation indicated that the foam fractionation process is more efficient for the removal of heavy metal from contaminated industrial soil in comparison to the soil washing process. The plant-based eco-friendly biodegradable biosurfactant saponin can be used for environmental cleanup and pollution management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The cleanliness differences of root canal irrigated with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract and 2.5% NaOCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Sakinah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal treatment consists of preparation, sterilization, and obturation. During root canal preparation, debris is smeared over the dentinal surface forming a smear layer. Smear layer will reduce the attachment of root canal filling materials. Organic material in smear layer can be substrated for microorganism. Preparation of root canal should be followed by irrigation. NaOCl is common irrigation solution in endodontics. It has been very effective for their disinfecting and tissue-dissolving properties, but it is incapable of removing the smear layer. On the other hand, saponin of mangosteen peel extract has an ability as a surfactant to lower the surface tension, and it can dissolve debris containing of anorganic and organic materials. Purpose: This study aims to know the differences between 2.5% NaOCl and 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract in removing the debris in the root canal after the preparation procedure. Method: Three groups of teeth (7 teeth in each were instrumented with K-file and irrigated as follow: group 1 (control with aquadest; group 2 with 2.5% NaOCl; and group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract. Furthermore, those teeth were split horizontally and longitudinally 4mm above the apical. The apical third of root canal walls was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05. Median value of the group 3 was score 1 considered as the smallest value. It indicates that Group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract was the cleanest group. Conclusion:It can be concluded that 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract can clean the smear layer of the root canal better than 2.5% NaOCl.

  8. Analysis of steroidal alkaloids and saponins in Solanaceae plant extracts using UPLC-qTOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, Uwe; Aharoni, Asaph

    2014-01-01

    Plants of the Solanaceae family are renowned for the production of cholesterol-derived steroidal glycosides, including the nitrogen containing glycoalkaloids and steroidal saponins. In this chapter we describe the use of UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography) coupled with qTOF (Quadrupole Time-of-Flight) mass spectrometry for profiling of these two large classes of semipolar metabolites. The presented method includes an optimized sample preparation protocol, a procedure for high resolution chromatographic separation and metabolite detection using the TOF mass spectrometer which provides high resolution and mass accuracy. A detailed description for non-targeted data analysis and a strategy for putative identification of steroidal glycosides from complex extracts based on interpretation of mass fragmentation patterns is also provided. The described methodology allows profiling and putative identification of multiple steroidal glycoside compounds from the assortment of Solanaceae species producing these molecules.

  9. Responsive Emulsion Gels with Tunable Properties Formed by Self-Assembled Nanofibrils of Natural Saponin Glycyrrhizic Acid for Oil Structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhili; Sun, Yingen; Ma, Lulu; Yang, Xiaoquan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shouwei

    2017-03-22

    Saponin nanofibrils assembled from natural glycyrrhizic acid (GA) have been recently shown to be an effective structurant for edible oil structuring. This work showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of the novel emulsion gels formed by GA fibrils could be well tuned by oil phase polarity. For more polar oils (algal oil), the GA fibrils had a higher affinity to the oil-water interface, showing a faster adsorption kinetics, thus leading to the formation of fine multilayer emulsion droplets with smaller droplet size. Accordingly, the emulsion gels had a denser network microstructure and higher mechanical strength, which should be attributed to the fact that the smaller emulsion droplets could be packed more tightly within the continuous network, providing stronger interdroplet interactions, and thereby contribute to reinforcing the gel matrix. In addition, all emulsion gels had interesting thermoresponsive behavior, independent of oil phase, which is probably due to the thermoreversibility of the hydrogen-bond fibrillar network in the continuous phase.

  10. Facile Synthesis of the Naturally Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponin Patrinia-Glycoside B-II and Its Conformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical synthesis of the natural triterpenoid saponin Patrinia-glycoside B-II, namely oleanolic acid 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1→3]-α-L-arabinopyranoside, has been accomplished in a linear 11-step sequence 11 with 9.4% overall yield. The abnormal 1C4 conformation of the arabinose residue was found to occur via conformational fluctuation during preparation of the intermediates. Molecular mechanism and quantum chemistry calculations showed that Patrinia-glycoside B-II and its conformer 1 cannot interconvert under normal conditions. Preliminary structure-activity relationships studies indicated that the 4C1 chair conformation of the arabinose residue in the unique α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety is one of the chief positive factors responsible for its cytotoxic activity against tumors.

  11. Developments in high-speed countercurrent chromatography and its applications in the separation of terpenoids and saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hua; Lin, Jianhong; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation chromatographic technique, which has the unique feature of eliminating irreversible adsorption using liquid support medium, and is widely used in research and development of traditional Chinese medicine, biochemistry, food, environment analysis, and so on. In this review, some new developments of countercurrent chromatography, for instance cross-axis countercurrent chromatography, dual countercurrent chromatography, foam countercurrent chromatography, and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in high-speed countercurrent chromatography techniques and its application in the separation and purification of terpenoids and saponins are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Total Saponin from Root of Actinidia valvata Dunn Inhibits Hepatoma 22 Growth and Metastasis In Vivo by Suppression Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The root of Actinidia valvata dunn has been widely used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, proved to be beneficial for a longer and better life in China. In present work, total saponin from root of Actinidia valvata Dunn (TSAVD was extracted, and its effects on hepatoma H22-based mouse in vivo were observed. Primarily transplanted hypodermal hepatoma H22-based mice were used to observe TSAVD effect on tumor growth. The microvessel density (MVD, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF are characterized factors of angiogenesis, which were compared between TSAVD-treated and control groups. Antimetastasis effect on experimental pulmonary metastasis hepatoma mice was also observed in the study. The results demonstrated that TSAVD can effectively inhibit HCC growth and metastasis in vivo, inhibit the formation of microvessel, downregulate expressions of VEGF and bFGF, and retrain angiogenesis of hepatoma 22 which could be one of the reasons.

  13. [Effect of Dipsacus total saponins on the ability of learning and memory and acetylcholine metabolism of hippocampus in AD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiu-ying

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of Dipsacus total saponins on the ability of learning and memory and its mechanism of action. Forty rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Dipsacus group and positive control group (n = 10), general situation of rats were observed, the ability of learning and memory of rats was tested by Square water maze, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of hippocampus in rats were measured using double antibody sandwich method. During the period of treatment, general situation had no obvious change in model group, but general situation and the ability of activity were gradually improved in Dipsacus group and positive control group. Compared with blank control group, the swimming time was obviously prolonged and the number of mistakes was obviously increased at different time, the activity of AChE was significantly enhanced and the activity of ChAT was significantly decreased in model group. Compared with model group, the swimming time was obviously shortened and the number of mistakes was obviously reduced at different time, the activities of AChE were significantly decreased and the activities of ChAT were significantly enhanced in Dipsacus group and positive control group; Compared with positive control group, the swimming time and the number of mistakes at different time and the activities of AChE and ChAT had no significant difference in Dipsacus group. Dipsacus total saponins can improve the ability of learning and memory in Alzheimer' s disease(AD) rats, its mechanism of 'action may be related to regulating ACh metabolism of hippocampus.

  14. Structure-guided engineering of the substrate specificity of a fungal β-glucuronidase toward triterpenoid saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Sun, Hanli; Huang, Shen; Feng, Xudong; Jiang, Tao; Li, Chun

    2018-01-12

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) have attracted special attention in research aimed at modifying natural products by partial removal of sugar moieties to manipulate their solubility and efficacy. However, these modifications are challenging to control because the low substrate specificity of most GHs often generates undesired by-products. We previously identified a GH2-type fungal β-glucuronidase from Aspergillus oryzae ( P GUS) exhibiting promiscuous substrate specificity in hydrolysis of triterpenoid saponins. Here, we present the P GUS structure, representing the first structure of a fungal β-glucuronidase, and that of an inactive P GUS mutant in complex with the native substrate glycyrrhetic acid 3- O -mono-β-glucuronide (GAMG). P GUS displayed a homotetramer structure with each monomer comprising three distinct domains: a sugar-binding, an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich, and a TIM barrel domain. Two catalytic residues, Glu 414 and Glu 505 , acted as acid/base and nucleophile, respectively. Structural and mutational analyses indicated that the GAMG glycan moiety is recognized by polar interactions with nine residues (Asp 162 , His 332 , Asp 414 , Tyr 469 , Tyr 473 , Asp 505 , Arg 563 , Asn 567 , and Lys 569 ) and that the aglycone moiety is recognized by aromatic stacking and by a π interaction with the four aromatic residues Tyr 469 , Phe 470 , Trp 472 , and Tyr 473 Finally, structure-guided mutagenesis to precisely manipulate P GUS substrate specificity in the biotransformation of glycyrrhizin into GAMG revealed that two amino acids, Ala 365 and Arg 563 , are critical for substrate specificity. Moreover, we obtained several mutants with dramatically improved GAMG yield (>95%). Structural analysis suggested that modulating the interaction of β-glucuronidase simultaneously toward glycan and aglycone moieties is critical for tuning its substrate specificity toward triterpenoid saponins. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Achyranthes bidentate saponins protect rat articular chondrocytes against interleukin-1β-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Xiang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes bidentate Blume (Niuxi is often employed for treatment of arthritis in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies proved the oleanane-type saponins to be the main bioactive principles. In the present study, protective effects of A. bidentata saponins (ABS on inflammation and apoptosis in interleukine-1β (IL-1β-induced chondrocytes were investigated. Rat chondrocytes were pretreated with ABS at 3 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 30 μg/mL, and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin V/propidium iodide dual staining demonstrated that ABS could protect IL-1β-induced chondrocyte injury. ABS suppressed IL-1β-induced apoptosis by suppressing the activation of caspase-3, inhibiting levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bad, decreasing p53 protein phosphorylation, and promoting the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. IL-1β-induced inflammation and matrix degradation were also alleviated by ABS through the downregulation of the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9 and cyclooxygenase-2. Moreover, ABS inhibited IL-1β-induced nuclear factor κB activation in rat chondrocytes. We demonstrated, for the first time, the protective effects of ABS on IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes and their molecular mechanisms. Thus, it is suggested that ABS might be a potential drug in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  16. Surface activity of saponin from Quillaja bark at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2013-08-01

    Surface activity of Sigma's Quillaja bark saponin (QBS) was studied by means of dynamic interfacial tension and surface dilational rheology at three fluid/fluid interfaces with the polarity of the non-aqueous phase increasing in the order: air/water, tetradecane/water and olive oil/water. The equilibrium interfacial tension isotherms were fitted to the generalized Frumkin model with surface compressibility for the air/water and tetradecane/water interfaces, whereas the isotherm for the third interface displays a more complex shape. Upon fast compression of a drop of concentrated "Sigma" QBS solution immersed in olive oil, a clearly visible and durable skin was formed. On the other hand, no skin formation was noticed at the air/water interface, and only a little at the tetradecane/water interface. Addition of a fatty acid, however, improved slightly the skin-formation ability of the QBS at the latter interface. The surface behavior of the QBS from Sigma was compared with that from Desert King, Int. ("Supersap"), employed in a recent study by Stanimirova et al. [22]. The two products exhibit different areas per molecule in the saturated adsorbed layer (0.37nm(2) vs. 1.19nm(2) for "Sigma" and "Supersap", respectively). Also their surface rheology is different: although both QBSs form predominantly elastic layers, for "Sigma" the surface storage modulus, εr=103mNm(-1), while for "Supersap" εr=73mNm(-1) at 10(-3)moll(-1) (i.e., around their cmc). The two saponin products exhibit also different ionic character, as proven by the acid-base titration of their aqueous solutions: QBS from Sigma is an ionic surfactant, while the "Supersap" from Desert King is a non-ionic one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saponins and Flavonoids from Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis L. Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in ICR Mice

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    Rui Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: As an herbal medicine, adzuki bean has been practiced since the Tang Dynasty of China to maintain health and control weight; this practice is still very popular in China nowadays. However, it is still lack of sufficient scientific basis to explain scientific principle of this popular civil practice in weight control using adzuki bean. The purpose of this study was to verify and explain the anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean through in vitro enzymatic assays, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo study of obese mice model.Methods: Inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean (Vigna angularis on pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase activities, and noradrenaline-induced lipolysis were assessed. High-fat diet-induced obesity model was created to study anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean. Both serum and liver lipid parameters were determined after 8 weeks intervention.Results: Adzuki bean extracts enhanced lipolysis. Compared to the final body weight of high-fat diet group, oral administration of adzuki bean significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the final body weight of mice and adipose tissue accumulation. The adzuki bean intervention also significantly reduced the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and liver lipid.Conclusion: Adzuki bean demonstrated the anti-obesity effects on mice, such effects may mediated through the inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities, and lipolysis enhancement effect of active components from adzuki bean.

