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Sample records for saponin rich fraction

  1. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim; Abubakar Babando Aliyu; Kayode Meduteni; Isa Yunusa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods:A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results:The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions:It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  2. New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Beata; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants.

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Saponin Rich Fraction of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Pankaj S. Kothavade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (AA is used in folklore for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments and arthritis like conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich (SR fraction of AA has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess the antiarthritic effect of SR fraction of Achyranthes aspera in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Methods. Arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, paw volume, changes in tibiotarsal joint thickness, hyperalgesic parameters, and spleen and thymus index. Haematological, serum, biochemical, and inflammatory cytokine and in vivo antioxidant parameters were measured on the last day of the study. Results. SR fraction significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score and improved the pain threshold in motility and stair climbing tests. There was a reversal in the levels of altered parameters, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. SR fraction significantly decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, histopathology revealed a significant reduction in synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bone destruction in the joints. Conclusion. These observations explain the therapeutic benefit of SR fraction of AA in suppressing the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

  4. Phenolics-saponins rich fraction of defatted kenaf seed meal exhibits cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifah Saiful Yazan; Napsiah Abd Rahman; Kim Wei Chan; Wan Nor Hafiza Wan Abd Ghani; Yin Sim Tor; Jhi Biau Foo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the cytotoxicity of crude ethanolic extract, n-butanol fraction and aqueous fraction on selected cancer cell lines, and to observe the morphological changes of the cancer cells treated with n-butanol fraction.Methods: The cytotoxic effect of n-butanol fraction, crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction on breast cancer(MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), colon cancer(HT29), lung cancer(A549), cervical cancer(He La) and normal mouse fibroblast(3T3) cell lines was determined using MTT assay. The morphological changes of the treated cells were observed under an inverted light microscope.Results: n-Butanol fraction was the most cytotoxic towards HT29 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner compared to crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction(P < 0.05). The IC50 of n-butanol fraction for HT29 and MCF-7 was(780.00 ± 28.28)and(895.00 ± 7.07) mg/m L, respectively. Cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies were noted following treatment of HT29 cells with n-butanol fraction.Conclusions: In conclusion, n-butanol fraction was more cytotoxic than crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction towards the selected cancerous cell lines and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells.

  5. Phenolics-saponins rich fraction of defatted kenaf seed meal exhibits cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifah Saiful Yazan; Napsiah Abd Rahman; Kim Wei Chan; Wan Nor Hafiza Wan Abd Ghani; Yin Sim Tor; Jhi Biau Foo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the cytotoxicity of crude ethanolic extract, n-butanol fraction and aqueous fraction on selected cancer cell lines, and to observe the morphological changes of the cancer cells treated with n-butanol fraction. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of n-butanol fraction, crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction on breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), colon cancer (HT29), lung cancer (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa) and normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines was deter-mined using MTT assay. The morphological changes of the treated cells were observed under an inverted light microscope. Results: n-Butanol fraction was the most cytotoxic towards HT29 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner compared to crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction (P Conclusions: In conclusion, n-butanol fraction was more cytotoxic than crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction towards the selected cancerous cell lines and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells.

  6. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  7. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Sandip B Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o., saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o. were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats.

  8. Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Rich in Ginsenoside-Rb1, Rc and Rb2 Attenuates the Severity of Mouse Collagen-Induced Arthritis

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    Mehari Endale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A. We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3+/CD69+, CD4+/CD25+, CD8+ T-cell, CD19+, B220/CD23+ B-cell, MHCII+/CD11c+, and Gr-1+/CD11b+ cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice.

  9. Structure of a new saponin: chrysantellin A from Chrysanthellum procumbens Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchi, M; Bruneteau, M; Trouilloud, M; Combier, H; Sartre, J; Michel, G

    1979-12-01

    A new saponin has been isolated from a tropical plant Chrysantellum procumbens Rich. which is thought to be useful in the therapy of digestive troubles. The structure of this saponin was determined by chemical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The aglycone moiety is a triterpene, echinocystic acid; D-glucose, D-xylose and L-rhamnose are carbohydrate components. The structure of saponin was established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl [L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 3)-D-xylopyranosyl-)beta 1 leads to 4)-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 2)-D-xylopyranosyl]-(alpha 1 leads to 28)-echinocystyl. The name, chrysantellin A, is proposed for this new saponin.

  10. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  11. Fractionation, structural studies, and immunological characterization of the semi-synthetic Quillaja saponins derivative GPI-0100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J; Reynolds, Robert C; Pathak, Ashish K; Finley-Woodman, Kyra; May, Richard D

    2003-09-08

    Unfractionated GPI-0100 (UFGPI-0100) containing semi-synthetic derivatives of deacylated Quillaja saponins (DS saponins) modified at the glucuronic acid residue was resolved by reverse phase low-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) into two fractions, RP18-1 and RP18-2, with different compositions and adjuvanticity. The fraction RP18-1 contained DS saponin adducts of N-dicyclohexylurea, and stimulated Th2 immunity with production of IgG1, while the RP18-2 fraction contained the dodecylamide derivatives of DS saponins and stimulated Th1 immunity with production of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CTL. The strong immune stimulatory properties of RP18-2, relative to RP18-1, and the formation of RP18-1/RP18-2 mixed micelles may account for the effective stimulation of Th1 immunity by UFGPI-0100. UFGPI-0100 was free of acylated quillaja saponin components, including the more stable QS-7.

  12. Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Fractionation of Concentrated Agave (Agave salmiana) Sap to Obtain Saponins with Apoptotic Effect on Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Romo-López, Irasema; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-03-01

    Separation of potentially bioactive components from foods and plant extracts is one of the main challenges for their study. Centrifugal partition chromatography has been a successful technique for the screening and identification of molecules with bioactive potential, such as steroidal saponins. Agave is a source of steroidal saponins with anticancer potential, though the activity of these compounds in concentrated agave sap has not been yet explored. In this study, fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) was used coupled with in vitro tests on HT-29 cells as a screening procedure to identify apoptotic saponins from an acetonic extract of concentrated agave sap. The three most bioactive fractions obtained by FCPC at partition coefficients between 0.23 and 0.4 contained steroidal saponins, predominantly magueyoside b. Flow cytometry analysis determined that the fraction rich in kammogenin and manogenin glycosides induced apoptosis, but when gentrogenin and hecogenin glycosides were also found in the fraction, a necrotic effect was observed. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that steroidal saponins in concentrated agave sap were potential inductors of apoptosis and that it was possible to separate them using fast centrifugal partition chromatography.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies and its saponin and non-saponin fractions on rat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C F; Killeen, G F; Connolly, C D; Power, R F

    2001-07-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies, family Lillaceae, was fractionated with butan-1-ol to yield a butanol extractable fraction (BE; saponin fraction) and a non-butanol fraction (NBE; non-saponin fraction). Four groups of eight male rats were allowed ad libitum access to diets supplemented with water (control) or 200 mg x kg(-1) total Y. schidigera (TOT) or 200 mg x kg(-1) of each of the fractions (NBE or BE). The effects of dietary supplementation with the fractions and their interactions in TOT were analyzed according to the factorial experimental design by two-way analysis of variance. All three supplementation groups displayed significantly reduced serum urea levels (P < 0.05). The TOT and NBE fractions were found to significantly increase serum insulin levels (P < 0.01) in the absence of any fluctuations in serum glucose levels. Urea cycle enzyme activities, namely, arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) and argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in vivo, although no effect was observed in vitro. Both fractions displayed effects, indicating that the active constituents are present in both fractions.

  14. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, MA; Sudharshan, RD; Rasheed, SA; Pradeep, HA; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, AH; Riyaz, AK; Mansoor, M; Aleem, MA; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

    2012-01-01

    Aim This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Results Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Conclusion The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified. PMID:22888266

  15. A systematic approach for the chromatographic fractionation and purification of major steroid saponins in commercial extracts of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, F; Ferreira, F; Pedreschi, F

    2017-03-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (yucca) is one of the major industrial sources of steroid saponins used as animal and human food additives. This work describes a new, systematic and reproducible three-step method by medium and high-pressure liquid chromatography (under RP, NP and RP conditions), for the isolation and purification of three groups of saponins, which were further purified in six sub-fractions, and finally into twelve individual steroid saponins previously reported in Y. schidigera. In accordance to the increasing applications of yucca extracts, further analytical, biological and physicochemical studies are still required. The presented method is applicable to the preparation of steroids saponins previously reported in commercial extracts of Y. schidigera, both as highly purified mixtures of defined composition, including twelve pure components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

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    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  17. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Srinivasa Rao M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available M Srinivasa Rao,1 B Syed Asad,1 MA Fazil,1 RD Sudharshan,1 SA Rasheed,1 HA Pradeep,1 S Aboobacker,2 AH Thayyil,1 AK Riyaz,1 M Mansoor,1 MA Aleem,1 K Zeeyauddin,3 M Lakshmi Narasu,4 A Anjum,1,5 M Ibrahim1,51Nizam Institute of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 2Department of Pharmacology, Jamiya Salafiya College of Pharmacy, Kerala; 3Department of Pharmacology, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh; 4Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Andhra Pradesh; 5Asian Institute of Advanced Scientific and Pharmaceutical Research, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAim: This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.Methods: Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70% by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal sleeping time in rats.Results: Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate

  18. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  19. Effect of saponin fraction from Ficus religiosa on memory deficit, and behavioral and biochemical impairments in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Damanpreet; Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    In our previous study, the saponin-rich fraction (SRF) of adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) was shown to have an anticonvulsant effect in acute animal models of convulsions. The present study was envisaged to study the effect of SRF in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Treatment with the SRF (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p.) for 15 days in kindled mice significantly decreased seizure severity on days 5, 10 and 15 when challenged with PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.). Marked protection against kindling-associated depression was also observed on days 10 and 15 in the SRF-treated groups when tested using the tail-suspension test. However, the SRF treatment failed to protect kindling-associated learning and memory impairments in the passive shock avoidance paradigm. The observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in the levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions.

  20. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  1. The Richness of Children's Fraction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Laura B.; Empson, Susan B.; Nielsen, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a special type of multiplication-and-division-of-fractions problem that elementary school teachers can use to promote children's understanding of fractional quantities and their relationships. These problems are accessible to students working at different levels of fraction understanding, and they can be solved…

  2. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah,Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)...

  3. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of isolated crude saponins and various fractions of Rumex hastatus D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Zeb, Anwar; Ullah, Farman; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-03-12

    Cancer, being the foremost challenge of the modern era and the focus of world-class investigators, gargantuan research is in progress worldwide to explore novel therapeutic for its management. The exploitation of natural sources has been proven to be an excellent approach to treat or minify the excessive angiogenesis and proliferation of cells. Similarly, based the ethnomedicinal uses and literature survey, the current study is designed to explore the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of Rumex hastatus. Anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities were carried out using potato-disc model and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay respectively. Moreover, R. hastatus was also assessed for antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (tumor causing bacterial strain). The positive controls used in anti-tumor, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activities were vincristine sulphate, dexamethasone and cefotaxime respectively. The crude saponins (Rh.Sp), methanolic extract (Rh.Cr) and other solvent extracts like n-hexane (Rh.Hex), chloroform (Rh.Chf), ethylacetate (Rh.EtAc) and aqueous fraction (Rh.Aq) exhibited notable anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities. In potato tumor assay, the chloroform and saponin fractions were observed to be the most effective showing 86.7 and 93.3 % tumor inhibition at 1000 µg/ml with IC50 values 31.6 and 18.1 µg/ml respectively. Similarly, these two samples i.e., chloroform and saponins also excelled among the entire test samples in anti-angiogenic evaluation exhibiting 81.6 % (IC50 = 17.9 µg/ml) and 78.9 % (IC50 = 64.9 µg/ml) at 1000 µg/ml respectively. In contrast, the antibacterial investigations revealed a negligible potential against A. tumefaciens. Based on our results we can claim that R. hastatus possesses both anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials. In all of the solvent fractions, Rh.Chf and Rh.Sp were most effective against tumor and angiogenesis while having negligible activity against A

  4. Rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance of lambs fed diets containing plant extracts rich in tannins and saponins, and associated emissions of nitrogen and methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwiński, B J; Kreuzer, M; Wettstein, H R; Machmüller, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Tannins were added to experimental diets at levels of 1 and 2 g/kg DM (hydrolysable tannins; Castanea sativa wood extract) and saponins at 2 and 30 mg/kg DM (sarsaponin; Yucca schidigera extract). These levels were far below thresholds expected to be adverse in ruminants. Effects were measured in lambs by comparison with unsupplemented control diets calculated to be either deficient (10%) or adequate in protein. The diets consisted of hay, concentrate (1:1) and extra wheat starch with increasing body weight. Ruminal pH, VFA concentration, protozoa count and apparent digestibilities of organic matter and fibre did not differ among treatments. The low tannin dose significantly decreased bacteria count compared to the high saponin dose. Saponin supplementation and the high tannin dose showed some potential to reduce ruminal ammonia concentration. This was associated with weak trends towards lower urine N excretion (only tannins) and ammonia emission from manure. Methane release was increased by the low tannin dose compared to the unsupplemented control. Diet effects on heat production were not systematic. In conclusion, the extracts rich in tannins or saponins gave only slight indications for either increased body nitrogen retention or reduced nitrogen emission. However, effects might have been larger with more pronounced dietary protein deficit.

  5. Removal of Cu, Pb and Zn by foam fractionation and a soil washing process from contaminated industrial soils using soapberry-derived saponin: a comparative effectiveness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Huang, Yuh Ming; Hsu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Ching-I; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Li, Chun-Yi; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chang, Young-Fo; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of using the eco-friendly biodegradable surfactant saponin (a plant-based surfactant) from soapberry and surfactin from Bacillus subtilis (BBK006) for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated industrial soil (6511mgkg(-1) copper, 4955mgkg(-1) lead, and 15090mgkg(-1) zinc) by foam fractionation and a soil flushing process was evaluated under variation of fundamental factors (surfactant concentration, pH, temperature and time). The results of latter process showed that 1-2% Pb, 16-17% Cu and 21-24% Zn was removed by surfactin after 48h, whereas the removal of Pb, Cu and Zn was increased from 40% to 47%, 30% to 36% and 16% to 18% in presence of saponin with an increase from 24 to 72h at room temperature by the soil washing process at pH 4. In the foam fractionation process, the metal removal efficiencies were increased with increases in the saponin concentration (0.075-0.15gL(-1)) and time (24-72h), whereas the efficiency was decreased with increasing pH (4-10) and temperature (>40°C). The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu and Zn were increased significantly from 57% to 98%, 85% to 95% and 55% to 56% with an increase in the flow rate from 0.2 to 1.0Lmin(-1) at 0.15gL(-1) saponin (pH 4 and 30°C). The present investigation indicated that the foam fractionation process is more efficient for the removal of heavy metal from contaminated industrial soil in comparison to the soil washing process. The plant-based eco-friendly biodegradable biosurfactant saponin can be used for environmental cleanup and pollution management.

  6. Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis (linn.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa; Adeola Opeyemi Ologan; FranklinAkinfemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemicals, total saponin content and types of saponin present in leaf extracts of Cassytha filiformis. Methods: The leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated. The total saponin content of the butanol fraction was determined by colorimetry via a UV spectrophotometer and ginsenoside was used as the standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm. The butanol fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: All screened phytochemicals were absent in the n-hexane extract while saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were present in the methanol extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were absent. The total saponin content of the methanol extract is 73.47 μg ginsenoside Rb1 equivalent/g extract. The chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis gave eicosanoic acid, methyl ester as the most abundant compound and the steroidal saponin, cholestan-7-one and cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal as the most abundant saponin in the butanol fraction. Conclusions: The leaves of Cassytha filiformis are rich in steroidal saponins.

  7. Purification of saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng using preparative two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiujie; Zhang, Xiuli; Feng, Jiatao; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-04-01

    Saponins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have been shown to be active components of many medicinal herbs. In this study, a two-dimensional purification method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was successfully applied to purify saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng. Nine saponin reference standards were used to test the separation modes and columns. The standards could not be resolved using C18 columns owing to their limited polar selectivity. However, they were completely separated on a XAmide column in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode, including two pairs of standards that were coeluted on a C18 column. The elution order of the standards on the two columns was sufficiently different, with a correlation coefficient between retention times on the C18 and XAmide columns of 0.0126, indicating good column orthogonality. Therefore, the first-dimension preparation was performed on a C18 column, followed by a XAmide column that was used to separate the fractions in the second dimension. Fifty-four fractions were prepared in the first dimension, with 25 fractions rich in saponins. Eight saponins, including two pairs of isomeric saponins and one new saponin, were isolated and identified from three representative fractions. This procedure was shown to be an effective approach for the preparative isolation and purification of saponins from leaves of P. notoginseng. Moreover, this method could possibly be employed in the purification of low-content and novel active saponins from natural products.

  8. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  9. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of alcohol extract of Polyscias filicifolia shoot, leaf, cell biomass of suspension culture and saponin fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, Jadwiga; Karwicka, Ewa; Drozd, Janina; Anuszewskal, Elzbieta; Sliwińska, Anita; Nosov, Aleksander; Olszowska, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Some medicinal plants are the object of biotechnologists' special interest owing to their content of secondary metabolites, which have a strong pharmacological effect. Polyscias filicifolia is a plant known for long in traditional medicine of the Southeast Asia. Literature data suggest that it acts on the endocrine system, has adaptogenic and antiulcerative activity, shows bactericidal and insecticidal properties, restores the activity of the protein synthesis system in the conditions of long- and short-term anoxia, as well as reduces the effect of many mutagens in vitro. The purpose of the studies was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of ethanol extracts from Polyscias filicifolia dry shoots and leaves obtained in vitro, as well as cell biomass from suspension culture. Saponin fraction from dried shoots was also tested. Initially, the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using the murine connective tissue cell line C3H/AN - L929. The genotoxic properties of the extracts were assessed using standard screening tests: the Ames test and the micronucleus test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that none of the extracts increases the number of revertants, both in tests with and without metabolic activation. The lack of in vitro genotoxic and mutagenic activity of tested shoot, dried leaf, cell biomass extracts, as well as the saponin fraction from dried shoots allows us to hope that Polyscias filicifolia could be used as a possible pharmaceutical raw material showing therapeutic properties.

  10. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  11. Reversal of Myoblast Aging by Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Posttreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jye Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are heavily involved in the regeneration of skeletal muscle in response to the aging-related deterioration of the skeletal muscle mass, strength, and regenerative capacity, termed as sarcopenia. This study focused on the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF on regenerative capacity of myoblasts in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS. The myoblasts was grouped as young control, SIPS-induced, TRF control, TRF pretreatment, and TRF posttreatment. Optimum dose of TRF, morphological observation, activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-galactosidase, and cell proliferation were determined. 50 μg/mL TRF treatment exhibited the highest cell proliferation capacity. SIPS-induced myoblasts exhibit large flattened cells and prominent intermediate filaments (senescent-like morphology. The activity of SA-β-galactosidase was significantly increased, but the proliferation capacity was significantly reduced as compared to young control. The activity of SA-β-galactosidase was significantly reduced and cell proliferation was significantly increased in the posttreatment group whereas there was no significant difference in SA-β-galactosidase activity and proliferation capacity of pretreatment group as compared to SIPS-induced myoblasts. Based on the data, we hypothesized that TRF may reverse the myoblasts aging through replenishing the regenerative capacity of the cells. However, further investigation on the mechanism of TRF in reversing the myoblast aging is needed.

  12. Nickel boride: An improved desulphurizing agent for sulphur-rich geomacromolecules in polar and asphaltene fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Pavlovic, D.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Nickel boride, a novel desulphurizing agent, was investigated for the desulphurization of sulphur-rich geomacromolecules in polar and asphaltene fractions. It was found to be as effective as the conventional desulphurizing agent, Raney nickel, for sulphur-rich geomacromolecules in polar fractions, b

  13. Adjuvant-active fraction from Albizia julibrissin saponins improves immune responses by inducing cytokine and chemokine at the site of injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxiang; He, Shuwang; Shi, Minghua

    2014-10-01

    The total saponin from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin (AJSt) has previously showed the adjuvant potentials in mice. In this study, AJSt was subjected to resin column chromatography to afford four fractions (AJS30, AJS50, AJS75 and AJS95), and these fractions were further compared for the hemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials on the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) and recombinant fowl pox virus vector-based avian influenza vaccine (rFPV). AJSt, AJS50, AJS75 and AJS95 showed a slight hemolytic effect. AJSt, AJS50 and AJS75 significantly enhanced not only the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and antigen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, but also serum antigen-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody titers in the mice immunized with OVA and rFPV. AJSt, AJS50 and AJS75 also significantly promoted the NK cell activity and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the OVA-immunized mice. Furthermore, the mechanisms of adjuvant action were explored by determining the effects of AJS75 on cytokines and chemokines at the site of injection using antibody array. AJS75 induced or up-regulated the protein expression of 12 cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-12p40/p70, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, sTNFR I, sTNFR III, IL-3 and IL-9) and 10 chemokines (Eotaxin, I-TAC, MIG, MIP-1α, RANTES, TECK, Fracatlkine, FasL, M-CSF and GM-CSF) in the injected muscles. The results suggested that AJS75, the most adjuvant-active fraction of AJSt, could improve antigen-specific both cellular and humoral immune responses and simultaneously elicit a Th1/Th2 response by inducing cytokine and chemokine at the site of injection.

  14. Intermolecular binding of blueberry pectin-rich fractions and anthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Fischer, J; Wicker, L

    2016-03-01

    Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder into three fractions of water soluble (WSF), chelator soluble (CSF) and sodium carbonate soluble (NSF). The fractions were incubated with cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a mixture of five anthocyanidins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, petunidin and delphinidin) or blueberry juice at pH 2.0-4.5. Free anthocyanins and bound anthocyanin-pectin mixtures were separated by ultrafiltration. WSF bound the least amount of anthocyanin at all pH values. CSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 2.0-3.6, while NSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 3.6-4.5. The pectin and anthocyanin binding was lowest at pH 4.5 and higher at pH 2.0-3.6. Nearly doubling C3G pigment content increased bound anthocyanin percentage by 16-23% at pH 3.6, which favored anthocyanin aromatic stacking, compared to 3-9% increase at pH 2.0. Ionic interaction between anthocyanin flavylium cations and free pectic carboxyl groups, and anthocyanin stacking may be two major mechanisms for pectin and anthocyanin binding.

  15. Interactions of a lignin-rich fraction from brewer's spent grain with gut microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Piritta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Maukonen, Johanna; Smeds, Annika I; Mattila, Ismo; Niemelä, Klaus; Tamminen, Tarja; Faulds, Craig B; Buchert, Johanna; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-07-10

    Lignin is a constituent of plant cell walls and thus is classified as part of dietary fiber. However, little is known about the role of lignin in gastrointestinal fermentation. In this work, a lignin-rich fraction was prepared from brewer's spent grain and subjected to an in vitro colon model to study its potential bioconversions and interactions with fecal microbiota. No suppression of microbial conversion by the fraction was observed in the colon model, as measured as short-chain fatty acid production. Furthermore, no inhibition on the growth was observed when the fraction was incubated with strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In fact, the lignin-rich fraction enabled bifidobacteria to survive longer than with glucose. Several transiently appearing phenolic compounds, very likely originating from lignin, were observed during the fermentation. This would indicate that the gut microbiota was able to partially degrade lignin and metabolize the released compounds.

  16. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  17. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  18. Membrane-filtered olive mill wastewater: Quality assessment of the dried phenolic-rich fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW a...

  19. Development of anti-acne gel formulation of anthraquinones rich fraction from Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Acne vulgaris, a common skin disorder speculated in the age group of 15-25 years begins with increased production of sebum followed by the attack of Propionibacterium acne (Kathryn et al. Most of the synthetic anti-acne drugs tend to exhibit mild to severe side effects along with peeling and darkening of skin, ultimately leading to social withdrawal. Hence, there arises a need to develop a safe and effective anti-acne formulation that would cure and also prevent recurrence of acne. Considering the fact that roots of R. cordifolia (Rubiaceae are rich in anthraquinones characterized for their anti-inflammatory as well as wound healing property, (Singh, 2004 a gel formulation of anthraquinone rich fraction was developed and evaluated for its anti-acne potential using Cup plate diffusion method. A gel formulation containing 0.1 % of anthraquinone rich fraction exhibited optimum anti-acne activity against P.acne, S.epidermidis, M.furfur (zone of inhibition- 28.9, 20.4, 24.6 mm respectively when compared with standard i.e. Clindamycin gel (zone of inhibition- 36.7, 35.3, 32.7 mm respectively. Thus anthraquinone rich fraction in a gel formulation is proved to have a better potential in treating acne. Industrial relevance. Rubia cordifolia, often known as Common Madder, Indian Madder or Manjistha is highly recommended in skin diseases associated with edema and oozing (Yuangang Zu et al, 2010. The root powder was found to work well with ghee, for the medicament of acne. Used externally as a paste by itself or with honey, it heals inflammation and gives the skin an even tone and smoothness. Since the roots are claimed to be rich in anthraquinones, in this research work anthraquinone rich fraction from the roots R. cordifolia were extracted and formulated into an herbal gel and evaluated for its anti-acne activity. Topical gels are very useful as palliative products and prove to be economical and safe; hence it was decided to formulate a simple

  20. Antibacterial properties of Alkaloid rich fractions obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachi Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid rich fraction obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their antibacterial property using disc diffusion method on several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains like E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Psuedomonas putida, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter andAlcaligen. Strong antibacterial effect was shown by leaf, pod and flower extract, with MIC value ranging between 25μg/ml-100μg/ml. The extracts of leaves showed highest activity among all the plant parts. Klebsiella was found to be the most susceptible bacteria, whereas Acinetobacter and Alcaligen were the least susceptible. A comparison of zone of inhibition created by alkaloid rich fractions with that of standard antibiotics, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, oflaxacin, refampin, streptomycin and sulfa drug showed a comparable zone of inhibition. Growth of Acinetobacter and Alcaligen which were not inhibited by antibiotics, showed inhibition by the alkaloidal extracts, similarly a known ampicillin resistant E.coli strain was found to be inhibited by the plant extracts. Alkaloids present in the extracts were analysed by DART-MS. DART-MS analysis of the alkaloid rich fractions showed the presence of piperidine alkaloids.

  1. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  2. Isolation of a hemidesmosome-rich fraction from a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirako, Yoshiaki, E-mail: s47526a@cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yonemoto, Yuki; Yamauchi, Tomoe [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yuji; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Owaribe, Katsushi [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    Hemidesmosomes are cell-to-matrix adhesion complexes anchoring keratinocytes to basement membranes. For the first time, we present a method to prepare a fraction from human cultured cells that are highly enriched in hemidesmosomal proteins. Using DJM-1 cells derived from human squamous cell carcinoma, accumulation of hemidesmosomes was observed when these cells were cultured for more than 10 days in a commercial serum-free medium without supplemental calcium. Electron microscopy demonstrated that numerous electron-dense adhesion structures were present along the basal cell membranes of DJM-1 cells cultured under the aforementioned conditions. After removing cellular materials using an ammonia solution, hemidesmosomal proteins and deposited extracellular matrix were collected and separated by electrophoresis. There were eight major polypeptides, which were determined to be plectin, BP230, BP180, integrin α6 and β4 subunits, and laminin-332 by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Therefore, we designated this preparation as a hemidesmosome-rich fraction. This fraction contained laminin-332 exclusively in its unprocessed form, which may account for the promotion of laminin deposition, and minimal amounts of Lutheran blood group protein, a nonhemidesmosomal transmembrane protein. This hemidesmosome-rich fraction would be useful not only for biological research on hemidesmosomes but also for developing a serum test for patients with blistering skin diseases. - Highlights: • A defined condition promoted accumulation of hemidesmosomes in human cultured cells. • A fraction isolated from the cells contained eight major polypeptides. • The polypeptides were the five major hemidesmosome proteins and laminin-332. • The cultured cells deposited laminin-332 in its unprocessed form under the condition. • We report a method to prepare a fraction highly enriched in hemidesmosome proteins.

  3. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.

  5. Saponins of Agave: Chemistry and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Jasmeen; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Om P

    2016-10-01

    The genus Agave comprises more than 400 species with geographical presence in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These plants have a rich history of folkloric use and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Secondary metabolites of diverse chemical classes have been reported from Agave species. Owing to their pharmacological significance, the steroidal saponins of Agave have caught the attention of phytochemists, biologists and drug discovery scientists. The present review describes 141 steroidal saponins and sapogenins and covers the literature published from 1970 to 2015. It is a comprehensive and coherent presentation of the structures, methods of chemical profiling, structure elucidation and biological activities of the saponins and sapogenins reported from Agave. The article provides a perspective of the research on steroidal compounds of Agave.

  6. Antiyeast steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca), a new anti-food-deteriorating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, M; Tamura, Y; Masuda, H; Mizutani, K; Tanaka, O; Ikeda, T; Ohtani, K; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2000-03-01

    A saponin fraction from the stems of Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca) exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activities against certain food-deteriorating yeasts, film-forming yeasts, and dermatophytic yeasts and fungi. From this fraction, a number of new anti-yeast monodesmosidic spirostanol saponins, named schidigera-saponins A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), B1 (4), C1 (5),C2 (6); 25(R and S) schidigera-saponins D1 (7), D2 (8), E1 (12), F1 (13); and 25(S) schidigera-saponins D3 (9), D4 (10), D5 (11), and F2 (14) were isolated, together with several related known saponins, and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (see Chart 1). The relationship between the antiyeast activities and the structures of these saponins is described.

  7. Liposomal formulation of turmerone-rich hexane fractions from Curcuma longa enhances their antileishmanial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Gomes, Luciana A; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Ramos, Aline de S; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  8. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  9. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia F. Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL, respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL. Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  10. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P industry to manipulate the glycaemic response of extruded snack products.

  11. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  12. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (Fabaceae in Mice

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    Vanine Gomes Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (CFDv in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg, as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg. Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity.

  13. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

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    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  14. Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages

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    Priscila Raquel Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.

  15. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E

    2013-03-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane-Filtered Olive Mill Wastewater: Quality Assessment of the Dried Phenolic-Rich Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2016-04-01

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production.