  18. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible Molecular Mechanisms by Which an Essential Oil Blend from Star Anise, Rosemary, Thyme, and Oregano and Saponins Increase the Performance and Ileal Protein Digestibility of Growing Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Henry; Zentek, Jürgen; Männer, Klaus; Youssef, Ibrahim M I; Aumiller, Tobias; Weghuber, Julian; Wimmers, Klaus; Mueller, Andreas S

    2017-08-16

    Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth-promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend, or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids. Complementary analyses in Caco-2 showed a significant increase in transporter recruitment to the membrane (SGLT1 and PEPT1) after addition of essential oils and saponins. Although the penetrance of effects differed for the used phytogenic feed additives, the results indicate for an overlapping mode of action including local effects at the intestinal border and systemic alterations of macronutrient metabolism resulting in an improved performance of broilers.

  20. Chemo Protective role of Moringa oleifera and its isolated Saponin against DMBA induced Tissue Damage in male mice: A Histopathological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma; Ritu Paliwal

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, a well known traditional medicinal plant from Moringaceae family has a remarkable reputation among the indigenous medical practitioners. The chemo protective role of hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera and its isolated saponin against 7, 12- dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) intoxicated mice was investigated in the present study with the help of histopathological analysis of soft tissues (liver and kidney). The PAH 7, 12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) acts as a pot...

  1. Molecular cloning of an ester-forming triterpenoid: UDP-glucose 28-O-glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Zhang, Haixia; Fett-Neto, Arthur G; Covello, Patrick S

    2017-09-01

    Triterpene saponins include bioactive compounds with structures consisting of triterpene aglycones (sapogenins) and one or more sugar moieties linked through acetal or ester glycosidic linkages at one or more sites. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant that contains bioactive ursane-type saponins, such as madecassoside and asiaticoside. In this work, glucosylation of triterpenoids in C. asiatica was investigated starting with plant extracts. An enzyme capable of glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids was partially purified. Proteomics methods and cDNA sequence data were employed as tools to obtain a full-length cDNA clone encoding a glucosyltransferase. The recombinant gene product, UGT73AD1, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. Purified recombinant UGT73AD1 was found to have a narrow specificity, glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids at the C28 carboxyl. mRNA accumulated in all tissues tested (leaves, stems, roots and flowers), with highest expression in leaves. Thus, UGT73AD1 was identified as a triterpenoid carboxylic acid: UDP-glucose 28-O-glucosyltransferase that appears to be involved in saponin biosynthesis in C. asiatica. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of allergens in tubeimu saponin extracts by using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

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    Zhang, Tao; Han, Shengli; Liu, Qi; Guo, Ying; He, Langchong

    2014-11-01

    An affinity two-dimensional chromatography method was developed for the recognition, separation, and identification of allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts, a preparation often injected to treat various conditions as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine. Rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membranes were used as the stationary phase of a membrane affinity chromatography column to capture components with affinity for mast cells that could be involved in a degranulation reaction. The retained components were enriched and analyzed by membrane affinity chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry via a port switch valve. Suitability and reliability of the method was investigated using appropriate standards, and then, the method was applied to identify components retained from tubeimu saponin extracts. Tubeimoside A was identified in this way as a potential allergen, and degranulation assays confirmed that tubeimoside A induces RBL-2H3 cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in Ca(2+) influx indicated that degranulation induced by tubeimoside A is likely Ca(2+) dependent. Coupled with the degranulation assay, RBL-2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is an effective method for screening and identifying allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-01-09

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  4. Jasmonic acid and methyl dihydrojasmonate enhance saponin biosynthesis as well as expression of functional genes in adventitious roots of Panax notoginseng F.H. Chen.

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    Li, Jinxin; Wang, Juan; Wu, Xiaolei; Liu, Dahui; Li, Jing; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-03-01

    Panax notoginseng, an important herbal medicine, has wide uses for its bioactive compounds and health function. In this work, we compared the content of saponin in cultivation and adventitious root. The total content of saponins in adventitious root (8.48 mg⋅g(-1) ) was found lower than in the native one (3-year-old) (34.34 mg⋅g(-1) ). To enhance the content of bioactive compounds, we applied elicitors jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl dihydrojasmonate (MDJ) to the adventitious root culture. It was observed that the highest total content of saponins (71.94 mg⋅g(-1) ) was achieved after treatment with 5 mg⋅L(-1) JA, which was 2.09-fold higher than native roots and 8.45-fold higher than the control group. The findings from high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that six new compounds were present after the treatment with the elicitors. Furthermore, we found that JA and MDJ significantly upregulated the expression of the geranyl diphosphate synthase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, dammarenediol synthase, and CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2 (CYP450 enzyme) genes; downregulated the expression of the cycloartenol synthase gene; and increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The intervention effect of different distribution ratio of Astragalus total saponins and curcumin on the DM rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Li, Xiao; Miao, Mingsan

    2017-05-01

    Through the study of the effect of different ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS) and curcumin on Diabetes Mellitu (DM) model rats, we want to improve the screening model of the distribution ratio in Chinese Medicine, screening out the optimal proportion of the prevention and control of DM. By injecting streptozotocin (STZ) in the tail vein of rats to induct the DM rats model, we measured the dynamic change, insulin and insulin antibody (IAA) levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP) content, lipid metabolism and the changes of renal pathology in DM model rats. The different distribution ratio of ATS and Curcumin can significantly reduce GSP, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL); significantly increased serum insulin levels and high density lipoprotein (HDL) content, significantly decreased IAA level on the DM rats model induced by STZ. Different proportions of ATS and Curcumin have a good therapeutic effect on DM model rats, and 6:4 is the optimal proportion for the prevention and treatment of DM.

  6. Sapindus saponins' impact on hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria strains after short- and long-term contact with pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Łuczak, Marta; Krawczyk, Piotr; Jesionowski, Teofil; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of high toxicity petroleum contaminants to the natural environment causes damage to ecosystems and the aesthetics of the surroundings. Therefore it is critical to enhance microbial community performance to manage the degradation process. This paper analyses the effect of natural surfactants from the tree Sapindus mukorossi on biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Analysis of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential confirmed effective modifications of the cell surface parameters essential for the bioavailability of contaminants to microorganisms. Interestingly, favorable differences were observed only for microorganisms from non-contaminated soil. There was also recorded an increase in diesel oil biodegradation to 41% for Sphingomonas sp. and 56% for Pseudomonas alcaligenes on addition of 100mgL(-1) of Sapindus saponins. The addition of natural surfactants has no significant impact on bacterial strains isolated from long-term contaminated soil. This research demonstrates that the addition of Sapindus extract could be a useful tool to improve the effectiveness of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants by environmental strains in recently contaminated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GC-MS analysis and gastroprotective evaluations of crude extracts, isolated saponins and essential oil from Polygonum hydropiper L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Shahid, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Ullah, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Syed, Nawazish-i.-Husain

    2017-08-01

    Peptic ulceration is among the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders characterized by pepsin and gastric acid mediated mucosal damage, as result of imbalance between defensive and offensive processes. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the antiulcer potentials of Polygonum hydropiper crude methanolic ectract (Ph.Cr) in aspirin induced ulcerogenesis using pylorus ligated rat model. In-vitro urease and Proteus mirabilis inhibitory potentials were evaluated using standard protocols. All fractions were analyzed using GC-MS to identify major components. The aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat model was associated with significant changes in the mean ulcer score (F5,30 = 7.141, P = 0.0002), gastric juice volume (F5,30 = 8.245, P leaves essential oil (Ph.Lo), saponins (Ph.Sp) and chloroform extract (Ph.Chf) exhibited highest activities with IC50 of 90, 98 and 520 µg/ml respectively. Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc) and Ph.Cr showed MICs of 25, 30, 32.25 and 40.50 µg/ml respectively against Proteus mirabilis. Several compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis of samples. Significant in-vivo antiulcer, urease inhibitory as well as anti-proteus potentials of P. hydropiper solvent extracts, signify its potential use for the management of peptic ulcers and may provide scientific bases for the traditional uses of the plant.

  8. Suppressive effects of saponin-enriched extracts from quinoa on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Gao, Yue; Shi, Zhenxing; Hu, Yibo; Ren, Guixing

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of quinoa saponins (QS) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. QS inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the mature adipocytes, evidenced by oil-red O staining and intracellular quantification. Real time-PCR analysis and western blot analysis showed that QS significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), however, they had no significant effect on CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) which are the upstream regulators for adipogenesis compared with mature adipocytes. QS also reduced mRNA and protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) related to the late stage of adipogenesis. Furthermore, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), as adipocyte specific genes, were decreased in mature adipocytes by QS treatment. These findings indicate that QS are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation.

  9. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake

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    Jian-Fa Zong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1 and C5 (2, were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1 and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2 through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB.

  10. Treatment with Akebia Saponin D Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment and Neurotoxicity in Rats

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    Yongde Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ is known to be directly associated with the progressive neuronal death observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, effective neuroprotective approaches against Aβ neurotoxicity are still unavailable. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Akebia saponin D (ASD, a typical compound isolated from the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall, on Aβ1–42-induced impairment of learning and memory formation and explored the probable underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that treatment with ASD (30, 90 or 270 mg/kg significantly ameliorated impaired spatial learning and memory in intracerebroventricularly (ICV Aβ1–42-injected rats, as evidenced by a decrease tendency in escape latency during acquisition trials and improvement in exploratory activities in the probe trial in Morris water maze (MWM. Further study showed that ASD reversed Aβ1–42-induced accumulation of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the hippocampus through down-regulating the expression of BACE and Presenilin 2 accompanied with increased the expression of TACE, IDE and LRP-1. Taken together, our findings suggested that ASD exerted therapeutic effects on Aβ-induced cognitive deficits via amyloidogenic pathway.

  11. In vitro Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Tea Polyphenols and Tea Saponin against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Kejue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities and mechanism of action of tea polyphenols (TP), tea saponin (TS) and their combination were evaluated against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that both TP and TS inhibited the mycelial growth in a dose-dependent manner, and their combination at the ratio of 7:3 exhibited synergistic antifungal interaction. We also observed that the treatment of TP or TS significantly induced the production of H2O2 and resulted in membrane lipid peroxidation, thus leading to an increase in cell membrane permeability and the leakage of K(+), soluble protein and soluble sugar. Moreover, combining them for treatment increased the induction of H2O2 production and oxidative damage. Scanning electron microscopic observations also showed the damage to the hyphal cell structure. It was concluded that TP, TS and their combination inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer through the induction of H2O2 production, leading to cell membrane oxidative damage and intracellular constituent leakage. These findings suggest that TP and TS can potentially be used as an alternative to control postharvest fruit diseases caused by R. stolonifer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. In vitro study of effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as methanogenesis inhibitor on ruminal digestion system

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    Amlius Thalib

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced in the rumen system causes the lost of ingested chemical energy, and the methane emitted contributes the greenhouse effect to the atmosphere environment. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as an inhibitor of ruminal methanogenesis was conducted. The method conducted in this study was a fermentation of a substrate by in vitro technique using rumen fluid (obtained from fistulated sheep as inoculum. Substrate (king grass was fermented in anaerobic incubator system at pH of medium 6.9 and temperature of 39°C for 48 hours. Inoculum was supplemented with an ingredient obtained by extraction of Sapindus rarak fruit with methanol (Aksapon SR and the ones without extraction (lerak powder, and further, these treatments were compared to other methanogenesis inhibitors (i.e. Fe3+, SO4 2– and poly unsaturated longchain fatty acids: PULCFA.The treatments were 1. Inoculum without treatment (K; 2. K + Aksapon SR (80 mg/100 ml; 3. K + lerak powder (160 mg/100 ml; 4. K + Fe3+ (0.8 mg/100 ml; 5. K + SO4 2- (96 mg/100 ml; 6. K + PULCFA (24 mg/100 ml. Measurements conducted were portion of methane, dry matter digestibility (DMD, NH3-N content, microbial population, and volatile fatty acids (VFA. The data measured were analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results of the experiment showed that Aksapon SR was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenesis compared to the others, that is when compared to control, Aksapon SR lowered methane production by 31% (P0.05 and SO4 2–(10% (P>0.05. All additive treatments did not affect the DMD value of the substrate fermented by control inoculum. Compared to control, all treatments lowered the protozoal population where the Aksapon SR gave the strongest effect (1.91 x 105 vs 9.94 x 105 cell/ml, and the decrease of protozoal number in Aksapon SR treatment was followed by the increase of bacterial (4.13 x 109 vs 2.56 x 109 colony/ml. Aksapon SR and SO4 2

  13. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

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    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  14. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP716A141 is a Unique β-Amyrin C-16β Oxidase Involved in Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in Platycodon grandiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Keita; Teranishi, Yuga; Ueda, Shinya; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Saito, Kazuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Muranaka, Toshiya; Seki, Hikaru

    2017-05-01

    The roots of Platycodon grandiflorus are widely used as a crude drug. The active components include a variety of triterpenoid saponins. Recent studies have revealed that Cyt P450 monooxygenases (P450s) function as triterpene oxidases in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in many plant species. However, there have been no reports regarding triterpene oxidases in P. grandiflorus. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of three different P. grandiflorus tissues (roots, leaves and petals) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. We cloned six P450 genes that were highly expressed in roots, and classified them as belonging to the CYP716A, CYP716D and CYP72A subfamilies. We heterologously expressed these P450s in an engineered yeast strain that produces β-amyrin, one of the most common triterpenes in plants. Two of the CYP716A subfamily P450s catalyzed oxidation reactions of the β-amyrin skeleton. One of these P450s, CYP716A140v2, catalyzed a three-step oxidation reaction at C-28 on β-amyrin to produce oleanolic acid, a reaction performed by CYP716A subfamily P450s in a variety of plant species. The other P450, CYP716A141, catalyzed the hydroxylation of β-amyrin at C-16β. This reaction is unique among triterpene oxidases isolated to date. These results enhance our knowledge of functional variation among CYP716A subfamily enzymes involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis, and provide novel molecular tools for use in synthetic biology to produce triterpenoid saponins with pre-defined structures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

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    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  16. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres loaded with an experimental autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, M; Eskandari, M; Kharazizadeh, M; Khamesipour, A; Jaafari, M R

    2010-12-01

    Immune responses against the Leishmania antigens are not sufficient to protect against a leishmania challenge. Therefore these antigens need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. In this study, Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter for nanospheres loaded with ALM+QS was 294 ± 106 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded nanospheres [(ALM+QS)PLGA], ALM encapsulated with PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)PLGA], (ALM)PLGA + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS. The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P < 0.05) smaller footpad, were observed in mice immunized with (ALM)PLGA. The (ALM+QS)PLGA group showed the least protection and highest swelling, while the (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS and ALM showed an intermediate protection with no significant difference. The mice immunized with ALM and ALM+QS showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (P < 0.01), followed by (ALM)PLGA+QS. The highest IFN-γ and lowest IL-4 production was seen in (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS groups. The highest parasite burden was observed in (ALM)PLGA+QS and (ALM+QS)PLGA groups. It is concluded that PLGA nanospheres as a vaccine delivery system could increase the protective immune responses, but QS adjuvant has a reverse effect on protective immune responses and the least protective responses were seen in the presence of this adjuvant.

  17. Bile enhances glucose uptake, reduces permeability, and modulates effects of lectins, trypsin inhibitors and saponins on intestinal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Anne Marie; Chikwati, Elvis M; Venold, Fredrik F; Sahlmann, Christian; Holm, Halvor; Penn, Michael H; Oropeza-Moe, Marianne; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-02-01

    Antinutritional factors (ANFs) can disrupt digestive and other intestinal functions. ANFs in soybean meal (SBM) are implicated in proliferative and inflammatory responses in the intestine of various (functionally) monogastric animals, including Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of ex vivo exposure of mid and distal intestinal tissue of salmon to soybean saponins (SAP), lectin (LEC) and Kunitz' trypsin inhibitor (KTI), singly and in combination, on epithelial function, as assessed by measuring in vitro glucose uptake pathways along a glucose concentration gradient. As solubilization of SAP in the calcium-containing Ringer's solution was problematic but resolved with the addition of a physiological concentration of bile collected from the gall bladder of salmon, an evaluation of bile effects became an added element. Results indicated that bile increased baseline glucose absorption and possibly transport, and also had a protective effect on the epithelial barrier, at least partially due to taurocholate. Compared to controls, tissues exposed to LEC+bile, KTI+bile and LEC+KTI+bile exhibited increased glucose uptake at the higher glucose concentrations, apparently due to markedly increased tissue permeability. Addition of SAP, however, attenuated the response, possibly by binding bile components. SAP+bile, also in combination with LEC and/or KTI, as well as LEC, KTI and LEC+KTI without bile often reduced transcellular glucose uptake pathways, while maintaining low tissue permeability. SAP+LEC+KTI+bile, LEC and KTI caused the most marked reductions. The distal intestine was more affected, reflecting the restriction of in vivo SBM-induced inflammatory changes to this region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Panaxadiol Saponin and Dexamethasone Improve Renal Function in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model of Acute Kidney Injury.

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    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, which has a high mortality rate. Previous studies showed that panaxadiol saponin (PDS and Dexamethasone have similar anti-inflammatory properties and protect cardiopulmonary function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced septic shock rats. In the present study, we investigated whether PDS or Dexamethasone has a similar role in improving kidney function in LPS-induced AKI mice.Mice subjected to LPS (10 mg/kg treatment exhibited AKI demonstrated by markedly increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels compared with controls (P<0.01. However, PDS and Dexamethasone induce similar reverse effects on renal function, such as reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels compared with the LPS group (P<0.05. PDS decreased the production and release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway, down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression levels and inhibiting oxidative stress. In most anti-AKI mechanisms, PDS and dexamethasone were similar, but PDS are better at inhibition of TNF production, promote SOD activity and inhibition of IKB phosphorylation. In addition, nuclear glucocorticoid receptor expression was markedly enhanced in PDS and Dexamethasone treatment groups. Further research is required to determine whether PDS can combine with the glucocorticoid receptor to enter the nucleus.This study demonstrated that PDS and dexamethasone have similar reverse amelioration for renal functions, and have potential application prospects in the treatment of sepsis-induced AKI.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and correlation between in vitro release and in vivo absorption of bio-adhesive pellets of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Chun-Yan

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to prepare and compare bio-adhesive pellets of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, and chitosan : carbomer, explore the influence of different bio-adhesive materials on pharmacokinetics behaviors of PNSbio-adhesive pellets, and evaluate the correlation between in vivo absorption and in vitro release (IVIVC). In order to predict the in vivo concentration-time profile by the in vitro release data of bio-adhesive pellets, the release experiment was performed using the rotating basket method in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The PNS concentrations in rat plasma were analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS method and the relative bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using Kinetica4.4 pharmacokinetic software. Numerical deconvolution method was used to evaluate IVIVC. Our results indicated that, compared with ordinary pellets, PNS bio-adhesive pellets showed increased oral bioavailability by 1.45 to 3.20 times, increased Cmax, and extended MRT. What's more, the release behavior of drug in HPMC pellets was shown to follow a Fickian diffusion mechanism, a synergetic function of diffusion and skeleton corrosion. The in vitro release and the in vivo biological activity had a good correlation, demonstrating that the PNS bio-adhesive pellets had a better sustained release. Numerical deconvolution technique showed the advantage in evaluation of IVIVC for self-designed bio-adhesive pellets with HPMC. In conclusion, the in vitro release data of bio-adhesive pellets with HPMC can predict its concentration-time profile in vivo. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravenous and Subcutaneous Toxicity and Absorption Kinetics in Mice and Dogs of the Antileishmanial Triterpene Saponin PX-6518

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    Louis Maes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous (IV and subcutaneous (SC toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg. Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC50 after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T1/2 71–91 h after SC dosing, repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk.

  1. Method development and application of offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis for comprehensive characterization of the saponins from Xueshuantong Injection.

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    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Changliang; Qiu, Shi; Chen, Ming; Pan, Huiqin; Shi, Xiaojian; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2016-09-05

    Xueshuantong Injection (XSTI), derived from Notoginseng total saponins, is a popular traditional Chinese medicine injection for the treatment of thrombus-resultant diseases. Current knowledge on its therapeutic basis is limited to five major saponins, whereas those minor ones are rarely investigated. We herein develop an offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (offline 2D LC/QTOF-Fast DDA) approach to systematically characterize the saponins contained in XSTI. Key parameters affecting chromatographic separation in 2D LC (including stationary phase, mobile phase, column temperature, and gradient elution program) and the detection by QTOF MS (involving spray voltage, cone voltage, and ramp collision energy) were optimized in sequence. The configured offline 2D LC system showed an orthogonality of 0.84 and a theoretical peak capacity of 8976. Total saponins in XSTI were fractionated into eleven samples by the first-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography, which were further analyzed by reversed-phase UHPLC/QTOF-Fast DDA in negative ion mode. The fragmentation features evidenced from 36 saponin reference standards, high-accuracy MS and Fast-DDA-MS(2) data, elemental composition (Clibrary of Panax notoginseng, were simultaneously utilized for structural elucidation. Ultimately, 148 saponins were separated and characterized, and 80 have not been isolated from P. notoginseng. An in-depth depiction of the chemical composition of XSTI was achieved. The results obtained would benefit better understanding of the therapeutic basis and significant promotion on the quality standard of XSTI as well as other homologous products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characterization of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of a triterpene saponin, securioside B against BAC1.2F5 macrophages

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    Satoru Yui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the growth state of macrophages in local pathological sites is considered a factor that regulates the processes of many disease, such as tumors, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, the substances that regulate macrophage growth or survival may be useful for disease control. We previously reported that securiosides A and B, novel triterpene saponins, exerted macrophage-oriented cytotoxicity in the presence of a L-cell-conditioned medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, while the compounds did not exhibit an effect on macrophages in the absence of the growth-stimulating factors.

  3. Molecular determinants of PPARγ partial agonism and related in silico/in vivo studies of natural saponins as potential type 2 diabetes modulators.

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    Al Sharif, Merilin; Alov, Petko; Diukendjieva, Antonia; Vitcheva, Vessela; Simeonova, Rumyana; Krasteva, Ilina; Shkondrov, Aleksandar; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    2017-12-13

    The metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, has reached an epidemic-like scale. Saponins and sapogenins are considered as valuable natural products for ameliorating this pathology, possibly through the nuclear receptor PPARγ activation. The aims of this study were: to look for in vivo antidiabetic effects of a purified saponins' mixture (PSM) from Astragalus corniculatus Bieb; to reveal by in silico methods the molecular determinants of PPARγ partial agonism, and to investigate the potential PPARγ participation in the PSM effects. In the in vivo experiments spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with induced T2D were treated with PSM or pioglitazone as a referent PPARγ full agonist, and pathology-relevant biochemical markers were analysed. The results provided details on the PSM modulation of the glucose homeostasis and its potential mechanism. The in silico studies focused on analysis of the protein-ligand interactions in crystal structures of human PPARγ-partial agonist complexes, pharmacophore modelling and molecular docking. They outlined key pharmacophoric features, typical for the PPARγ partial agonists, which were used for pharmacophore-based docking of the main PSM sapogenin. The in silico studies, strongly suggest possible involvement of PPARγ-mediated mechanisms in the in vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of PSM from A. corniculatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of VEGF-D and TGFβ Genes in MCF7 Cells Exposed to Saponin Isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (Sea Cucumber

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    Mozhgan Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine natural products contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties that have revealed crucial properties in the treatment of some diseases. Some of these compounds have recently received considerable attention for drug discovery. In this study we examined the anti-angiogenic effect of saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber through evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ expression in a breast cancer cell line. Methods: To investigate the effect of SCS on VEGF-D and TGF-β expression in breast cancer cells, the cells were treated with various concentrations of sample. After 48 h the viability of the cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining, and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression was were evaluated by real time-PCR. Results: Our results revealed that SCS can suppress cell viability and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Sea cucumber saponin at a concentration of 12 μg/ml inhibited VEGF-D and TGFβ expression more than 90% compared with controls. Conclusion: Findings suggest that SCS could inhibit tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis

  5. The dynamics of major fibrolytic microbes and enzyme activity in the rumen in response to short- and long-term feeding of Sapindus rarak saponins.

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    Wina, E; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of an extract of Sapindus rarak saponins (SE) on the rumen fibrolytic enzyme activity and the major fibrolytic micro-organisms. Two feeding trials were conducted. In the short-term trial, four fistulated goats were fed a basal diet containing sugar cane tops and wheat pollard (65:35, w/w) and were supplemented for 7 days with SE at a level of 0.6 g kg(-1) body weight. Rumen liquor was taken before, during and after SE feeding. In the long-term trial, 28 sheep were fed the same basal diet as the goats and were supplemented for 105 days with 0.24, 0.48 and 0.72 g kg(-1) body mass of the extract. Rumen liquor was taken on days 98 and 100. Protozoal numbers were counted under the microscope. Cell wall degradation was determined by enzyme assays and the major fibrolytic micro-organisms were quantified by dot blot hybridization. Sapindus extract significantly depressed rumen xylanase activity in both trials and carboxymethylcellulase activity in the long-term trial (P Sapindus rarak saponins partially defaunate the rumen flora. Their negative effect on cell wall degradation, however, is not related to rumen organisms currently recognized as the major cell wall degrading species. The adaptation of microbes in the long-term feeding experiment suggests that the results from short-term trial on the ruminal microbial community have to be interpreted carefully.

  6. Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals. Methods Antioxidant activity was determined on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while major phytochemicals were identified by multiple tests on methanol fractions. Results R. caffra showed promise as a cure, with antioxidant activity comparable to the commercially used drug quercetin (R. caffra = 79.7% ±1.9; quercetin = 82.6% ± 2.0). However, we found two phytochemicals with possible antagonistic effect: co-occurrence of alkaloids and saponins significantly reduced antioxidant activity (alkaloids only = 63%; alkaloids plus saponins = 15%; steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides = 82%), thus alkaloids and saponins should be exclusive to each other in drug formulations. Conclusions Antagonistic relationship among phytochemicals would affect the efficacy of crude extracts as used in traditional medicine. Unlike in herbal medicine, use of modern biotechnology in extraction, purification and design of optimal combinations will ensure efficient drug formulations with optimum bioactivity and minimum toxicity. Metabolic pathway engineering under a controlled environment may optimize availability of desired compounds. PMID:24160735

  7. Quantitative determination of 15 bioactive triterpenoid saponins in different parts of Acanthopanax henryi by HPLC with charged aerosol detection and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF-MS.