  17. Iron-rich colloids as carriers of phosphorus in streams: A field-flow fractionation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Regelink, Inge C; Comans, Rob N J; Smolders, Erik; Koopmans, Gerwin F

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal phosphorus (P) may represent an important fraction of the P in natural waters, but these colloids remain poorly characterized. In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to high resolution ICP-MS for the characterization of low concentrations of P-bearing colloids. Colloids from five streams draining catchments with contrasting properties were characterized by AF4-ICP-MS and by membrane filtration. All streams contain free humic substances (2-3 nm) and Fe-bearing colloids (3-1200 nm). Two soft water streams contain primary Fe oxyhydroxide-humic nanoparticles (3-6 nm) and aggregates thereof (up to 150 nm). In contrast, three harder water streams contain larger aggregates (40-1200 nm) which consist of diverse associations between Fe oxyhydroxides, humic substances, clay minerals, and possibly ferric phosphate minerals. Despite the diversity of colloids encountered in these contrasting streams, P is in most of the samples predominantly associated with Fe-bearing colloids (mostly Fe oxyhydroxides) at molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 1.5. The molar P:Fe ratio of the waters explains the partitioning of P between colloids and truly dissolved species. Waters with a high P:Fe ratio predominantly contain truly dissolved species because the Fe-rich colloids are saturated with P, whereas waters with a low P:Fe ratio mostly contain colloidal P species. Overall, AF4-ICP-MS is a suitable technique to characterize the diverse P-binding colloids in natural waters. Such colloids may increase the mobility or decrease the bioavailability of P, and they therefore need to be considered when addressing the transport and environmental effects of P in catchments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 6. Some chemical characteristics and biological activity of root saponins

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    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin fraction of black medic trefoil (Medicago lupulina roots was isolated and purified. Its hydrolysis afforded several aglycones that have been identified by spectral and chemical properties as medicagenic acid, hederagenine and soyasapogenols: B, C, D, E and F. They made up, respectively. 46.9 and 45% of total sapogenins isolated. Two-dimensional TLC of M. lupulina root saponins revealed fourteen compounds, two of which were medicagenic acid glycosides. The haemolytic, antifungal and allelopathic activities of M. lupulina and M. media roots are compared and discussed.

  19. Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Improves Vascular Proatherosclerotic Changes in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

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    Ku-Zaifah Norsidah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on aortic proatherosclerotic changes in rats fed with a high methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control (fed with a basal diet. Another five groups were fed with 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet or palm TRF (30, 60, and 150 mg/kg diets was added into the diet of the last four rat groups, respectively. The high methionine diet raised the plasma total homocysteine and aortic lipid peroxidation, which were reduced by the palm TRF and folate supplementations. Plasma nitric oxide was reduced in the high methionine group compared to the control (3.72±0.57 versus 6.65±0.53 μmol/L, P<0.05, which reduction was reversed by the palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg and folate supplementations. The increased aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the methionine group (2.58±0.29 was significantly reduced by the folate (1.38±0.18 and palm TRF at 150 mg/kg (1.19±0.23. Palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high methionine diet-induced plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, aortic oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes in rats.

  20. Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Tats

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    Maznah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.

  1. Tocotrienol rich fraction reverses age-related deficits in spatial learning and memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridi, Nursiati Mohamad; Abd Rani, Nazirah; Abd Latiff, Azian; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity. Brains were also collected to measure vitamin E levels. Results showed that aged rats exhibited reduced exploratory activity, enhanced anxiety and decreased spatial learning and memory compared with young rats. DNA damage and plasma MDA were increased, and vitamin E levels in plasma and brain were reduced in aged rats. Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats.

  2. Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization

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    Pik Seah Goh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF nanoemulsions were produced as an alternative approach to improve solubility and absorption of tocotrienols. In the present study, droplet size obtained after 10 cycles of homogenization with increasing pressure was found to decrease from 120 to 65.1 nm. Nanoemulsions stabilized with Tween series alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w homogenized at 25,000 psi and 10 cycles, produced droplet size less than 100 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index (PDI value lower than 0.2. However blend of Tween series with Span 80 produced nanoemulsions with droplet size larger than 200 nm. This work has also demonstrated the amount of tocols losses in TRF nanoemulsion stabilized Tweens alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w ranged between 3%–25%. This can be attributed to the interfacial film formed surrounding the droplets exhibited different level of oxidative stability against heat and free radicals created during high pressure emulsification.

  3. Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Improves Vascular Proatherosclerotic Changes in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsidah, Ku-Zaifah; Asmadi, Ahmad Yusof; Azizi, Ayob; Faizah, Othman; Kamisah, Yusof

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on aortic proatherosclerotic changes in rats fed with a high methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control (fed with a basal diet). Another five groups were fed with 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF (30, 60, and 150 mg/kg diets) was added into the diet of the last four rat groups, respectively. The high methionine diet raised the plasma total homocysteine and aortic lipid peroxidation, which were reduced by the palm TRF and folate supplementations. Plasma nitric oxide was reduced in the high methionine group compared to the control (3.72 ± 0.57 versus 6.65 ± 0.53 μmol/L, P < 0.05), which reduction was reversed by the palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg) and folate supplementations. The increased aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the methionine group (2.58 ± 0.29) was significantly reduced by the folate (1.38 ± 0.18) and palm TRF at 150 mg/kg (1.19 ± 0.23). Palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high methionine diet-induced plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, aortic oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes in rats. PMID:23573162

  4. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Prevents Fenitrothion-induced Renal Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Han, Kim Jit; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Taib, Izatus Shima; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    Fenitrothion (FNT) is an organophosphate compound widely used as pesticide in Malaysia. The present study aims to investigate effects of palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on the renal damage of FNT-treated rats. A total of 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups randomly, the control, TRF, FNT and FNT+TRF groups. FNT (20 mg/kg b.w.) and TRF (200 mg/kg b.w.) were given orally for 28 days continuously. Rats from the FNT+TRF group were supplemented with TRF 30 minutes prior to administration of FNT. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days, and the kidneys were removed for determination of oxidative stress and histological analysis. Plasma was collected for determination of blood creatinine and urea level. Statistical analysis showed that palm oil TRF has a protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by FNT. In the FNT+TRF group, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower, while the glutathione level as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher compared with the FNT-treated group (p0.05). Histological evaluation also revealed that the FNT+TRF group had less glomerulus and renal tubule damage than the FNT-treated group. In conclusion, palm oil TRF was able to reduce oxidative stress and renal damage in FNT-treated rats. PMID:23914053

  6. Fenitrothion Alters Sperm Characteristics in Rats: Ameliorating Effects of Palm Oil Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman,, Putri Ayu; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate insecticides such as fenitrothion (FNT) in agriculture and public health has been reported to affect sperm quality. Antioxidants may have a potential to reduce spermatotoxic effects induced by organophosphate. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in reducing the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four equal groups: a control group and groups of rats treated orally with palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg), FNT (20 mg/kg) and palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg) combined with FNT (20 mg/kg). The sperm characteristics, DNA damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) were evaluated. Supplementation with TRF attenuated the detrimental effects of FNT by significantly increasing the sperm counts, motility, and viability and decreased the abnormal sperm morphology. The SOD activity and GSH level were significantly increased, whereas the MDA and PC levels were significantly decreased in the TRF+FNT group compared with the rats receiving FNT alone. TRF significantly decreased the DNA damage in the sperm of FNT-treated rats. A significant correlation between abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage was found in all groups. TRF showed the potential to reduce the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats. PMID:25030881

  7. Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Kiessoun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials Materials and methods In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive. Results All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium comparatively to the other bacteria strains. Conclusion The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Hilou, Adama; Mavoungou, Jacques François; Lepengué, Alexis Nicaise; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Datté, Jacques Y; M'batchi, Bertrand; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2012-02-24

    The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains. The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.

  9. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Siti Balkis Budin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i normal non-diabetic (NDM, (ii diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF and (iii diabetic untreated (non-TRF. The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed standard rat feed. Blood glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated. RESULTS: Tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment reduced serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group also showed significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, as compared to the untreated group. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase activity and levels of vitamin C in plasma were increased in tocotrienol-rich fractions-treated rats. The levels of plasma and aorta malondealdehyde + 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE and oxidative DNA damage were significant following tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment. Electron microscopic examination showed that the normal morphology of the thoracic aorta was disrupted in STZ-diabetic rats. Tocotrienol-rich fractions supplementation resulted in a protective effect on the vessel wall. CONCLUSION: These results show that tocotrienol-rich fractions lowers the blood glucose level and improves dyslipidemia. Levels of oxidative stress markers were also reduced by administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions. Vessel wall integrity was maintained due to the positive effects mediated by tocotrienol-rich fractions.

  10. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  11. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

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    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  12. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

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    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  13. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  14. Effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, C; Mathur, P P

    2002-07-01

    Methoxychlor, an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a pesticide in many countries, has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The precise nature and mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system is not clear. In the present study, we have sought to investigate the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of rat after exposure to methoxychlor. Methoxychlor (1, 10, and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) was administered orally to the rats for 45 days. After 24 h of the last treatment the animals were killed using anesthetic ether. The body weight of the animals administered with methoxychlor did not show any significant change. The weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate decreased significantly in 100 mg dose but remained unchanged in 1 and 10 mg doses. Mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis were obtained by the method of differential centrifugation. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the animals treated with methoxychlor in a dose-dependent manner in the mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. The levels of hydrogen peroxide generation (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation increased in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis of the rats treated with methoxychlor. The results suggested that the low to medium doses of methoxychlor elicit depletion of antioxidant enzymes and concomitant increase in the levels of H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation differentially in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. In conclusion, the adverse effect of methoxychlor on male reproduction could be due to the induction of oxidative stress in testis.

  15. Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in organic-rich sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, K S; Canfield, D E

    1997-01-01

    Isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction by natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated in the cyanobacterial microbial mats of Solar Lake, Sinai and the sediments of Logten Lagoon sulfuretum, Denmark. Fractionation was measured at different sediment depths, sulfate...... concentrations, and incubation temperatures. Rates of sulfate reduction varied between 0.1 and 37 micromoles cm-3 d-1, with the highest rates among the highest ever reported from natural sediments. The depletion of 34S during dissimilatory sulfate reduction ranged from 16% to 42%, with the largest 34S...... sulfate reduction. Therefore, additional processes contributing to the fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the sediments are indicated. From both Solar Lake and Logten Lagoon we were able to enrich cultures of elemental sulfur-disproportionating bacteria. We suggest that isotope fractionation accompanying...

  16. Protein-Rich Fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur Leaves: Enzymatic Characterization and Procoagulant and Fibrinogenolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamara A. S. de Menezes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes are important macromolecules in the regulation of biochemical processes in living organisms. Additionally, these versatile biomolecules have numerous applications in the industrial segment. In this study we have characterized a protein-rich fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur leaves, rich in proteolytic enzymes, and evaluated its effects on the coagulation cascade. Three protein-rich fractions were obtained from the crude extract of C. urens leaves by precipitation with acetone. Fraction F1.0 showed higher proteolytic activity upon azocasein, and thus, was chosen for subsequent tests. The proteolytic activity of F1.0 on fibrinogen was dose-dependent and time-dependent. The extract demonstrated procoagulant activity on citrated plasma and reduced the APTT, not exerting effects on PT. Despite the fibrin(ogenolytic activity, F1.0 showed no defibrinogenating activity in vivo. The fraction F1.0 did not express hemorrhagic nor hemolytic activities. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by E-64, EDTA and in the presence of metal ions, and increased when pretreated with reducing agents, suggesting that the observed activity was mostly due to cysteine proteases. Several bands with proteolytic activity were detected by zymography with gelatin, albumin and fibrinogen. The optimal enzymatic activity was observed in temperature of 60 °C and pH 5.0, demonstrating the presence of acidic proteases. In conclusion, these results could provide basis for the pharmacological application of C. urens proteases as a new source of bioactive molecules to treat bleeding and thrombotic disorders.

  17. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated sta

  18. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

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    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  20. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Wan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-oryzanol (OR, a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. Methods The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Results Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC and the unstressed and untreated group (NC, seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Conclusions Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers.

  1. Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in organic-rich sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, K S; Canfield, D E

    1997-01-01

    by the natural populations of sulfate reducers and previous measurements from pure cultures. This was somewhat surprising given the extremely high rates of sulfate reduction in the experiments. Our results are explained if we conclude that the fractionation was mainly controlled by the specific rate of sulfate......Isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction by natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated in the cyanobacterial microbial mats of Solar Lake, Sinai and the sediments of Logten Lagoon sulfuretum, Denmark. Fractionation was measured at different sediment depths, sulfate...... concentrations, and incubation temperatures. Rates of sulfate reduction varied between 0.1 and 37 micromoles cm-3 d-1, with the highest rates among the highest ever reported from natural sediments. The depletion of 34S during dissimilatory sulfate reduction ranged from 16% to 42%, with the largest 34S...

  2. A modified spectrophotometric assay to estimate deglycosylation of steroidal saponin to sapogenin by mixed ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-08-30

    The lack of a method for measuring deglycosylation of saponins in ruminal fluid has limited the ability to investigate the impact of these compounds on rumen microorganisms. A simple spectrophotometric assay was adapted and a protocol developed to enable measurement of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. The procedure was used for in vitro determination of deglycosylation activity of rumen bacteria obtained from cattle fed or not fed Yucca schidigera saponin, and to determine the relative deglycosylase activities of extracellular and cell-associated enzymes from ruminal content. Modifications to the spectrophotometric assay (i.e. heating time shortened to 10 min and 0.5 mL dH(2)O added to the reaction mixture) improved the stability of the optical density (425 nm) of the chromophore for up to 24 h post-reaction. Centrifugation (12 000 x g, 20 min) enabled differential estimations of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. Steroidal saponin added to defaunated ruminal fluid (dRF) or clarified ruminal fluid (cRF) was recovered completely from the mixture as saponin + sapogenin (99.1% and 100.6%, respectively), whereas saponin recovery from the supernatant of dRF was greatly reduced (P Yucca schidigera saponin (59.2 vs. 57.3% and 98.4 vs. 99.3%, respectively). The majority (89-90%) of saponin added to a ruminal extracellular enzyme preparation was recoverable in supernatant after 24 h, compared with only 26-32% remaining in supernatant from incubation with a cell-associated enzymes fraction. Mixed rumen bacteria deglycosylate steroidal saponin to sapogenin, at activity levels unaffected by prior exposure to saponin, but they were unable to degrade the sapogenin core structure. Deglycosylation activity occurred primarily in the cell-associated enzyme fraction of ruminal content. Copyright (c) 2008 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Fractionation Methods on the Isolation of Fiber-rich Cake from Alfalfa and Ethanol Production from the Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested alfalfa was fractionated using centrifugation and filtration, whereby alfalfa was separated into a fiber-rich cake and a nutrient-rich juice. The solid cakes from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for ethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation. The filtration process proved to be more efficient at reducing the solids mass transfer to the juice than the centrifuge process. Glucose from filtered alfalfa solid cake can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with 75% of the theoretical yield. In conclusion, centrifugation was not as effective as filtration in removing particulates and colloidal matter from alfalfa. The filtration process resulted in a solid cake with a higher cellulose digestibility, which leads to a higher ethanol production.

  4. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  5. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN CAIs, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of ...

  6. Characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich fractions from steam exploded and sequentially alkali delignified bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    In this study, cellulose-rich fractions from bamboo were prepared with steam explosion pretreatment (SEP) followed by a successive alkaline delignification to improve the enzymatic digestibility for an efficient bioethanol production. The cellulose-rich fractions obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, SEM, and BET surface area. It was found that the SEP alone significantly removed partial hemicelluloses, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification removed most hemicelluloses and lignin. Results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed that SEP alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by 7.9-33.1%, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification enhanced the rate by 45.7-63.9%. The synergistic treatment by SEP at 2.0 MPa for 5 min with water impregnation followed by a successive alkaline delignification with 0.5% NaOH and 70% ethanol containing 1.5% NaOH resulted in a maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 70.6%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Prevents Cell Cycle Arrest and Elongates Telomere Length in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the molecular mechanisms of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF in preventing cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Primary culture of HDFs at various passages were incubated with 0.5 mg/mL TRF for 24 h. Telomere shortening with decreased telomerase activity was observed in senescent HDFs while the levels of damaged DNA and number of cells in G0/G1 phase were increased and S phase cells were decreased. Incubation with TRF reversed the morphology of senescent HDFs to resemble that of young cells with decreased activity of SA-β-gal, damaged DNA, and cells in G0/G1 phase while cells in the S phase were increased. Elongated telomere length and restoration of telomerase activity were observed in TRF-treated senescent HDFs. These findings confirmed the ability of tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing HDFs cellular ageing by restoring telomere length and telomerase activity, reducing damaged DNA, and reversing cell cycle arrest associated with senescence.

  8. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  9. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron and copper isotope fractionation during filtration and ultrafiltration of boreal organic-rich waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Viers, Jerome; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Poitrasson, Franck; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.

    2010-05-01

    Typical feature of all boreal surface waters is high concentration of dissolved (complexes. Organic and organo-mineral colloids are the most likely carriers of trace metals such as Cu in rivers of the boreal zone. This work addresses colloidal speciation of Cu and Fe using conventional size separation technique, on-site frontal ultrafiltration. Specifically, we aimed to test the possibility of the presence of different pools of metal having specific isotopic signatures in different colloidal fractions using stable isotope measurements. We have chosen Cu for its high affinity to colloidal DOM and Fe for its tendency to form stable organo-mineral colloids of various size. Samples of natural waters were collected from small rivers, lakes, bogs, groundwater and soil environments in the Northern Karelia (NW Russia) during summer baseflow period. Large volumes (20-40 L) of water were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size filters: 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.45, 0.22, 0.1 µm and 100, 10 and 1 kDa (1 kDa ~ 1 nm) using nylon and regenerated cellulose membranes and frontal ultrafiltration (Millipore, Amicon) devises. The homogeneity of the sample was verified by tracing radiogenic Sr isotopes in each fraction. In all filtrates and ultrafiltrates (permeates), and in selected retentates, stable isotopic composition of Cu and Fe was measured using double focusing high resolution MC-ICP MS (Neptune). We observe rather constant Cu isotopic ratio in all filtrate series and a systematic enrichment of heavy isotope of Fe with decreasing poresize. These preliminary results can be explained by strong complexation of Cu with small-size organic ligands of fulvic nature and its partial association with organo-mineral colloids. Both Fe(III) - OM complxeation and Fe(III) oxyhydroxides precipitation can be invoked to explain Fe isotope fractionation. This work allows, for the first, time, multi-isotopic approach to trace the origin of colloids in surficial waters and it

  11. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

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    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. LC-MS(n) characterization of steroidal saponins in Helleborus niger L. roots and their conversion products during fermentation.

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    Duckstein, Sarina M; Stintzing, Florian C

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal saponins comprise a substantial part of the secondary metabolite spectrum in the medicinal plant Helleborus niger L. (black hellebore). The saponin fraction from the roots was investigated by LC-MS(n) resulting in 38 saponins and β-ecdysone. Nine diosgenyl-type glycosides, mainly furostanols consisting of the aglycones diosgenin, macranthogenin, sceptrumgenin, and sarsasapogenin were accompanied by 5 diosgenyl-type saponins exhibiting an aglycone with an additional OH group. However, the most relevant compounds were 24 acetylated polyhydroxy saponins including hellebosaponins A and D. The enzymes glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and pectinase were used to obtain an idea on potential fermentative transformation reactions by incubation of the isolated model saponins macranthosid I and hellebosaponin A. In a second step, aqueous H. niger extracts containing a much greater range of saponins were monitored during fermentation and 12months of storage. The metabolites were examined and assigned by LC-MS(n) and targeted extracted ion current (EIC) scan analyses. Good agreement was found among the results from the model compounds and the whole aqueous fermented extracts. The native diosgenyl-type furostanol saponins were converted to spirostanols under scission of hexoses. Alteration of the acetylated polyhydroxy saponins, exclusively spirostanols, took place following cleavage of acetyl groups and terminal deoxyhexoses. Most interestingly, the pentoses of the sugar chain at C(1) were not affected. Conversion of acetylated polyhydroxy saponins resulted in a final structure type which was stable and detectable, even after 12months of fermentation and storage.

  13. Dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongmei; Ip, Fanny C F; Fu, Guangmiao; Pang, Haihong; Ye, Wencai; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-07-01

    Dammarane-type saponins (1-7), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 induced the phosphorylation of ERK protein in primary rat cortical neurons, which indicates their potential neuroactivity. On the other hand, no induction of ERK phosphorylation was observed for HEK293 cells following treatment with saponins 1, 3, 4 and 7. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saponins from Chinese Medicines as Anticancer Agents

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    Xiao-Huang Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions. In addition, related signaling pathways and target proteins involved in the anticancer effects of saponins are also summarized in this work.

  15. Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China

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    Mengyue Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pellet-induced mice granuloma, and the acetic acid-induced mice writhing response. Our phytochemical investigations on the TFUA resulted in the first-time isolation and identification of 17 phenolic constituents and a bis (5-formylfurfuryl ether. The extensive HPLC analysis also revealed the chemical compositions of TFUA. Our further biological evaluation of the main phenolic components, individually and collectively, indicated that the antirheumatoid arthritis activities of TFUA were the combined effect of multiple phenolic constituents.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin

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    Ana María Mendoza-Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP, among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs, which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%, flavonols (42.89% and dihydrochalcones (11.60%. In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (−-epicatechin and 3% (+-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (−-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects.

  17. Effectiveness of a Peptide-rich Fraction from Xenorhabdus budapestensis Culture against Fire Blight Disease on Apple Blossoms

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    Dávid VOZIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora is one of the most frequently occurred plant pathogenic bacterium. It causes necrosis and blight symptoms on host plants and it lead to considerable yield losses throughout the world on apple trees. There is no effective chemical treatment is currently available against fire blight. The purpose of the present study was to search a new, alternative control method. The evaluation of the plant protection potential of an enriched fraction of Xenorhabdus budapestensis cell-free conditioned media was investigated. Purified samples were tested in vitro and in planta against the phytopathogenic bacterium. A reproducible method for isolation of a peptide-rich fraction from Xenorhabdus cell-free conditioned media was established. The process resulted in 400 mg of dry sample prepared from three litres of Xenorhabdus cell culture. Significant correlation was found between the concentration of the purified preparation and the induced inactivation zones against Erwinia amylovora Ea1 in agar diffusion test method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the purified fraction against Ea1 strain were 8 μg/mL and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In planta experiments were tested on an apple cultivar (‘Watson Jonathan’ susceptible to fire blight. The effective range of concentration was 62-200 µg/mL, while treatment with 300 µg/mL and larger amounts caused necrotic symptoms on the petals of flowers. Current study pointed to the effectiveness of the compounds produced by X. budapestensis against fire blight. The development of a commercially applicable formulation of these compounds would allow growers to effectively control fire blight in apple and pear orchards.

  18. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  19. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

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    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  20. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  1. Haemolytic activities of plant saponins and adjuvants. Effect of Periandra mediterranea saponin on the humoral response to the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W R; Bernardo, R R; Peçanha, L M; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    1997-06-01

    An 87.7% (P saponin combined to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania donovani (FML). However, an undesirable haemolytic effect was described for several saponins. Aiming to improve the formulation with FML/saponin, we comparatively analysed the haemolytic potential of recently characterized plant saponins and currently used adjuvants. The haemolytic activity of steroidic saponins from Agave sisalana; Smilax officinalis as well as commercial saponin (Riedel De Haën's), was higher than that of triterpenoid ones (Bredemeyera floribunda; Periandra mediterranea) and the Freund's complete adjuvant. The concentration resulting in 50% haemolysis was 500 micrograms ml-1 for aluminum hydroxide. The low haemolytic effect of P. mediterranea saponin was abolished by removal of its glycidic moiety and its sapogenin fraction as well as the Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant were non-haemolytic within this range. Furthermore, the adjuvant effect of three doses of P. mediterranea saponin injected with the FML antigen of L. donovani, was assayed in mice, either by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) or the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The anti-FML IgG antibody levels increased and detectable levels were observed up to 3 months in the s.c. group. The response was expanded in both groups after an injection with a fourth vaccine dose. The IgG response showed increased levels of IgG2a only in the i.p. group, while IgG2b and IgG1 but not IgG3 antibodies were higher than controls in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recently described triterpenoid fractions of P. mediterranea can be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  2. Influence of saponins on the biodegradation of halogenated phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, Ewa; Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Sawczuk, Agata; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Biotransformation of aromatic compounds is a challenge due to their low aqueous solubility and sorptive losses. The main obstacle in this process is binding of organic pollutants to the microbial cell surface. To overcome these, we applied saponins from plant extract to the microbial culture, to increase pollutants solubility and enhance diffusive massive transfer. This study investigated the efficiency of Quillaja saponaria and Sapindus mukorossi saponins-rich extracts on biodegradation of halogenated phenols by Raoultella planticola WS2 and Pseudomonas sp. OS2, as an effect of cell surface modification of tested strains. Both strains display changes in inner membrane permeability and cell surface hydrophobicity in the presence of saponins during the process of halogenated phenols biotransformation. This allows them to more efficient pollutants removal from the environment. However, only in case of the Pseudomonas sp. OS2 the addition of surfactants to the culture improved effectiveness of bromo-, chloro- and fluorophenols biodegradation. Also introduction of surfactant allowed higher biodegradability of halogenated phenols and can shorten the process. Therefore this suggests that usage of plant saponins can indicate more successful halogenated phenols biodegradation for selected strains.

  3. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

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    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  4. Tocotrienol rich fraction supplementation improved lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older adults: A randomized controlled study

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    Mohd Yusof Yasmin Anum

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin E supplements containing tocotrienols are now being recommended for optimum health but its effects are scarcely known. The objective was to determine the effects of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF supplementation on lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older individuals at a dose of 160 mg/day for 6 months. Methods Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two age groups: 35-49 years (n = 31 and above 50 years (n = 31, and randomly assigned to receive either TRF or placebo capsules for six months. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 3rd and 6th months. Results HDL-cholesterol in the TRF-supplemented group was elevated after 6 months (p 50 year-old group (p 50 year-old group after receiving 6 months of TRF supplementation. Changes in enzyme activities were only observed in the > 50 year-old group. SOD activity was decreased after 3 (p Conclusion The observed improvement of plasma cholesterol, AGE and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as the reduced protein damage may indicate a restoration of redox balance after TRF supplementation, particularly in individuals over 50 years of age.

  5. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

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    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

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    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  7. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

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    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Cao, Jia-Qing; Shi, Sheng-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, 1-4, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. Compounds 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines HL-60, Colon205, and Du145 in vitro.

  9. Diastereoisomeric saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

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    Zou, Kun; Tong, Wen-yong; Liang, Hong; Cui, Jing-rong; Tu, Guang-zhong; Zhao, Yu-ying; Zhang, Ru-yi

    2005-05-23

    The structures of four new diastereoisomeric triterpenoidal saponins Julibroside J5, J8, J12 and J13 (1-4) isolated from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) have been determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. Julibroside, J8 and J13 showed marked cytotoxic activities against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 100 microg/mL.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

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    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of flavonol glycosides rich fraction from Egyptian Vicia calcarata Desf. against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.

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    Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Youssef, Diaa T A; Noaman, Eman; Kotb, Saeed

    2005-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of flavonol glycosides rich fraction (F-2), prepared from 70% alcohol extract of the aerial parts of V. calcarata Desf., was evaluated in a rat model with a liver injury induced by daily oral administration of CCl4 (100 mg/kg, b.w) for four weeks. Treatment of the animals with F-2 using a dose of (25 mg/kg, b.w) during the induction of hepatic damage by CCl4 significantly reduced the indices of liver injuries. The hepatoprotective effects of F-2 significantly reduced the elevated levels of the following serum enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The antioxidant activity of F-2 markedly ameliorated the antioxidant parameters including glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), plasma catalase (CAT) and packed erythrocytes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) to be comparable with normal control levels. In addition, it normalized liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and creatinine concentration. Chromatographic purification of F-2 resulted in the isolation of two flavonol glycosides that rarely occur in the plant kingdom, identified as quercetin-3, 5-di-O-beta-D-diglucoside (5) and kaempferol-3, 5-di-O-beta-D-diglucoside (4) in addition to the three known compounds identified as quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl- (1-->6)-beta-D-glucoside [rutin, 3], quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside [isoquercitrin, 2] and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside [astragalin, 1]. These compounds were identified based on interpretation of their physical, chemical, and spectral data. Moreover, the spectrophotometric estimation of the flavonoids content revealed that the aerial parts of the plant contain an appreciable amount of flavonoids (0.89%) calculated as rutin. The data obtained from this study revealed that the flavonol glycosides of F-2 protect the rat liver from hepatic damage induced by CCl4 through inhibition of

  13. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction, [6]-Gingerol and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis of Glioma Cancer Cells

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    Amirah Abdul Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant bioactives [6]-gingerol (GING, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and asiaticoside (AS and vitamin E, such as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, have been reported to possess anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic properties of these bioactive compounds alone or in combination on glioma cancer cells. TRF, GING, EGCG and AS were tested for cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines 1321N1 (Grade II, SW1783 (Grade III and LN18 (Grade IV in culture by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay. With the exception of AS, combinations of two compounds were tested, and the interactions of each combination were evaluated by the combination index (CI using an isobologram. Different grades of glioma cancer cells showed different cytotoxic responses to the compounds, where in 1321N1 and LN18 cells, the combination of EGCG + GING exhibited a synergistic effect with CI = 0.77 and CI = 0.55, respectively. In contrast, all combinations tested (TRF + GING, TRF + EGCG and EGCG + GING were found to be antagonistic on SW1783 with CI values of 1.29, 1.39 and 1.39, respectively. Combined EGCG + GING induced apoptosis in both 1321N1 and LN18 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V FITC/PI staining and increased active caspase-3. Our current data suggests that the combination of EGCG + GING synergistically induced apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation 1321N1 and LN18 cells, but not SW1783 cells, which may be due to their different genetic profiles.

  14. Fungal endophyte-derived Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis: diversity, antioxidant capacities in vitro and relations to phenolic, flavonoid or saponin compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Su, Tian-Jiao; Cai, Shi-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fungal endophytes are rich fungal resources for the production of an enormous quantity of natural products. In the present study, 53 fungal endophytes were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis (FUW). Of these, 49 strains were identified and grouped into 17 different taxa, and priority was conferred to the Fusarium genus. All fungal fermented filtrates displayed antioxidant activities. The DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacities (ABTS), reduction power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total saponin content (TSC) were evaluated using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and ethanol fractions extracted from five representative fungal cultures. The last three fractions showed more potent antioxidant activity than the first fraction. Significant positive correlations were found between the compositions (TPC, TFC and TSC) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). In addition, multifarious natural antioxidant components were identified from the fungal extracts, including gallic acid, rutin, phlorizin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl hydroquinone; these were determined preliminarily by TLC-bioautography, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. This study showed abundant fungal resources in FUW. Phenolics, flavonoids and saponins are crucial bioactive constituents in these abundant fungal endophytes and can be viewed as new potential antioxidant resources. PMID:28165019

  15. Fungal endophyte-derived Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis: diversity, antioxidant capacities in vitro and relations to phenolic, flavonoid or saponin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Su, Tian-Jiao; Cai, Shi-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2017-02-06

    Diverse fungal endophytes are rich fungal resources for the production of an enormous quantity of natural products. In the present study, 53 fungal endophytes were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis (FUW). Of these, 49 strains were identified and grouped into 17 different taxa, and priority was conferred to the Fusarium genus. All fungal fermented filtrates displayed antioxidant activities. The DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacities (ABTS), reduction power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total saponin content (TSC) were evaluated using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and ethanol fractions extracted from five representative fungal cultures. The last three fractions showed more potent antioxidant activity than the first fraction. Significant positive correlations were found between the compositions (TPC, TFC and TSC) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). In addition, multifarious natural antioxidant components were identified from the fungal extracts, including gallic acid, rutin, phlorizin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl hydroquinone; these were determined preliminarily by TLC-bioautography, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. This study showed abundant fungal resources in FUW. Phenolics, flavonoids and saponins are crucial bioactive constituents in these abundant fungal endophytes and can be viewed as new potential antioxidant resources.

  16. Antisweet saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Liu, X; Zhang, Q; Che, C T; Zhao, S

    2001-02-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides (1-3), along with the sodium salt of alternoside II (4), were isolated from an ethanol extract of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The structures of these new saponins were identified as 21 beta-O-benzoylsitakisogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), the potassium salt of longispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and the potassium salt of 29-hydroxylongispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (3). The aglycon of 3, gymnemagenol (3a), was characterized as 3 beta,16 beta,28, 29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene. Structure elucidation was accomplished by interpretation of NMR (DQF-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) results, FABMS, and hydrolysis. Saponin 1 and the sodium salt of alternoside II (4) exhibited antisweet activity.

  17. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  19. The adjuvant use of stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich fibrin for autologous adipose tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Tan, Xin-Ying; Liu, Yan-Pu; Xu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Long; Xu, Hai-Yan; An, Ran; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Autologous adipose transplantation is rapidly gaining popularity for the restoration of soft tissue defects and lipoatrophy as well as for aesthetic improvements (e.g., facial reconstruction and rejuvenation). However, the current technique is crude that suffers from serious demerits, particularly the long-term unpredictability of volume maintenance due to resorption of the grafted adipose tissue and limited adipogenesis. We hypothesized that the adjuvant use of patient-derived adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) may enhance the overall outcome of autologous fat grafting in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous SVF, with a mean cell number of (4.8±3.79)×10⁷ cells/mL and a mean cell viability of 71.8%, and autologous PRF, with sustained release of multiple angiogenic growth factors, were created before surgical use. The following adipose tissue implants were injected subcutaneously into a rabbit ear's auricula according to the following study design: 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL normal saline solution (AG+NS group), 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL SVF (AG+SVF group), 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL PRF (AG+PRF group), or 2 mL adipose granules combined with 0.1 mL SVF and 0.1 mL PRF (AG+SVF+PRF group). Histological examinations showed that the implanted adipose granules were well engrafted in the AG+SVF+PRF group, with a higher microvessel density 4 weeks postimplantation compared with the other three groups (p<0.01). Twenty-four weeks postimplantation, the resorption rates of implanted tissue in each group were 49.39%±9.47%, 27.25%±4.37%, 36.41%±8.47%, and 17.37%±6.22%, respectively, and were significantly different (p<0.01). The results demonstrated that the efficacy of adipose tissue implantation can be enhanced by using autologous PRF and SVF as therapeutic adjuvants, offering a clinically translatable strategy for soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction.

  20. Cytotoxicity of the compounds isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis saponins and apoptosis induced by 23-hydroxybetulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xingzeng; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Ge; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Xiangyun; Feng, Xu; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. To study the activity of total saponins and the main active fractions from P. chinensis saponins on chronic myeloid leukemia, and to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities. The cytotoxic activity were assayed by MTT; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry system; changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using JC-1; and the apoptosis signaling pathway was determined by western blotting. We demonstrated that total P. chinensis saponin displayed cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line. In addition, we identified 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (HBA), pulchinenoside A (PA), and anemoside B4 (AB4) from the total saponins, with the most cytotoxic compound HBA. Glycosylation at C3 and C28 of HBA significantly reduces its cytotoxicity. HBA could promote cell cycle arrest at S phase and induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. HBA disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential significantly (p < 0.01) and selectively downregulates the levels of Bcl-2, survivin and upregulates Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Total saponins from P. chinensis may be effective natural products against human chronic myelogenous leukemia; HBA is one of the bioactive components responsible for its anticancer activity, and could be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic drug for leukemia.

  1. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

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    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  2. Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaheh Amini; Mohammad Nabiuni; Javad Baharara; Kazem Parivar; Javad Asili

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocomaerinaceus Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100%ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and under invert microscopy.Results:) and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells.Conclusions:The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.

  3. Fracionamento a seco da farinha de aveia e modificação química da fração rica em amido Dry fractionation of oatmeal and chemical modification of starch rich fraction

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    Ana Paula Daniel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo obter frações de farinha de aveia enriquecidas em amido e em fibras pelo fracionamento a seco e modificar quimicamente (fosfatação o amido da fração rica neste constituinte, avaliando suas propriedades funcionais. O fracionamento foi efetuado utilizando-se as granulometrias > 300, 212-300, 150-212, e 300 µm e 212-300 µm foram semelhantes, com aumento de aproximadamente 1,5 e 2,7 vezes nos teores de proteína e fibra, e redução de 0,5-0,6 vezes no teor de amido, quando comparadas à farinha integral. As frações 212-150 µm e The objective of this study was to obtain starch and fiber enriched oatmeal fractions through sieving, chemically modifying (phosphorylation the starch enriched fraction, and evaluating its functional properties. Fractionation was performed using > 300, 212-300, 150-212, and 300 µm and 212-300 µm were similar and had increased protein and fiber content (1.5 and 2.7 fold, but reduced starch content (0.5-0.6 fold when compared to whole oatmeal. Fractions 212-150 µm and < 150 µm were similar and had the highest starch content (around 70%. The starch-rich fraction < 150 µm that had the highest yield during sieving (35.5% was phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate at 150-155 °C for 20 and 40 min, yielding 0.39 and 0.32% phosphorus bound, respectively. Cold water binding capacity increased (1.9-3.3 fold, while syneresis at 5 °C or after freezing/thawing was significantly reduced (6-20 and 5-6 fold, respectively in phosphorylated starch fraction when compared to the native starch fraction. Phosphorylation reduced the increase of pasta opacity during storage at 5 °C, which indicates a lower retrogradation tendency. Thus, oatmeal sieving yielded fractions either enriched in fiber and protein or enriched in starch. Moreover, phosphorylation of the starch-rich fraction improved their functional properties, which may increase the potential applicability and economic value of this

  4. In vivo wound healing activity and phytochemical screening of the crude extract and various fractions of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Sidamo, Temesgen; Asres, Kaleab; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2013-01-30

    The leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) are used in Ethiopian folk medicine for treatment of evil eye, fractured surface for bone setting and several skin disorders including for the treatment of sores, boils, and malignant wounds. In order to scientifically prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated using in vivo excision, incision and dead space wound models. Mice were used for wound healing study, while rats and rabbit were used for skin irritation test. For studying healing activity 80% methanolic extract and the fractions were formulated in strength of 5% and 10%, either as ointment (hydroalcoholic extract, aqueous and methanol fractions) or gel (chloroform fraction). Oral administration of the crude extract was used for dead space model. Negative controls were treated either with simple ointment or sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose xerogel, while positive controls with nitrofurazone (0.2 w/v) skin ointment. Negative controls for dead space model were treated with 1% carboxy methyl cellulose. Parameters, including rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelializtion, hydroxyproline contents and skin breaking strength were evaluated. Significant wound healing activity was observed with ointment formulated from the crude extract at both 5% and 10% concentration (p<0.01) compared to controls in both excision and incision models. In dead space model, 600 mg/kg (p<0.01) but not 300 mg/kg significantly increased hydroxyproline content. Fractions showed variable effect, with the chloroform fraction lacking any significant effect. Both 5% and 10% formulations of the aqueous and methanolic fractions significantly increased wound contraction, decreased epithelializtion time and increased hydroxyproline content in excision wound model (p<0.05) as compared to controls. These fractions were also endowed with higher skin breaking strength in incision wound model (p<0.01). The present

  5. Potent inhibition of Western Equine Encephalitis virus by a fraction rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids obtained from Achyrocline satureioides

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    María Carola Sabini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. Asteraceae, ‘marcela del campo', possess several pharmacological properties. Previously we reported antiviral activity of an aqueous extract of A. satureioides against an alphavirus, Western Equine Encephalitis virus. Alphaviruses are highly virulent pathogens which cause encephalitis in humans and equines. There are no effective antiviral to treat its infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities against Western Equine Encephalitis virus of five water extract chromatographic fractions from A. satureioides and identify the main compounds of the bioactive fraction. Also, it was to assess in vivo cytogenotoxic ability of the active fraction. Cytotoxicity studies revealed low toxicity of the most of fractions in Vero and in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Antiviral studies showed that the water crude extract – Sephadex LH 20 – fraction 3 MeOH–H2O (Fraction 3 was active against Western Equine Encephalitis virus with Effective Concentration 50% = 5 µg/ml. Selectivity Indices were 126.0 on Vero and 133.6 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, four times higher than aqueous extract selectivity index. Regarding the mechanism of action we demonstrated that F3 exerted its action in intracellular replication stages. Further, fraction 3 showed important virucidal action. Fraction 3 contains, in order of highest to lowest: chlorogenic acid, luteolin, 5,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, 3-O-methylquercetin and caffeic acid. Fraction 3 did not induce in vivo toxic nor mutagenic effect. Therefore, it is safe its application as antiviral potential. Further studies of antiviral activity in vivo will be developed using a murine model.

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  7. U-Th fractionation by fluids in K-rich magma genesis: The Vico volcano, Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B.; Flehoc, C.

    1989-01-01

    The /sup 230/Th-/sup 238/U disequilibrium method has been applied to the potassic volcanic series of Vico (Latium, Central Italy). The 3 main events of the recent volcanic activity have been dated using whole-rock isochrons. The lava flows of the main cone were erupted between 260 and 180 ky. Pyroclastic flows are dated around 90 ky and the final effusive activity (Mte. Venere) around 60 ky. These results are in good agreement with previous K/Ar ages. The intense Th-U fractionation (Th/U varying from 3.2 to 11) is apparently not related to processes of partial melting and crystal fractionation. The Th-U fractionation is the most intense in basic terms of the first episode, and is due to the percolation of a deep hydrothermal fluid which impoverishes U in different batches of primary magmas. More limited Th-U fractionations in highly differentiated magma are due to U (accompanied by Sb and alkalies) enrichments in the shallow magma chambers. A time-integrated model is proposed for the evolution of the (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) ratio in the mantle source of Vico. It shows that Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations are probably related to the bulk K, U and Th enrichment of the mantle of the Roman Province, around 300 ky ago. A metasomatic enrichment by a silicate melt is proposed to explain the anomalously high Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations.

  8. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber

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    Syam Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Typhonium flagelliforme, commonly known as “rodent tuber” in Malaysia, is often used as a health supplement and traditional remedy for alternative cancer therapies, including leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-leukemic activity of dichloromethane extract/fraction number 7 (DCM/F7 from T. flagelliforme tuber on human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEMss cell line. The DCM extract of tuber has been fractionated by column chromatography. The obtained fractions were evaluated for its cytotoxicity toward CEMss cells as well as human primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Assessment of apoptosis produced by the most active fraction was evaluated by various microscopic techniques and further confirmation of apoptosis was done by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Phytochemical screening was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results shows that 7 out of 12 fractions showed significant cytotoxicity against the selected cell line CEMss, in which fractions DCM/F7, DCM/F11 and DCM/F12 showed exceptional activity with 3, 5 and 6.2 μg ml−1, respectively. Further studies in the non-cancerous PBL exhibited significant selectivity of DCM/F7 compared to other fractions. Cytological observations showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, abnormalities of cristae, membrane blebbing, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by double-staining of acridine orange (AO/propidium iodide (PI, SEM and TEM. In addition, DCM/F7 has increased the cellular DNA breaks on treated cells. GC-MS revealed that DCM/F7 contains linoleic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9-hexadecanoic acid. The present results indicate that T. flagelliforme possess a valuable anti-leukemic effect and was able to produce distinctive morphological features of cell death that corresponds to apoptosis.

  9. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Syam; Bustamam, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Siddig; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Aspollah, Mohammed; Abdullah, Rasedee; Elhassan, Manal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme, commonly known as "rodent tuber" in Malaysia, is often used as a health supplement and traditional remedy for alternative cancer therapies, including leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-leukemic activity of dichloromethane extract/fraction number 7 (DCM/F7) from T. flagelliforme tuber on human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEMss) cell line. The DCM extract of tuber has been fractionated by column chromatography. The obtained fractions were evaluated for its cytotoxicity toward CEMss cells as well as human primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Assessment of apoptosis produced by the most active fraction was evaluated by various microscopic techniques and further confirmation of apoptosis was done by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Phytochemical screening was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results shows that 7 out of 12 fractions showed significant cytotoxicity against the selected cell line CEMss, in which fractions DCM/F7, DCM/F11 and DCM/F12 showed exceptional activity with 3, 5 and 6.2 μg ml(-1), respectively. Further studies in the non-cancerous PBL exhibited significant selectivity of DCM/F7 compared to other fractions. Cytological observations showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, abnormalities of cristae, membrane blebbing, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by double-staining of acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI), SEM and TEM. In addition, DCM/F7 has increased the cellular DNA breaks on treated cells. GC-MS revealed that DCM/F7 contains linoleic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9-hexadecanoic acid. The present results indicate that T. flagelliforme possess a valuable anti-leukemic effect and was able to produce distinctive morphological features of cell death that corresponds to apoptosis.

  10. Highly acidic glycans from sea cucumbers. Isolation and fractionation of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from the body wall of Ludwigothurea grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, P A; Bastos, I G

    1987-08-03

    The body wall of the sea cucumber contains high amounts of sulfated glycans, which differ in structure from glycosaminoglycans of animal tissues and also from the fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides isolated from marine algae and from the jelly coat of sea urchin eggs. In Ludwigothurea grisea, glycans can be separated into three fractions which differ in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high-molecular-mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction, which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber polysaccharides, contains besides fucose, approximately equimolar proportions of glucuronic acid and amino sugars, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. Both D and L-isomers of fucose are found in these polysaccharides, and the sulfate is linked to the O-3 position of the fucose residues. The attachment position of the sulfate groups to the glucuronic acid units and amino sugars is still undetermined. It is possible that these compounds are involved in maintaining the integrity of the sea cucumber's body wall, in analogy with the role of other macromolecules in the vertebrate connective tissue.

  11. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching.

  12. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  13. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  14. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  15. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria.

  16. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  17. A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin from the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N

    2001-01-01

    A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin m.f. C42H68O13, m.p. 315 degrees-317 degrees C was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina. Its structure was characterized as 3-beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]16-alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en(13)-28-oic acid by several spectral and chemical analysis. This new triterpenoid saponin showed antimicrobial activity against various plants pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  18. Polysaccharide-Rich Fraction of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) as Doxorubicin Co-Chemotherapy: Evaluation of Catalase, Macrophages, and TCD8+ Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmito, Ediati; Hertiani, Triana; Novlita Renggani, Tiya; Jaya Laksana, Brata

    2015-01-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) has been acknowledged for its cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity. Our previous results on the immunomodulatory effect of a noni juice polysaccharide-rich fraction encouraged this research to evaluate the potency of the polysaccharide-rich fraction as co-chemotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) administration. Macrophage activity (MA) was evaluated with the latex bead method. The phagocytic index (PI) was measured as the number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages, while the phagocytosis ratio (PR) was indicated by the percentage of macrophages that ingested three or more latex beads. The CEC was evaluated by using a commercial assay kit, while CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated using a flowcytometry method following in vivo administration. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 each). The control group received DOX via i.p. at a concentration of 4.67 mg/kg BW on days 1 and 4; four treatment groups received PF p.o. at a concentration of 25; 50; 100; 200 mg/kg BW daily, respectively, and additionally DOX i.p. 4.67 mg/kg BW (days 1 and 4) for 7 days. The phagocytic activity was not affected significantly by PF administration compared to the Dox control, but PF administration at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg BW has been proven to increase TCD8+ cell proliferation in combination with DOX. The catalase concentration, on the other hand, significantly decreased following PF administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. The results suggest that the polysaccharide-rich fraction of noni juice might induce immunomodulatory effects via TCD8+ activation, have antioxidant activity, and thus might be a potential candidate to be used as an adjuvant to DOX chemotherapy.

  19. [Leaching Remediation of Copper and Lead Contaminated Lou Soil by Saponin Under Different Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-xia; Yang, Ya-li; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Li, Rong-hua; Meng, Zhao-fu; Yang, Ya-ti

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the leaching remediation effect of the eco-friendly biosurfactant saponin for Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil, batch tests method was used to study the leaching effect of saponin solution on single Cu, Pb contaminated Lou soil and mixed Cu and Pb contaminated Lou soil under different conditions such as reaction time, mass concentration of saponin, pH, concentration of background electrolyte and leaching times. The results showed that the maximum leaching removal effect of Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil was achieved by complexation of the heavy metals with saponin micelle, when the mass concentration of saponin solution was 50 g x L(-1), pH was 5.0, the reaction time was 240 min, and there was no background electrolyte. In single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, the leaching percentages of Cu were 29.02% and 25.09% after a single leaching with 50 g x L(-1) saponin under optimal condition, while the single leaching percentages of Pb were 31.56% and 28.03%, respectively. The result indicated the removal efficiency of Pb was more significant than that of Cu. After 4 times of leaching, the cumulative leaching percentages of Cu reached 58.92% and 53.11%, while the cumulative leaching percentages of Pb reached 77.69% and 65.32% for single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, respectively. The fractionation results of heavy metals in soil before and after a single leaching showed that the contents of adsorbed and exchangeable Cu and Pb increased in the contaminated soil, while the carbonate-bound, organic bound and sulfide residual Cu and Pb in the contaminated Lou soil could be effectively removed by saponin.

  20. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  1. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  2. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  3. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  4. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect. PMID:27222038

  5. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  6. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  7. Macromolecular interactions of triterpenoids and targeted toxins: role of saponins charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Weng, Alexander; Pieper, Alexandra; Mergel, Katharina; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Görick, Cornelia; Wiesner, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Jenny; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

    2013-10-01

    Macromolecular interaction of protein toxins with certain plant triterpenoids holds potential for application in tumor therapy. The ability of only certain saponins to enhance the endosomal escape of toxins specifically in tumor cells was evaluated and set into correlation with the electrophoretic mobility. Saponins from Saponaria officinalis Linn, were selected as a lead to understand this evolutionarily conserved principle in detail. Agarose gel electrophoresis was utilized to procure pure saponin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility, which were tested for their ability to enhance the toxicity by live cell monitoring. Five fractions (SOG1-SOG5) were isolated with a relative electrophoretic mobility of (-0.05, 0.41, 0.59, 0.75 and 1.00) and evaluated using thin layer chromatography, HPLC, and mass spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity experiments revealed highest effectiveness with SOG3. Live cell imaging experiments with SOG3 revealed that this saponin with a specific REM of 0.59 could assist in the lyso/endosomal release of the toxic payload without affecting the integrity of plasma membrane and could lead to the induction of apoptosis. This charge dependent enhancement was also found to be highly specific to type I ribosome inactivating proteins compared to bacterial toxins. Charge interaction of plant toxins and saponins with tumor cells, plays a major role in toxin specific modulation of response. The finding opens up newer ways of finding protein saponin interaction conserved evolutionarily and to test their role in endosomal escape of therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia davurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Guang Hong TU; Hong Wu ZHANG; Shi Lin YANG; Dong Ge AN

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named davuricoside I (1) and davuricoside E (2) were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia davurica. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR,FAB-MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  9. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immune-system-dependent anti-tumor activity of a plant-derived polyphenol rich fraction in a melanoma mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadena, A; Urueña, C; Prieto, K; Martinez-Usatorre, A; Donda, A; Barreto, A; Romero, P; Fiorentino, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that part of the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents require an intact immune system. This is in part due to the induction of immunogenic cell death. We have identified a gallotannin-rich fraction, obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) as an anti-tumor agent in both breast carcinoma and melanoma. Here, we report that P2Et treatment results in activation of caspase 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome c and externalization of annexin V in tumor cells, thus suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This was preceded by the onset of autophagy and the expression of immunogenic cell death markers. We further demonstrate that P2Et-treated tumor cells are highly immunogenic in vaccinated mice and induce immune system activation, clearly shown by the generation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing tyrosine-related protein 2 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the tumor protective effects of P2Et treatment were abolished in immunodeficient mice, and partially lost after CD4 and CD8 depletion, indicating that P2Et's anti-tumor activity is highly dependent on immune system and at least in part of T cells. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the gallotannin-rich fraction P2Et's anti-tumor effects are mediated to a great extent by the endogenous immune response following to the exposure to immunogenic dying tumor cells. PMID:27253407

  11. Coordinated Isotopic and Mineral Characterization of Highly Fractionated 18O-Rich Silicates in the Queen Alexandra Range 99177 CR3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain a mixture of solar system condensates, pre-solar grains, and primitive organic matter. Each of these materials record conditions and processes in different regions of the solar nebula, on the meteorite parent body, and beyond the solar system. Oxygen isotopic studies of meteorite components can trace interactions of distinct oxygen isotopic reservoirs in the early solar system and secondary alteration processes. The O isotopic compositions of the earliest solar system condensates fall along a carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line of slope approximately 1 in a plot of delta 17O against delta 18O. This trend is attributed to mixing of material from 16O-poor and 16O-rich reservoirs. Secondary processing can induce mass-dependent fractionation of the O isotopes, shifting these compositions along a line of slope approximately 0.52. Substantial mass-dependent fractionation of O isotopes has been observed in secondary minerals in CAIs, calcite, and FUN inclusions. These fractionations were caused by significant thermal or aqueous alteration. We recently reported the identification of four silicate grains with extremely fractionated O isotopic ratios (delta 18O equals 37 - 55 per mille) in the minimally altered CR3 chondrite QUE 99177. TEM analysis of one grain indicates it is a nebular condensate that did not experience substantial alteration. The history of these grains is thus distinct from those of the aforementioned fractionated materials. To constrain the origin of the silicate grains, we conducted further Mg and Fe isotopic studies and TEM analyses of two grains.

  12. HRMS Profile of a Hazelnut Skin Proanthocyanidin-rich Fraction with Antioxidant and Anti-Candida albicans Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Porta, Amalia; Petrone, Anna Maria; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Rastrelli, Luca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia

    2016-01-27

    Roasted hazelnut skins (RHS) represent a byproduct of kernel industrial processing. In this research, a RHS extract (RHS-M) and its fraction RHS-M-F3 enriched in proanthocyanidins (PAs), with antioxidant activity, were characterized in terms of total phenolic compound and PA contents. RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 showed antifungal properties against Candida albicans SC5314 (MIC2 = 3.00 and 0.10 μg/mL and MIC0 = 5.00 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively), determined by the microbroth dilution method and Candida albicans morphological analysis. No cytotoxic effect on HEKa and HDFa cell lines was exhibited by RHS-M and RHS-M-F3. The metabolite profiling of RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 was performed by thiolysis followed by HPLC-UV-HRMS analysis and a combination of HRMS-FIA and HPLC-HRMS(n). Extract and fraction contain oligomeric PAs (mDP of 7.3 and 6.0, respectively, and DP up to 10) mainly constituted by B-type oligomers of (epi)-catechin. Also, (epi)-gallocatechin and gallate derivatives were identified as monomer units, and A-type PAs were detected as minor compounds.

  13. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  14. High sulfur isotope fractionation associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane in a low sulfate, iron rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sophia Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur isotope signatures provide key information for the study of microbial activity in modern systems and the evolution of the Earth surface redox system. Microbial sulfate reducers shift sulfur isotope distributions by discriminating against heavier isotopes. This discrimination is strain-specific and often suppressed at sulfate concentrations in the lower micromolar range that are typical to freshwater systems and inferred for ancient oceans. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is a sulfate-reducing microbial process with a strong impact on global sulfur cycling in modern habitats and potentially in the geological past, but its impact on sulfur isotope signatures is poorly understood, especially in low sulfate environments. We investigated sulfur cycling and 34S fractionation in a low-sulfate freshwater sediment with biogeochemical conditions analogous to Early Earth environments. The zone of highest AOM activity was associated in situ with a zone of strong 34S depletions in the pool of reduced sulfur species, indicating a coupling of sulfate reduction and AOM at sulfate concentrations < 50 µmol L-1. In slurry incubations of AOM-active sediment, the addition of methane stimulated sulfate reduction and induced a bulk sulfur isotope effect of ~29 ‰. Our results imply that sulfur isotope signatures may be strongly impacted by AOM even at sulfate concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than at present oceanic levels. Therefore, we suggest that sulfur isotope fractionation during AOM must be considered when interpreting 34S signatures in modern and ancient environment.

  15. High sulfur isotope fractionation associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane in a low sulfate, iron rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hannah; Thamdrup, Bo; Habicht, Kirsten

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur isotope signatures provide key information for the study of microbial activity in modern systems and the evolution of the Earth surface redox system. Microbial sulfate reducers shift sulfur isotope distributions by discriminating against heavier isotopes. This discrimination is strain-specific and often suppressed at sulfate concentrations in the lower micromolar range that are typical to freshwater systems and inferred for ancient oceans. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a sulfate-reducing microbial process with a strong impact on global sulfur cycling in modern habitats and potentially in the geological past, but its impact on sulfur isotope signatures is poorly understood, especially in low sulfate environments. We investigated sulfur cycling and 34S fractionation in a low-sulfate freshwater sediment with biogeochemical conditions analogous to Early Earth environments. The zone of highest AOM activity was associated in situ with a zone of strong 34S depletions in the pool of reduced sulfur species, indicating a coupling of sulfate reduction and AOM at sulfate concentrations oceanic levels. Therefore, we suggest that sulfur isotope fractionation during AOM must be considered when interpreting 34S signatures in modern and ancient environment.

  16. A Two-Step Nanofiltration Process for the Production of Phenolic-Rich Fractions from Artichoke Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial nanofiltration (NF membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%; on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4% were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds.

  17. The evolution of the fraction of Er ions sensitized by Si nanostructures in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noe, P; Okuno, H; Jager, J-B; Delamadeleine, E; Demichel, O; Rouviere, J-L; Calvo, V [INAC/SP2M, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique-MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Maurizio, C; D' Acapito, F [CNR-INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, GILDA-CRG, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2009-09-02

    Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL experiments as a function of the elaboration process are performed on Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRO:Er) thin films grown under NH{sub 3} atmosphere. These PL measurements of the Er{sup 3+} emission at 1.54 {mu}m under non-resonant pumping with the Er f-f transitions are obtained for different Er{sup 3+} concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 at.%, and various post-growth annealing temperatures of the layers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis show a high density of Si nanostructures composed of amorphous and crystalline nanoclusters varying from 2.7 x 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} as a function of the post-growth annealing temperature. Measurements of PL lifetime and effective Er excitation cross section for all the samples under non-resonant optical excitation with the Er{sup 3+} atomic energy levels show that the number of Er{sup 3+} ions sensitized by the silicon-rich matrix decreases as the annealing temperature is increased from 500 to 1050 {sup 0}C. The origin of this effect is attributed to the reduction of the density of sensitizers for Er ions in the SRO matrix when the annealing temperature increases. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) shows a strong correlation between the number of emitters and the mean local order around the erbium ions.

  18. Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Bacterial Acetylene Fermentation: Potential for Life Detection in Hydrocarbon-Rich Volatiles of Icy Planet(oid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence G; Baesman, Shaun M; Oremland, Ronald S

    2015-11-01

    We report the first study of stable carbon isotope fractionation during microbial fermentation of acetylene (C2H2) in sediments, sediment enrichments, and bacterial cultures. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) averaged 3.7 ± 0.5‰ for slurries prepared with sediment collected at an intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay and 2.7 ± 0.2‰ for a pure culture of Pelobacter sp. isolated from these sediments. A similar KIE of 1.8 ± 0.7‰ was obtained for methanogenic enrichments derived from sediment collected at freshwater Searsville Lake, California. However, C2H2 uptake by a highly enriched mixed culture (strain SV7) obtained from Searsville Lake sediments resulted in a larger KIE of 9.0 ± 0.7‰. These are modest KIEs when compared with fractionation observed during oxidation of C1 compounds such as methane and methyl halides but are comparable to results obtained with other C2 compounds. These observations may be useful in distinguishing biologically active processes operating at distant locales in the Solar System where C2H2 is present. These locales include the surface of Saturn's largest moon Titan and the vaporous water- and hydrocarbon-rich jets emanating from Enceladus. Acetylene-Fermentation-Isotope fractionation-Enceladus-Life detection.

  19. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Fraction from the Bark of Acacia mearnsii on Itching Associated with Allergic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the inhibitory effect of polyphenol-rich aqueous extract from the bark of Acacia mearnsii (PrA on itching associated with atopic dermatitis (AD. HR-1 mice were fed a normal diet, special diet (AD group, or special diet containing 3% PrA (PrA group for 6 weeks. In the AD group, itching frequency and transepidermal water loss increased compared to the control group. In the PrA group, an improvement in atopic dermatitis symptoms was observed. Ceramide expression in the skin decreased in the AD group compared to the control group, but no decrease was observed in the PrA group. mRNA expression of ceramidase decreased in the PrA group compared to the AD group. The results of this study have revealed that PrA inhibits itching in atopic dermatitis by preventing the skin from drying. It is considered that the mechanism by which PrA prevents the skin from drying involves the inhibition of increased ceramidase expression associated with atopic dermatitis.