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    Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Xiang; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Whang, Wan-Kyunn; Liu, Xiang-Qian

    2016-06-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are difficult to analyze using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV/vis spectrophotometry due to their lack of chromophores. This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of 15 triterpenoid saponins from the leaves, stems, root bark, and fruits of Acanthopanax henryi, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. The separation was carried out on a Kinetex XB-C18 column with an acetonitrile/water gradient as the mobile phase, followed by charged aerosol detection. The operating conditions of charged aerosol detection were set at 24 kPa for nitrogen pressure and 100 pA for the detection range. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method involved the use of the [M + Na](+) and [M + NH4 ](+) ions for compounds 1-15 in the positive ion mode with an extracted ion chromatogram. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and recovery, then subsequently applied to evaluate the quality of A. henryi. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cytochrome P450 CYP716A254 catalyzes the formation of oleanolic acid from β-amyrin during oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in Anemone flaccida.

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    Zhan, Chuansong; Ahmed, Shakeel; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Yang, Tewu; Wang, Xuekui; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    Anemone flaccida Fr. Shmidt (Ranunculaceae), known as 'Di Wu' in China, is a perennial herb which has long been used to treat arthritis. The rhizome of A. flaccida contains pharmacologically active components i.e. oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins. Oleanolic acid is natural triterpenoid in plants with diverse biological activities. The biosynthesis of oleanolic acid involves cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to the oleanane-type triterpenoid skeleton, followed by a series of oxidation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450). Previously, we identified four possible cytochrome P450 genes belonging to CYP716A subfamily from the transcriptome of A. flaccida. In this study, we identified one of those genes "CYP716A254" encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from A. flaccida that catalyzes the conversion of the β-amyrin into oleanolic acid. The heterologous expression of CYP716A254 in yeast resulted in oxidation of β-amyrin at the C-18 position to oleanolic acid production. These results provide an important basis for further studies of oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins synthesis in A. flaccida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polydopamine-Coated Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Fragment Template for Identification of Pulsatilla Saponin Metabolites in Rat Feces with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

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    Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Lian-Di; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2018-01-24

    In this work, a modified pretreatment method using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) was successfully applied to study the metabolites of an important botanical with ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The MMIPs for glucoside-specific adsorption was used to identify metabolites of Pulsatilla chinensis in rat feces. Polymers were prepared by using Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as the supporting matrix, d-glucose as fragment template, and dopamine as the functional monomer and cross-linker. Results showed that MMIPs exhibited excellent extraction performance, large adsorption capacity (5.65 mg/g), fast kinetics (60 min), and magnetic separation. Furthermore, the MMIPs coupled with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS were successfully utilized for the identification of 17 compounds including 15 metabolites from the Pulsatilla saponin metabolic pool. This study provides a reliable protocol for the separation and identification of saponin metabolites in a complex biological sample, including those from herbal medicines.

  10. Studies on cocktails of 31-kDa, 36-kDa and 51-kDa antigens of Leishmania donovani along with saponin against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Kaur, H; Thakur, A; Kaur, S

    2015-04-01

    A substantial number of antigens of Leishmania donovani have been described in the past. However, identifying candidate antigens is not enough. Appropriate antigen delivery to induce the right type of immune response against leishmaniasis (i.e. induction of a strong antigen-specific Th1 type of immune response) is another crucial component of an effective vaccine. Therefore, 'cocktail' vaccines are proposed based on the assumption that such cocktails will show enhanced efficacy. Studies have been carried out on LD31 and LD51 polypeptides from L. donovani promastigotes, which have proven to be potential vaccine candidates. This study was designed to check the protective efficacy of various cocktails of low molecular weight antigens alone and along with saponin as adjuvant. Mice were sacrificed on different post-challenge days for evaluation of parasite load and other immunological parameters. Protective efficacy of different vaccine formulations was revealed by significant decline in parasite burden and increased DTH Delayed Type Hypersenstivity responses. The antibody response was of IgG type with elevated IgG2a and decreased production of IgG1, whereas cytokine levels pointed towards the generation of protective Th1 type of immune response. Among all vaccine formulations, cocktail of 31+51+saponin was found to be highly immunogenic and imparted maximum protection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus.

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    Zeb, Anwar; Sadiq, Abdul; Ullah, Farhat; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ayaz, Muhammad

    2014-12-26

    Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr), resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex), chloroform (Ir.Cf), ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc), aqueous (Ir.Aq)), flavonoids (Ir.Flv) and crude saponins (Ir.Sp) of I. rugosus were investigated using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant potential of I. rugosus was determined using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g of dry sample respectively. Among different fractions Ir.Flv and Ir.Cf exhibited highest inhibitory activity against AChE (87.44 ± 0.51, 83.73 ± 0.64%) and BChE (82.53 ± 0.71, 88.55 ± 0.77%) enzymes at 1 mg/ml with IC50 values of 45, 50 for AChE and 40, 70 μg/ml for BChE respectively. Activity of these fractions were comparable to galanthamine causing 96.00 ± 0.30 and 88.61 ± 0.43% inhibition of AChE and BChE at 1 mg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 20 and 47 μg/ml respectively. In antioxidant assays, Ir.Flv, Ir.Cf, and Ir.EtAc demonstrated highest radicals scavenging activities in DPPH and H2O2 assays which were comparable to ascorbic acid. Ir.Flv was found most potent with IC50 of 19 and 24 μg/ml against DPPH and H2O2 radicals respectively. Whereas antioxidant activates of plant samples against ABTS free radicals was moderate. Ir.Cf, Ir.EtAc and Ir.Cr showed high phenolic and flavonoid contents and concentrations of these compounds in different fractions correlated well to their antioxidant and anticholinestrase activities. It may be inferred from the current investigations that the Ir.Sp, Ir.Flv and various fractions of I

  12. GC-MS Analysis and Gastroprotective Evaluations of Crude Extracts, Isolated Saponins, and Essential Oil from Polygonum hydropiper L.

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    Muhammad Ayaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulceration is among the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders characterized by pepsin and gastric acid mediated mucosal damage, as result of imbalance between defensive and offensive processes. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the antiulcer potentials of Polygonum hydropiper crude methanolic ectract (Ph.Cr in aspirin induced ulcerogenesis using pylorus ligated rat model. In-vitro urease and Proteus mirabilis inhibitory potentials were evaluated using standard protocols. All fractions were analyzed using GC-MS to identify major components. The aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat model was associated with significant changes in the mean ulcer score [F(5, 30 = 7.141, P = 0.0002], gastric juice volume [F(5, 30 = 8.245, P < 0.0001], gastric juice pH [F(5, 30 = 5.715, P = 0.0008], free acidity [F(5, 30 = 4.544, P = 0.0033], total acidity [F(5, 30 = 2.740, P = 0.0373], and pepsin concentration [F(5, 30 = 2.335, P = 0.0664]. Pre-treatment with Ph.Cr at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose exhibited marked gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect in the aspirin induced pyloric ligation ulcerogenesis model at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg as indicated by ulcerative biochemical parameters. In urease inhibition assay, leaves essential oil (Ph.Lo, saponins (Ph.Sp, and chloroform extract (Ph.Chf exhibited highest activities with IC50 of 90, 98, and 520 μg/ml, respectively. Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr showed MICs of 25, 30, 32.25, and 40.50 μg/ml, respectively against P. mirabilis. Several compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis of samples. Significant in-vivo antiulcer, urease inhibitory as well as anti-proteus potentials of P. hydropiper solvent extracts, signify its potential use for the management of peptic ulcers and may provide scientific bases for the traditional uses of the plant.

  13. The regulation of alfalfa saponin extract on key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats.

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    Yinghua Shi

    Full Text Available To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, 40 healthy 7 weeks old male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, hyperlipidemic group, ASE treatment group, ASE prevention group. The body weight gain, relative liver weight and serum lipid 1evels of rats were determined. Total cholesterol (TC and total bile acids (TBA levels in liver and feces were also measured. Furthermore, the activity and mRNA expressions of Hmgcr, Acat2, Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were investigated. The results showed the following: (1 The abnormal serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats were ameliorated by ASE administration (both ASE prevention group and treatment group (P<0.05. (2 Both ASE administration to hyperlipidemic rats significantly reduced liver TC and increased liver TBA level (P<0.05. TC and TBA levels in feces of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably elevated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. (3 mRNA expressions of Hmgcr and Acat2 in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably down-regulated (P<0.05, as well as mRNA expressions of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were dramatically up-regulated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. The activities of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA levels. (4 There was no significant difference between ASE treatment and ASE prevention group for most parameters evaluated. Our present study indicated that ASE had cholesterol-lowering effects. The possible mechanism could be attributed to (1 the down-regulation of Hmgcr and Acat2, as well as up-regulation of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats, which was involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and efflux pathway; (2 the increase in excretion of cholesterol. The findings in our study suggested ASE had great potential usefulness as a natural agent for treating hyperlipidemia.

  14. Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, induces apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells

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    Choi Jung-Hye

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compound K [20-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl-20(S-protopanaxadiol], a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess anti-tumor properties to inhibit angiogenesis and to induce tumor apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Compound K on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms involved in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Methods We examined the effect of Compound K on the viabilities of various cancer cell lines using MTT assays. DAPI assay, Annexin V and PI double staining, Western blot assay and immunoprecipitation were used to determine the effect of Compound K on the induction of apoptosis. Results Compound K was found to inhibit the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 of 14 μM. Moreover, this cell death had typical features of apoptosis, that is, DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and the externalization of Annexin V targeted phosphatidylserine residues in HL-60 cells. In addition, compound-K induced a series of intracellular events associated with both the mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways, namely, (1 the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9; (2 the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3 the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol; (4 the translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria; and (5 the downregulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, a caspase-8 inhibitor completely abolished caspase-3 activation, Bid cleavage, and subsequent DNA fragmentation by Compound K. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 and -8 and DNA fragmentation were significantly prevented in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that Compound K-induced apoptosis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Conclusions The results indicate that caspase-8 plays a key role in Compound K-stimulated apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through

  15. The total triterpenoid saponins of Xanthoceras sorbifolia improve learning and memory impairments through against oxidative stress and synaptic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Fei; Chi, Tian-Yan; Liu, Peng; Li, Lu-Yi; Xu, Ji-Kai; Xu, Qian; Zou, Li-Bo; Meng, Da-Li

    2017-02-15

    X. sorbifolia is a widely cultivated ecologicalcrop in the north of China which is used to produce biodiesel fuel. It also possesses special medicinal value and has attracted keen interests of researchers to explore its bioactivity. To extract the total triterpenoid saponins from the husk of X. sorbifolia (TSX) and investigate its effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). TSX was prepared via modern extraction techniques. Its effects on two AD animal models, as well as the preliminary mechanism were investigated comprehensively. The behavioral experiments including Y maze test, Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test were performed to observe the learning and memory abilities of the animals. ELISA assays, transmission electron microscope observation and Western blotting were employed in mechanism study. TSX, the main composition of X. sorbifolia, accounted for 88.77% in the plant material. It could significantly increase the spontaneous alternation in Y maze test (F (6, 65)=3.209, P<0.01), prolong the swimming time in the fourth quadrant in probe test of Morris water maze test (F (6, 71)=4.019, P<0.01), and increase the escape latency in passive avoidance test (F (6, 65)=3.684, P<0.01) in AD model animals. The preliminary mechanism research revealed that TSX could significantly increase the contents of hippocampal Ach and ChAT, and enhance activity of ChAT in hippocampus of quinolinic acid injected rats (F (5, 61)=3.915, P 0.01; F (5, 61)=3.623, P<0.01, F (5, 61)=4.344, P<0.01, respectively). It could also increase the activities of T-AOC and T-SOD, and decrease the content of MDA in hippocampus of Aβ1-42 injected mice (F (5, 30)=5.193, P<0.01, F (5, 30)=2.865, P<0.05, F (5, 30)=4.735, P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, it significantly increased the expressions of SYP, PSD-95 and GAP-43 in hippocampus (F (4, 27)=3.495, P<0.05; F (4, 27)=2.965, P<0.05; F (4, 27)=4.365, P<0.01, respectively), and improved the synaptic ultra-structure damage in model rats. TSX

  16. Studies on Bacterial Proteins Corona Interaction with Saponin Imprinted ZnO Nanohoneycombs and Their Toxic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Ashaduzzaman, Md; Golabi, Mohsen; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Bisetty, Krishna; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-11-04

    Molecular imprinting generates robust, efficient, and highly mesoporous surfaces for biointeractions. Mechanistic interfacial interaction between the surface of core substrate and protein corona is crucial to understand the substantial microbial toxic responses at a nanoscale. In this study, we have focused on the mechanistic interactions between synthesized saponin imprinted zinc oxide nanohoneycombs (SIZnO NHs), average size 80-125 nm, surface area 20.27 m(2)/g, average pore density 0.23 pore/nm and number-average pore size 3.74 nm and proteins corona of bacteria. The produced SIZnO NHs as potential antifungal and antibacterial agents have been studied on Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii), Pythium debarynum (P. debarynum) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. SIZnO NHs exhibited the highest antibacterial (∼50%) and antifungal (∼40%) activity against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and fungus (P. debarynum), respectively at concentration of 0.1 mol. Scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) observation showed that the ZnO NHs ruptured the cell wall of bacteria and internalized into the cell. The molecular docking studies were carried out using binding proteins present in the gram negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide and lipocalin Blc) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcal Protein A, SpA). It was envisaged that the proteins present in the bacterial cell wall were found to interact and adsorb on the surface of SIZnO NHs thereby blocking the active sites of the proteins used for cell wall synthesis. The binding affinity and interaction energies were higher in the case of binding proteins present in gram negative bacteria as compared to that of gram positive bacteria. In addition, a kinetic mathematical model (KMM) was developed in MATLAB to predict the internalization in the bacterial cellular uptake of the ZnO NHs for better understanding of their controlled toxicity. The results obtained from KMM exhibited a good

  17. Dereplication-guided isolation of novel hepatoprotective triterpenoid saponins from Celosiae Semen by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

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    Jiang, Yan; Liu, Feng-Jie; Wang, Yu-Mei; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-01-05

    Although natural products (NPs) from ethnomedical plants have played a vital role in modern drug discovery, separation and purification of bioactive compounds from plant extract is still challenging. In this study, a dereplication strategy using HPLC-QTOF-MS was employed to rapidly discover and highly targeted isolate the novel hepatoprotective triterpenoid saponins from the methanol extract of Celosiae Semen. Firstly, four known saponins, i.e. celosin H, celosin I, celosin J, and pseudoginsenoside RT1 were selected as model compounds, and their fragmentation patterns in ESI-QTOF-MS/MS were characterized. Secondly, an HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method was applied to chemically screen the saponins of interest, and thereby to guide the subsequent fraction and isolation procedure. Thirdly, the targeted isolation of desired compounds afforded two new triterpenoid saponins namely celosin K (1) and celosin L (2), which were structurally elucidated by combination of extensive NMR spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Finally, the protective effects of compounds 1 and 2 against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells were evaluated. These results indicate that the HPLC-QTOF-MS-guided isolation is an efficient methodology for isolating new NPs from medicinal plants through improving selectivity in separation and purification process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of saponins from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke on the renal Na+ pumps’ activities and urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Lúcio Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we showed that a saponin mixture isolated from the roots of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (SAPAaD reduces urine excretion in rats that were given an oral loading of 0.9 % NaCl (4 ml/100 g body weight. In the present study, we investigated whether atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and renal ATPases play a role in the SAPAaD- induced antidiuresis in rats. Methods To evaluate the effect of SAPAaD on furosemide-induced diuresis, Wistar rats (250-300 g were given an oral loading of physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl, 4 ml/100 g body weight to impose a uniform water and salt state. The solution containing furosemide (Furo, 13 mg/kg was given 30 min after rats were orally treated with 50 mg/kg SAPAaD (SAPAaD + Furo or 0.5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl (NaCl + Furo. In the SAPAaD + NaCl group, rats were pretreated with SAPAaD and 30 min later they received the oral loading of physiological solution. Animals were individually housed in metabolic cages, and urine volume was measured every 30 min throughout the experiment (3 h. To investigate the role of ANP and renal Na+ pumps on antidiuretic effects promoted by SAPAaD, rats were given the physiological solution (as above containing SAPAaD (50 mg/kg. After 90 min, samples of urine and blood from the last 30 min were collected. Kidneys and atria were also removed after previous anesthesia. ANP was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA and renal cortical activities of Na+- and (Na+,K+-ATPases were calculated from the difference between the [32P] Pi released in the absence and presence of 1 mM furosemide/2 mM ouabain and in the absence and presence of 1 mM ouabain, respectively. Results It was observed that SAPAaD inhibited furosemide-induced diuresis (at 90 min: from 10.0 ± 1.0 mL, NaCl + Furo group, n = 5, to 5.9 ± 1.0 mL, SAPAaD + Furo group n = 5, p +-ATPase (from 25.0 ± 5.9 nmol Pi

  19. Saponin promotes rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in blood cultures with the Vitek 2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupetti, A; Barnini, S; Morici, P; Ghelardi, E; Nibbering, P H; Campa, M

    2013-04-01

    The rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria in clinical blood cultures is crucial to optimise antimicrobial therapy. A previous study involving small sample numbers revealed that the addition of saponin to blood cultures, further referred to as the new method, shortened considerably the turn-around time for the identification and AST of Gram-positive cocci as compared to the current method involving an overnight subculture. Here, we extend previous results and compare the identification and AST of blood cultures containing Gram-negative bacilli by the new and current methods. The identification and AST of 121 Gram-positive and 109 Gram-negative bacteria in clinical monomicrobial blood cultures by the new and current methods and, in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, by direct (no additions) inoculation into an automated system (rapid method) was assessed using the Vitek 2 system. Discrepancies between the results obtained with the different methods were solved by manual methods. The new method correctly identified 88 % of Gram-positive and 98 % of Gram-negative bacteria, and the rapid method correctly identified 94 % of Gram-negative bacteria. The AST for all antimicrobials by the new method were concordant with the current method for 55 % and correct for an additional 9 % of Gram-positive bacteria, and concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 21 % of Gram-negative bacilli. The AST by the rapid method was concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 12 % of Gram-negative bacilli. Together, saponin-treated monomicrobial blood cultures allow rapid and reliable identification and AST of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  1. Quantitative analysis of acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, chakasaponins I-III and floratheasaponins A-F, in the flower buds of Camellia sinensis from different regional origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Miki, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-10-01

    A quantitative analytical method was developed for the determination of acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, chakasaponins I-III (1-3) and floratheasaponins A-F (4-9), found in Camellia sinensis (Theaceae). The practical conditions for separation and detection of these saponins were established on an ODS column with methanol containing 5 mM trifluoroacetic acid as a mobile phase, and the detection and quantitation limits of the method were estimated to be 1.1-3.8 and 3.5-12.5 ng, respectively. The relative standard deviation values of intra- and interday precision were lower than 2.35 and 6.12%, respectively, overall mean recoveries of all saponins being 94.7-108.8%, and the correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within the test ranges. To approve the validity of the protocol, extracts of 13 kinds of C. sinensis collected in China, Taiwan, Japan, and India were evaluated. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise, and could be readily utilized for the quality evaluation of tea flowers. It was noteworthy that the distinct regional difference was observed with respect to the content of chakasaponins and floratheasaponins, more chakasaponins being contained in the extracts of tea flowers from Fujian and Sichuan provinces, China than those from Japan, Taiwan, and India. Optimum conditions for the extraction process were also established.

  2. Anti-elastase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of saponins and sapogenins from Hedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Ruscus aculeatus: factors contributing to their efficacy in the treatment of venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facino, R M; Carini, M; Stefani, R; Aldini, G; Saibene, L

    1995-10-01

    Triterpene and steroid saponins and sapogenins of medicinal plants (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L., Ruscus aculeatus L.) are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency. In this work we evaluated the inhibitory effects of these plant constituents on the activity of elastase and hyaluronidase, the enzyme systems involved in the turnover of the main components of the perivascular amorphous substance. The results evidence that for Hedera helix L., the sapogenins only non-competitively inhibit hyaluronidase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, showing comparable IC50 values (hederagenin IC50 = 280.4 microM; oleanolic acid IC50 = 300.2 microM); both the saponins hederacoside C and alpha-hederin are very weak inhibitors. The same behaviour is observed for serine protease porcine pancreatic elastase: the glycosides are devoid of inhibitory action, while genins are potent competitive inhibitors (oleanolic acid IC50 = 5.1 microM; hederagenin IC50 = 40.6 microM). Constituents from Aesculus hippocastanum L. show inhibitory effects only on hyaluronidase, and this activity is mainly linked to the saponin escin (IC50 = 149.9 microM), less to its genin escinol (IC50 = 1.65 mM). By contrast, ruscogenins from Ruscus aculeatus L., ineffective on hyaluronidase activity, exhibit remarkable anti-elastase activity (IC50 = 119.9 microM; competitive inhibition). The mechanism of elastase inhibition by triterpene and steroid aglycones, with a nitroanilide derivative as substrate, is discussed.

  3. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuling; Wu, Jianming; Yu, Chonglin; Tang, Yong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Haixia; Jin, Bingjin; Mei, Qibing; Cao, Shousong; Qin, Dalian

    2017-02-04

    Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS) on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by injecting Aβ25-35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  4. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuling; Wu, Jianming; Yu, Chonglin; Tang, Yong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Haixia; Jin, Bingjin; Mei, Qibing; Cao, Shousong; Qin, Dalian

    2017-01-01

    Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS) on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment. PMID:28165366

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, and quantitative estimation of flavonoids, saponins and phenols in crude extract and dry fractions of Medicago lupulina aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Monika Anna

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the flavonoid, saponin (TSC) and phenolic (TPC) contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of the crude (CME) and dry extracts and fractions of Medicago lupulina L. aerial parts. A validated RP-HPLC method led to quantitation of flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) in the hydrolyzed extract. TSC and TPC were assayed spectrophotometrically at 560 and 760 nm, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the CME and the dry fractions were followed in vitro by DPPH free radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The flavonoid content of CME was 1.27 mg/g dw. The prevailing flavonoids were luteolin and myricetin, at concentrations of 0.37 and 0.36 mg/g dw, respectively. TSC and TPC were detected in CME at the level of 90.4 mg ESE/g dw, and 12.9 mg GAE/g dw, respectively. In the DPPH and FRAP tests, the CME exhibited antioxidant capacity with TEAA and FRAP values of 45.4 μmol Trolox®/g dw and 0.2 mmol Fe2+/g dw, respectively. The diethyl ether dry fraction was the most valuable one, showing the highest antioxidant activity (TEAA = 726.1 μmol Trolox®/g dw, FRAP = 2349.4 μmol Fe2+/g dw) that was in accordance with its high TPC (162.4 mg/g dw).

  6. Dose-response characteristics of Clematis triterpenoid saponins and clematichinenoside AR in rheumatoid arthritis rats by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based serum and urine metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Guo, Lin-Xiu; Li, Yi; Chang, Wen-Qi; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2017-03-20

    Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for treating arthritic disease. Clematis triterpenoid saponins (TS) and clematichinenoside AR (C-AR) have been considered to be responsible for its antiarthritic effects. However, the underling mechanism is still unclear because of their low bioavailability. To address of this issue, metabolomics tools were performed to determine metabolic variations associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and responses to Clematis TS, C-AR and positive drug (Triptolide, TP) treatments. This metabolomics investigation of RA was conducted in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical tools were used to identify the alteration of serum and urine metabolites associated with RA and responses to drug treatment. As a result, 45 potential metabolites associated with RA were identified. After treatment, a total of 24 biomarkers were regulated to normal like levels. Among these, PC(18:0/20:4), 9,11-octadecadienoic acid, arachidonic acid, 1-methyladenosine, valine, hippuric acid and pantothenic acid etc, were reversed in Clematis TS and C-AR groups. Tetrahydrocortisol was regulated to normal levels in Clematis TS and TP groups, while 3,7,12-trihydroxycholan-24-oic acid was regulated in C-AR and TP groups. Biomarkers like citric acid, p-cresol glucuronide, creatinine, cortolone were reversed in TP group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  8. Panax quinquefolium saponin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and the associated inflammatory response in chondrocytes and attenuates the progression of osteoarthritis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun-Jun; Chen, Jian; Guo, Shi-Kun; Gu, Yun-Tao; Yan, Ying-Zhao; Guo, Wei-Jun; Yao, Cheng-Lun; Jin, Meng-Yun; Xie, Cheng-Long; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Long

    2018-01-01

    Treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) seek to restore chondrocyte function and inhibit cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of Radix panacis quinquefolii (American ginseng), and has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, any potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of OA remains unclear. This work aimed to explore the role of PQS in chondrocytes and to clarify its potential mechanisms. We showed that PQS treatment could protect chondrocytes against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and associated apoptosis induced by interleukin (IL)-1β. Also, PQS further attenuated triglyceride (TG)-induced ER stress and associated apoptosis. Moreover, PQS may inhibit the ER stress-activated NF-κB pathway and associated inflammatory response in chondrocytes. Finally, PQS abolished rat cartilage degeneration in an in-vivo OA model of the knee joint. Our results indicate that PQS may be a potential novel treatment for OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved immune response to an attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine by ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) in combination with thimerosal (TS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jingxuan; Bi, Shicheng; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Cenrong; Lu, Yisong; Zhai, Lijuan; Hu, Songhua