  1. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  2. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  3. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  4. Silica-rich lavas in the oceanic crust: experimental evidence for fractional crystallization under low water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Martin; Koepke, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigated phase relations and phase compositions as well as the influence of water activity ( aH2O) and redox conditions on the equilibrium crystallization path within an oceanic dacitic potassium-depleted system at shallow pressure (200 MPa). Moreover, we measured the partitioning of trace elements between melt and plagioclase via secondary ion mass spectrometry for a highly evolved experiment (SiO2 = 74.6 wt%). As starting material, we used a dacitic glass dredged at the Pacific-Antarctic Rise. Phase assemblages in natural high-silica systems reported from different locations of fast-spreading oceanic crust could be experimentally reproduced only in a relatively small range of temperature and melt-water content ( T ~950 °C; melt H2O generally regarded as key for producing silica-rich rocks in an oceanic environment. However, our conclusion is also supported by mineral and melt chemistry of natural evolved rocks; these rocks are only congruent to the composition of those experimental phases that are produced under low aH2O. Low FeO contents under water-saturated conditions and the characteristic enrichment of Al2O3 in high aH2O experiments, in particular, contradict natural observations, while experiments with low aH2O match the natural trend. Moreover, the observation that highly evolved experimental melts remain H2O-poor while they are relatively enriched in chlorine implies a decoupling between these two volatiles during crustal contamination.

  5. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  6. Anti-nociceptive properties in rodents and the possibility of using polyphenol-rich fractions from sida urens L. (Malvaceae) against of dental caries bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Zerbo, Patrice; Ouédraogo, Maurice; Dibala, Crépin I; Adama, Hilou; Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Barro, Nicolas

    2013-06-21

    Sida urens L. (Malvaceae) is in flora of Asian medicinal herbs and used traditionally in West of Burkina Faso for the treatment of infectious diseases and particularly used against, dental caries bacteria, fever, pain and possesses analgesic properties. This study was conducted to reveal the antibacterial effect against dental caries bacteria on the one hand, and evaluate their analgesic capacity in experimental model with Swiss mice and on the other hand, with an aim to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use of this plant for the management of dental caries bacteria. The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (Minimal bactericidal concentration) methods. On the whole the dental caries bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10% DMSO in water and commercially available Gentamicin from Alkom Laboratories LTD was used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. In acute toxicity test, mice received doses of extract (acetone/water extract) from Sida urens L. by intraperitoneal route and LD50 was determined in Swiss mice. As for analgesic effects, acetic acid writhing method was used in mice. The acetic acid-induced writhing method was used in mice with aim to study analgesic effects. The results showed that the highest antibacterial activities were founded with the polyphenol-rich fractions against all bacterial strains compared to the standard antibiotic. About preliminary study in acute toxicity test, LD50 value obtained was more than 5000 mg/kg b.w. Polyphenol-rich fractions produced significant analgesic effects in acetic acid-induced writhing method and in a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Sida urens L. (Malvaceae) and demonstrate the potential of this herbaceous as a potential antibacterial agent

  7. Expression of Senescence-Associated microRNAs and Target Genes in Cellular Aging and Modulation by Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Gwee Sian Khee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences highlight the implication of microRNAs as a posttranscriptional regulator in aging. Several senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs are found to be differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on SA-miRNAs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on SA-miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, and miR-449a and established target genes of miR-34a (CCND1, CDK4, and SIRT1 during replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Primary cultures of HDFs at young and senescent were incubated with TRF at 0.5 mg/mL. Taqman microRNA assay showed significant upregulation of miR-24 and miR-34a and downregulation of miR-20a and miR-449a in senescent HDFs (P<0.05. TRF reduced miR-34a expression in senescent HDFs and increased miR-20a expression in young HDFs and increased miR-449a expression in both young and senescent HDFs. Our results also demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-34a reduced the expression of CDK4 significantly (P<0.05. TRF inhibited miR-34a expression thus relieved its inhibition on CDK4 gene expression. No significant change was observed on the expression of CCND1, SIRT1, and miR-34a upstream transcriptional regulator, TP53. In conclusion tocotrienol-rich fraction prevented cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via modulation of SA-miRNAs and target genes expression.

  8. The Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Is Superior to Tocopherol in Promoting Myogenic Differentiation in the Prevention of Replicative Senescence of Myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    Full Text Available Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF and α-tocopherol (ATF in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts.

  9. Antifungal and molluscicidal saponins from Serjania salzmanniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekabo, O A; Farnsworth, N R; Henderson, T O; Mao, G; Mukherjee, R

    1996-04-01

    An investigation of Serjania salzmanniana for biologically active substances has led to the isolation of two novel saponins, salzmannianoside A (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] gypsogenin) [3] and salzmannianoside B (3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (4). Two known saponins, pulsatilla saponin D (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (1) and 3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-a lpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] oleanolic acid (2) were also isolated from this plant. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by FABMS and 2D NMR techniques. All these four saponins were mollusicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Valley. The saponins also showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans at minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  10. Depressive effects on the central nervous system and underlying mechanism of the enzymatic extract and its phlorotannin-rich fraction from Ecklonia cava edible brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suengmok; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Seon-Bong; Yoon, Minseok; Yang, Hyejin; Jin, Young-Ho; Jo, Jinho; Yong, Hyeim; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, You-Jin; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Marine plants have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties; however, there have been few reports on their neuropharmacological effects. Terrestrial plants have depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS) because of their polyphenols which make them effective as anticonvulsants and sleep inducers. We investigated in this study the depressive effects of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed, Ecklonia cava (EC), on CNS. An EC enzymatic extract (ECEE) showed significant anticonvulsive (>500 mg/kg) and sleep-inducing (>500 mg/kg) effects on the respective mice seizure induced by picrotoxin and on the mice sleep induced by pentobarbital. The phlorotannin-rich fraction (PTRF) from ECEE significantly potentiated the pentobarbital-induced sleep at >50 mg/kg. PTRF had binding activity to the gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors. The sleep-inducing effects of diazepam (DZP, a well-known GABA(A)-BZD agonist), ECEE, and PTRF were completely blocked by flumazenil, a well-known antagonist of GABA(A)-BZD receptors. These results imply that ECEE produced depressive effects on CNS by positive allosteric modulation of its phlorotannins on GABA(A)-BZD receptors like DZP. Our study proposes EC as a candidate for the effective treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and insomnia.

  11. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    2000-05-01

    A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.

  12. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Kuo, Hung-I; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2011-10-26

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the antiproliferation and apoptosis mechanism of saponin and flavonoid fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Both flavonoid and saponin fractions were isolated by a column chromatographic method with Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN as adsorbent and elution solvents of ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) for the former and 100% ethanol for the latter, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. On the basis of the MTT assay, the saponin and flavonoid fraction were comparably effective in inhibiting the growth of PC-3 cells, with the IC(50) being 39.3 and 33.3 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, both fractions induced an arrest of PC-3 cell cycle at both S and G2/M phases, with both early and late apoptotic cell populations showing a dose-dependent rise. The Western blot assay indicated that the incorporation of flavonoid or saponin fraction could modulate the expression of G2 and M checkpoint regulators, cyclins A and B, and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bax. The expression of the caspase-3 and its activated downstream substrate effectors, DFF45 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), was also increased and followed a dose-dependent manner. All of these findings suggest that the apoptosis of PC-3 cells may proceed through the intrinsic mitochondria pathway.

  13. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during bacterial acetylene fermentation: Potential for life detection in hydrocarbon-rich volatiles of icy planet(oid)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence; Baesman, Shaun; Oremland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    We report the first study of stable carbon isotope fractionation during microbial fermentation of acetylene (C2H2) in sediments, sediment enrichments, and bacterial cultures. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) averaged 3.7 ± 0.5‰ for slurries prepared with sediment collected at an intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay and 2.7 ± 0.2‰ for a pure culture of Pelobacter sp. isolated from these sediments. A similar KIE of 1.8 ± 0.7‰ was obtained for methanogenic enrichments derived from sediment collected at freshwater Searsville Lake, California. However, C2H2 uptake by a highly enriched mixed culture (strain SV7) obtained from Searsville Lake sediments resulted in a larger KIE of 9.0 ± 0.7‰. These are modest KIEs when compared with fractionation observed during oxidation of C1 compounds such as methane and methyl halides but are comparable to results obtained with other C2compounds. These observations may be useful in distinguishing biologically active processes operating at distant locales in the Solar System where C2H2 is present. These locales include the surface of Saturn's largest moon Titan and the vaporous water- and hydrocarbon-rich jets emanating from Enceladus.

  14. Screening for triterpenoid saponins in plants using hyphenated analytical platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using...

  15. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, H D; Sarveiya, V P; Pal, S C; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) on the transfer latency, whereas anxiolytic activity was assessed by studying its effect on the duration of occupancy in the closed arm. Results showed significant improvement in the retention ability of the normal and amnesic mice as compared to their respective controls. Animals treated with BF (25 mg/kg) spent more time in the open arm in a dose-dependent manner. The BF was without any significant effect on motor coordination. However, it significantly inhibited passivity and hypothermia induced by baclofen (10 mg/kg), a GABA(B) agonist. The data emanated in the present study suggests involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins obtained from A. lebbeck.

  16. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  17. Triterpene saponins from Silphium radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Lalita M; Piacente, Sonia; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F; Segarra, Frances M; Pessiki, Peter J; Mabry, Tom J

    2008-02-01

    Nine triterpene saponins (1-9) were isolated from leaves and stems of Silphium radula Nutt. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D ((13)C, (1)H, DEPT, TOCSY) and 2D NMR (NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS studies. The compounds were identified as 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (2), 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta,23-pentaol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (7), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,23-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). The presence of a 6beta-hydroxyl function was not common in the oleanene or ursene class and the aglycones of these compounds were not found previously in the literature. Moreover, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Results showed that compound 2 decreased cell proliferation in a statistically significant manner at 25 microg/ml.

  18. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  19. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man-Qi; Liu, Yue; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Xu, Tun-Hai; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Besides four known compounds, a new triterpenoid saponin was isolated from the stems of Gymnema sylvestre. The structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was established as 3β,16β,22α-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY correlations. Four known compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  20. Three new steroidal saponins from Helleborus thibetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Su, Yan-Fang; Yang, Feng-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Three new steroidal saponins including two spirostanol glycosides (1-2) and one furostanol glycoside 1-sulphate (3) were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Helleborus thibetanus. Structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of extensive use of 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments, together with HR-ESI-MS and IR measurements, as well as the results of acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-2 represented steroidal saponins with an unusual substitution pattern, which possessed a double bond at C-25 and were glycosylated at 1-OH.

  1. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  2. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Methods: Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Results: Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15 or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23. In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Limitations: Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects

  3. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Keyvan, Shima; Asilian, Ali; Nouraei, Saeid; Behfar, Shadi; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15) or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23). In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema) on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects and also resulted in more severe side effects and longer downtime.

  4. Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cruz, Lourdes J; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2013-01-01

    Holothurians are sedentary marine organisms known to produce saponins (triterpene glycosides), secondary metabolites exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. In this paper, we investigated the saponin contents of semi-purified and membranolytic HPLC fractionated extracts from the body wall of three species of Holothuriidae as an attempt to examine its chemical diversity in relation to phylogenetic data. MALDI-FTICR MS and nano-HPLC-chip Q-TOF MS were used for mass profiling and isomer separation, respectively giving a unique chemical saponin fingerprint. Moreover, the methods used yield the highest number of congeners. However, saponin concentration, bioactivity and chemical diversity had no apparent relationship. MS fingerprint showed the presence of holothurinosides, which was observed for the first time in other Holothuria genera besides the basally positioned Holothuria forskali. This congener is proposed to be a primitive character that could be used for taxonomic purposes. The phylogenetic mapping also showed that the glycone part of the compound evolved from non-sulfated hexaosides to sulfated tetraosides, which have higher membranolytic activity and hydrophilicity, the two factors affecting the total ecological activity (i.e. chemical defense) of these compounds. This might be an adaptation to increase the fitness of the organism.

  5. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers.

  6. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  7. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  8. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin-phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, for 30 days. Results: Our data showed that saponin–phospholipid complex had stronger anticancer effect compared to saponin extract. The IC50 values of saponin–phospholipid complex and saponin extract for NCI-H460 cell lines were 28.47μg/mL and 47.97μg/mL, respectively and these values for BT474 cells were 53.18μg/mL and 86.24μg/mL, respectively. In vivo experiments, administration of saponin, saponin–phospholipid complex and paclitaxel (positive control) effectively suppressed 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced breast cancer evidenced by a decrease in tumor volume, the reduction of lipid peroxidation level and increase in the body weight, and elevated the enzymatic antioxidant activities of su-peroxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in rat breast tissue. Conclusions: Our study suggests that saponin extract from Panax notoginseng and saponin–phospholipid complex have potential to prevent cancer, especially breast cancer.

  9. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Tian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts obtained from Platycodon grandiflorum roots led to isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23,24-pentahydroxyoleanane-28(13-lactone (1 and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23α-tetrahydroxyoleanane-28(13- lactone (2 by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques, as well as chemical means. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against human ECA-109 cells.

  10. Two Novel Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Chen XIE; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named capilliposide C1 and capilliposide D 2 were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes, their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS techniques, and chemical methods. Capilliposide C showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  11. Semi-synthesis of Several Stigmasterol Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; GUO, Tian-Tian; WANG, Peng; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Several stigamasterol saponins were concisely synthesized. Namely, four monosaccharide (glucopyranose, galactopyranose, xylopyranose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranose), lactopyranose and chacotriose were coupled with 3-OH of stigmasterol. All the compounds were identified by NMR, IR and high resolusion MS.

  12. A new triterpenoid saponin from Clematis ganpiniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Qing He; Pei Gen Xiao; Yi Yu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, named clematiganoside A (1), was isolated from the whole plant of Clematis ganpiniana. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, TOF-MS and ESI-MS techniques, and physicochemical properties.

  13. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  14. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Meng, Xian-Jun; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS and NMR. Its cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using MTT assay.

  15. A cytotoxic saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kun; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Ru-Yi

    2006-08-01

    A new triterpenoidal saponin (1: Julibroside J(21)) with a xylopyranosyl moiety located at its C-21 side chain was isolated from Albizia julibrissin DURAZZ. (Leguminosae), and its structure was determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 showed marked inhibitory action against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 10 microg/ml.

  16. New oleanene triterpenoid saponins from Madhuca longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Arihara, S; Pal, B C; Roy, S K; Matsumura, E; Katayama, S

    2000-12-01

    Four new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, madlongisides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and chemical methods. Also obtained in this investigation were the known compounds mimusopside A, Mi-saponins A, B, and C, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl protobassic acid.

  17. A new triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; De Yun Kong; Ling Peng; Wei Dong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin,bacopaside Ⅸ,was isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.and its structure was elucidated as 3-0-{β-d-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)[α-1-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucop-yranosyl}-20-O-α-1-axabinopyranosyljujubogenin by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations.

  18. Modulation of the cellular immune response by a carbohydrate rich fraction from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in infected or immunized Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteis, S; Pirotto, F; Marqués, J; Nieto, A; Orn, A; Baz, A

    2001-01-01

    Infection of Balb/c mice with Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces constitutes the model for secondary hydatid infection. The immune response of Balb/c mice infected with E. granulosus is characterized by secretion of antibodies specific for carbohydrate epitopes and production of type-2 cytokines. A role for glycoconjugates in the induction of type-2 responses has been suggested in other host--parasite systems. Although glycoconjugates are immunogenic in E. granulosus infection, the role of these molecules in the establishment of the type-2 response has never been analysed. In this study, a carbohydrate rich fraction (E4+) from E. granulosus protoscoleces was obtained using the monoclonal antibody E492/G1 specific for the moiety Galalpha(1,4)Gal which is widely represented in protoscoleces and other E. granulosus antigenic preparations. The results showed that E4+ was immunogenic in Balb/c mice evoking an antibody response mainly directed against carbohydrate epitopes. In addition, splenocytes from E4+-immunized mice showed suppressed proliferative responses to Con A and E4+ induced IL-10 secretion by E4+-primed and naive splenocytes. The fraction E4+ also was immunogenic in infected mice during early infection. In this case also, splenocytes from infected mice as well as peritoneal cells from infected or naive mice, when stimulated in vitro with E4+, secreted IL-10. Collectively, these results suggest that E4+ may be involved in immunosuppression phenomena and, by stimulating IL-10 secretion, may contribute to the induction and sustaining of the type-2 cytokine response established in early experimental infection.

  19. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y C; Lin, C L; Chen, B H

    2010-12-15

    A preparative column chromatographic method was developed to isolate flavonoids and saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese Medicinal herb, and evaluate their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell Hep3B, with the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3) being used for comparison. Initially the powdered G. pentaphyllum was extracted with ethanol, followed by eluting flavonoids and saponins with ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) and 100% ethanol, respectively, in an open-column containing 5 g of Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN, and then subjected to HPLC-MS analysis. The flavonoid fraction was mainly composed of quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides, while in saponin fraction, both ginsenoside Rb(3) and ginsenoside Rd dominated. Both fractions were more effective against Hep3B cells than the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3), with the cell cycle being arrested at G0/G1 phase for all the treatments. Additionally, the inhibition effect followed a dose-dependent increase for all the sample treatments. The result of this study may be used as a basis for possible phytopreparations in the future with G. pentaphyllum as raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  1. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin.

  2. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bhari Talip

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF extracted from palm oil on the dentate gyrus of rats following exposure to chronic restraint stress. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, stress, tocotrienol and combination of stress and tocotrienol. Animals were stressed by restraining them for 5 hours every day for 21 consecutive days. TRF was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Our results showed that the plasma corticosterone level was significantly increased in response to stress, compared to the control. The results confirmed previous findings that chronic restraint stress suppresses cellular proliferation and reduces granule cell number in the dentate gyrus. However, TRF supplementation failed to prevent or minimize these stress-induced changes. Therefore, we conclude that TRF at the current dosage is not effective in preventing the morphological changes in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic restraint stress.

  3. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  4. Water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction from pineapple peel improves intestinal function in hamsters: evidence from cecal and fecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chow, Chau-Jen

    2014-04-01

    Pineapple peel, a byproduct of agricultural processing, contains high levels of water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction (WIFF) (~42%, wt/wt). Our previous work has demonstrated that cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and xyloglucan), and pectic substances are the major polysaccharides of pineapple-peel WIFF. Based on its chemical composition and unique characteristics, we hypothesized that daily consumption of WIFF would improve intestinal function in hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a diet supplemented with either 5% cellulose or various amounts of WIFF (2.5%, 5%, or 10%). Activities of fecal bacterial enzymes, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and microbial number in the cecal content, and also biochemical indicators in the cecal and feces of hamsters, were evaluated in all groups. The supplementation of WIFF in a diet at a level of 2.5% significantly (P pineapple-peel WIFF could be a promising candidate for a functional ingredient beneficial to human intestinal function and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe in a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Impellizzeri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  6. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Bergamot Juice (BJe) in a Mouse Model of Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Campolo, Michela; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Esposito, Emanuela; Benedetto, Filippo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  8. Effect of the Capsicoside G-rich Fraction from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds on High-fat Diet-induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jeehye; Jeong, Heon Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is one of the most common metabolic syndromes and is a major threat to human health worldwide. Given the size of this problem, there is growing interest in natural agents that may decrease obesity. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of a capsicoside G-rich fraction (CRF; 13.35% capsicoside G) isolated from pepper seeds in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), with or without CRF (HFD + CRF; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight). The body weight and food efficiency ratio of mice fed HFD + CRF were lower in comparison to that of mice fed only an HFD. Epididymal adipose tissue weight and adipocyte hypertrophy were significantly lower in HFD + CRF mice than in HFD mice. The fat deposition in the liver of mice fed HFD + CRF was lower compared to that of mice fed only an HFD. CRF significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the expression of key adipocyte differentiation regulators, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, and their target genes. These results suggest that CRF could be used as dietary therapy for the prevention of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of platelet-rich plasma, adipose-derived stem cells, and stromal vascular fraction on the survival of human transplanted adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Traditional adipose tissue transplantation has unpredictable viability and poor absorption rates. Recent studies have reported that treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) are related to increased survival of grafted adipose tissue. This study was the first simultaneous comparison of graft survival in combination with PRP, ASCs, and SVF. Adipose tissues were mixed with each other, injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice, and evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Human adipocytes were grossly maintained in the ASCs and SVF mixtures. Survival of the adipose tissues with PRP was observed at 4 weeks and with SVF at 8 and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, volume reduction in the ASCs and SVF mixtures were 36.9% and 32.1%, respectively, which were significantly different from that of the control group without adjuvant treatment, 51.0%. Neovascular structures were rarely observed in any of the groups. Our results suggest that the technique of adding ASCs or SVF to transplanted adipose tissue might be more effective than the conventional grafting method. An autologous adipose tissue graft in combination with ASCs or SVF may potentially contribute to stabilization of engraftment.

  10. Physicochemical properties of hull-less barley fibre-rich fractions varying in particle size and their potential as functional ingredients in two-layer flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, M S; Chornick, T L; Paulley, F G; Edwards, N M; Dexter, J E

    2008-05-15

    The performance of barley fibre-rich fractions (FRF), as high dietary fibre ingredients, in two-layer flat bread was investigated. In addition, the effects of particle size reduction by pin milling on functional properties of FRF were studied. FRF enriched in non-starch polysaccharides (β-glucans and arabinoxylans) were obtained by roller milling of hull-less barley. Pin milling (PM) of FRF significantly reduced their particle size, slightly increased the solubility of β-glucans and arabinoxylans, and increased the viscosity of water slurries containing FRF. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour significantly increased dough water absorption and weakened the dough properties, as indicated by farinograph mixing curves, but the FRF-enriched doughs exhibited good handling characteristics at the dividing and sheeting stages. The appearance, diameter, layer separation, crumb, and aroma of the FRF-enriched flat breads were comparable to that of the control. The PM of FRF did not significantly affect the dough handling or the quality characteristics of flat breads. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour flat bread provided substantial health benefits by significantly increasing the total and soluble dietary fibre contents and by decreasing starch digestibility.

  11. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  12. Statistical Time-Resolved Spectroscopy: A higher fraction of short-period binaries for metal-rich F-type dwarfs in SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hettinger, T; Strader, J; Bickerton, S J; Beers, T C

    2015-01-01

    Stellar multiplicity lies at the heart of many problems in modern astrophysics, including the physics of star formation, the observational properties of unresolved stellar populations, and the rates of interacting binaries such as cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and Type Ia supernovae. However, little is known about the stellar multiplicity of field stars in the Milky Way, in particular about the differences in the multiplicity characteristics between metal-rich disk stars and metal-poor halo stars. In this study we perform a statistical analysis of ~15,000 F-type dwarf stars in the Milky Way through time-resolved spectroscopy with the sub-exposures archived in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain absolute radial velocity measurements through template cross-correlation of individual sub-exposures with temporal baselines varying from minutes to years. These sparsely sampled radial velocity curves are analyzed using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain the very short-period binary fraction...

  13. Evaluation of foam properties of saponin from Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Scotti do Canto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds able to form abundant foam, a desirable quality required in some chemical, foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical processes. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae known as mate, is a South American widely cultivated specie due to the preparation of a tea-like beverage from its leaves. Moreover, its green fruits are a rich source of non-toxic and very low haemolytic saponins. In this study, mate saponin fraction (MSF was evaluated as a foam former, focusing on its foamability, foam lifetime, and film drainage in the presence of different electrolytes (ionic strength I = 0.024 M. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and polysorbate 80 (Poly-80 were used as reference surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC, the minimum attainable surface tension (γCMC, surface excess concentration (Γ and cross-section molecular surface (A values of MSF were comparable to those of Poly-80. The foamability of MSF and both reference surfactants was equivalent. The addition of MgCl2 resulted in a negative effect on MSF foamability. The salts NaCl, KBr, and KNO3 exhibited a negative influence on MSF foam lifetime. Similar behavior was observed for MSF film drainage (order of activity: Na2HPO4 > MgCl2 ≈ NaCl ≈ KNO3 > KBr, where a primary fast film drainage rate was followed by film thinning stabilization after around 5 min. The behavior described above seems to be uncorrelated to the solutions' zeta potential.As saponinas são compostos naturais capazes de formar espuma abundante, qualidade desejável exigida em alguns processos químicos, alimentícios, cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae, mais conhecida como mate, é uma espécie largamente cultivada devido ao consumo do chimarrão. Além disso, seus frutos verdes representam uma fonte rica de saponinas pouco tóxicas e pouco hemolíticas. Nesse trabalho avaliou-se a fração de saponinas de mate (MSF como formadora de espuma, com

  14. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  15. Management of knee osteoarthritis by combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nathan Gibbs,1 Rod Diamond,2 Eric O Sekyere,3 Wayne D Thomas4 1South Sydney Sports Medicine, Kensington, 2Diamond Health Care, Kensington, 3Endeavour College of Natural Health, Sydney, 4Cell-Innovations Pty Ltd, Liverpool, NSW, Australia Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis is associated with persistent joint pain, stiffness, joint deformities, ligament damage, and surrounding muscle atrophy. The complexity of the disease makes treatment difficult. There are no therapeutic drugs available to halt the disease progression, leaving patients dependent on pain medication, anti-inflammatory drugs, or invasive joint replacement surgery. Case presentations: Four patients with a history of unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were investigated for the therapeutic outcome of combining an exercise rehabilitation program with intra-articular injections of autologous StroMed (ie, stromal vascular fraction cells concentrated by ultrasonic cavitation from lipoaspirate and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS was administered along with physical function tests over a 12-month period. The first patient achieved a maximum therapeutic outcome of 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee, and 100 for four subscales (right knee. The second patient scored 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee, and greater than 84 in all subscales (right knee. Treatment of the third patient resulted in improved outcomes in both knees of >93 for four KOOS subscales, and 60 for the Function in Sport and Recreation subscale. The fourth patient improved to 100 in all five KOOS subscales. In all patients, the physical function “Get-up and Go” test and “Stair Climbing Test” returned to normal (a value of zero. Conclusion: This case series indicates that improved outcomes may be obtained when autologous stromal vascular fraction (StroMed cell therapy is combined with traditional exercise practices and PRP for

  16. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  17. Fructose rich diet differently affects angiotensin II receptors content in the nucleus and a plasma membrane fraction of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundalo, Maja; Djordjevic, Ana; Bursac, Biljana; Zivkovic, Maja; Koricanac, Goran; Stankovic, Aleksandra

    2017-08-03

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is proposed to be a pathophysiological link between adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic disorders induced by fructose rich diet (FRD). RAS can act intracellularly. We hypothesized that adipocytes nuclear membranes possess angiotensin receptors type 1 and type 2 (AT1R and AT2R) that couple to nuclear signaling pathways and regulate oxidative gene expression under the FRD. We analyzed the effect of nine-week consumption of 10% fructose solution on biochemical parameters, adipocyte morphology and expression of AT1R, AT2R, AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), NOX4, MMP-9, and MnSOD in adipose tissue of Wistar rats. We detected AT1R and AT2R in nuclear fraction. FRD decreased protein level of nuclear angiotensin receptors, while increased AT1R and decreased AT2R levels were observed at plasma membrane. FRD increased mRNA level of ATRAP, while MnSOD mRNA and protein levels were decreased. No significant differences were observed for MMP9 and NOX4 mRNA levels. These findings coincide with hyperleptinemia, elevated blood pressure and triglyceride level, as well as with unchanged visceral adipose tissue mass and morphology upon FRD. Besides providing evidence for nuclear localization of angiotensin receptors in visceral adipose tissue, this study also points to the different effect of FRD on AT1R expression in different cellular compartments. Elevated blood pressure and decreased antioxidative capacity in visceral fat of fructose fed rats were accompanied by an increased AT1R level in plasma membrane while upregulation of ATRAP and decrease of nuclear membrane AT1R suggest an increase in capacity for attenuation of excessive AT1R signaling and visceral adiposity.

  18. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  19. Characteristics of spermatozoa of whole ejaculate and sperm-rich fraction of dog semen following exposure to media varying in osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzezek, Rafał; Fraser, Leyland

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of different osmolalities on the characteristics of spermatozoa originating from whole ejaculates (WE; including the prostatic fluid) and the sperm-rich fractions (SRF). Ejaculates, collected from four mixed-breed dogs, were exposed for 10 min at room temperature to Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC) solution with osmolality ranging from 150 to 1100 mOsm. After treatment spermatozoa were evaluated by microscopic analysis of motility and fluorescent assessments of plasma membrane integrity (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, CFDA/PI) and mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123, R123). Irrespective of the sperm source, there was a complete loss of motility when spermatozoa were exposed to TFC solution with 1100 mOsm. There were no marked differences in the sperm characteristics between media with 300 and 350 mOsm, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure. However, a marked reduction in motility of spermatozoa retrieved either from the WE or SRF was observed after exposure to different anisosmotic conditions (150, 550 and 800 mOsm). In all dogs, spermatozoa from the WE exhibited greater osmotolerance in terms of plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function when exposed to anisosmotic conditions (150, 550, 800 and 1100 mOsm). There were inter-dog variations in response to various osmotic conditions. The findings of this study indicated that spermatozoa from the WE tolerated exposure to a wider range of osmolality than those from the SRF. It seemed that the presence of prostatic fluid of dog semen rendered the sperm membrane structures less susceptible to osmotic stress.

  20. Effects of administration of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich plasma to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.

  1. New Cytotoxic Saponins from Lysimachia davurica Ledeb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia davurica Ledeb., two new saponins named davuricoside I (compound 1) and E (compound 2) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 3β,16α, 28, 29-tetrihydroxy-olean-12-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1)and 3β,16α, 29-trihydroxy-13, 28-epoxy-oleanane-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 2) on the basis of their one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  2. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Kui TIAN; Zhong-Mei ZOU; Li-Zhen XU; Shi-Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., two new saponins, named capilliposide E (1) and capilliposide F (2), were isolated. The structures of the new sa ponins were elucidated as 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13 -lactone-oleanane-3 -O- [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinpyranoyl]-22-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13-1actone-oleanane-3-O- { [β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinpyranoyl }-22-O-βD-glucopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  3. Haemolytic micromethod for rapid estimation of toxic alfalfa saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On a plate covered with a thin layer of blood suspension with gelatine 10 microliters of alfalfa juice or alfalfa meal extract is spotted. As a result of saponin diffusion and their reaction with blood a haemolytic ring appears, the diameter of which is proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. Selected by this method low-saponin individual alfalfa plants proved non toxic for fishes and did not inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride.