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination using attenuated vaccines remains an important method to control animal infectious diseases. The present study evaluated ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) and thimerosal (TS) for their adjuvant effect on an attenuated pseudorabies virus (aPrV) vaccine in mice. Compared to the group immunized with aPrV alone, the co-inoculation of GSLS and/or TS induced a higher antibody response. Particularly, when administered together with GSLS-TS, the aPrV vaccine provoked a higher serum gB-specific antibody, IgG1 and IgG2a levels, lymphocyte proliferative responses, as well as production of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-5 and IL-10) from lymphocytes, and more importantly provided an enhanced cytotoxicity of NK cells and protection against virulent field pseudorabies virus challenge. Additionally, the increased expression of miR-132, miR-146a, miR-147 and miR-155 was found in murine macrophages cultured with GSLS and/or TS. These data suggest that GSLS-TS as adjuvant improve the efficacy of aPrV vaccine in mouse model and have potential for the development of attenuated viral vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  11. Effects and mode of action of chitosan and ivy fruit saponins on the microbiome, fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen simulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Pinloche, Eric; Preskett, David; Newbold, C Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of supplementing a control diet (CON) with chitosan (CHI) or ivy fruit saponins (IVY) as natural feed additives. Both additives had similar abilities to decrease rumen methanogenesis (-42% and -40%, respectively) using different mechanisms: due to its antimicrobial and nutritional properties CHI promoted a shift in the fermentation pattern towards propionate production which explained about two thirds of the decrease in methanogenesis. This shift was achieved by a simplification of the structure in the bacterial community and a substitution of fibrolytic (Firmicutes and Fibrobacteres) by amylolytic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) which led to greater amylase activity, lactate and microbial protein yield with no detrimental effect on feed digestibility. Contrarily, IVY had negligible nutritional properties promoting minor changes in the fermentation pattern and on the bacterial community. Instead, IVY modified the structure of the methanogen community and decreased its diversity. This specific antimicrobial effect of IVY against methanogens was considered its main antimethanogenic mechanism. IVY had however a negative impact on microbial protein synthesis. Therefore, CHI and IVY should be further investigated in vivo to determine the optimum doses which maintain low methanogenesis but prevent negative effects on the rumen fermentation and animal metabolism. © FEMS 2015.

  12. Effects of tea saponin on growth and development, nutritional indicators, and hormone titers in diamondback moths feeding on different host plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongjiao; Bai, Yan; Wei, Hui; Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Tian, Houjun; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2016-07-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) is an important worldwide pest. This insect has been studied for several decades; however, its control remains problematic. Numerous chemical insecticides have become ineffective and chemical residues constitute an important problem. In the present study, we determined the mortality of 3rd instar DBM larvae feeding on three different host plant species and exposed to various concentrations of tea saponin (TS). In addition, we evaluated growth and development parameters, nutritional indicators, and juvenile hormone (JH) and molting hormone (MH) titers in 2nd instar larvae exposed to LC20 and LC50 doses of TS. We found that treatment of DBM larvae with LC20 and LC50 doses of TS led to lower growth rates, decreased feed consumption, reduced frass production, lower pupal weights, reduced percentage pupation, slower adult emergence percentages, and diminished fecundity, but prolonged durations of the larval and pupal periods. The efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food increased, but the approximate digestibility did not differ significantly between treatments and controls. JH and MH titers were higher after TS treatment; these increases varied according to the host species and TS concentration. Our results indicate that TS represents a potential new alternative insecticide based on its natural origin, low cost, and minimum environmental impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of panax quinquefolius saponin on angiogenesis and expressions of VEGF and bFGF in myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-long; Shi, Da-zhuo; Yin, Hui-jun

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of Panax quinquefolius Saponin (PQS), an extraction from stem and leaf of American ginseng, on vascular regeneration in infarcted area, and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fifty male Wistar rats were established into AMI model successfully and randomly divided into 5 groups equally, i.e. the model group, the high, middle and low dose PQS groups and the metoprolol group. They were treated with saline, different doses of PQS (54 mg/kg x d, 27 mg/kg x d, 13.5 mg/kg x d)and metoprolol (4.5 mg/kg x d) respectively, by gavage once a day for 14 days. Besides, a sham operated group and a normal control group were set up for control with 10 rats in each group. All rats were killed on the 15th day. Six samples of heart were chosen from each group for examining expressions of VEGF, bFGF and the VIII coagulation factor under light microscopy by immunohistochemical staining, and the quantitative analysis on positive responsive intensity of VEGF and bFGF was conducted on the other 4 heart samples using the image analysing system, then mean micro-vessel density (MMVD) was calculated. The expressions of VEGF and MMVD were higher in the high and the middle dose PQS groups than those in the model group (P < 0.05) and the expression of bFGF was higher in the three PQS groups than that in the model group (P < 0.05). PQS can protect myocardium from ischemic injury in rats after AMI by way of promoting angiogenesis in the infarcted or ischemic area of myocardium and up-regulating expressions of VEGF and bFGF in myocardial cells.

  14. Protective effect of panax notoginseng saponins on acute ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing ethanol-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ren-Bo; Tian, Ke; Cao, Yi-Wei; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wang, Meng; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2015-03-11

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against acute ethanol-induced liver injury and further to elucidate its probable mechanisms. Mice were treated with PNS (100 or 300 mg/kg) once daily for seven consecutive days priors to ethanol gavage (4.7 g/kg) every 12 h for a total of three doses. Acute alcohol gavage dramatically significantly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (23.4 ± 5.0 IU/L vs 11.7 ± 4.1 IU/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (52.6 ± 14.9 IU/L vs 31.1 ± 12.9 IU/L), and hepatic triglyceride level (4.04 ± 0.64 mg/g vs 1.92 ± 0.34 mg/g), these elevations were significantly diminished by pretreatment with PNS at dose of 100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg. Alcohol exposure markedly induced the lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), up-regulated protein expression of the phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL, p glutathione (GSH) level, enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver, and abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction. These data demonstrated that pretreatment with PNS protected against acute ethanol-induced liver injury, possibly through ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress. Our findings also suggested that PNS may be potential to be developed as an effective agent for acute ethanol-induced liver injury.

  15. Chemometric Analysis Of Inter- And Intra-Molecular Diversification Factors By A Machine Learning Simplex Approach. A Review And Research On Astragalus Saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Messai, Habib; Hammami-Semmar, Asma Hammami-Semmar; Semmar, Nabil

    2017-07-19

    Metabolisms represent highly organized systems characterized by strong regulations satisfying the mass conservation principle. This makes a whole chemical resource to be competitively shared between several ways at both intra-and inter-molecular scales. Whole resource sharing can be statistically associated with a constant sum-unit constraint which represents the basis of simplex mixture rule. In this work, a new simplex-based simulation approach was developed to learn scaffold information on metabolic processes controlling molecular diversity from a wide set of observed chemical structures. Starting from a dataset of chemical structures classified into p clusters, a machine learning process was applied by linearly combining the p clusters j and randomly sampling a constant number (n) of molecules according to different clusters’ weights (wj/w) given by Scheffé’s mixture matrix. At the output of mixture design, molecular linear combinations lead to calculate barycentric molecules integrating the characteristics of the different weighted clusters. The N mixtures-design was iterated by bootstrap technique leading to extensive exploration of chemical variability between and within clusters. Finally, the K response matrices issued from K iterated mixture designs were averaged to calculate a smoothed matrix containing scaffold information on regulation processes responsible for molecular diversification at inter- and intra-molecular (atomic) scales. This matrix was used as a backbone for graphical analysis of positive and negative trends between atomic characteristics (chemical substitutions) at both mentioned scales. This new simplex approach was illustrated by cycloartane-based saponins of Astragalus genus by combining three desmosylation clusters characterized by relative glycosylation levels of different aglycones’ carbons. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Panax notoginseng saponin therapy for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: meta-analysis and mini review of potential mechanisms of action

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    Dongying eXu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial/intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a leading cause of death and disability in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI and stroke. No proven drug is available for ICH. Panax notoginseng (total saponin extraction, PNS is one of the most valuable herb medicines for stroke and cerebralvascular disorders in China. We searched for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs involving PNS injection to treat cerebral hemorrhage for meta-analysis from various databases including the Chinese Stroke Trials Register, the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Chinese BioMedical disc, and China Doctorate/Master Dissertations Databases. The quality of the eligible trials was assessed by Jadad’s scale. Twenty (20 of the 24 identified randomized controlled trials matched the inclusive criteria including 984 ICH patients with PNS injection and 907 ICH patients with current treatment (CT. Compared to the CT groups, PNS-treated patients showed better outcomes in the effectiveness rate (ER, neurological deficit score (NDS, intracranial hematoma volume (IHV, intracerebral edema volume (IEV, Barthel Index (BI, the number of patients died (NDP and incidence of adverse events. Conclusion: PNS injection is superior to CT for acute ICH. A review of the literature shows that PNS may exert multiple protective mechanisms against ICH-induced brain damage including hemostasis, anti-coagulation, anti-thromboembolism, cerebral vasodilation, invigorated blood dynamics, anti-inflammation, antioxidation and anti-hyperglycemic effects. As PNS has a long clinical track record in Asia, it could potentially become a therapy option to treat ICH in the US and Europe. Further clinical trials with better experimental design could determine the long-term effects of PNS treatment for TBI and stroke.

  17. Cell Recruitment and Cytokines in Skin Mice Sensitized with the Vaccine Adjuvants: Saponin, Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant, and Monophosphoryl Lipid A

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    Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Siqueira, Fernando Augusto Mathias; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Moura, Sandra Aparecida de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Melo, Maria Norma; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are substances associated with antigens that are fundamental to the formation of an intense, durable, and fast immune response. In this context, the use of vaccine adjuvants to generate an effective cellular immune response is crucial for the design and development of vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate innate inflammatory response induced by the vaccine adjuvants saponin (SAP), incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). After a single dose of adjuvant was injected into the skin of mice, we analyzed inflammatory reaction, selective cell migration, and cytokine production at the injection site, and inflammatory cell influx in the peripheral blood. We found that all vaccine adjuvants were able to promote cell recruitment to the site without tissue damage. In addition, they induced selective migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The influx of neutrophils was notable at 12 h in all groups, but at other time points it was most evident after inoculation with SAP. With regard to cytokines, the SAP led to production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-4. IFA promoted production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-10. We also observed that MPL induced high production of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, in addition to IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10. In peripheral blood, values of certain cell populations in the local response changed after stimulation. Our data demonstrate that the three vaccine adjuvants stimulate the early events of innate immune response at the injection site, suggesting their ability to increase the immunogenicity of co-administered antigens. Moreover, this work provides relevant information about elements of innate and acquired immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants administered alone. PMID:22829882

  18. Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

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    Gu, Min; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Hansen, Anne Kristine; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-02-01

    Altered lipid metabolism has been shown in fish fed plant protein sources. The present study aimed to gain further insights into how intestinal and hepatic lipid absorption and metabolism are modulated by plant meal (PM) and soya-saponin (SA) inclusion in salmon feed. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 10 weeks one of four diets based on fishmeal or PM, with or without 10 g/kg SA. PM inclusion resulted in decreased growth performance, excessive lipid droplet accumulation in the pyloric caeca and liver, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression profiling revealed an up-regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein (LP) synthesis (apo, fatty acid transporters, microsomal TAG transfer protein, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, choline kinase and choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A), cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and associated transcription factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and PPARγ). SA inclusion resulted in reduced body pools of cholesterol and bile salts. The hepatic gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis (cytochrome P450 7A1 (cyp7a1)) as well as the transcription factor liver X receptor and the bile acid transporter abcb11 (ATP-binding cassette B11) was down-regulated by SA inclusion. A significant interaction was observed between PM inclusion and SA inclusion for plasma cholesterol levels. In conclusion, gene expression profiling suggested that the capacity for LP assembly and cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated by PM exposure, probably as a compensatory mechanism for excessive lipid droplet accumulation and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. SA inclusion had hypocholesterolaemic effects on Atlantic salmon, accompanied by decreased bile salt metabolism.