  4. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byong-kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins re...

  5. ECLALBATIN, A TRITERPENE SAPONIN FROM ECLIPTA ALBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. UPADHYAY; M. B. PANDEY; R. N. JHA; V. B. PANDEY

    2001-01-01

    From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with α-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-β-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-0-β-D-arabino-pyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  6. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Lu, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, gypenbiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

  7. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong-Kyu Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins related to P. ginseng; >80 of them are isolated from raw or processed ginseng, and the others are acid/base hydrolysates, semisynthetic saponins, or metabolites.

  8. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  9. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  10. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  11. KRISTALISASI PELARUT SUHU RENDAH PADA PEMBUATAN FRAKSI KAYA VITAMIN E MENGANDUNG TOKOTRIENOL DARI DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgs Ahmadi1*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD is a by-product of physical refining of CPO (Crude Palm Oil in deodorization process. PFAD is a potential source of natural vitamin E, that besides tocopherol, also contains tocotrienol. Both have functions as antioxidant and vitamin. This research studied a method for obtaining vitamin E rich fraction that contained tocotrienol by low temperature hexane solvent crystallization. The elucidation factors were ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD(5:1, 6:1, and 7:1 and crystallization temperature (-20, -10, and 0°C. The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. The research showed that PFAD contains high tocotrienol. Low temperature solvent crystallization of unsaponifiable fraction gave 33.88% increase ofvitamin E concentration compared to control. Temperature and ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction affected enrichment of vitamin E in PFAD. Later, saponification increased vitamin E content in unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD. Enrichment of tocopherol was higher than that of tocotrienol, supposed as a result of improper separation process in crystallization stage. Modulation of Vitamin E concentration during saponification of PFAD increased antioxidant activity compared to unsaponifiable fraction. The best result was achieved at ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of 6:1 and crystallization temperature of -10°C.

  12. The structural elucidation of two new artificial steroidal saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Zhi Yu Liu; Ming Song Fan; Zhao Lin Sun; Wei Xin Jiang; Cheng Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Two novel steroidal saponins (timosaponin BⅢ-a,timosaponin BⅢ-b) together with a known steroidal saponin (timosaponin BⅡ-b) were prepared by the dilute acid hydrolysis of timosaponin BⅢ Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D,2D NMR and TOF-MS spectral analysis.

  13. Ruminal metabolism in sheep of saponins from Yucca schidigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flåøyen, A; Wilkins, A L; Sandvik, M

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-five mg per kg live weight of crystallized Yucca schidigera saponins, corresponding to 26 mg/kg live weight of sapogenins, was given daily intraruminally to two lambs for 11 consecutive days. Neither of the lambs showed any sign of toxicity throughout the experimental period. One lamb was killed 5 h after the last dose and GC-MS analysis of the free and conjugated sapogenin content samples of liver, and of the contents of the rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and rectum, of faecal samples collected before dosing started, and of parts of the administered Yucca saponin were performed. The Yucca material contained mainly sarsasapogenin and smilagenin saponins. Ingested saponins were quickly hydrolysed in the rumen to free sapogenins and, in part, epimerized at C-3 to afford episapogenins. The absorption of free sapogenins appeared to occur in the jejunum. The metabolism of Yucca saponins was identical to that of Narthecium ossifragum saponins, and it is suggested that Yucca saponins could replace N. ossifragum saponins for toxicity studies on the latter plant.

  14. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of steroidal saponin from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Yanke, L J; Cheeke, P R

    2000-05-01

    The effects of steroidal saponins (SAP) isolated from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal bacteria and fungi were investigated in pure culture studies. Prevotella bryantii, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Selenomonas ruminantium and Streptococcus bovis were cultured through ten 24-h transfers in ruminal fluid medium containing 0 or 25 microg SAP ml-1 (measured as smilagenin equivalents). The four strains, each non-exposed or pre-exposed to SAP, were then inoculated into medium containing 0 or 250 microgram smilagenin equivalents ml-1 and 24-h growth curves were determined. The cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Rc. albus were cultured for 72 h on Whatman no. 1 filter paper in medium containing 0, 9, 90 or 180 microgram SAP ml-1 for the determination of filter paper digestion and endoglucanase activity. The ruminal bacteria differed in their responses to SAP. Steroidal saponins in the medium reduced the growth of Strep. bovis (P 0.05) between pre-exposed and non-exposed cultures and the concentrations of total SAP and soluble (deglycosylated) SAP in the liquid fraction were unchanged (P > 0.05) over time. Steroidal saponins inhibited the digestion of filter paper by all three cellulolytic bacteria, but F. succinogenes was less (P schidigera inhibit cellulolytic ruminal bacteria and fungi, but their effects on amylolytic bacteria are species dependent and similar to the effects of ionophores. As such, SAP may be useful in nutritional applications targeting starch-digesting ruminal micro-organisms.

  16. Free Radicals Scavenging Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessoun Konaté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea traditional Burkinabe medicinal plants were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of type 2 diabetes. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antihypertensive potential and antilipidemia and antihyperglycemia activities in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been studied. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been evaluated using β-carotene-linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, chelation of iron (II ions, and lipid peroxidation which showed more pronounced antioxidant capacities of Trichilia emetica. Total cholesterol concentrations decreased in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus under effects of flavonoid-rich fractions from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been observed. Extract of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica shown maximum radical scavenging activity and possessed marked antiamylase activity which may be due to the presence of certain secondary metabolites. Suggested better antihyperglycemia, antilipidemia, and antihypertensive properties of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica compared to the extract of Opilia amentacea are demonstrating antidiabetic potential of Trichilia emetica as therapeutic targets for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  18. A Ta-rich low-P peraluminous granite: the Rechla cupola (Hoggar, Algeria) and associated pegmatites, the result of extreme fractionation of a A2-type magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesraoui, M.; Marignac, C.; Hamis, A.; Cuney, M.

    2012-04-01

    pronounced <0 Eu anomaly. Geochemical modelling shows that the main Rechla magma is likely the fractionated product of this already differentiated magma, mainly involving quartz and Kfs. The pegmatite rim is interpreted as the result of the sequential crystallization of a Rechla-type melt, with late individualisation of a Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal phase responsible for the quartz-zinnwaldite assemblage, leaving a strongly Be-enriched residual liquid (the fine-grained granite). As demonstrated by the Rechla occurrence, Ta concentration at levels similar to those in Beauvoir-type high-P peraluminous granites may be reached in the low-P low-Ta A2 suites, provided that extreme fractionation processes are established. Azzouni-Sekkal, A., Boissonnas, J. (1993). Une province magmatique de transition du calco-alcalin à l'alcalin : les granitoïdes pan-africains à structure annulaire de la chaîne pharusienne du Hoggar (Algérie). Bulletin Société Géologique France 164, 597-608. Linnen, R.L., Cuney, M. (2005). Granite-related rare-element deposits and experimental constraints on Ta-Nb-W-Sn-Zr-Hf mineralization. In: RL Linnen, IM Samson (eds), Rare-element geochemistry and mineral deposits, Geological Association of Canada (GAC) Short Course Notes 17, pp. 45-67.

  19. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  20. Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Min Zhu; Ping Xie; Ying-Tong Di; Shu-Lin Peng; Li-Sheng Ding; Ming-Kui Wang

    2008-01-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 β-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)-β.D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 β,21 β,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOHIH2O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  1. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xu-Min; Xie, Ping; Di, Ying-Tong; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2008-05-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 beta-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 beta,21 beta,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOH/H(2)O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  2. Two new saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Peng; Yu Jing Zhang; Zhi Qiang Ma; Wei San Pan; Yu Qing Sun; Shao Jiang Song

    2007-01-01

    Two new saponins 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-mannopyranosyl sarsasapogenin, named timosaponin A Ⅳ(1) and(5β, 25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furost-20(22)-en-3,26-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→ 4) glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-galacopyranoside, named timosaponin B Ⅳ(2), were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Their structures were elucidated by chemical characters and spectroscopic analysis.

  3. A triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y Y; Tu, G Z; Guo, D A; Zhang, R Y; Zheng, J H

    1999-01-01

    A triterpenoid saponin (1) was obtained from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-2, 7-octadienoyl]-16-deoxy-acacic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), named as Julibroside J26, based on the chemical and spectral methods.

  4. Textures and mineral compositions of the Xinjie layered intrusion, SW China: Implications for the origin of magnetite and fractionation process of Fe-Ti-rich basaltic magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Dong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xinjie layered intrusion in the Panxi region, SW China, hosts both Fe-Ti oxide and platinum-group element (PGE sulfide mineralization. The intrusion can be divided, from the base upward, into Units I, II and III, in terms of mineral assemblages. Units I and II are mainly composed of wehrlite and clinopyroxenite, whereas Unit III is mainly composed of gabbro. PGE sulfide-rich layers mainly occur in Unit I, whereas thick Fe-Ti oxide-rich layers mainly occur in Unit III. An ilmenite-rich layer occurs at the top of Unit I. Fe-Ti oxides include magnetite and ilmenite. Small amounts of cumulus and intercumulus magnetite occur in Units I and II. Cumulus magnetite grains are commonly euhedral and enclosed within olivine and clinopyroxene. They have high Cr2O3 contents ranging from 6.02 to 22.5 wt.%, indicating that they are likely an early crystallized phase from magmas. Intercumulus magnetite that usually displays ilmenite exsolution occupies the interstices between cumulus olivine crystals and coexists with interstitial clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Intercumulus magnetite has Cr2O3 ranging from 1.65 to 6.18 wt.%, lower than cumulus magnetite. The intercumulus magnetite may have crystallized from the trapped liquid. Large amounts of magnetite in Unit III contains Cr2O3 (<0.28 wt.% much lower than magnetite in Units I and II. The magnetite in Unit III is proposed to be accumulated from a Fe-Ti-rich melt. The Fe-Ti-rich melt is estimated to contain 35.9 wt.% of SiO2, 26.9 wt.% of FeOt, 8.2 wt.% of TiO2, 13.2 wt.% of CaO, 8.3 wt.% of MgO, 5.5 wt.% of Al2O3 and 1.0 wt.% of P2O5. The composition is comparable with the Fe-rich melts in the Skaergaard and Sept Iles intrusions. Paired non-reactive microstructures, granophyre pockets and ilmenite-rich intergrowths, are representative of Si-rich melt and Fe-Ti-rich melt, and are the direct evidence for the existence of an immiscible Fe-Ti-rich melt that formed from an evolved ferro-basaltic magma.

  5. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  6. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, H; van der Tuuk Adriani, WPA; van de Ven, LI; Bosch, EH; de Natris, T; Sibinga, CTS

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions wi

  7. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  8. Saponins from Cephalaria aristata C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Gülcemal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One new oleanane-type saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 was isolated from the MeOH extract of whole plant parts of Cephalaria aristata C. Koch along with three known oleanane-type saponins (2-4, 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-( β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6- β -D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4- β -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin and 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin respectively, (5-7, oleanolic acid (5, β -amyrin (6 and 20 β -hydroxyursolic acid (7 and one sterol glucoside (8, 29-hydroxystigmast-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyde. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analysis.

  9. Steroidal saponins of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, W; Sitek, M; Stochmal, A; Piacente, S; Pizza, C; Cheeke, P

    2001-09-01

    Eight steroidal saponins have been isolated from Yucca schidigera Roezl. trunk, and their structures were established by spectral (MS and NMR) techniques. These included three novel furostanol glycosides including 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furost-20(22)-en-3 beta,26-diol-12-one 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and five known spirostanol glycosides. On the basis of the extraction efficiency, furostanol glycosides made up only 6.8% of total saponins isolated.

  10. Saponinas antifúngicas de Swartzia langsdorffii Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Regina de Marqui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-b-D-(6'-methyl-glucopyranosyl-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  11. Aguamiel concentrate from Agave salmiana and its extracted saponins attenuated obesity and hepatic steatosis and increased Akkermansia muciniphila in C57BL6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Noriega, Lilia G.; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Torres, Nimbe; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; López-Romero, Patricia; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Ordáz, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet. Additionally, mice fed the saponin extract exhibited a reduced HOMA index and hepatic lipid levels and increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Saponins increased white adipose tissue browning, AMPK phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle and energy expenditure in mice fed the HF diet. These metabolic changes were accompanied by an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut microbiota. Therefore, Agave salmiana saponins can be an alternative to attenuate the metabolic changes that accompany obesity. PMID:27678062

  12. Photoprotection by Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsion entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction against UVB-induced DNA damage in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Ramos, David; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-01

    There has been an increase in the use of botanicals as skin photoprotective agents. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is well known for its high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to analyze the photoprotection provided by P. granatum seed oil nanoemulsion entrapping the polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction against UVB-induced DNA damage in the keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. For this purpose, HaCaT cells were pretreated for 1h with nanoemulsions in a serum-free medium and then irradiated with UVB (90-200 mJ/cm(2)) rays. Fluorescence microscopy analysis provided information about the cellular internalization of the nanodroplets. We also determined the in vitro SPF of the nanoemulsions and evaluated their phototoxicity using the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test. The nanoemulsions were able to protect the cells' DNA against UVB-induced damage in a concentration dependent manner. Nanodroplets were internalized by the cells but a higher proportion was detected along the cell membrane. The SPF obtained (~25) depended on the concentration of the ethyl acetate fraction and pomegranate seed oil in the nanoemulsion. The photoprotective formulations were classified as non-phototoxic. In conclusion, nanoemulsions entrapping the polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction show potential for use as a sunscreen product.

  13. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 μM) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 μM).

  14. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Qiao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Rui-Ping; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins and two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reaction as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostan-12-one-3beta,22 alpha,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostan-22-methoxy-2 alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-gentiobioside (3), and isorhamnetin-3-gentiobioside (4).

  15. Saponins and flavonoids of Allium triquetrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2003-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the flowers and bulbs of Allium triquetrum has been undertaken, leading to the isolation of five new furostanol saponins, triquetrosides A1/A2 (1a/1b), B (3), and C1/C2 (4a/4b), from the flowers, along with ascalonisides A1/A2 (6a/6b). The 22-O-methyl derivatives of triquetrosides A1/A2 (2a and 2b) and C1/C2 (5a and 5b) were also isolated, but they are considered extraction artifacts. Large amounts of seven kaempferol glycosides, of which one (7) has a new structure, were also isolated from both flowers and bulbs. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  16. Synthesis of Two Natural Oleanolic Acid Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; ZANG, Jing; WANG, Peng; ZHANG, Xiu-Li; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China3-O-[β-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester 1 was synthesized concisely by a convergent strategy. Using stepwise fashion for the synthesis of saponin 2,3-O-{ [β-D-glucopyranosyl-( 1→ 2 ) ]-[ α-L-arabinopyranosyl-( 1→ 3 ) ]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl }-oleanolic acid-28-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester, an abnormal phenomenon, that the terminal arabinosyl residue took the 1C4 conformation instead of typical 4C1 form, was observed. Deprotection or heating could not resume the normal conformation,which resulted in the product of 2' not 2.

  17. Three new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Chen, Xia; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-6-O-((3S)-3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)][β-D-6-O-((3S)-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,16α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses and chemical degradations.

  18. Iridoid enriched fraction from Ajuga iva reduce cholesterolemia, triacylglycerolemia and increase the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Marie A. Lacaille-Dubois; Josiane Prost; Sherazede Bouderbala; Malika Bouchenak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of iridoid (I) derived from lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, enzyme responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24) weighing 120±5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. After this phase, the hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups fed the same diet and received or...

  19. A new triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tun-Hai; Li, Hai-Tao; Xu, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Hong-Feng; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Han, Dong; Si, Yun-Shan; Li, Yu; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A new triterpenoid, saponin hehuanoside A, was isolated together with the known triterpenoid saponins 2, 3, and 4 from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. With the help of chemical and spectral analyzes (IR, MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR), the structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was elucidated as 21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-d-quinovopyranosyl-2,7-octadienoyl]-3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-fucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-d-2-deoxy-2-acetamidoglucopyrasyl acacic acid 28-O-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1). Three known triterpenoid saponins 2-4 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  20. Bacoside A3--a triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S; Pal, R; KulshreshthaDK

    1994-05-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, bacoside A3, a constituent of bacosides the saponin mixture of Bacopa monniera, was isolated and characterized. Its structure was established as 3-beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-O- [alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->2) ]O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]jujubogenin by chemical and spectral analyses. The cis-isomer of ebelin lactone was also obtained as one of the artefacts of the aglycone and its structure revised.

  1. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination...... in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line....

  2. Identification of a novel small cysteine-rich protein in the fraction from the biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 that mitigates Fusarium wilt symptoms and triggers defense responses in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Shcherbakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol effect of the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP, which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed.

  3. Identification of a Novel Small Cysteine-Rich Protein in the Fraction from the Biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum Strain CS-20 that Mitigates Fusarium Wilt Symptoms and Triggers Defense Responses in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Larisa A.; Odintsova, Tatyana I.; Stakheev, Alexander A.; Fravel, Deborah R.; Zavriev, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    The biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. PMID:26779237

  4. [Steroidal saponins from the plant Agave brittoniana with activity against the parasite Trichomona vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, José Orestes; Meneses, Alfredo; Simonet, Ana María; Macías, Francisco Antonio; Nogueiras, Clara; Gómez, Alicia; Escario, José A

    2008-12-01

    The genus Agave (Agavaceae), includes more than 300 species; around 16 of them show an homogeneous distribution throughout Cuba. Agave brittoniana (ssp. brachypus), is an endemic subspecies that grows in the central region of the country and its leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of parasitic diseases. The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the disease known as trichomoniasis, that infects the genital tract. To test in vitro the plant against Trichomona vaginalis, the dried and powdered leaves were extracted three times with ethanol-water (7:3) by maceration at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the extract was suspended in distilled water, defatted with n-hexane, and extracted with water-saturated n-butanol. After solvent removal, a portion of the n-butanol extract was hydrolyzed. After extraction with ethyl acetate the hydrolysis products were compared with authentic sapogenins samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the sapogenins (yuccagenin and diosgenin) were isolated and their structures were confirmed. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The n-butanol extract was subjected to a separation process through column chromatography to obtain five fractions. After multiple separation processes by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the most active one produced one refined fraction that contained two saponins with the same aglycone (diosgenin) and one yuccagenin based saponin. Best results of the activity were obtained with the yuccagenin derived glycoside.

  5. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  6. Manipulation of Rumen Microbial Fermentation by Polyphenol Rich Solvent Fractions from Papaya Leaf to Reduce Green-House Gas Methane and Biohydrogenation of C18 PUFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Saeid; Meng, Goh Yong; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    Different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) were used to identify the effect of papaya leaf (PL) fractions (PLFs) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and ruminal methanogenesis in an in vitro study. PLFs at a concentration of 0 (control, CON) and 15 mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and were incubated for 24 h. Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) was the highest (P < 0.05) for CON (7.65) and lowest for the chloroform fraction (5.41) compared to those of other PLFs at 24 h of incubation. Acetate to propionate ratio was the lowest for PLFs compared to that of CON. Supplementation of the diet with PLFs significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), and C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid; LNA) compared to that of CON after 24 h of incubation. Real time PCR indicated that total protozoa and total methanogen population in PLFs decreased (P < 0.05) compared to those of CON.

  7. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction from Larrea divaricata and its Main Flavonoid Quercetin-3-Methyl Ether Induce Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells Through Nitrosative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Renzo; Arcos, María Laura Barreiro; Alonso, Rosario; Sülsen, Valeria; Cremaschi, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Larrea divaricata is a plant with antiproliferative principles. We have previously identified the flavonoid quercetin-3-methyl ether (Q-3-ME) in an ethyl acetate fraction (EA). Both the extract and Q-3-ME were found to be effective against the EL-4 T lymphoma cell line. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation remains to be elucidated. In this work, we analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of apoptosis mediated by Q-3-ME and EA. Both treatments were able to induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. The western blot analysis revealed a sequential activation of caspases-9 and 3, followed by poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase cleavage. EA and Q-3-ME lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential, showing the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Q-3-ME and EA increased NO production and inducible NO synthase expression in tumor cells. The involvement of NO in cell death was confirmed by the nitric oxide synthases inhibitor L-NAME. In addition, EA and Q-3-ME induced a cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. These drugs did not affect normal cell viability. This data suggested that EA and Q-3-ME induce an increase in NO production that would lead to the cell cycle arrest and the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Iridoid enriched fraction from Ajuga iva reduce cholesterolemia, triacylglycerolemia and increase the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A. Lacaille-Dubois

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of iridoid (I derived from lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity, enzyme responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24 weighing 120±5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. After this phase, the hypercholesterolemic (HC rats were divided into groups fed the same diet and received or not doses (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg b.w by intraperitoneal injection of iridoid for 15 days. Results: Compared to HC group, serum total cholesterol value was 1.4- and 1.2-fold lower in the I5-HC and I10-HC groups. C-HDL2 and C-HDL3 values were increased in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups (3.2- and 4-, 2.2- and 4.2-, and 3.2- and 8.7-fold, respectively. HDL2 amounts were 4-, 4- and 2.5-fold higher in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups. In HDL3, phospholipids contents were similar, whereas, unesterified cholesterol values were 3.3-, 2.8- and 3-fold higher in the I5-HC, I10-HC and I15-HC groups. In HDL2, cholesteryl esters contents were significantly higher in the groups treated with iridoid (p<0.05. LCAT activity was increased in the I5-HC and I10-HC groups. Conclusion: Treatment with iridoid at doses 5 or 10mg/kg b.w reduce cholesterolemia. These molecules act efficiently on the efflux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver by increasing LCAT activity. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 55-60

  10. Changes in serum cytokine levels, hepatic and intestinal morphology in aflatoxin B1-induced injury: modulatory roles of melatonin and flavonoid-rich fractions from Chromolena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinmade, Fadeyemi Joseph; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen; Amid, Adetayo

    2016-05-01

    Aflatoxins are known to produce chronic carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects, as well as acute inflammatory effects, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The potentials of the flavonoid-rich extract from Chromolena odorata (FCO) and melatonin (a standard anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and morphology of liver and small intestines were evaluated in this study. We utilized Wistar albino rats (200-230 g) randomly divided into five groups made up of group A, control rats; group B, rats given AFB1 (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice on days 5 and 7; rats in groups C, D, and E were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or oral doses of FCO1 (50 mg/kg) and FCO2 (100 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively, along with AFB1 injection on days 5 and 7. Serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined using commercial ELISA kits and histopathological evaluation of the liver, duodenum, and ileum were also carried out. We observed significant elevation (p Melatonin and FCO2 produced considerable protection of hepatic tissues, although melatonin was not quite effective in protecting the intestinal lesions. Our findings suggest a modulation of cytokine expression that may, in part, be responsible for the abilities of C. odorata or melatonin in amelioration of hepatic and intestinal lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 injury.

  11. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  12. Review: Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; XIAO Chen-wen; ARIJO Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines,ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc.,are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed.

  13. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  14. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-22

    of the publishers only Planta Medica Journal of Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research www.thieme.de/fz/plantamedica l www.thieme-connect.com...insecticidal activity of compounds 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9. Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e...Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e au th or ʼs pe rs on al re pr in t Th is is a co py of th

  15. Steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum sendtenerianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Mimaki, Y; Motidome, M; Morita, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    2000-12-01

    Five steroidal saponins were isolated from the EtOH extract of Cestrium sendtenerianum (Solanaceae), as confirmed by detailed analysis of their 1H, 13C, and two-dimensional NMR spectral data, and by the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The saponins were revealed to contain three hydroxyl groups at the C-1beta, C-2alpha, and C-3beta positions in the spirostanol skeleton, and to bear a di- or triglycoside at C-3 as the common structural features. One of the compounds, a spirostanol triglycoside, showed weak cytotoxic activity on HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, with an IC50 value of 7.7 microg/ml.

  16. Identification of environmentally stable QTLs controlling Saponin content in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Masayoshi; Tojo, Yuka; Yamada, Naohiro; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content. Major QTLs in the hypocotyl were identified on chromosome 5 near the SSR marker, Satt 384, while those in the cotyledon were on chromosome 6 near Sat_312, which is linked to the T and E1 loci. Our results suggest that saponin contents in the hypocotyl and cotyledon are controlled by different genes and that it is difficult to increase the beneficial group B saponin and to decrease the undesirable group A saponin at the same time.

  17. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Arabski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are detergent-like substances showing antibacterial as well as anticancer potential. In this study, the effects of saponins from Quillaja saponaria were analyzed against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Multidrug-resistant clinical E. coli strains were isolated from human urine. As eukaryotic cells, the CHO-K1 cell lines were applied. Antibacterial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin in the presence of saponins was measured by cultivation methods. Properties of saponins against CHO-K1 cells were measured by the MTT test, hemolysis assay and flow cytometry. Saponin from Quillaja saponaria has a cytotoxic effect at concentrations higher than 25 μg/mL and in the range of 12–50 μg/mL significantly increases the level of early apoptotic cells. Saponin at dose of 12 μg/mL enhances the six E. coli strains growth. We postulate that saponins increase the influx of nutrients from the medium into E. coli cells. Saponins do not have synergetic effects on antibacterial action of tested antibiotics. In contrary, in the presence of saponins and antibiotics, more CFU/mL E. coli cells were observed. This effect was similar to saponins action alone towards E. coli cells. In conclusion, saponins was cytotoxic against CHO-K1 cells, whereas against E. coli cells this effect was not observed.

  18. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  19. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated.

  20. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  1. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the

  2. A New Saponin Transformed from Ginsenoside Rhl by Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong LI; Yue Mao SHEN; Ke Qin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A novel saponin was isolated from the transformed products of ginsenoside Rh1 by Bacillus subtilis. It's structure was determined to be 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxatriol on the basis of the spectral data.

  3. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Cesdiurins I-III, steroidal saponins from Cestrum diurnum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mostafa A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Kamel, Mohamed S; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of leaves of Cestrum diurnum L (Solanaceae) resulted in isolation of several furostanol steroidal saponins, named cesdiurins I-III (1-3). Their structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques as well as by mass spectral analyses.

  5. Steroidal saponins from the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga, Elier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Amaro-Luis, Juan Manuel; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Pouységu, Laurent; Quideau, Stéphane; Rojas, Luis B; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-12-01

    Seven spirostane and furostane-type glycosides were isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum and characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These known saponins belong to the delta5-spirostene and delta5-furostene series and are reported in this species for the first time.

  6. Triterpenes acids and saponins isolated from Licania arianeae Prance (Chrysobalanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Cândido, Lucilene Faustina de Oliveira; da Costa, Patrícia Miranda; do Nascimento, Ildomar Alves; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2008-07-01

    From the leaves and wood of Licania arianeae, ten known compounds were isolated and identified. They belong to pharmacological active triterpenes acids, including three oleanoic acids, five ursane acids, and two triterpenes saponin acids. Their structures were established by analysis of infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of natural triterpenes and of methyl acetyl derivatives.

  7. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  8. New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 黄晓君; 王磊; 王艳梅; 王英; 叶文才

    2012-01-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins (1-5), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the rhi- zomes of Anemone amurensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Compounds 2-4 are three novel sulfated oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides.

  9. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCO...

  10. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  11. Quality of boar spermatozoa from the sperm-peak portion of the ejaculate after simplified freezing in MiniFlatpacks compared to the remaining spermatozoa of the sperm-rich fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, A P; Wallgren, M; Hossain, M S; Johannisson, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2011-04-15

    Boar sperm viability post-thaw differs depending on the ejaculate fraction used, with spermatozoa present in the first 10 mL of the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) (portion 1, P1, sperm-peak portion) displaying the best cryosurvival in vitro compared with that of spermatozoa from the rest of the ejaculate (portion 2 of the SRF plus the post-spermatic fraction), even when using simplified freezing routines. This viability apparently relates to the specific profile of seminal plasma in P1 (i.e., glycoprotein and bicarbonate concentrations, and pH). However, spermatozoa from P1 have not been compared with spermatozoa from the rest of the SRF (SRF-P1, usually 30-40 mL of the SRF), which is routinely used for freezing. We compared P1 with SRF-P1 in terms of sperm kinematics (using the QualiSperm™ system), while membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC PNA/PI), and sperm membrane stability (Annexin-V) were explored using flow cytometry. As well, total protein concentration and the proteomics of the seminal plasma (SP) of both portions of the SRF were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), mass fingerprinting (MALDI-TOF), and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) on selected peptides. The SRF portions were collected weekly from four mature boars (4-5 replicates per boar, sperm concentration: P1, 1.86 ± 0.20; SRF-P1, 1.25 ± 0.14 × 10(9) spz/mL) and processed using a quick freezing method in MiniFlatPacks. Post-thaw sperm motility reached 50%, without differences between SRF portions, but with clear inter-boar variation. Neither plasma membrane nor acrosome integrity differed (ns) between fractions. These results indicate that there are no differences in cryosurvival after quick freezing of boar spermatozoa derived from either of the two SRF portions. While P1 and SRF-P1 clearly differed in relative total protein contents, as expected, they displayed very similar protein profiles as assessed using 2DE and mass

  12. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  13. Determination of steroidal saponins in different organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2008-06-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are perennial trailing rhizome plants. Steroidal saponins, furostanol and spirostanol glycosides are the marked functional compounds in yams. In this investigation, a C18 solid phase extraction method was developed for yam saponins purification. The contents of saponins in various organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) were also determined. Results showed that the recoveries of yam saponins extracted by the developed method were about 99.48-100.08% when the saponins (each saponin weighed 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00mg) passing through the C18 cartridge. The extractive method could efficiently reduce the interferences from impurities in yam saponin extracts prior to HPLC analysis. The recoveries of added saponins in different yam organs were 98.34-99.92% for tuber flesh, 95.98-98.89% for tuber cortex, 97.89-99.44% for rhizophor, 93.82-98.01% for leaf and 93.87-97.65% for vine, respectively. The yam tuber cortex had the highest amount of saponins (582.53μg/gdw), which was higher than that existed in the tuber flesh (227.86μg/gdw) about 2.55 times. The contents of saponins in the rhizophor, leaf and vine of yam were 29.39, 24.41 and 23.96μg/gdw, respectively. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The isoflavone-rich fraction of the crude extract of the Puerariae flower increases oxygen consumption and BAT UCP1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Nagamine, Rika; Sameshima-Kamiya, Mayu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya

    2012-08-12

    Puerariae flower extract (PFE) is a crude extract of the Kudzu flower. Previous studies have shown that PFE supplementation exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-fed mice. In this study, we aimed to identify the PFE components responsible for these effects and to determine their influence on energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Experiments were conducted on C57BL/6J male mice classified into 3 groups: (1) high-fat diet-fed (HFD), (2) high-fat diet-fed given PFE (HFD + PFE), and (3) high-fat diet-fed given the PFE isoflavone-rich fraction (HFD + ISOF). All groups were fed for 42 days. The HFD + PFE and HFD + ISOF groups showed significant resistance to increases in body weight, hepatic triglyceride level, and visceral fat compared to the HFD group. These groups also exhibited significant increases in oxygen consumption and UCP1-positive brown adipose tissue (BAT) area. Our results demonstrate that the active ingredients in PFE are present in the ISOF and that these compounds may increase energy expenditure by upregulation of BAT UCP1 expression. These findings provide valuable information regarding the anti-obesity effects of isoflavones.