  19. Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), suppress H-ras mutations and aneuploidy in a murine skin carcinogenesis model

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    Hanausek, Malgorzata; Ganesh, Pattabhiraman; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Arntzen, Charles J.; Slaga, Thomas J.; Gutterman, Jordan U.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the ability of avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins obtained from Acacia victoriae (Bentham) (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), to inhibit chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Varying doses of avicins were applied to shaved dorsal skin of SENCAR mice 15 min before application of 100 nmol of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) twice a week for 4 weeks (complete carcinogenesis model). The dorsal skin of a second group of mice was treated with one dose of 10 nmol of DMBA. Avicins were then applied 15 min before repetitive doses of 2 μg of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) twice a week for 8 weeks (initiation/promotion model). At 12 weeks, avicins produced a 70% decrease in the number of mice with papillomas and a greater than 90% reduction in the number of papillomas per mouse in both protocols. We also observed a 62% and 74% reduction by avicins in H-ras mutations at codon 61 in the DMBA and DMBA/TPA models, respectively, as well as a significant inhibition of the modified DNA base formation (8-OH-dG) in both protocols. Marked suppression of aneuploidy occurred with treatment at 16 weeks in the initiation/promotion experiment. These findings, when combined with the proapoptotic property of these compounds and their ability to inhibit hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction reported elsewhere, suggest that avicins could prove exciting in reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress and thereby suppressing the development of human skin cancer and other epithelial malignancies. PMID:11572997

  20. Protopanaxadiol and Protopanaxatriol-Type Saponins Ameliorate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in High-Fat Diet/Streptozocin-Induced Mice

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    Jianjun Deng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is a major active component of ginseng, which exhibits various pharmacological properties such as hepatoprotection, tumor suppression and diabetes resistance. In this study, the anti-diabetic effects of protopanaxadiol (PPD and protopanaxatriol (PPT-type saponins were explored and compared in high-fat diet/streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM mice. Our results showed that low or high dose (50 mg/kg bodyweight or 150 mg/kg bodyweight PPD and PPT significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in T2DM mice. PPD and PPT also regulated serum lipid-related markers such as reduced total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in T2DM mice. In addition, PPD and PPT dramatically ameliorated the inflammatory responses by suppressing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in serum level and gene expression in liver level, and improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the superoxide dismutase and decreasing malondialdehyde levels in the serum of T2DM mice. Moreover, the anti-diabetic effect of PPD and PPT appeared to be partially mediated by the suppression of hepatic metabolism genes expression such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, as well as facilitating lipid metabolism genes expression such as microsomal TG transfer protein in the liver tissues of T2DM mice. Taken together, our results indicated that PPD and PPT might potentially act as natural anti-diabetic compounds to be used for preventing and treating the T2DM and its complications in the future.

  1. Saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture by inhibiting inflammation and upregulating protein C pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing-hua; Xu, Xian-xiang; Pan, Rong; Li, Ying; Luo, Yu-bin; Xia, Yu-feng; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Dai, Yue

    2009-10-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Uncontrolled systemic inflammation and an impaired protein C pathway are two important contributors to sepsis pathophysiology. Based on the beneficial effects of the saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots (SAM) against inflammation, liver dysfunction, and endothelium injury, we investigated the potential protective roles and underlying mechanisms of SAM on polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. SAM, orally administered 1 h before and after CLP, significantly elevated the survival rate of mice. At 96 h after CLP operation, all mice in the model group died, whereas 33.3% of mice in the SAM (400 mg/kg)-treated group survived. SAM attenuated both inflammatory factors and their abilities to induce tissue dysfunction, which was mainly evidenced by decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tissue edema, and lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, lowered levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum, as well as downregulated expressions of iNOS and IL-1beta mRNA in livers. Furthermore, we addressed the effects of SAM on the protein C (PC) pathway, closely linked with sepsis. In CLP-induced septic mice, SAM elevated the impaired expression of PC mRNA in livers. In vitro, SAM reversed the decreased expressions of thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial PC receptor (EPCR) mRNA induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in endothelial cells. These findings suggest that SAM is able to restore the impaired protein C pathway. Taken together, the current study demonstrates that SAM has protective effects on polymicrobial sepsis in mice. The mechanisms of action involve anti-inflammation and upregulation of the PC pathway.

  2. Influence of high blood glucose fluctuation on endothelial function of type 2 diabetes mellitus rats and effects of Panax Quinquefolius Saponin of stem and leaf.

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    Wang, Jing-Shang; Yin, Hui-Jun; Guo, Chun-Yu; Huang, Ye; Xia, Cheng-Dong; Liu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    To observe the influence of high blood glucose fluctuation on the endothelial function of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and the effects of Panax Quinquefolius Saponin (PQS) of stem and leaf. The T2DM model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a small dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg) plus high fat and high caloric laboratory chow. Then, diabetic rats were divided into steady high blood glucose (SHG) group and fluctuant high blood glucose (FHG) group according to fasting blood glucose coefficient of variation (FBG-CV), and then, the FHG group rats were divided into 4 groups according to the level of FBG-CV and fasting blood glucose: PQS 30 mg/(kg·d) group, PQS 60 mg/(kg·d) group, metformin hydrochloride control (MHC) group, and FHG control group, 10 in each group. Meanwhile, 10 rats without any treatment were used as normal control (NOR) group. Eight weeks later, the aortic arteries histology, plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) were measured. In comparison with the NOR group, the level of plasma HGF and serum NO, ET-1 and TNF-α, and sICAM-1 in SHG and FHG control groups were all significantly increased (Ptreatment. Blood glucose fluctuation could facilitate the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction in T2DM rats, while PQS could improve the endothelial function of T2DM rats with high blood glucose fluctuation, which may be related to its effects of relieving vessel stress, decreasing vasoconstrictor ET-1 production, preventing compensated increase of NO, and reducing inflammatory reaction.

  3. Kudinoside-D, a triterpenoid saponin derived from Ilex kudingcha suppresses adipogenesis through modulation of the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yanyun; Wang, Qiuhong; Xiao, Ruyue; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhang, Yaqiong; Gu, Wen; Rao, Gaoxiong; Wang, Changfu; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-03-01

    The leaves of Ilex Kudingcha, locally named "Kudingcha" in China, has been traditionally applied for treating obesity. Studies have demonstrated that the ethanol extract of Ilex kudingcha have anti-adipogenic effects. However, the constituent which was responsible for its anti-obesity and its underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. This research explored the anti-obesity effect of kudinoside-D which was a main natural component of triterpenoid saponin from the ethanol extract of Ilex kudingcha, on lipid accumulation and the potential mechanism of action of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of kudinoside D (0 to 40μM) during differentiation. The image-based Oil Red O staining analyses revealed that KD-D, dose dependently reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the IC 50 is 59.49μM. Meanwhile, major adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) were significantly repressed as well as their target genes. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target phosphorylated-acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) expression were also increased. In addition, the inhibitory effects of KD-D on the expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα were weakened when cells were cotreated with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. These results indicated KD-D exerts anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of adipogenic transcription factors via AMPK signaling pathway. And the current findings demonstrated that KD-D was a potential therapeutic candidate for alleviating obesity and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

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    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  5. The saponin D39 blocks dissociation of non-muscular myosin heavy chain IIA from TNF receptor 2, suppressing tissue factor expression and venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke-Feng; Zheng, Jin-Rong; Tang, You-Mei; Li, Fang; Lv, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Zhen; Qi, Jin; Yu, Bo-Yang; Kou, Jun-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Non-muscular myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC IIA) plays a key role in tissue factor expression and venous thrombosis. Natural products might inhibit thrombosis through effects on NMMHC IIA. Here, we have shown that a natural saponin, D39, from Liriope muscari exerted anti-thrombotic activity in vivo, by targeting NMMHC IIA. Expression and activity of tissue factor in endothelial cells were analysed in vitro by Western blot and simplified chromogenic assays. Interactions between D39 and NMMHC IIA were assessed by serial affinity chromatography and molecular docking analysis. D39-dependent interactions between NMMHC IIA and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) were measured by immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays. Anti-thrombotic activity of D39 in vivo was evaluated with a model of inferior vena cava ligation injury in mice. D39 inhibited tissue factor expression and procoagulant activities in HUVECs and decreased thrombus weight in inferior vena cava-ligated mice dose-dependently. Serial affinity chromatography and molecular docking analysis suggested that D39 bound to NMMHC IIA. In HEK293T cells, D39 inhibited tissue factor expression evoked by NMMHC IIA overexpression. This effect was blocked by NMMHC IIA knockdown in HUVECs. D39 inhibited dissociation of NMMHC IIA from TNFR2, which subsequently modulated the Akt/GSK3β-NF-κB signalling pathways. D39 inhibited tissue factor expression and thrombus formation by modulating the Akt/GSK3β and NF-κB signalling pathways through NMMHC IIA. We identified a new natural product that targeted NMMHC IIA, as a potential treatment for thrombotic disorders and other vasculopathies. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Effect of panax notoginseng saponins injection on the p38MAPK pathway in lung tissue in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Zhao, Shan; Zheng, Meng-xiao; Chen, Hai-e; Wu, Cheng-yun; Wang, Wan-tie

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) injection on pulmonary artery pressure and the expression of p38MAPK in lung tissue of rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (ten in each group): rats in control group were exposed to normoxic condition and the rats in hypoxia group and PNS group were subjected to 4-week hypoxia, and PNS injection (50 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) was administrated intraperitoneally at 30 min in the PNS group daily before the rats were kept in the hypoxic chamber, while rats in the other two groups received equal dose of normal saline instead. After chronic hypoxia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and mean carotid artery pressure (mCAP) were measured. The heart and lung tissues were harvested, and right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle plus ventricular septum (LV+S) were weighed to calculate the ratio of RV/(LV+S). The expression of p38MAPK mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the quantity of phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) in rat lung tissues and pulmonary arterioles was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, mPAP and the ratio of RV/(LV+S) in the hypoxia group were increased, the expression of p-p38MAPK in pulmonary arterioles and p38MAPK mRNA in the lung were higher (Ppulmonary hypertension at least partly by regulating p38MAPK pathway.

  7. 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3, a Novel Triterpenoid Saponin from the Seeds of Tea Plants, Inhibits Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in a NF-κB-Dependent Manner

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    Woo Seok Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3 (ATS-E3 is a triterpenoid saponin recently isolated from the seeds of the tea tree Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. ATS-E3 has several beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and anticancer effects. Unlike other phenolic compounds isolated from tea plants, there are no studies reporting the pharmacological action of ATS-E3. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore the cellular and molecular inhibitory activities of ATS-E3 in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. ATS-E3 remarkably diminished cellular responses of macrophages such as FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake, sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- induced radical generation, and LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production. Analysis of its molecular activity showed that this compound significantly suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB subunits (p50 and p65, phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK, and the enzyme activity of AKT1. Taken together, the novel triterpenoid saponin compound ATS-E3 contributes to the beneficial effects of tea plants by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities in an AKT/IKK/NF-κB-dependent manner.

  8. Study of Absorption Characteristics of the Total Saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis in an In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP Rat Model by Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC

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    Guojun Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the extensively reported therapeutic activities, far less attention has been paid to the intestinal absorption of the total saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis (in Chinese Mao-Dong-Qing, MDQ. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of ilexgenin A (C1, ilexsaponin A1 (C2, ilexsaponin B1 (C3, ilexsaponin B2 (C4, ilexsaponin B3 (DC1, and ilexoside O (DC2 when administrated with the total saponins from MDQ (MDQ-TS. An UPLC method for simultaneous determination of C1, C2, C3, C4, DC1, and DC2 in intestinal outflow perfusate was developed and validated. The absorption characteristics of MDQ-TS were investigated by evaluating the effects of intestinal segments, drug concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor (verapomil, endocytosis inhibitor (amantadine and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, tight junction modulator on the intestinal transportation of MDQ-TS by using a single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP rat model, and the influence of co-existing components on the intestinal transport of the six saponins was discussed. The results showed that effective apparent permeability (Papp of C1, C2, C3, C4, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form had no segment-dependent changes at low and middle dosage levels. C1, C2, C3, D4, DC1, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form all exhibited excellent transmembrane permeability with Papp > 0.12 × 10−2 cm·min−1. Meanwhile, Papp and effective absorption rate constant (Ka values for the most saponins showed concentration dependence and saturation characteristics. After combining with P-gp inhibitor of verapamil, Papp of C2, C3, and DC1 in MDQ-TS group was significantly increased up to about 2.3-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.4-fold, respectively in comparison to that of non-verapamil added group. Verapamil was found to improve the absorption of C2, C3, and DC1, indicating the involvement of an active transport mechanism in the absorption process. Compared with the

  9. Oleanolic acid from antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathilake, K S; Karunanayake, E H; Samarakoon, S R; Tennekoon, K H; de Silva, E D; Adhikari, A

    2017-06-01

    Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Two antifilarial triterpene saponins were isolated from winged seed extracts by bioactivity guided chromatographic separation and identified using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1) (IC50 = 20.54 μM for adult worms, 19.71 μM for microfilariae ) and oleanolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2) (IC50 = 29.02 μM for adult worms, 25.99 μM for microfilariae). Acid hydrolysis of both compounds yielded oleanolic acid (3) which was non or least toxic to human peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (Selectivity index = >10) while retaining similar macrofilaricidal (IC50 = 38.4 μM) and microfilaricidal (IC50 = 35.6 μM) activities. In adult female worms treated with 50 and 100 μM doses of oleanolic acid, condensation of nuclear DNA, apoptotic body formation and tissue damage was observed by using Hoechst 33342 staining, TUNEL assay and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining respectively. A dose dependent increase in caspase 3/CED3 activity and decrease in total protein content were also observed in these parasites. A dose dependant DNA fragmentation was observed in adult parasites and microfilariae. Decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevated levels of glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also observed in parasites treated with oleanolic acid indicating an oxidative stress mediated apoptotic event. Compound 3/oleanolic acid was thus identified as a

  10. A comparative study on inhibition of total astragalus saponins and astragaloside IV on TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in arterial endothelial cells.