  15. Profiles of steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Tribulus pentandrus, T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus and T. parvispinus by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Arafa I; Janda, Bogdan; Mahalel, Usama A; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Tribulus is a well-known pharmaceutical herb that has been used for a long time in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It has been found that the genus Tribulus is rich in biologically active furostane-, cholestane- and spirostane-type steroidal saponins. To develop a rapid, sensitive and accurate method based on liquid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) to identify different saponins in three species of the genus Tribulus, and to quantify the compounds that are already known. After extraction from the species studied, the extracts were subjected to HPLC analyses with an XTerra® MS C(18) -column and a binary mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, and with an ESI-MS detection in the negative ion mode. Data were acquired and processed using the Xcalibur 1.3 software. The results exhibited that the profiles of native steroidal glycosides of both T. pentandrus and T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus were very similar to each other, but that of T. parvispinus was remarkably different. The fragmentation patterns provided evidence that the saponins possess spirostane-, cholestane- and furostane-type aglycones. Quantitative analyses suggested that these species are a rich source of steroidal saponins. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of the key compounds without preparative isolation of the components from the crude extract of Tribulus species. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Saisai; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhou, Wenjun

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils.

  17. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  18. Effect of Quillaja saponaria saponins and Yucca schidigera plant extract on growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Makkar, H P; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    1998-07-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was exposed to Quillaja saponaria saponins from various commercial firms (Sigma, Roth and Nor-feed) and to an extract of Yucca schidigera plant powder (DK Sarsaponin 30) at different concentrations (0.05-1.0% w/v). A concentration-dependent response was observed. Quillaja saponaria saponins from Sigma increased growth up to 0.1% (w/v) level, whereas Nor-feed and Roth saponins produced maximum growth at a much higher level (0.5 and 0.75%, w/v, respectively). These results suggest that quillaja saponins from various sources differ in their biological activity, although all three saponins had the same content of vanillin-sulphuric acid reactive moieties. The lyophilized water extract from the DK Sarsaponin powder showed maximum growth at 0.1% (w/v) level. The levels at which maximum growth was observed did not change on subjecting the quillaja or yucca saponins to heat treatment in an autoclave (121 degrees C for 30 min). All the saponins and the plant extract increased growth of Escherichia coli up to a certain concentration and thereafter decreased growth. In spite of the decreased growth at higher levels of saponins, it was higher compared to the control (without saponin) up to levels of 1% (w/v) for all saponins except Quillaja saponins from Sigma, for which the growth was lower at levels of 0.25% (w/v) and higher. Saponins have the potential to modulate microbial growth in natural and artificial fermenters.

  19. Icogenin, a new cytotoxic steroidal saponin isolated from Dracaena draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

    2004-08-15

    This paper reports on the cytotoxic effect induced by a new natural steroidal saponin, icogenin, on the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Icogenin was found to be a cytotoxic compound IC(50) 2.6+/-0.9microM at 72h, with growth inhibition caused by the induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes and the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

  20. Two Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new steroidal saponins, named drangustosides A–B (1–2, together with eight known compounds 3–10 were isolated and characterized from the MeOH extract of Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-inflammatory activity by superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB.

  1. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities.

  2. A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin

    2010-01-01

    One new dammarane-type triterpene saponin, named (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene 3-O[α-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(l→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, NMR.

  3. Three anti-tumor saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2006-05-15

    Three new triterpenoid saponins, julibroside J(29) (1), julibroside J(30) (2), and julibroside J(31) (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) by using chromatographic method. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 displayed significant anti-tumor activities in vitro against PC-3M-1E8, HeLa, and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines at 10microM assayed by SRB and MTT methods.

  4. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-9(11),12-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2).

  5. Atomic Model and Micelle Dynamics of QS-21 Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Pedebos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available QS-21 is a saponin extracted from Quillaja saponaria, widely investigated as a vaccine immunoadjuvant. However, QS-21 use is mainly limited by its chemical instability, significant variety in molecular composition and low tolerance dose in mammals. Also, this compound tends to form micelles in a concentration-dependent manner. Here, we aimed to characterize its conformation and the process of micelle formation, both experimentally and computationally. Therefore, molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed in systems containing different numbers of QS-21 molecules in aqueous solution, in order to evaluate the spontaneous micelle formation. The applied methodology allowed the generation of micelles whose sizes were shown to be in high agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. Furthermore, the ester linkage between fucose and acyl chain was less solvated in the micellar form, suggesting a reduction in hydrolysis. This is the first atomistic interpretation of previous experimental data, the first micellar characterization of saponin micelles by SAXS and first tridimensional model of a micelle constituted of saponins, contributing to the understanding of the molecular basis of these compounds.

  6. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  7. Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik dan Degradabilitas Serat pada Pakan yang Disuplementasi Tanin dan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Muthiah Dwi Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT. The study was conducted to assess the effect of the addition of tannins, saponin and their combinations on the feed, as defaunation agent in the dry matter and organic matter digestibility and ADF, NDF degradability. The study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 : feed without supplementation; T1: feed supplementation with 1,2% saponin; T2 : feed with supplemetation combined of 0,5% tannin and 0,9% saponin; T3 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,0% tannin and 0,6% saponin; T4 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin and T5 : feed with supplementation with 2% tannins. The result showed that DMD and OMD increased with treatment added combination  of tannin and saponin.  The best result for DMD and OMD in combination of  1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin.  Degradability of ADF and NDF was decreased on the supplemented feed.  The addition of a combination of tannins and saponins in the feed at dose of 1% tannin and 0.6% saponin showed the best result that increased of DMD and OMD and give good value on NDF and ADF degradability.

  8. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w. The foaming power of the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1% of 0.5% SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  9. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fen Chen; Ming-Shiang Chang; Yong-Ping Ciou; Yu-Chun Huang; Chao-Hsun Yang

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5% c...

  10. Foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-11-04

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  11. Ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction of tea saponin%超声-微波协同辅助萃取茶皂素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 马朝阳; 娄在祥; 王洪新

    2013-01-01

    采用超声-微波协同辅助萃取脱脂油茶籽粕中的茶皂素.在单因素试验的基础上,固定超声波功率50 W,萃取次数2次,以乙醇体积分数、料液比、微波功率和萃取时间为影响因素,茶皂素得率为指标,正交试验进行优化,最终确定的茶皂素萃取工艺条件为:乙醇体积分数50%,料液比1∶10,微波功率600W,超声波功率50 W,萃取时间150 s,萃取次数2次.在此条件下,茶皂素得率为(17.43±0.13)%,纯度为67.12%.%The ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction of tea saponin from defatted oil-tea camellia seed meal was studied.Fixing ultrasonic power 50 W and extraction times twice,the influences of ethanol volume fraction,ratio of solid to liquid,microwave power and extraction time on tea saponin yield were investigated by othorgonal experiment on the basis of single factor experiment.The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions of tea saponin were as follows:ethanol volume fraction 50%,ratio of solid to liquid 1∶ 10,microwave power 600 W,ultrasonic power 50 W,extraction time 150 s,extraction times twice.Under these conditions,the tea saponin yield was (17.43 ±0.13)% and the purity was 67.12%.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC0-t) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ((a)F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10(-6)cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption.

  13. 超声波-表面活性剂协同萃取苦瓜皂苷%Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction of saponins from balsam pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 葛邦国; 宋烨; 李丹丹; 马晓燕; 吴茂玉

    2013-01-01

    Balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.), a climber belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, is commonly known as bitter gourd or bitter melon in English. It is cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. Balsam pear has been used traditionally as medicine in developing countries. Some of its common uses in most countries are for diabetes, a carminative and in treatment of colics. Topically it is used for treatment of wounds, internally as well as externally for management of worms and parasites. It is also used as emmenagogue, antiviral for measles and hepatitis. Balsam pear contains biologically active chemicals that include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixedoils, triterpenes. Saponins from all parts of the plant (fruit pulp, seed, leaves and whole plant) are most widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic effect. Ultrasound and surfactants have been individually shown to enhance saponins extraction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound and surfactants on saponins extraction. In order to explore effective extracting method of saponins from balsam pear, response surface was used to study the effect of ultrasonic power (133-167 W/g), ethanol volume fraction (60%-80%) and mass concentrations of SDS (15-25 mg/mL) on extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear. Ultrasound-surfactant synergistic extraction was compared with ethanol and ultrasound, respectively. The structures of the prepared saponins from balsam pear were identified. Results showed that the established model of extraction could well predict extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear under different conditions. Extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by ultrasonic power, ethanol volume fraction and mass concentrations of SDS, and there was synergistic effect between ultrasonic power and the mass concentration of SDS. Various factors affecting extraction rate of saponins from balsam pear in a

  14. First-in-man intraglandular implantation of stromal vascular fraction and adipose-derived stem cells plus platelet-rich plasma in irradiation-induced gland damage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Kristin; Bell, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a mixture of cells which can be isolated from a mini-lipoaspirate of fat tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a mixture of growth factors and other nutrients which can be obtained from peripheral blood. Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) can be isolated from fat tissue and expanded in culture. The SVF includes a variety of different cells such as ADSCs, pericytes, endothelial/progenitor cells, and a mix of different growth factors. The adipocytes (fat cells) can be removed via centrifugation. Here, we describe the rationale and, to our knowledge, the first clinical implementation of SVF and PRP followed by repeat dosing of culture-expanded ADSCs into a patient with severe xerostomia postirradiation. Approximately 120 mLs of adipose tissue was removed via mini-lipoaspirate procedure under local anesthetic. The SVF was prepared from half of the fat and resuspended in PRP. The mixture was delivered via ultrasound directly into the submandibular and parotid glands on both the right and left sides. The remaining 60 mLs of fat was processed to culture-expand ADSCs. The patient received seven follow-up injections of the ADSCs plus PRP at 5, 8, 16, 18, 23, 28, and 31 months postliposuction. The subject was monitored over a period of 31 months for safety (adverse events), glandular size via ultrasound and saliva production. Throughout the 31-month monitoring period, no safety events such as infection or severe adverse events were reported. The patient demonstrated an increase in gland size as measured by ultrasound which corresponded to increased saliva production. Overall, the patient reported improved quality of life and willingness to continue treatments. The strong safety profile and preliminary efficacy results warrant larger studies to determine if this is a feasible treatment plan for patients postradiation.

  15. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balciunaite Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66–6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  16. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balciunaite, Gabriele; Juodsnukyte, Jovita; Savickas, Arunas; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Siatkute, Luka; Zvirblyte, Gitana; Mistiniene, Edita; Savickiene, Nijole

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66-6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  17. Antimicrobial and antispasmodic activity of leaf extract and fractions of Stachytarpheta cayennensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okoye TC; Akah PA; Okoli CO; Ezike AC; Mbaoji FN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the methanol leaf extract (ME), n-hexane fraction (HF), ethylacetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF), ofStachytarpheta cayennensis C. Rich (verbenaceae) as well as to ascertain the antispasmodic effects of the ME and the various fractions (HF, EF and MF) on acetylcholine (Ach) and histamine (H) induced contractions on isolated guinea pig ileum.Methods: Thein vitroagar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial studies while the isolated tissue method was employed for the antispasmodic test. Organisms used were all clinical isolates ofBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Candida albicans andAspergillus niger.Results: The extract and fractions exhibited dose dependent inhibition against all the bacteria tested and also exhibited insignificant antifungal activity againstCandida albicansandAspergillus niger. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and fractions (mg/mL) onBacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi respectively were ME 5.62, 14.12, 22.38, 2.11; EF 1.25, 6.30, 9.40, 9.40 and MF 3.98, 8.81, 39.80, 21.13. The n-hexane fraction exhibited MIC of 1.07 mg/mL against onlyBacillus subtilis. The extract and fractions exhibited significant (P< 0.05) dose dependent attenuation of contractions induced by acetylcholine and histamine on isolated guinea pig ileum. Concentrations of the extract and fractions (μg/mL) which evoked 50% inhibition of maximal response exhibited by Ach were ME 0.64, HF 0.16, EF 0.08 and MF 0.15, while that of histamine included ME 5.12, HF 0.16, EF 0.04 and MF 0.64. Preliminary phytochemical studies on the extract and fractions indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids.Conclusions:The extract and fractions ofStachytarpheta cayennensis possessed both antibacterial and antispasmodic effects confirming

  18. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  19. Effects of Tribuli Saponins on Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan; YIN Hui-jun; SHI Da-zhuo; CHEN Ke-ji

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Tribuli saponins (TS) on left ventricularremodeling after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats with hyperlipemia. Methods: A composite model of myocardial infarction and hyperlipemia was established and treated with TS to observe its effect on cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Results: (1) Cardiac function: As compared with the model group, the fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) got increased, and the left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and systolic volume (LVESV) got lower in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ), but difference between the two treated groups was insignificant. (2) Cardiac structure: As compared with the model group, the left ventricular dimension end diastole (LVDd) and systole (LVDs) in the groups treated with high dose TS and simvastatin got lower ( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). No treatment showed any effect on the thickness of ventricular wall. (3)Ventricular weight index: Both high dose TS and simvastatin could decrease the left ventricular weight index (LVWI) ( P<0.05). Conclusion: TS could attenuate the left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction to certain extent, and improve cardiac function in the early phase after AMI, thus playing an important role in controlling morbidity and mortality of cardiac events and long-term prognosis.

  20. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize emulsio

  1. Multidirectional effects of triterpene saponins on cancer cells - mini-review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Czyż, Jarosław; Podolak, Irma; Wójcik, Katarzyna; Galanty, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene saponins (saponosides) are found in a variety of higher plants and display a wide range of pharmacological activities, including expectorant, anti-inflamatory, vasoprotective, gastroprotective and antimicrobial properties. Recently, a potential anticancer activity of saponins has been suggested by their cytotoxic, cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects. At high concentrations (more than 100 µM) saponins exert cytotoxic and haemolytic effects via permeabilization of the cell membranes. Noteworthy, the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, the induction of apoptosis and attenuation of cell invasiveness is observed in the presence of low saponin concentrations. Saponins might affect the expression of genes associated with malignancy. These alterations are directly related to the invasive phenotype of cancer cells and depend on "cellular context". It illustrates the relationships between the action of saponins, and the momentary genomic/proteomic status of cancer cells. Here, we discuss the hallmarks of anti-cancer activity of saponins with the particular emphasis on anti-invasive effect of diverse groups of saponins that have been investigated in relation to tumor therapy.

  2. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications.

  3. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  4. Surface properties of adsorption layers formed from triterpenoid and steroid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagureva, N.; Tcholakova, S.; Golemanov, K.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants with non-trivial surface and aggregation properties which find numerous important applications in several areas (food, pharma, cosmetic and others). In the current paper we study the surface properties of ten saponin extracts, having different molecular structure

  5. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize

  6. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  7. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  8. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  9. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  10. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  11. Efficient improvement of surface activity of tea saponin through Gemini-like modification by straightforward esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin; Liu, Songbai

    2015-03-15

    Novel strategy of Gemini-like modification has been applied in development of new nonionic surfactants, tea saponin esters, with enhanced surface activity by simple esterification. Tea saponin was treated with acyl chlorides of different chain length and different ratio of tea saponin and acyl chloride under alkaline condition. The structures of tea saponin esters were analysed and confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS. Surface activity investigation revealed that esterification with the chain length of C12 and C14 and the ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 produced superior surface activity compared with tea saponin. The exceptional surface activity of the new surfactants suggested their great potential application in food industry as green surfactants due to their environmental benign nature as well as simple and inexpensive preparation. The strategy of Gemini-like modification will facilitate development of green surfactants based on natural resources.

  12. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  13. Structural analysis of complex saponins of Balanites aegyptiaca by 800 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerk, Dan; Chapagain, Bishnu P; Lindin, Therese; Wiesman, Zeev; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-10-01

    The main saponin (1) present in the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is a mixture of 22R and 22S epimers of 26-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-beta-[4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-22,26-dihydroxyfurost-5-ene. This structure differs from a previously reported saponin isolated from this source by the site of attachment of the rhamnosyl residue, and presumably represents a structural revision of the latter. The main saponin (2) present in the kernel is a xylopyranosyl derivative of 1. The use of high-field NMR enabled the practically complete assignment of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of these complex saponins, existing as a mixture of C-22 epimers. Moreover, the work represents a new approach to structural elucidation of saponins: direct preparative-scale HPLC-RID of crude extracts followed by high-field NMR investigations supported by ESI-MSn.

  14. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Calendula stellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehbili, Meryem; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Abedini, Amin; Morjani, Hamid; Sarazin, Thomas; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-04

    Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28. Like most Calendula saponins, the sugar moiety linked at C-3 was either β-d-glucose or β-d-glucuronic acid which could be substituted at C-3 by a β-d-galactose and/or C-2 by a supplementary β-d-galactose or a β-d-glucose. The sugar moiety linked to C-28 was determined as β-d-glucose. The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 1-20 by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus followed by the determination of MIC values of active compounds by serial dilution technique against 5 bacteria revealed that; calendustellatoside D was the most active against Enterococcus faecalis with an antibacterial effect comparable to antibiotics. The cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated against fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) and human lung cancer cell line (A549). Calendustellatosides B and D exhibited a low cytotoxic activity against HT1080 cell line with IC50 values of 47 ± 0.6 and 39 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two diastereomeric saponins with cytotoxic activity from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y; Tu, G; Cui, J; Jia, Z; Zhang, R

    2000-02-25

    Two diastereomeric saponins, julibrosides J1 (1) and J9 (2), both of which show cytotoxic activity, were obtained from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence [L.B. Ma et al., Carbohydr. Res., 281 (1996) 35-46], the structure of 1 was revised as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6R)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. The diastereoisomer 2 of 1 was identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Saponin 2 is a new saponin named julibroside J9. Both julibrosides J1 and J9 show good inhibitory action against the KB cancer cell line in vitro.

  16. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia.

  17. [Haemodynamic role of blood-plasma circulating cell-free DNA and contained therein high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction in pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis obliterans of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorova, I L; Veĭko, N N; Ershova, E S; Antelava, A L; Chechetkin, A O

    2009-01-01

    The hydrodynamic resistance (HR) of blood is one of the components of the total peripheral resistance. High-molecular-weight DNA appears to decrease the HR in accordance with the Toms's effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate the HR and properties of cell-free DNA circulating in the blood plasma (hereinafter referred to as pDNA) of the control donors, patients suffering from either arterial hypertension (AH) alone or that combined with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries (CAs). Within the normal concentrations of pDNA, we revealed an inverse dependence of the HR thereupon and upon the content in pDNA of the high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction (CpG-DNA), i. e., a transcribed region of the ribosomal repeat (rDNA). A decrease or an increase in the pDNA concentration in all the patients examined was accompanied by an elevation of the rDNA concentration in the blood plasma. Exceeding a certain level thereof appeared to give rise to an increase in both the HR and arterial pressure (AP). Patients presenting with degree I essential AH were found to have a decreased endonuclease activity of the blood plasma, with the pDNA concentration being more than two-fold higher with no change in the rDNA content. Their HR appeared to be increased (parteries were typically revealed on the background of a lowered HR (parterial intima. In some of them, the pDNA concentration does not differ from the normal values, but in its composition, there is an increased content of rDNA, elevating as obliteration of the vessels' lumen increases, with the HR being decreased. The majority of them have degree II AH. In others, the pDNA concentration is by an order of magnitude higher than the normal values, while the rDNA content in pDNA is decreased, with the HR being elevated. Most of them have degree III AH. Pronounced and rough stenoses take an asymptomatic course in patients with decreased values of the HR and a slightly elevated level of pDNA and/or rDNA in the

  18. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  19. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  20. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry.

  1. Cytotoxic triterpenes from the acid hydrolyzate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Tan, De-Hong; Yan, Ting-Cai; Jiang, Dong-Hua; Hou, Ming-Xiao

    2017-05-02

    One new dammarane-type triterpene, gypsapogenin A (1), was isolated from the acid hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, together with two known compounds, (20S,24S)-3β,20,21β,23β,25-pentahydroxy-21,24-cyclodammarane (2) and (23S)-3β-hydroxydammar-20,24-dien-21-oic acid 21,23-lactone (3). Its structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against HepG2 and A549 human cancer cell lines.

  2. An isoflavan and saponins from Astragalus depressus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamria Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nine known secondary metabolites were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Astragalus depressus L. (Fabaceae family, including one isoflavan, namely pendulone (1 and eight saponins, namely cyclogaleginoside A (2, astrasieversianin II (3, astrasieversianin IV (4, astrasieversianin VII (5, astrasieversianin VI (6, astrasieversianin XIV (7, dehydrosoyasaponin I (8 and soyasaponin I (9. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  3. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  5. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  6. Fractional Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  7. Localization and Dynamic Change of Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Polygala tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Teng; Min-Feng Fang; Xia Cai; Zheng-Hai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Histochemical localization results showed that saponin accumulated mainly in parenchyma cells of vegetative organs. The phytochemical results also showed that the saponin accumulated in the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia, with higher content in roots and lower content in the aerial parts that included stems and leaves. The saponin content and dry weight of the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia had dynamic variance at the developmental stages and all reached the highest level in the post-fruit period. Hence, the roots and aerial parts should be gathered in August to make full use of the plant. As the root is the main medicinal organ of P. tenuifolia, the content of total saponin and senegenin of different aged and different parts of the root were determined. The content of total saponin and senegenin exhibited a sustained decreasing trend with increasing root age; therefore, theannual roots had high quality. The content of total saponin and senegenin in different parts of the root showed obvious variation. The content in the "skin areas" was much higher than that of xylem. The results offer a theoretical basis for determining the appropriate harvesting stage and a reasonable harvest of P. tenuifolia.

  8. Miscibility of Quillaja Saponins with other Co-surfactants under Different pH Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Corina L; Salminen, Hanna; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The miscibility behavior of mixed surfactant systems and the influence of extrinsic parameters are crucial for their application as emulsifiers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the miscibility behavior of mixed systems composed of commercial Quillaja saponin and a co-surfactant, namely sodium caseinate, pea protein, rapeseed lecithin, or egg lecithin. These mixtures were evaluated macro- and microscopically at different concentration ratios (maximum concentration 5% w/v) at pH 3, 5, and 7 at 25 °C. The individual ingredients were also assessed for their charge properties and surface hydrophobicity. The results showed that Quillaja saponin-caseinate mixtures were miscible only at pH 7, and showed aggregation and precipitation at lower pH due to increasing electrostatic attraction forces. Rheological measurements showed that Quillaja saponin-pea protein mixtures formed gelled structures at all tested pH values mainly via association of hydrophobic patches. Quillaja saponins mixed with rapeseed lecithin were miscible at all tested pH values due to electrostatic repulsion. Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin mixtures aggregated independent of pH and concentration ratio. The microscopic analysis revealed that the lower the pH and the higher the Quillaja saponin ratio, the denser were the formed Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin aggregates. The results are summarized in ternary phase diagrams that provide a useful tool in selecting a surfactant system for food applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Saisai [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhou Wenjun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils.

  10. Effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in biotrickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yanhong; Yang, Chunping; Cheng, Yan; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Saponins was applied to enhance the removal of n-hexane in a biotrickling filter (BTF) in this study. Comparison experiments were carried out to examine the effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in two BTFs at various saponins concentrations, n-hexane loading rates (LRs) and gas empty bed contact times (EBCTs). Results show that the optimum concentration of saponins in nutrient feed was 50.0mgL(-1). When organic LR of n-hexane increased from 47.8 to 120.0gm(-3)h(-1), the removal efficiency (RE) for BTF1 (with saponins) and BTF2 (without saponins) decreased from 91.3% to 83.3% and from 62.8% to 56.8%, respectively. As gas EBCT decreased from 30.0 to 7.5s, the RE declined from 88.4% to 64.5% for BTF1 and from 61.4% to 38.3% for BTF2. Saponins could also decrease the biomass accumulation rate within the medium bed. These results could be referred in the design and operation of BTFs for hydrophobic VOC removal.

  11. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  12. Src/Syk-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Triterpenoidal Saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Sik; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Seulah; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (family Cucurbitaceae), also known as gac, or red melon, is an edible Southeast Asian fruit valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Specifically, Momordicae Semen, the seeds of the gac fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat boils, rheumatic pain, muscle spasm, hemorrhoids, and hemangiomas. In this study, a chemical investigation into a gac seed ethanol (EtOH) extract resulted in the identification of three triterpenoidal saponins (1-3), which were investigated for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the saponins, momordica saponin I (compound 3) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by momordica saponin I. Additionally, the translocation of p65 and p50 (subunits of the transcription factor NF-[Formula: see text]B) into the nucleus was remarkably inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of inflammatory signaling proteins (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text], Src, and Syk) known to be upstream regulatory molecules of p65 were decreased under momordica saponin I-treated conditions. The molecular targets of momordica saponin I were confirmed in overexpression experiments and through immunoblot analyses with Src and Syk. This study provides evidence that momordica saponin I could be beneficial in treating inflammatory diseases, and should be considered a bioactive immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  14. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  15. Fractional randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  16. Tannic acid and saponin for removing arsenic from brownfield soils: Mobilization, distribution and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Plant biosurfactants were used for the first time to remove As and co-existing metals from brownfield soils. Tannic acid (TA), a polyphenol, and saponin (SAP), a glycoside were tested. The soil washing experiments were performed in batch conditions at constant biosurfactant concentration (3%). Both biosurfactants differed in natural pH, surface tension, critical micelle concentration and content of functional groups. After a single washing, TA (pH 3.44) more efficiently mobilized As than SAP (pH 5.44). When both biosurfactants were used at the same pH (SAP adjusted to 3.44), arsenic mobilization was improved by triple washing. The process efficiency for TA and SAP was similar, and depending on the soil sample, ranged between 50%-64%. Arsenic mobilization by TA and SAP resulted mainly from decomposition of Fe arsenates, followed by Fe(3+) complexation with biosurfactants. Arsenic was efficiently released from reducible and partially from residual fractions. In all soils, As(V) was almost completely removed, whereas content of As(III) was decreased by 37%-73%. SAP and TA might be used potentially to remove As from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp.: structure and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet; White, Eve F; Blanchfield, Joanne T; Lehmann, Reginald P; De Voss, James J

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The previously unreported spectroscopic characterization of sarsaparilloside (3), Δ(20(22))-sarsaparilloside (4), and parillin (5) is also provided. The antiproliferative activity of the isolated saponins was compared in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line.

  18. Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yu; Tsai; Yue-Hwa; Chen; Yi-Wen; Chien; Wen-Hsuan; Huang; Shyh-Hsiang; Lin

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of extracted soybean saponins on the growth of human colon cancer cells.METHODS:WiDr human colon cancer cells were treated with 150,300,600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth,cell morphology,alkaline phosphatase(AP) and protein kinase C(PKC) activities,and P53 protein,c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression.RESULTS:Soy saponin decreased the number of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed 12-Otetradecanol-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PKC ...

  19. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  20. Isolation and structure elucidation of a highly haemolytic saponin from the Merck saponin extract using high-field gradient-enhanced NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, C; Gavin, J A; Aumelas, A; Bonnet, P A; Roumestand, C

    1997-07-11

    Saponins SAPO50 and SAPO30, of which SAPO50 is highly haemolytic, have been isolated from the commercial Merck Saponin. Their structures have been determined exclusively by high-field gradient-enhanced NMR methods. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of these saponins in pyridine-deuterium oxide have been assigned by homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. Anomeric configurations were obtained by combined use of 1JCH, 3JH-1.H-2, and 1D-NOESY data. Sugar residues were identified by use of 3JHH values obtained from their subspectra recorded using an optimized 1D-zeta-TOCSY sequence. Linkage assignments were made using the ge-HMBC and 1D-NOESY spectra. This study shows that SAPO50 represents a hitherto undescribed saponin with the following structure: 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O-(6-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1--> 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside. SAPO30, however, corresponds to a saponin previously described [D. Frechet, B. Christ, B. Monegier du Sorbier, H. Fischer, and M. Vuilhorgne, Phytochemistry, 30 (1991) 927-931].

  1. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  2. Are saponins and sapogenins precursors of prednisolone? Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of cortisol into prednisolone in cattle faeces was demonstrated and provided by literature, given the structural similarity of prednisolone with cortisol. In this study, we evaluated a possible neo-formation of prednisolone, as results of a faecal or environmental contamination. A saponine, α-solanine, and a sapogenin, diosgenin, were selected as possible precursors. A simple method without extraction was applied. The analyses were performed by HPLC–MSn to evaluate the possible transformations. The results showed that prednisolone was detected in the faecal suspension spiked with diosgenin at t= 8h, while cortisol was also detected at t = 24h in the sample of faeces spiked with α-solanine. In the feed and in the control samples, no transformations were observed.

  3. A Cytotoxic Saponin with Two Monoterpenoids from Albizia julibrissin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new cytotoxic saponin(1), Julibrosides J27, was isolated from the stem barks of Alibizia.julibrissin by chromatography, and the structure was elucidated as 3-O-b -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D- fucopyranosyl - (1→ 6) -b - D-glucopyranosyl - 21-O-[(6S)-2 -trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxylmethy 6- methyl - 6- hydroxy)-2,7-octadienoyl-b -D-quinovopy--ranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}- acacic acid- 28 -O-b -D-glucopranosyl-(1→ 3)-[(a -L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→ 4)]-a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D-glucopyrnosyl ester based on spectral and chemical evidences.

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P., E-mail: marenif@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Farmacia; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2010-07-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16alpha, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-Larabinopyranosyl)-16alpha,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  5. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  6. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  7. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  8. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations.

  9. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E.

  10. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar; M. S. Maier; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  11. Hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary: a novel conditioning agent for hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Dae, K; Chang-Kew, K; Chung-Nam, L; Byung-Jo, H

    1989-10-01

    Synopsis A new quaternary ammonium compound, hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary (HGSQ), from Korean ginseng saponin and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, has been developed as a conditioning agent for hair care products. This structure has a hydrophobic group from the aglycone of ginseng saponin which is biologically active and considered as the most important component of Korean ginseng. Its properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration (CMC), eye irritation, sorption onto hair, tensile strength for 20% extension and moisture retention effect were studied. Its cationic character allows the molecule to be more substantive than ginseng saponin. HGSQ had good physical properties and was safe enough as a cosmetic raw material. Also half-head tests of HGSQ-containing shampoo were carried out to evaluate the conditioning effects in shampoos. HGSQ showed good conditioning properties in a shampoo.

  12. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2017-07-15

    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju Balwanth; Samaddar, Suman; Ramaiah, Channakeshava Thimmasandra

    2014-01-01

    Glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms of both diabetic, following streptozotocin administration, and non-diabetic animals increased in presence of an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of M. cymbalaria. Insulin release was augmented by the presence of the saponin of M. cymbalaria (1 mg/mL) in rat insulinoma cell line (RIN-5F) preexposed to adrenaline (5 microM) and nifedipine (50 microM). Pancreatic histology also indicated considerable quantitative increase in beta-cells (75%) when treated with the saponin. The results suggest that the saponin of M. cymbalaria possesses potential antidiabetic activity with respect to insulin secretion, which may be attributed to modulation of calcium channel, and beta-cell rejuvenation.

  14. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  15. Furostanol saponins and ecdysones with cytotoxic activity from Helleborus bocconei ssp. intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Formisano, Carmen; Irace, Carlo; Maffettone, Carmen; Mascolo, Nicola

    2009-09-01

    Two furostanol saponins helleboroside A (1) and helleboroside B (2) were isolated from the methanol extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. intermedius (Guss.) Greuter and Burdet, along with the furospirostanol saponin 4 and two ecdysones: ecdysterone (5) and polypodyne B (6). Compound 2 was enzymatically hydrolysed to give product 3. The biological activity of all compounds was tested against rat C6 glioma cells showing a significant cytotoxicity for compounds 3, 4 and 6.

  16. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  17. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T H; Huang, S C; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2008-09-26

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antitumor and antioxidant activities, has been shown to contain several functional components like saponins and flavonoids. However, their identities remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an appropriate extraction, purification and HPLC-MS method to determine saponins and flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum. Both flavonoids and saponins were extracted with methanol, followed by purification with a C18 cartridge to elute the former with 50% methanol and the latter with 100% methanol. A total of 34 saponins were separated within 40 min by a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water, in which 18 saponins were identified by LC-MS with ESI mode and Q-TOF (LC/MS/MS). Similarly, a total of eight flavonoids were separated within 45 min by the same column and a gradient solvent system of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water, with identification being carried out by a post-column derivatization method and LC-MS with ESI mode. The amounts of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum ranged from 170.7 to 2416.5 mug g(-1), whereas saponins were from 491.0 to 89,888.9 mug g(-1).

  18. Insect growth regulator activity of Cestrum parqui saponins: an interaction with cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, C; Ben, Halima-Kamel M; Ben, Hamouda M H

    2006-01-01

    Cestrum parqui is an ornamental shrub known for its insecticidal activity against some insect pests; this activity comes from the crude saponic extract of the leaves of this plant, the saponins cause insect growth regulator symptoms (development and moulting perturbation). In this work we try to demonstrate the hypothesis that saponins interact with ecdysone (moulting hormone) synthesis mechanisms by reducing diet cholesterol absorption (cholesterol forms the skeleton of ecdysone and of other ecdysteroids). To show the cholesterol/saponin interaction we used a stored product pest insect (Tribolium confuisurn), the larva of this insect are affected by saponins added in their diet, but the addition of cholesterol permits to reduce significatively this insecticidal propriety. Using Spodoptera littoralis larva model the tentative to detect a cholesterol rate reduction on the level of hemolymph is also unsuccessful. All these experiments shows that this type of reaction can't occur in the diet or in the digestive system but probably in insect cells. It is clear that Cestrurn parqui saponins affect the cholesterol metabolism but the exactly mechanism is still unknown. More investigations are necessary to develop this hypothesis and to envisage the use of Cestrum saponins as insect growth regulator bioinsecticide.

  19. Phyto-saponins as a natural adjuvant for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2006-08-23

    With growing use of synthetic adjuvants in modern agriculture, their impacts on the environment are being questioned. In a search for an environmentally safe phyto-adjuvant, we have investigated natural glycosidic saponin for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes. Four saponin preparations from Quillaja saponaria bark (QE), obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, and Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp (ME), kernel (KE), and root (RE), isolated and characterized in our laboratory, were used for testing the delivery of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) across isolated intact astomatous adaxial Citrus grandis leaf cuticle membranes (CMs). The results showed that both Q. saponaria and B. aegyptiaca saponin preparations enhanced delivery of 2,4-D through CMs. Among the saponin preparations, ME exhibited a significantly higher level of delivery of 2,4-D with a concentration effect (2% being the highest). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) characterization of these saponin preparations in aqueous solution clearly demonstrated the formation of nanoscale vesicles. Various possibilities for a natural amphiphatic phyto-saponin as a delivery adjuvant through CMs are discussed.

  20. Determination of saponins in the kernel cake of Balanites aegyptiaca by HPLC-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2007-01-01

    The kernel cake produced from Balanites aegyptiaca fruit of Israeli origin was analysed for its saponin constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The HPLC was equipped with a reversed-phase C18 column and a refractive index detector (RID), and elution was isocratic with methanol and water (70:30). The MS system was equipped with electrospray ionisation (ESI). Nine compounds were chromatographically separated, their masses were determined in the negative ion mode and subsequent fragmentation of each component was carried out. From the nine components, six saponins with molecular masses of 1196, 1064, 1210, 1224, 1078 and 1046 Da were identified, with the compound of mass 1210 Da being the main saponin (ca. 36%). Saponins with masses of 1224 and 1046 Da have not been previously reported in B. aegyptiaca. In all saponins, diosgenin was found to be the sole aglycone. This study shows that HPLC-ESI/MS is a quick and reliable technique for characterizing the saponins from kernel cake of B. aegyptiaca.

  1. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  2. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  3. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  4. Polymer fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, A. F.

    1985-04-09

    Soluble polymers are fractionated according to molecular weight by cryogenically comminuting the polymer and introducing the polymer particles, while still in the active state induced by cryogenic grinding, into a liquid having a solvent power selected to produce a coacervate fraction containing high molecular weight polymer species and a dilute polymer solution containing lower molecular weight polymer species. The coacervate may be physically separated from the solution and finds use in the production of antimisting jet fuels and the like.

  5. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  6. Study on Extraction of Sweet Chinese Yam Skin Saponins by Using Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化山药皮中皂苷提取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祥庭; 朱涛; 郑巧敏; 盛辰

    2011-01-01

    皂苷具有抗炎解毒等作用,而山药加工过程丢弃的山药皮中含丰富的皂苷;研究采用超声波萃取技术从山药皮中提取总皂苷并测定其含量,为了优化山药皮中总皂苷的提取工艺,在单因素试验基础上,采用响应面法建立了山药皮中总皂苷提取方法的二次多项数学模型,并验证了该模型的有效性;探讨了料液比、浸热温度、乙醇体积分数3个因子的交互作用及其最佳水平.研究结果表明:提取温度、时间和水料比显著影响其提取效果,优化的山药皮中总皂苷提取条件为:料液比1∶9、浸提温度64℃、乙醇体积分数83%,皂苷的最大提取率为0.129%.%Saponins have the functions of anti-inflammation and detoxification and the discarded Chinese yam skim during the process of Chinese yam has rich saponins. To extract and determine total saponins in Chinese yam skin by ultrasonic extraction technique, the research was to determine the optimum technology and conditions of total saponins in Chinese yam skin extraction by using the response surface method (RSM). Response surface method was employed and a second order quadratic mathematical model for total saponins in Chinese yam skin extraction was established. Its validity was verified, and the alternate action of the above three factors and its optimum level range were also investigated. Results showed that solid -liquid ratio ,extraction temperature and ethanol concentration to material were important factors. The applicability of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was verified effectively by the validation data. By analyzing the response surface plots as well as solving the quadratic equation, the optimum process parameters for total saponins in Chinese yam skin extraction were obtained as: solid - liquid ratio 1: 9, extracting temperature 64 ℃ and ethanol concentration 83%. Under the optimal conditions the extraction yield is up to 0. 129%.

  7. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  8. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  9. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  10. New 30-Noroleanane Triterpenoid Saponins from Holboellia coriacea Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins, akebonoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1, akebonoic acid 28-O-(6′′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (Holboelliside A, 2 and 3β,20α,24-trihydroxy-29-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-O-(6′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Holboelliside B, 3 were isolated from the stems of Holboellia coriacea Diels, together with five known compounds, eupteleasaponin VIII (4, 3α-akebonoic acid (5, quinatic acid (6, 3β-hydroxy-30-norhederagenin (7 and quinatoside A (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against three human tumors HepG2, HCT116 and SGC-7901 cell lines in vitro.

  11. Antioxidative effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningna; Tang, Yang; Keep, Richard F; Ma, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Jianming

    2014-09-15

    Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in cell death associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Antioxidant compounds that improve endogenous antioxidant defenses have been proposed for neural protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) on oxidative stress and cell death in brain cells in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay indicated that LPNS (5 μg/ml) reduced H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23±8% reduction in LDH release vs. control). Similar protection was found in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation induced SH-SY5Y (a human neuroblastoma cell line) cell damage (78±7% reduction vs. control). The protective effects of LPNS in astrocytes were associated with attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These effects involved activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). These results demonstrate for the first time that LPNS has antioxidative effects which may be neuroprotective in neurological disorders.

  12. New cycloartane saponin and monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Backheet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A new cycloartane-type saponin with unusual hydroxylation at C-17 and a unique side chain, 9 (R), 19, 22 (S), 24 (R) bicyclolanost-3β, 12α, 16β, 17α tetrol-25-one 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two new monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids, 10-methoxy pumiloside (2) and the previously chemically synthesized, 10-methoxy strictosidine (3) along with other five known compounds, 7α-morroniside (4), 7-epi-loganin (5), (7β)-7-O-methylmorroniside (6), 5(S)-5-carboxystrictisidine (7) and apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola (Rubiaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolates was accomplished by extensive (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopic data analysis and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 4–8 were reported for the first time from the genus Mussaenda. Interestingly, this is the first report for the occurrence of the monoterpenoid glucoindole-type alkaloids in the genus which might be useful for the chemotaxonomic evaluation of the genus Mussaenda. All isolates were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activities. Compound 7 showed good antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 and IC90 values of 13.7 and 16.6 µM compared to IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 µM for the positive control DFMO, difluoromethylornithine. PMID:26969788

  13. Screening for feeding deterrent and insect growth regulatory activity of triterpenic saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Dhingra, Swaran; Parmar, Balraj S

    2010-01-13

    Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active in controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L(-1) alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prep-HPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[beta-D-xyl(OAc).beta-D-arabinopyranosyl.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[beta-D-glc.beta-D-glc.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (GI50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton.

  14. Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Ciliate Protozoal Populations, and Milk Production from Dairy Cows Fed Cinnamaldehyde, Quebracho Condensed Tannin, or Yucca schidigera Saponin Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T. A; Chouinard, P. Y

    2008-01-01

    ...% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production...

  15. Accumulation and Dynamic Trends of Triterpenoid Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Achyranthus bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting Li; Zhenghai Hu

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between structural features of various vegetative organs and triterpenoid saponin accumulation in Achyranthus bidentata Blume was investigated using anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The results showed that the primary and secondary structures of roots, and the structures of stems and leaves of A. bidentata, were similar to those of ordinary dicotyledonous plants. The enlargement of its roots, however, was primarily associated with growth and differentiation of tertiary structures. There were collateral medullary vascular bundles in addition to the normal vascular bundles in the stem. The tertiary structure was not only main parts in the roots of A. bidentata, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponin in its growth and development. The stem may be the essential transport organ of triterpenoid saponin, while palisade parenchyma may be the primary synthesis location. In November, the total quantity of triterpenoid saponin and overall biomass in the roots reach a maximum level. This was the best time, therefore, to harvest the roots and corresponded to the traditional harvest period. Despite the withered appearance of leaves, stems also contained substantial amounts of triterpenoid saponin, and it was recommended that the stems of A. bidentata should be used.

  16. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Yang, Juanjuan; Lou, Linjie; Zhu, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd2+ or Zn2+. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils.

  17. Saponins from Tribulus terrestris L. protect human keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lisi, Sabrina; D'Amore, Massimo; De Lucro, Raffaella; Carati, Davide; Castellana, Donatello; La Pesa, Velia; Zuccarello, Vincenzo; Lofrumento, Dario D

    2012-12-05

    Chronic exposure to solar UVB radiation damages skin, increasing the risk to develop cancer. Hence the identification of compounds with a photoprotective efficacy is essential. This study examined the role of saponins derived from Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on the modulation of apoptosis in normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) exposed to physiological doses of UVB and to evaluate their antitumoral properties. In NHEK, TT saponins attenuate UVB-induced programmed cell death through inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) TT saponins do not make the malignant keratinocytes more resistant to UVB and determine an enhanced apoptotic response. The photoprotective effect of TT saponins is tightly correlated to the enhancement of NER genes expression and the block of UVB-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our study shows experimental evidence that TT has a preventive efficacy against UVB-induced carcinogenesis and the molecular knowledge on the mechanisms through which TT saponins regulate cell death suggests great potential for TT to be developed into a new medicine for cancer patients.

  18. Modulating effect of ginseng saponins on heterologously expressed HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk-seong KIM; Sook-jin SON; Hyo-shin KIM; Yong-duk KIM; Kyu-seung LEE; Byeong-hwa JEON; Kwang-jin KIM; Jin-kyu PARK; Jin-bong PARK

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of ginseng saponins on the heterologously expressed human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) that encodes the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Methods: A two-electrode voltage clamp tech nique was used. HERG currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes injected with HERG cRNA. Results: Crude saponins of Korean red ginseng (GS) induced a minimal increase of the maximal HERG conductance without changes in the voltage-dependent HERG current activation and inactivation curves. GS, however,decelerated HERG current deactivation in a concentration-dependent manner,which was more noticeable with panaxitriol (PT) than panaxidiol (PD). Consistently,ginseng saponins increased the HERG deactivation time constants with the order of potency of Rg1 (a major component of PT)>Rf 1>Rb1 (a major component of PD).Re had little effect on HERG deactivation. During a cardiac action Potential, GS increased the outward HERG current. Conclusion: Ginseng saponins enhance HERG currents, which could be in part a possible mechanism of the shortening cardiac action potential of ginseng saponins.

  19. The Sg-1 glycosyltransferase locus regulates structural diversity of triterpenoid saponins of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-05-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1(a) allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1(b) encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1(a) and Gly-138 in Sg-1(b) proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-1(0) is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products.

  20. [Ultrasound assisted the enzymolysis of ginsenosides to prepare pare ginseng saponin Compound K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Cui, Li; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2014-08-01

    To prepare ginseng saponin Compound K with ultrasound-assisted total zymolytic ginseng saponins. The conversion rate was taken as the index to detect the pre-treatment factors such as ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time, as well as the impact of enzymatic factors, such as pH value, temperature, concentration of substrate, dosage of enzyme and reaction time, on the conversion rate. The response surface method was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The enzymolytic products were identified with MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis were 250 W for ultrasonic power, 15 min for ultrasonic time, 5.5 for enzymolytic pH, 50 degrees C for enzymolytic temperature, 36 h for enzymolytic time, 4:5 for enzymolytic dosage: substrate and 1.0 g x L(-1) for concentration of substrate. The relative molecular mass of reaction products was 622.4. Therefore, the nuclear magnetic map verified that the reaction product was rare ginseng saponin Compound K. Under the above conditions, based on the total zymolytic ginseng saponins, the conversion rate of rare ginseng saponin Compound K was 6.91% in proportion to the total of ginsenosides. The process features gentle reaction conditions, high conversion rate and simple and reliable process, which is suitable for industrial production.

  1. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  2. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a complex triterpene saponin mixture of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Sterk, Heinz; Mittelbach, Martin; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2006-06-01

    A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences, compositions, and branching. Fragmentation of aglycones provided further structural information. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by a complete profiling. Eighty-seven triterpene saponins comprising 19 reported and 68 novel components were identified and studied by MS. In addition to four reported, five novel triterpene aglycones were detected and characterized according to their fragmentation reactions in ESI-MS/MS and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). As a novelty fragmentation pathways were proposed and analyzed based upon quantum chemical calculations using a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional method. Accuracy of the assignment procedure was proven by isolation and structure determination of a novel compound. As the relative distribution and composition of saponins varies between different cultivars and soils, the presented strategy allows a rapid and complete analysis of Chenopodium quinoa saponin distribution and composition, and is particularly suitable for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications.

  3. Antioxidative effect of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Chen, Y; Zhai, L; Zhang, L; Xu, Y; Wang, S; Hu, S

    2015-05-01

    Previous investigation demonstrated that oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins in chickens could enhance the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. One hundred and twenty chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 to 4 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide to induce oxidative stress while group 5 was injected with saline solution and served as control. Following administration of cyclophosphamide, groups 1 to 3 were orally administered ginseng stem-leaf saponins at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg BW in drinking water for 7 d, respectively. After that, the spleen, thymus, bursa, and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that ginseng stem-leaf saponins significantly inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress by increasing the organ indices, total antioxidant capacity, and the levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, while elevating the activity of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreasing the protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde. Therefore, ginseng stem-leaf saponins could be a promising agent against oxidative stress in the poultry industry.

  4. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  5. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  6. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  7. Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milugo, Trizah K; Omosa, Leonida K; Ochanda, James O; Owuor, Bethwell O; Wamunyokoli, Fred A; Oyugi, Julius O; Ochieng, Joel W

    2013-10-26

    The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals. Antioxidant activity was determined on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while major phytochemicals were identified by multiple tests on methanol fractions. R. caffra showed promise as a cure, with antioxidant activity comparable to the commercially used drug quercetin (R. caffra = 79.7% ±1.9; quercetin = 82.6% ± 2.0). However, we found two phytochemicals with possible antagonistic effect: co-occurrence of alkaloids and saponins significantly reduced antioxidant activity (alkaloids only = 63%; alkaloids plus saponins = 15%; steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides = 82%), thus alkaloids and saponins should be exclusive to each other in drug formulations. Antagonistic relationship among phytochemicals would affect the efficacy of crude extracts as used in traditional medicine. Unlike in herbal medicine, use of modern biotechnology in extraction, purification and design of optimal combinations will ensure efficient drug formulations with optimum bioactivity and minimum toxicity. Metabolic pathway engineering under a controlled environment may optimize availability of desired compounds.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  9. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet.

  10. Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Bhutani, K K

    2001-11-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae), exhibited an inhibitory effect on superoxide released from polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The major saponin bacoside A(3) was found to be responsible for this effect in the herb. This compound showed 85, 91.66, 91.66, and 83 % inhibitions of NBT reduction at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50, and 25 microg/ml, respectively, with an IC(50) value of 10.22 microg/ml. These inhibitory effects were compared with those of the standard positive controls, quercetin and ascorbic acid with IC(50) of 111 and 14.16 microg/ml, respectively. Another major saponin bacopasaponin C was found to be much less potent as compared to bacoside A(3) whereas the remaining two mixtures of saponins were found to be inactive.

  11. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  12. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E

    1992-06-01

    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  13. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  14. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Himmelsbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  15. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Weth, Agnes; Böhme, Christine; Schwarz, Martin; Bräunig, Peter; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-02-10

    Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market.

  17. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Li, Shiyou

    2007-08-01

    Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia L. resulted in the isolation and identification of 13 polyhydroxyoleanene pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named aesculiosides IIe-IIk (1-7), and IIIa-IIIf (8-13), together with 18 known compounds: aesculiosides Ia-Ie (14-18), IIa-IId (19-22), IVa-IVc (23-25), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,15 alpha,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (26), 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,24 beta,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (27), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-pentahydroxyolean-12-ene (28), R(1)-barrigenol (29), scopolin (30), and 5-methoxyscopolin (31). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 14-22 and 26-28 were tested in vitro for their activity against 59 cell lines from nine different human cancers including leukemia, non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast. It was found that compounds with two-acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had cytotoxic activity for all cell lines tested with GI(50) 0.175-8.71 microM, while compounds without acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had weak or no cytotoxic activity. These results suggest that the acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 are essential for their activity.

  18. Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2008-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality.

  19. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  20. Mechanistic study of the anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in R6 fibroblast cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoZ; HsaiW

    2002-01-01

    The anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp)saponins was tested.The results indicated that the Gp saponins inhibited ras-induced foci in dosage and time-dependent manners.To facilitate the investigation of the mode of inhibition of Gp in living cells,a green fluorescent protein-ras fusion construct was generated and used to substitute ras in the study.Cells acquired GFP-ras gene grew into green fluorescent foci with striking transforming morphology in the absence of Gp,whereas the GFP-ras transfected cell,in most of cases,remained as single green fluorescent cell with Gp saponins present in the medium.Gp saponins exhibited non-cytotoxic effect on either normal or the transformed R6 cells.However.Gp saponins posted a strong inhibition against the growth of the rastransformed cells that were co-cultivated with normal R6 cells.The level of Raf-1 protein was sharply down-regulated after Gp treatment.Gp treatment can also induce instability of Raf-1,instead of transcriptional inactivation of the protein expression.A cDNA microarray analysis displayed four genes,i.e.β2-microglobulin,GST7-7,gelatinase A and cathepsin L were up-regulated,while three genes:Erk-1,γIGFBP-6,and 14-3-3 zeta were down-regulated upon treatment with Gp saponins.The results were verified by Northern blot analysis.The finding that an anti-cancer effect of a non-toxic drug may be mediated through the surrounding normal cells is conceptually novel and should have a broad implication in the future development of drugs or dietary supplements with cancer prevention function.

  1. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangning Xu

    Full Text Available The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p., 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both

  2. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangning; Zhang, Yufen; Wang, Yan; Ling, Peng; Xie, Xin; Jiang, Chenyao; Zhang, Zhizhen; Lian, Xiao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction) was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p.), 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both astrocytes and neurons

  3. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  4. Steroidal Saponins from the Mesocarp of the Fruits of Raphia farinifera (Arecaceae) and their Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapondjou, Léon A; Siems, Kristina J; Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-11-01

    Eight steroidal saponins (1-8), including one previously unreported derivative (1), have been isolated from the mesocarp of Raphia farinifera fruits by combined column chromatography and RP-HPLC methods. They were characterized by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR experiments) and spectrometric (ESIMS) methods, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported compounds in the literature. All the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against urinary bladder carcinoma cells (ECV-304). Our results revealed that, for a high cytotoxicity, a sugar chain of at least three sugar moieties attached to C-3 of the steroidal saponin is necessary.

  5. Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R L; Wolf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Soybeans are high in protein but also contain a number of minor constituents traditionally considered to be antinutritional factors. These include trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones. These compounds are now thought to have beneficial biological effects in the diet, such as lowering blood cholesterol or preventing cancer. Soybean processing changes the content of these minor constituents in various ways. This review discusses the changes in content of trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones as soybeans are processed into the conventional protein ingredients, flours, concentrates and isolates, as well as some of the traditional Oriental soybean foods.

  6. Two new biologically active triterpenoidal saponins acylated with salicylic acid from Albizia adianthifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Mohamed; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Laurens, Véronique; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, adianthifoliosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a 95% ethanolic extract of roots of Albizia adianthifolia. Their structures were elucidated mainly by using a combination of 600 MHz 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by FABMS and HRESIMS. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as glycosides of acacic acid acylated by an o-hydroxybenzoyl unit. The crude saponin mixture (CSM), compounds 1 and 2...

  7. A new triterpenoid saponin and an oligosaccharide isolated from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Yang, De-Po; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xue, Xue; Zhu, Long-Ping; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin (1) and a new oligosaccharide (2), together with three known saponins (3-5), have been isolated from n-BuOH extract of the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structures were elucidated using detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra along with their mass spectrometric data and the results of acid hydrolysis. Of the isolated compounds 1 and 3-5 displayed cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell lines in A-549 (lung carcinoma), MDA-231 (breast carcinoma) and PC-3 (prostatic carcinoma).

  8. The structures of four triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of Trifolium incarnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisdesmosidic saponin, 3-0-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 - 2-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-2-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-22-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ole­an-l2-ene-24-ol has been isolated from the seed of the clover, Trifolium incarnatum. The structure of this and of three other structurally related saponins, 3-0-(β-D-glucuronopyra-nosylolean-l2-ene-22, 24-diol, soyasaponin I and soyasaponin III have been assigned on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  9. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  10. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1997-10-15

    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  11. Engaging Students with Multiple Models of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A.; Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of unit fractions, and especially of one-half, one-third, and one-fourth, is crucially important for elementary school children's development of number sense (CCSSI 2010). We describe multimodal activities designed to assist elementary school students in gaining a rich understanding of unit fractions. Research has shown (Zhang,…

  12. Development of an analytical method for yam saponins using HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection at different column temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Hee; Yoo, Chang-Seon; Choi, Hwa-Young; Lee, Soo-Eon; Park, Yong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Yam saponins (dioscin, gracillin, protodioscin, and protogracillin) were analyzed with three different C18 columns at incremental column temperatures from 15 to 45°C to investigate the effect of temperature on the retention and resolution of yam saponins. At low temperature, yam saponins showed decreased retention times and improved resolutions in the C18 columns. In the Kinetex C18 column at 15°C, the four saponins achieved baseline separation (Rs > 1.5) within 30 min. Pulsed amperometric detection was used to identify saponins with high sensitivity. The limits of detection and quantification of saponins were 0.11-0.31 and 0.33-0.95 ng, respectively. The correlation coefficients ranged 0.9986-1.0000. Intra- and inter-day precisions were yam foods were determined without sample purification or concentration. Among the ten commercial yam foods investigated, only three showed significant saponin contents. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rapid, cost-effective and accurate quantification of Yucca schidigera Roezl. steroidal saponins using HPLC-ELSD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenon, Mathieu; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Birtić, Simona

    2017-04-15

    Yucca GRAS-labelled saponins have been and are increasingly used in food/feed, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. Existing techniques presently used for Yucca steroidal saponin quantification remain either inaccurate and misleading or accurate but time consuming and cost prohibitive. The method reported here addresses all of the above challenges. HPLC/ELSD technique is an accurate and reliable method that yields results of appropriate repeatability and reproducibility. This method does not over- or under-estimate levels of steroidal saponins. HPLC/ELSD method does not require each and every pure standard of saponins, to quantify the group of steroidal saponins. The method is a time- and cost-effective technique that is suitable for routine industrial analyses. HPLC/ELSD methods yield a saponin fingerprints specific to the plant species. As the method is capable of distinguishing saponin profiles from taxonomically distant species, it can unravel plant adulteration issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. EXTRACTION OF TANNINS AND SAPONINS FROM PLANT SOURCES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON In vitro METHANOGENESIS AND RUMEN FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yuliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to extract tannins from Swietenia mahagony and saponins from Sapindusrarak by using different solvents, and to test their extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation andmethanogenesis. Solvents used for extraction were water, methanol, acetone and their combinations.Tannin and saponin extracts were added into each incubation bottle containing Brachiaria humidicolagrass and Indigofera sp. legume (1:1 w/w according to the following treatments (in four replicates: R1:control substrate, R2: R1 + 0.5 mg/ml tannin extract, R3: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract, R4: R1 + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, R5: R1 + 1 mg/mL saponin extract, R6: R1 + 0.5 mg/mL tannin extract + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, and R7: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract + 1 mg/mL saponin extract. Resultsrevealed that 75% water + 25% methanol was the best solvent to extract tannins from S. mahagonywhereas 100% methanol was the best to extract saponins from S. rarak. The highest gas production andthe lowest methane emission were obtained in R7. It can be concluded that combination of tannin andsaponin extracts were potential in mitigating ruminal methane emissions.

  15. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  16. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    are identified and found to be responsible for resistance towards flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Genes involved in the biosynthesis of these saponins were recently identified, however the complete biosynthetic pathway is not known to date. These findings set...

  17. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  18. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  19. Two new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yuan; Teng Fei Ji; Ai Guo Wang; Jian Bo Yang; Ya Lun Su

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH extract from the seeds of Allium cepa L.led to isolation of four furostanol saponins,two of which were new compounds,named ceparoside A (1a) and ceparoside B (2a).The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated through a combination of NMR,MS spectral data and chemical analysis.

  20. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  1. Structure and absolute configuration of helosides A and B, new saponins from Chamaelirium luteum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of Chamaelirium luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins, helosides A and B, that contain a previously unreported aglycone, helogenin. Their structures and absolute configuration were elucidated through MS-MS, NMR, chemical degradation, and X-ray crystallography....