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    Qin-she Liu

    Full Text Available Both total astragalus saponins (AST and it's main component astragaloside IV (ASIV have been used in China as cardiovascular protective medicines. However, the anti-inflammatory activities that are beneficial for cardiovascular health have never been compared directly and the molecular mechanisms remain unresolved. This study was conducted to compare the inhibitory effects of these drugs on TNFα-induced cell responses, related signaling pathways, and the underlying mechanisms in mouse arterial endothelial cells.Real-time qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of cell adhesion molecule (CAM genes. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-κB-p65. Western Blot analysis was used to identify TNFα-induced NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and caspase-3 cleavage. Cell surface proteins were isolated and TNFα receptor-1(TNFR1 expression was determined. The results suggest that both AST and ASIV attenuate TNFα-induced up-regulation of CAMs mRNA and upstream nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65. However, TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation, cleavage of caspase-3 and apoptosis were inhibited only by AST. These differences in the actions of AST and ASIV could be explained by the presence of other components in AST, such as ASII and ASIII, which also had an inhibitory effect on TNFR1-induced IκBα degradation. Moreover, AST, but not ASIV, was able to reduce TNFR1 protein level on the cell surface. Furthermore, mechanistic investigation demonstrated that TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation was reversed by the use of TAPI-0, an inhibitor of TNFα converting enzyme (TACE, suggesting the involvement of TACE in the modulation of surface TNFR1 level by AST.ASIV was not a better inhibitor than AST, at least on the inhibition of TNFα-induced inflammatory responses and TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in AECs. The inhibitory effect of AST was caused by the

  11. Steroidal saponin concentrations in Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha at different developmental stages Concentrações de saponina esteroidal em diferentes fases do desenvolvimento de Brachiaria decumbens e B. brizantha

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    Karine Bonucielli Brum

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species contain steroidal saponins and are involved in outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization. This research presents the levels of a steroidal saponin, protodioscin, in the seeds and aerial parts of B. brizantha and B. decumbens during different developmental stages (growth, bloom, fructification and seed fall. The butanolic fraction of the ethanolic extract of each stage was submitted to thin layer chromatography (TLC and spectrophotometric analysis through the Ehrlich reagent in 515nm. The chromatograms in TLC of the butanolic fraction of B. brizantha and B. decumbens showed similar spots as the protodioscin standard. The estimated level of protodioscin isomers in B. brizantha and B. decumbens ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%, having the highest level at the end of their developmental stages during seed falling comparison with the previous one. Protodioscin was not detected in the seeds. Outbreaks of Brachiaria spp. poisoning in central Western Brazil are frequently observed in pastures that had been more than 30 days without animals grazing, and also during the growing or blooming stage of the pastures. Other saponin determinations in toxic and non toxic pastures are necessary to determine the saponin concentrations that cause intoxication.As Brachiaria spp contêm saponinas esteroidais envolvidas no desenvolvimento de fotossensibilizacão hepatógena. No presente trabalho foram determinados os teores da saponina esteroidal protodioscina nas partes aéreas de B. brizantha e B. decumbens, durante as diferentes fases do desenvolvimento (crescimento, floração, frutificação e queda das sementes e nas sementes. A fração butanólica do extrato etanólico de cada fase foi submetida à cromatografia de camada delgada (CCD e à análise espectrofotométrica por meio do reagente de Ehrlich em 515nm. Os cromatogramas em CCD da fração butanólica de B. brizantha e B. decumbens, de cada fase do desenvolvimento, apresentaram manchas

  12. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  13. Saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng prevent obesity via regulating thermogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Li, Haijun; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Hongyan; Cai, Enbo; Gao, Yugang; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue

    2017-08-01

    In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mouse model was used to evaluate the dietary effect of saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLG), and to explore its mechanism of action in producing anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that SLG showed significant anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice, represented by decreased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, leptin and insulin, as well as a reduction in overall body and liver weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, and food efficiency, and inhibition of abnormal increases in acyl carnitine levels normally caused by an HFD. Additionally, the down-regulated expression of PPARγ, FAS, CD36, FATP2 and up-regulated expression of CPT-1, UCP-2, PPARα, HSL, and ATGL in liver tissue was induced by SLG. In addition, the SLG groups showed decreased PPARγ, aP2 and leptin mRNA levels and increased expression of PPARα, PGC-1α, UCP-1 and UCP-3 genes in adipose tissues, compared with the HFD group. In short, SLG may play a key role in producing anti-obesity effects in mice fed an HFD, and its mechanism may be related to regulation of thermogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain distribution pharmacokinetics and integrated pharmacokinetics of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd in rats after intranasal administration of Panax Notoginseng Saponins assessed by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingli; Li, Pengyue; Wang, Zhen; Cheng, Yanke; Wu, Huichao; Yang, Bing; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang

    2014-10-15

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) constitute the main active components of a traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi). To investigate brain distribution of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re, and Rd, and the integrated PNS in rats, their contents in cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and olfactory bulb were simultaneously measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal Digoxin standard. The method described here was highly efficient, with short run time, excellent specificity and sensitivity, and successfully applied for pharmacokinetics studies. NGR1, GRg1, GRb1, GRe and GRd from PNS have been detected in all six brain regions studied and quantified accurately. These findings provide more insight for further understanding of the main ways from the nasal cavity to brain as well as the migration of nasally applied drugs into the CNS parenchyma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilização de saponina em citometria de fluxo: uma alternativa factível para permeabilização celular Use of saponin in flow cytometry: a feasible alternative to cellular permeabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de antígenos intracelulares por citometria de fluxo é essencial para o estudo imunofenotípico das doenças onco-hematológicas. A utilização de saponina para permeabilização celular tem se mostrado eficaz e de menor custo. Com suas propriedades detergentes, permeabiliza a membrana citoplasmática sem danificá-la ou alterar a expressão dos antígenos de membrana, permitindo a detecção simultânea de antígenos intracelulares e de superfície. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a eficácia da técnica de permeabilização celular com a utilização de saponina como agente permeabilizante. Foram avaliadas 36 amostras de sangue periférico e de medula óssea enviadas ao Laboratório de Imunopatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo para estudo imunofenotípico. Realizamos a técnica de imunofluorescência direta e utilizamos o programa CellQuest (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA do citômetro de fluxo FACSCalibur (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA para aquisição e análise dos dados. Observamos excesso de perda celular quando utilizamos o tampão de lavagem estocado por período superior a sete dias, à temperatura de 2ºC a 8ºC, e perda mínima com tampão de lavagem recém-preparado ou congelado no momento do preparo e descongelado apenas no momento do uso. Para eliminar o excesso de perda celular realizamos análise sistemática das etapas da técnica, o que nos permitiu adequá-la e utilizá-la na rotina de nosso laboratório. Em país de recursos escassos padronizamos uma técnica viável para pesquisar antígenos intracelulares por citometria de fluxo, mais rápida, eficaz e com redução dos custos financeiros em 35%.Intracellular antigen investigations by means of flow cytometry are essential for immune phenotypical studies of oncohematological diseases. The use of Saponin for cellular permeabilization has proved to be cost-effective. Due to its detergent properties

  16. Applicability of an in-House Saponin-Based Extraction Method in Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Species in Positively Flagged Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yien Chien

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We used an in-house saponin-based extraction method to evaluate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS system for the identification of bacteria and fungi in 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles. Results obtained from MALDI-TOF/MS were compared with those obtained using conventional phenotypic identification methods. Of the 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles, 365 showed monomicrobal growth and were correctly identified to the species (72.1% or genus (89.6% level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The remaining 40 positively flagged blood culture bottles showed polymicrobial growth. Of them, 82.5% (n=33 of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level and 92.5% (n=37 to the genus level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The overall accuracy of identification to the genus level in flagged blood cultures was 89.5% for Gram-positive organisms, 93.5% for Gram-negative pathogens and 71.9% for fungi. Confidence scores were 1.500 for 307 (75.8% bottles, 1.700 for 249 (61.5% bottles and 2.000 for 142 (35.1% bottles. None of the yeast cultures yielded scores 1.700. Using an identification-score cutoff of 1.500, the MALDI Biotyper correctly identified 99.2% of Gram-positive bacteria, 97.6% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100% of yeast isolates to the genus level and 77.6% of Gram-positive bacteria, 87.1% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100.0% of yeast isolates to the species level. The overall rate of identification using our protocol was 89.9% (364/405 for genus level identification and 73.1% (296/405 for species level identification. Yeast isolates yielded the lowest confidence scores, which compromised the accuracy of identification. Further optimization of the protein extraction procedure in positive blood cultures is needed to improve the rate of identification.

  17. Protocatechuic acid and saponin mixture from Steganotaenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst (Apiaceae / Umbelliferae) is used in East and West African ethnomedicine for treating gastro-intestinal disorders, peptic ulcer, rheumatism and various diseases of microbial origin. The plant was therefore investigated for its chemical constituents while testing for possible antimicrobial, ...

  18. Crystal-associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens containing the saponin protodioscin Colangiopatia associada a cristais em ovinos alimentados com Brachiaria decumbens que contém a saponina protodioscina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine B. Brum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization is reported in a flock of 28 sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central-Western Brazil. Seven lambs and an adult sheep were affected and 6 of them died. Two surviving affected lambs and one lamb without clinical signs had increased serum values of gamma glutamyltransferase, bilirubin, and cholesterol. In two adult unaffected sheep those parameters were within normal values. An adult sheep submitted to necropsy presented moderate body condition, unilateral corneal opacity, drying of the muzzle, moderate jaundice, increased lobular pattern of the liver, and a distended gallbladder. Histological lesions were epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and hyperplasia of small bile ducts. Mild amounts of foamy macrophages were observed, mainly in the centroacinar zone. Diffuse swelling and vacuolation were observed in hepatocytes. Crystal negative images were found within bile ducts, foamy macrophages, and the lumen of some renal tubules. The heart showed multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis of the muscle fibers. Pasture samples (Brachiaria decumbens contained 2.36% of protodioscin. No Pithomyces chartarum spores were found in the pasture. Samples from a similar neighboring B. decumbens pasture grazed by cattle without photosensitization contained 1.63% of protodioscin isomers. Outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. are common in cattle in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna with about 51 million hectares of Brachiaria spp pastures. Sheep farming has been recently developed in this region, and the number of sheep is increasing significantly. Because sheep are more susceptible than cattle to lithogenic saponins, poisoning by Brachiaria should be an important limiting factor for the sheep industry.Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena é descrito em um rebanho de 28 ovinos mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, regi

  19. BOVINE CATTLE FED WITH BRACHIARIA AND ANDROPOGON GRASS: PERFORMANCE, EVALUATION OF THE AMOUNT OF SPORES OF THE PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM FUNGUS AND SAPONINE AMOUNTS BOVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM CAPIM BRACHIARIA E ANDROPOGON: DESEMPENHO, AVALIAÇÃO DA QUANTIDADE DE ESPOROS DO FUNGO PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM E TEOR DE SAPONINA DAS PASTAGENS

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    Mitsue Haragushi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Great percentage of brazilian beef cattle is reared forage based diets, often using high density systems. This contributes for appearance of diseases, amongst such as hepatogenous photosensitivity, whose the ethiology has been under constant debate. This work aims to evaluate the amount of spores of Pithomyces chartarum fungus, the saponine amount in the grasses and the performance of cattle fed Brachiaria or Andropogon grass. 50 Nellore bulls were divided into two groups of 25 animals and each group fed one of the two types of grasses (Brachiaria or Andropogon. They were weighed from weaning to slaughter. The animals fed with Andropogon grass showed better performance especially during the dry season. The carcass dressing revealed a significant difference (p<0.05, respectively, with an average (54.9% for the Andropogon-fed animals and (53.13% for the animals feeding Brachiaria. The Brachiaria grass revealed greater saponine concentrations (0.03% to 1.09% when compared to the Andropogon grass (0.02% to 0.17%. Both types of grass presented approximate average values of P. chartarum with counts varying between 0 to 50000 spores/g of pasture. It was concluded even both types of grasses had spores of P. chartarum and presented protodyosin saponins, the better animal performance  was observed in animals fed with Andropogon grass.

    KEY WORDS: Nelore, sporisdesmin, tropical grasses, weight gain.

    A maior parte do rebanho bovino brasileiro de corte é criado em pastagens, muitas vezes em elevadas taxas de lotação.  Isso contribui para o surgimento de doenças como a fotossensibilização hepatógena, cuja etiologia tem sido amplamente discutida. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a quantidade de esporos do fungo Pithomyces chartarum, o teor de saponinas das gramíneas e o desempenho de bovinos alimentados com capim Brachiaria e Andropogon. Para tanto, cinquenta bovinos da raça Nelore, distribuídos em dois grupos de 25

  20. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of extracts and saponins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    g [17.1 %], respectively). The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to silica gel column chromatography (5 × 80 .... [24] and by Varela et al [25]. After 24 h of infection of U937 cells, culture medium was replaced by fresh RPMI medium containing ...