  2. Three new oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Qingying; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Yuying; Wu, Lijun

    2010-10-01

    Three new minor oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid, julibroside J(32), julibroside J(35) and julibroside J(36), along with one new natural product, prosapogenin 9, were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidences.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  4. Isolation and characterization of saponin-producing fungal endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Hongyan; You, Xiangling; Li, Yuhua

    2012-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres), and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL). According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju B; Samaddar, Suman; Simi, S M; Rao, Srinivas T

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective potential of a saponin isolated from the roots of Momordica cymbalaria against peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A steroidal saponin (SMC) was isolated from M. cymbalaria Fenzl and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes was induced in male Wister rats by injecting streptozotocin 45 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were divided into six groups for neuroprotective effect--three each for preventive and curative groups. Neuropathic analgesia was assessed by tail-flick and hot-plate methods. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and sciatic nerves were isolated, and histopathological analysis was performed. Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) of the saponin was also carried out on the isolated DRG neurons and sciatic nerves to assess total oxidative stress. In both preventive and curative protocols, rats administered with SMC showed significant decrease in tail immersion latency time and increase in pain sensitivity when compared to diabetic control group. There was improvement in the myelination and degenerative changes of the nerve fiber in both the groups, and an obvious delay in the progression of neuropathy was evident. SMC treatment showed significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in the nerves. The steroidal saponin of M. cymbalaria (SMC) possesses potential neuroprotective effect in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with respect to neuropathic analgesia, improvement in neuronal degenerative changes, and significant antioxidant activity.

  6. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  7. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  8. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  9. Two new saponins from tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), and their anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Shi, Haiming; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Haisha; Zhou, Qin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-12-15

    Jiaogulan tea has been commercialised globally. This study investigated the chemical components and health properties of a new jiaogulan genotype, tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two new saponins, (23S)-21β-O-methyl-3β,20ξ-dihydroxy-12-oxo-21,23-epoxydammar-24-ene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside (4) and 23β-H-3β,20ξ-dihydroxy-19-oxo-21,23-epoxydammar-24-ene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside (5), together with one lactone, 3,5-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (1), and two flavonoids, rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (3), were characterised in the aerial parts of tetraploid jiaogulan. The chemical structures of the five isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR, HR-MS spectra and chemical degradation. The five compounds were also examined and compared with the methanol extract and n-butanol soluble fraction of the jiaogulan for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, and their in vitro α-glucosidase suppressing capacities. The results from this study may be used to promote the potential application of jiaogulan in functional foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O I; Perederiaev, O I; Ramenskaia, G V

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).

  11. Determination by UPLC-MS of four dammarane-type saponins from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Jang, Moonhee; Piao, Xiang-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its main dammaran-type saponins, gypenoside L, gypenoside LI, damulin B, and damulin A, possess non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell inhibitory activity. We established in this study a method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of the saponins and also investigated their content change in heat-processed G. pentaphyllum. The main saponins increased with increasing heating temperature and time. Further investigation showed that they were produced from gypenoside XLVI and gypenoside LVI by undergoing hydrolysis during the heat treatment.

  12. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  13. Is fucose the answer to the immunomodulatory paradox of Quillaja saponins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2015-12-01

    Quillaja saponins, e.g. QS-21, are immunomodulating aldehyde-carrying triterpene glycosides, which depending on the acylation state of their single fucosyl residue (Fucp) induce either Th1/Th2 or Th2 immunity. Indeed, their changes in immunomodulation or adjuvanticity from Th1/Th2 to sole Th2 immunity, correlate with the presence of acylated and de-acylated Fucp residues, respectively. Thus, it is possible to infer that the single Fucp residue is responsible for the Th2 immunity biasing induced by de-acylated Q. saponins (QT-0101). That removal of the fucosylated oligosaccharide from de-acylated Q. saponins results once more in the induction of Th1/Th2 immunity supports the Fucp role in polarizing the response toward Th2 immunity. From structural and functional analogies with the helminths' fucosylated glycans, it is possible to infer that these saponins' Fucp must bind to the lectin DC-SIGN on dendritic cells (DC). This binding to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin that shows significant pliability in its binding interactions, must result in polarization toward Th2 while inhibiting Th1 immunity. Apparently, acylation of the Fucp by large fatty acids sterically hinders this sugar from binding to DC-SIGN, preventing a biasing to Th2 immunity. Evidently, de-acylation of Q. saponins may negatively affect vaccines requiring Th1 immunity for immune protection, particularly those against pathogens that use DC-SIGN to infect DCs and modulate Th2 immunity. However, it could be valuable in vaccines that require a sole Th2 immunity, like those against proteinopathies, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it would valuable to elucidate the possible interactions between DC-SIGN and the QT-0101 immunomodulator.

  14. Mycoremediation of manganese and phenanthrene by Pleurotus eryngii mycelium enhanced by Tween 80 and saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Xu, Yongan; Ding, Wenbo; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation of areas co-contaminated with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by mushrooms has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this study, Pleurotus eryngii was introduced for the removal of Mn and phenanthrene (Phe) from potato liquid medium (PDL) simultaneously. Effects of Tween 80 and saponin on P. eryngii growth together with Mn uptake as well as Phe removal were investigated. Although pollutants had a negative effect on mycelial morphology and growth, P. eryngii could still tolerate and remove Mn and Phe. Tween 80 increased removal of Mn and Phe through increase of P. eryngii growth, Phe solubility, pollutants bioavailability, and specific surface area of mycelium pellets, moreover, the activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase, which played an important role on PAHs biodegradation. The maximal removal of Mn and Phe was achieved (92.17 and 93.85 % after 15 days incubation, respectively) with 0.6 g L(-1) Tween 80. Treatments with saponin markedly inhibited P. eryngii growth (50.17-66.32 % lower relative to control) due to its fungistatic activity. Nevertheless, saponin could slightly enhance Phe removal through increasing solubility of Phe, and Phe removal rate varied from 80.53 to 87.06 % in saponin treatments. Joint stress of Mn and Phe induced a strong antioxidative response, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in surfactants-treated mycelium compared with control. Generally, Tween 80 was more suitable for strengthening mycoremediation by P. eryngii than saponin, and could be a promising alternative for the remediation of heavy metals and PAHs co-contaminated sites by mushrooms.

  15. Evaluation of efficacy of saponin and freund's incomplete adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubeda Begum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy between saponin adjuvanted paratuberculosis killed vaccine and Freund's incomplete (FIC adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in mice model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 11 months using 80 Swiss albino mice by dividing into four groups (Group I-mice vaccinated with killed Mycobacterium avium subspp. paratuberculosis (MAP adjuvanted with saponin, Group II- for FIC, Group III- Saponin control and Gr IV- FIC control. Faecal shedding, changes in body weight, presence of local reactions and clinical symptoms, were evaluated. Serological assays for humoral and cell mediated immune response were determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nitric oxide test (NO respectively. A total of 76 serum samples, 52 faecal samples and 20 tissue samples were collected at different intervals during the study period. ZN staining; AGID test and nitric oxide test were employed for analysis of samples. Results: A total of 38 samples (37 faecal and 1 tissue sample and 18 serum samples were recorded as positive by ZN staining and AGID test respectively from all four groups of mice. Significant decrease in faecal shedding of organisms was observed in Group I mice vaccinated with saponin adjuvanted vaccine in comparison to Group II. Gain in body weight of Group I mice was recorded as higher than Group II. NO test revealed increase in the concentration of NO level in both vaccinated group but more significant in Group I. Conclusion: The tests results obtained revealed that killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with saponin have higher protective efficacy in terms of reduced faecal shedding, gain in body weight, less side effects, absence of attributable specific symptoms of Johne's disease, etc. in comparison to killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with FIC. The present study also reveals that AGID and NO estimation tests are specific tests which can be employed for diagnosis and comparison of efficacy of paratuberculosis

  16. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  17. A new dammarane saponin and other triterpenoids from Siolmatra brasiliensis and evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of its extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa; Borges, Izabeau Pontes; da Silva, Virgínia Claudia; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2016-09-01

    Context Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill (Cucurbitaceae) is a climbing plant widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus symptoms. Objective This work evaluates the antidiabetic activity of an extract of S. brasiliensis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and promotes the phytochemical investigation to isolate the major compounds of the same extract. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into normal (N) and diabetic rats (DC) treated with water; diabetic rats treated with 3U insulin (DI) or with 250 (DSb250) or 500 mg/kg (DSb500) of hydroalcoholic extract of the stalks of S. brasiliensis, via oral gavage, for 21 days. Physiological and biochemical parameters classically altered in diabetes were monitored. The triterpenoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction under silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex-LH20 methods and their structures were determined by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and DC analysis. Results When compared with DC, DSb250 rats showed a reduction in the hyperglycemia (DC: 26.46 ± 0.69 versus DSb250: 19.67 ± 1.06 mmol/L) and glycosuria (DC: 43.02 ± 3.19 versus DSb250: 28.46 ± 2.14 mmol/24 h) and increase in hepatic glycogen (DC: 14.44 ± 1.26 versus DSb250: 22.08 ± 4.26 mg/g). Three known cucurbitacins were isolated from a hydroalcoholic extract of S. brasiliensis, i.e., cayaponosides A1, B4, D, and a new dammarane saponin 3-O-β-d-gentiobiosyl-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20-hydroxydammar-24-ene. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral data analysis of the natural products and their acetyl derivatives. Discussion and conclusion The known cucurbitacins and/or the new identified saponin may be related with the antidiabetic activity of S. brasiliensis.

  18. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelos, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: morelos@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Mata, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cooper, P.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Engelfried, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Aguilera-Servin, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    We use a seven million event data sample of 600GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4x10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K{sup +}->{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}-bar decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  19. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P. S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J. L.

    2005-11-01

    We use a seven million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5σ, giving a fraction of 4×10-5 events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K+→π+ ν ν¯ decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  20. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  1. Nitrogen fractionation in Titan's aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Kuga, Maia; Marty, Bernard; Fleury, Benjamin; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-06-01

    A strong nitrogen fractionation is found by Cassini in Titan's atmosphere with the detection of 15N-rich HCN relative to N2. Photodissociation of N2 associated or not to self-shielding might involve 15N-rich radicals prone to incorporation into forming organics. However the isotopic composition is only available for very simple gaseous N-bearing compounds, and the propagation and conservation of such a large N-isotopic fractionation upon polymerization is actually out of reach with the instruments onboard Cassini. We will therefore present a first laboratory investigation of the possible enrichment in the solid organic aerosols. We will also discuss the space instrumention required in the future to answer this pending issue on Titan.

  2. Fractional complex transforms for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim, Rabha W

    2012-01-01

    The fractional complex transform is employed to convert fractional differential equations analytically in the sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional operator and its generalization in the unit disk...

  3. ENZYME HYDROLYSIS OF SOYBEAN SAPONIN SUGAR-MOIETY%酶法水解大豆苷中的含糖部分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 徐龙权; 翟滨; 苏志国; 金凤燮

    2001-01-01

    @@ Saponin is the general name of low polymerized glycosides and in which the steroid or terpenoid is aglycone.The soybean saponin is composed of the triterpenoid aglycones (sapogenols)and sugar-moiety.Soybean saponin was divided into group A,group B,group E and group DDMP by the aglycones[1-3].It has been shown that soybean saponin has a lot of physiological activities and pharmacological action.For example,it can be used to resist cancer,adjust immunity,prevent and treat heart blood vessel disease.In addition, soybean saponin has been extensively used in cosmetics.However,the soybean saponin has dry mouth feel(DMF)which decreases the quality of soybean food products.Many facts have verified that sugar-moiety is very important to the biological activity of saponin[4].For example,in ginseng saponin of binary alcohol,the saponins which contain five sugar-moieties such as Ra1,Ra2,Ra3,have low activity,however,saponins containing one sugar-moiety like Rh2 have very strong activity of resisting cancer.When the sugar-moiety of soybean saponin was removed out,some special activities like resisting oxidation and resisting thrombus emerged and the DMF would decrease.But,reports concerning the sugar-moiety hydrolysis of soybean saponin by enzyme have not been found.In the paper,the enzyme hydrolysis of soybean saponin sugar-moiety and the strains producing hydrolytic enzyme of saponin were studied.

  4. Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan

    2010-01-01

    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...

  5. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  6. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  7. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  8. Dynamic Relationships Between Structure and Saponins Accumulation in Vegetative Organs of Alternanthera philaxeroid Criseb%空心莲子草营养器官结构与三萜皂苷动态积累的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芹; 徐如松; 王锐

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between anatomical structure and the content of saponins in vegetative organs of Al-ternanthera philaxeroid were studied by means of histochemical localization, light microscope and quantitative a-nalysis. The results showed that triterpenoid saponins are accumulated in the perennial roots, stems, rhizomes and leaves of A. Philoxeroides, especially rich in leaves and rhizomes. The contents of triterpenoid saponins accumulated in vegetative organs are in the order of leaves > rhizomes > perennial root > stem under the same conditions , with leaf palisade tissue as main stored place. There were tertiary vascular bundles of concentric circular arrangement in transverse section of the perennial roots and rhizomes, which belongs to abnormal structure. Triterpenoid saponins were accumulated in secondary phloem, phelloderm, tertiary phloem and conjunctive tissue in perennial roots and rhizomes. The tertiary structure was not only the main parts in the perennial root and rhizome , but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponins. Accumulating trend of triterpenoid saponins at different collecting periods in leaves, rhizomes and perennial roots are similar, which increased with vegetative organs growing. The stem of A. Philoxeroides was composed of epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle and pith cavity in transverse section, and only a few cells of cortex and primary phloem deposited triterpenoid saponins.%采用组织化学定位、显微制片技术和三萜皂苷定量分析方法对空心莲子草营养器官结构与三萜皂苷类物质积累关系进行了研究.结果表明:空心莲子草宿根、根状茎、茎和叶中均有三萜皂苷物质的积累,叶和根状茎内含量十分丰富.在相同采收期内含量依次为:叶>根状茎>根>茎,叶中主要积累于栅栏组织细胞内.空心莲子草的根和根状茎横切面均属于异常结构,具有成同心环状排列的三生维管束.在宿根和根状茎的次生韧皮

  9. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  10. Chemical investigation of saponins from twelve annual Medicago species and their bioassay with the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tava, Aldo; Pecetti, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    The saponin and sapogenin composition of the aerial growth of 12 annual Medicago species sampled at full senescence were investigated. Saponins were extracted from the plant material and obtained in a highly pure grade by reverse-phase chromatography, with a yield ranging from 0.38 +/- 0.04% to 1.35 +/- 0.08% dry matter, depending on the species. Sapogenins were then obtained after acid hydrolysis of saponins, and evaluated by GC/FID and GC/MS methods. Different compositions of the aglycone moieties were observed in the 12 Medicago species. Medicagenic acid was the dominant aglycone in M. x blancheana, M. doliata, M. littoralis, M. rotata, M. rugosa, M. scutellata, M. tornata and M. truncatula, bayogenin and hederagenin in M. arabica and M. rigidula, echinocystic acid in M. polymorpha, and soyasapogenol B in M. aculeata. The purified saponin mixtures, characterized by different chemical compositions, were then used in a toxicity test using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The most active compounds were the saponins from M. arabica and M. rigidula with LD50 values of 10.1 and 4.6 microg/mL, respectively. A structure-activity relationship for the tested saponin mixtures was observed.

  11. Isolation and evaluation of cytogenetic effect of Brahmi saponins on cultured human lymphocytes exposed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Papacchan, Sunu; Sanyal, Sudip; Koshy, Teena; Telapolu, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Major saponins of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera, Fam: Scrophulariaceae) - bacosides A and B - were isolated from the total methanol extract and characterised based on melting point, TLC, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytogenetic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. The frequency of chromatid type aberrations and reciprocal interchanges between sister chromatids in the treated cells was scored in comparison to the untreated control. At 30 μg/mL dose, bacoside A showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of both CA and SCE and bacoside B showed an increase only in SCE. Our report of the genotoxicity of the saponins is significant in view of the reports of anticancer activity of Brahmi extracts.

  12. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Keanekarragamann Beberapa Varietas Sansevieria trifasciata berdasarkan Karakter Anatomi, Isozim, dan Kandungan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHIKA FEBRI DEWATISARI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation on leaves color and shape. The aim of this research was to investigate anatomical structure (leaves, stem and root of five cultivars of Sansevieria trifasciata namely Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahni, and Hahnii cream, as well as isozymic banding pattern and saponin constituent. The results indicated that those five cultivars have genetic variation. Hahnii medio picta has unique morphological shape than the others, while Green arrow has different stalk cells than the others. The dendogram resulting from peroxidase data, S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups where Hahnii medio picta has its own group. The esterase data is also showing two groups, where Golden Hahnii has its own group. The saponin constituent was found in the all five cultivars, which Golden Hahnii had the highest content, i.e. 1.77783 mg/g and 1.5810 mg/gag respectively for leaves and roots.

  14. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Mitchell, Robert B; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Gardner, Dale R; Azadi, Parastoo

    2009-03-25

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environmentally friendly biomass energy crop. A recent 5 year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540% more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest, and process it into cellulosic ethanol. If switchgrass is grown on a scale useful for a bioenergy source, some of the material could be used by livestock as hay or pasture. Switchgrass has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs (Ovis aries) and horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a simple extraction and rapid reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantifying the major saponins in switchgrass samples. Differences in the relative concentrations of different saponins were observed between switchgrass cultivars and plant parts.

  15. A PAIR OF 24-HYDROPEROXYL EPIMERIC DAMMARANE SAPONINS FROM FLOWER-BUDS OF PANAX GINSENG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG QIU; ZHONG-ZE MA; SUI-XU XU; XIN-SHENG YAO; CHUN-TAO CHE; YING-JIE CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Further investigation on the saponins of the flower-buds of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of a pair of new 24-epimers of dammarane type saponins named ginsenoside I and II. The structures of the epimers were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence as 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-S-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S)-trihydroxy-24ξ-hydroperoxydam-mar-25-ene, except for their C-24 configurations. Ginsenoside Ⅰ is a new triterpene glycoside,and ginsenoside Ⅱ is a known compound first isolated from a natural plant.

  16. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  17. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  18. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  19. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  20. Flavonol glycosides and steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Watanabe, K; Ando, Y; Sakuma, C; Sashida, Y; Furuya, S; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides (1, 2) and seven steroidal saponins (3-9), including four new ones (4, 6, 7, and 9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against human oral squamous cell carcinoma-(HSC-2) cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts are reported.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structures of C24-epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang Rong; Yang, Jing Jing; Liu, Juan; Hou, Gui Ge; Meng, Qing Guo

    2016-06-01

    Ocotillol-type saponins have a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previous studies indicated that the configuration at the C24 position may be responsible for their stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. Natural ocotillol-type saponins share a 20(S)-form but it has been found that the 20(R)-stereoisomers have different pharmacological effects. The semisynthesis of 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins has not been reported and it is therefore worthwhile clarifying their crystal structures. Two C24 epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins, namely (20R,24S)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol, C30H52O4, (III), and (20R,24R)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol monohydrate, C30H52O4·H2O, (IV), were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by spectral studies and finally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (Me)C-O-C-C(OH) torsion angle of (III) is 146.41 (14)°, whereas the corresponding torsion angle of (IV) is -146.4 (7)°, indicating a different conformation at the C24 position. The crystal stacking in (III) generates an R4(4)(8) motif, through which the molecules are linked into a one-dimensional double chain. The chains are linked via nonclassical C-H...O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network, and further stacked into a three-dimensional structure. In contrast to (III), epimer (IV) crystallizes as a hydrate, in which the water molecules act as hydrogen-bond donors linking one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional network through intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains extend helically along the crystallographic a axis and generate a C4(4)(8) motif.

  2. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Sharma; Satish Chandra Sati; Om Prakash Sati; Maneesha Dobhal Sati; Sudhir Kumar Kothiyal; Deepak Kumar Semwal; Anil Mehta

    2013-01-01

    A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1)-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion m...

  3. A new friedelane triterpenoid and saponin with moderate antimicrobial activity from the stems of Drypetes laciniata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Veronique Fannang; Victor Kuete; Celine Mbazoa Djama; Marlise Diane J. Dongfack; Jean Duplex Wansi; Francois Tillequin; Elisabeth Seguin; Elizabeth Chosson; Jean Wandji

    2011-01-01

    A new friedelane-type triterpene named 3β-hydroxyfriedelane-7,12,22-trione, as well as nine known compounds were isolated from the whole stems of Drypetes laciniata Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The new triterpene derivative and a known saponin were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities and they appeared to be moderate active.

  4. Production of highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions using dual-channel microfluidization: Use of individual and mixed natural emulsifiers (saponin and lecithin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Bai, Long; Liu, Fuguo; Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zheng, Bingjing; Deng, Yihui; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is useful for reducing storage and transportation costs, as well as for providing desirable textural, optical, stability, and release characteristics in commercial products. In this study, 50wt% oil-in-water emulsions were produced from natural emulsifiers using high-pressure dual-channel microfluidization (89.6MPa, 1 pass). The particle size and charge characteristics of emulsions stabilized using a hydrophilic biosurfactant (quillaja saponin) or mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactants (quillaja saponin+soy lecithin) were measured. The physical stability of the emulsions was determined during storage under quiescent conditions (pH7, 25°C). The mean droplet diameter and polydispersity decreased with increasing hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant concentration. Surface potential measurements indicated that interfacial composition depended on the amount of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant present. The inclusion of hydrophobic emulsifier in the oil phase and hydrophilic emulsifier in the aqueous phase prior to homogenization, led to the formation of smaller oil droplets than using the hydrophilic emulsifier alone. The relatively small size and polydispersity of the droplets in the mixed-emulsifier systems led to a higher emulsion viscosity and a better aggregation stability, i.e., there was a smaller change in particle size during storage. However, some creaming was still observed in the emulsions due to the presence of a fraction of relatively large droplets. In summary, concentrated emulsions stabilized by mixed biosurfactants may be advantageous for commercial application in certain food, beverage, and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Simplification of a haemolytic micromethod for toxic saponin quantification in alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simplification of a haemolytic micromethod is presented. In the orginal method, alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. leaf sap is spotted on the plate covered with a blood-gelatine suspension. In the presented method, the mashed alfalfa pulp is used instead of sap. Due to saponin diffusion and the reaction with erythrocytes, a haemolytic ring appears, which has a width proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. It is shown that the width of haemolytic ring does not depend on the sample weight ranging from 20 to 100 mg. This allows for the omission of laborious sap pressing and sample quantification. Individual alfalfa plants with different saponin contents were tested using leaf sap and leaf pulp for analyses. Good agreement was found with sap and leaf pulp methods. The correlation obtained by both methods was high, r = 0.87. The modified method requires only a small amount of plant material and makes the analyses of large numbers of individual plants per day possible. The method is especially recommended for breeding purposes.

  7. Smashing Tissue Extraction and HPLC Determination of Active Saponins from Different Parts of Panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sheng-ming; LIU Yan-ze; TAI Wen; CHEN Chang-qing; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology used for extracting active saponins from the roots,fibrous roots,basal part of stems,root verrucae,fruits,flowers,stems,and leaves of Panax notoginseng based on the contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 as evaluation indexes.Methods Different parts of P.notoginseng were extracted by smashing tissue extraction(STE),ultrasound extraction,and reflux extraction.The contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 in 24 kinds of extracts were determined by HPLC-UV.Hypersil C18 column(200 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm)and acetonitrile-warter(20:80 for 30 min→45:55 for 18 min→70:30 for 2 min→80:20 for 10 min→100:0)were used;UV detector was set at 203 nm;The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min.Results STE was the most efficient technology with the highest yield of active saponins among the three tested extraction technologies.Conclusion STE is a fast,effective,and economical method to extract the active saponins from different parts of P.notoginseng.It could significantly shorten the extraction time and simplify the determination of the pre-processing work on identifying P.notoginseng.Such quick and effective extraction provides a powerful tool for analyzing P.notoginseng in the future.

  8. Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Soo Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 μg/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 μg/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

  9. Triterpenoid Saponins from Cortex Albiziae%合欢皮中的三萜皂苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坤; 赵玉英; 张如意

    2008-01-01

    Cortex Albiziae, the dried stem bark of a leguminous plant, Albizia julibrissin Durazz, was specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edit.) as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used to relieve melancholia and uneasiness of body and mind, to invigorate the circulation of blood and subside a swelling. In a course of our quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines, the n-BuOH soluble part of 95% EtOH extracts from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin was subjected to a series of solvent treatment and chromatographic separations, including Rp-HPLC methods, giving rise to 28 pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins. Based on chemical methods and spectroscopic evidences, the structures of saponins were identified, which included six pairs of diastereoisomers, five pairs of position isomers, and 26 of them were new compounds. All the saponins are trisdesmosidic saponins, which are composed of an acacic acid moiety, 7-9 monosaccharide moieties, 1-2 monoterpenic acid moieties, and exhibited their molecular ion peaks around m/z 2 000. Their carbon-13 signals and most of proton signals were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The proton and carbon signals of several known saponins were revised and reassigned. The spectroscopic properties related to these saponins were analyzed and summarized. The cytotoxic activity and other activities of these saponins and their analogues were discussed also.%合欢皮作为传统中药,为豆科植物合欢的干燥茎皮.在1995年版中国药典中记载合欢皮具有解郁安神、活血化瘀的作用.在我们对传统中药品质进行研究的过程中,通过对合欢皮95%乙醇提取物的正丁醇可溶部位进行一系列溶剂处理和层析分离,分离获得28个五环三萜皂苷.基于化学和波谱证据,我们鉴定了它们的结构,包括6对非对映异构体、5对位置异构体,其中26个皂苷为新化合物.所有分离皂苷均为三糖链皂苷,含有金合欢酸皂苷元,7~9个单糖和1~2

  10. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  11. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  12. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  13. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  14. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total saponins from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge seed husk using response surface methodology%响应面法优化超声波辅助提取文冠果种皮总皂苷的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妙音; 李万武; 孔维宝; 邢文黎; 侯明杰

    2014-01-01

    Total saponins were extracted from the seed husk of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge by ultrasound-assisted extraction method. The effects of volume fraction of ethanol, ultrasonic power, ratio of solid to liquid, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction rate of total saponins were investiga-ted. Based on single factor experiment, with volume fraction of ethanol, ultrasonic power, ratio of solid to liquid those most significantly affected the extraction rate of total saponins as influencing factors, extrac-tion rate of total saponins as response value, the response surface experiment was conducted by the Box-Behnken design and the regression model was established. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained as follows: volume fraction of ethanol 73%, ultrasonic power 220 W, ratio of solid to liquid 1∶30. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of total saponins reached 0. 30%when extraction temperature and extraction time were 50℃ and 90 min respectively.%采用超声波辅助萃取法提取文冠果种皮中的总皂苷。考察了乙醇体积分数、超声波功率、料液比、提取时间和提取温度对总皂苷提取率的影响,在单因素试验的基础上选取对总皂苷提取率影响显著的料液比、乙醇体积分数和超声波功率,利用Box-Behnken设计原理,以总皂苷提取率为响应值进行响应面试验,建立了回归方程,得到了优化的提取条件(料液比1∶30,乙醇体积分数73%,超声波功率220 W)。在提取温度50℃、提取时间90 min及优化的提取条件下,文冠果种皮总皂苷提取率达0.30%。

  15. Determination of antibacterial activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibacterial property and quantify the contents of the total phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the method described by Harborne in 1999. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used for assaying the antibacterial activity. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were employed for the estimation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Vanillin-acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture was employed in the determination of the total saponin content. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and steroids in the methanolic extract while alkaloids were absent. Only steroids were identified in then-hexane extract. The methanolic leaf extract was active againstPseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris while then-hexane was inactive. The total phenolic content obtained was (47.75 ± 0.12) mg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract, the total flavonoid content was (121.50 ± 0.11) mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, while the total saponin content was (63.42 ± 0.15) mg ginsenoside Rb 1 equivalent/mg extract. Conclusions:The leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus have high contents of saponins and flavonoids.

  16. Metabolite profiling of triterpene saponins in Medicago truncatula hairy roots by liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollier, Jacob; Morreel, Kris; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-06-24

    Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant natural products, with an enormous variety in structure and bioactivities. Here, triterpene saponins from hairy roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula were profiled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC ESI FT-ICR MS). Owing to the accuracy of the FT-ICR MS, reliable molecular formulas of the detected compounds could be predicted, which, together with the generated MS(n) spectra, allowed the tentative identification of 79 different saponins, of which 61 had not been detected previously in M. truncatula. Upon collision-induced dissociation of saponins that contain a uronic acid residue in the sugar chain, fragment ions resulting from cross-ring cleavages of the uronic acid residues were observed. The identified saponins are glycosides of 10 different sapogenins, of which three were not detected before in M. truncatula. Zanhic acid glycosides, which are prevalent in the aerial parts of M. truncatula, were absent in the hairy root extracts. This metabolite compendium will facilitate future functional genomic studies of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  17. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  18. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs.

  19. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r(2) = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  20. Treatment of facial dysplasia atrophy by autologous fat granule injection which was rich in stromal vascular fraction%富含血管基质层细胞自体脂肪颗粒移植纠正颜面萎缩的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志贤; 马亮; 莫自增; 梁杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨富含血管基质层细胞(stromal vascular fraction,SVF)的自体脂肪颗粒注射移植在面部萎缩中的应用,达到提高脂肪存活率效果.方法:从2011年8月到201 3年2月,我们选择6例半侧颜面萎缩的患者,于下腹部采用肿胀吸脂术获得自体颗粒脂肪,通过静置,纯化后采用多层次、多隧道、多点的注射方法,充填修复颜面部凹陷畸形.术后3个月随访,效果欠佳者即进行第二次手术脂肪颗粒移植,直至效果满意为止.结果:本组6例半侧颜面萎缩患者,随访3~12个月(平均6.5个月),充填后脂肪吸收率低,面部两侧基本达到对称,效果满意.结论:应用自体颗粒脂肪移植修复半侧颜面萎缩操作简单,创伤性小,效果理想,对于轻度中度的颜面萎缩患者而言,是一种较为理想的简单有效的治疗方法,值得推广.%Objective To evaluate an improved treatment of an autologous fat granule injection which was rich in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for facial dysplasia atrophy.Methods 6 patients with facial dysplasia atrophy underwent an improved treatment by the rich in SVF autologous fat granule injection for their diseases.The autologous fat granules were harvested from patient's abdomen by liposuction with 20ml syringe under the tumescent anesthesia.After remove redundance water by placed in an upright position for 3 minutes the fat granules were injected to the facial introcession area with Multiplane multi-tunnel and multi-point method.Results All the patients had a satisfactory symmetrical face after the injection,the follow-up results were good after one year.Conclusion The fat granule injection is a simple treatment for the facial dysplasia atrophy with satisfactory effect and no injury,for the slight or medium patients this method is an ideal treatment.