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Sample records for sapium sebiferum euphorbiaceae

  1. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

  2. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan (China); Mao, Yingji [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Yang, Minglei, E-mail: yml888@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu, Lifang, E-mail: lfwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China)

    2015-08-07

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Sapium sebiferum in paracetamol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum leaves were used to determine its hepatoprotective effects against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. A dose dependent study was conducted using two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract of S. sebiferum against toxic effects of paracetamol (500 mg/kg in experimental animal model. Silymarin (50 mg/kg was used as standard drug to compare therapeutic effects of S. sebiferum with control and paracetamol-treated groups. Paracetamol significantly increased the serum levels of liver enzyme markers like alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin. The extract showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers in a dose dependent manner. Histopathological results confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of leaves of S. sebiferum. We conclude that leaves of S. sebiferum have strong hepatoprotective effects against paracetamol-induced liver injury and can be used in liver injuries caused by drug-induced toxicity.

  4. Sebiferone, a New Triterpenoid from Stem Bark of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the stem bark of Sapium sebiferum a new triterpenoid, named sebiferone (1), was isolated. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 3β-acetoxy-D-friedoolen-14-en -1-one-28-oic acid on the basis of spectral and chemical methods.

  5. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglei Yang

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  6. 乌桕属植物化学成分及其生物活性研究进展%Study on the Chemical Constituents and Advances in Biological Activity of Sapium Sebiferum Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君

    2015-01-01

    乌桕属大戟科乌桕属,约有120种。其根皮、茎皮、种子及叶子均可入药。乌桕性微温、味苦、有毒,具有利水、消积、杀虫、解毒、通便等功效。现代药理实验表明,乌桕具有体外抑菌、抗炎、降压、降胆固醇作用。本文选取乌桕叶,对其化学成分及生物活性进行研究。%Sapium sebiferum Euphorbiaceae Sapium sebiferum Roxb.,there are about 120 species.The root bark and stem bark,seeds and leaves can be used as medicine.Sapium sebiferum tepid,bitter,toxic,with the water, consumer product,insecticide detoxification,laxative effect.Modern pharmacological experiments show that,Chinese talow tree has antibacterial activity in vitro,anti-inflammatory,blood pressure,cholesterol lowering efect.This paper selects Chinese talow leaf,to study the chemical constituents and biological activities.

  7. The effect of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) ecotype on soil-plant system carbon and nitrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; DeWalt, Saara J; Siemann, Evan

    2006-11-01

    The EICA hypothesis predicts that shifts in allocation of invasive plants give rise to higher growth rates and lower herbivore defense levels in their introduced range than conspecifics in their native range. These changes in traits of invasive plants may also affect ecosystem processes. We conducted an outdoor pot experiment with Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) seedlings from its native (Jiangsu, China, native ecotype) and introduced ranges (Texas, USA, invasive ecotype) to compare their relative performances in its native range and to examine ecotype effects on soil processes with and without fertilization. Consistent with predictions, plant (shoot and root) mass was significantly greater and leaf defoliation tended to be higher, while the root:shoot ratio was lower for the invasive ecotype relative to the native ecotype. Seasonal amounts of soil-plant system CO(2) and N(2)O emissions were higher for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype. Soil respiration rates and N(2)O emission increases from fertilization were also greater for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype, while shoot-specific respiration rates (g CO(2)-C g(-1) C day(-1)) did not differ between ecotypes. Further, soil inorganic N (ammonium and nitrate) was higher, but soil total N was lower for soils with the invasive ecotype than soils with the native ecotype. Compared with native ecotypes, therefore, invasive ecotypes may have developed a competition advantage in accelerating soil processes and promoting more nitrogen uptake through soil-plant direct interaction. The results of this study suggest that soil and ecosystem processes accelerated by variation in traits of invasive plants may have implications for their invasiveness.

  8. The Design of Decorticator for Sapium sebiferum Roxb.Seed%乌桕籽剥壳机械设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 张风; 王凯; 李晖; 杨柳; 徐向阳

    2011-01-01

    The sapium sebiferum Roxb.is a rare oil crop,the seeds can be extracted simultaneously two oil-sapium fat and kernel oil.Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seeds remain black kernel after dewaxing operating,which process is very important for raw material of kernel oil.The decorticator of Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed is made up of hopper,feeding regulator,rollers of adjuster,motor,drive mechanism,blower and twin-roll.Through analyzing the twin-roll working area,decortication process and the particle size of Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed,the width of twin-roll will be regulated.Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed fell into workspace of decortication by gravity.After rolling and decorticating with rollers,blower will separate of seed kernel from seed.The authors put forward production capacity and technical parameter of the decorticator,which can supply the industry needs and after processing requirements.%乌桕是1种难得油料作物,可同时提取两种油脂—皮油和梓油。乌桕籽通过脱蜡后剩下黑色籽粒,通过剥壳,将仁、壳分离,桕仁是制取梓油的重要原料。乌桕剥壳机主要由机架、料斗、进料量调节器、辊调节机构、电动机、传动机构、风机及双辊等组成。通过对乌桕籽进入双辊工作区的条件,脱壳过程的分析,根据乌桕籽的粒度实现双辊间距的可调节,乌桕籽依靠重力进入剥壳工作区域,对辊进行碾搓剥壳后,利用风机风选将壳、仁分离。笔者提出的乌桕籽剥壳机的生产能力和技术参数,可以满足生产实际及后续加工的要求。

  9. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L. is a promising landscape and bioenergy plant. Measuring gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR can provide valuable information on gene function. Stably expressed reference genes for normalization are a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of the target gene expression level among different samples. However, the reference genes in Chinese tallow have not been systematically validated. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (18S, GAPDH, UBQ, RPS15, SAND, TIP41, 60S, ACT7, PDF2, APT, TBP, and TUB were investigated with qRT-PCR in 18 samples, including those from different tissues, from plants treated with sucrose and cold stresses. The data were calculated with four common algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and the delta cycle threshold (ΔCt. TIP41 and GAPDH were the most stable for the tissue-specific experiment, GAPDH and 60S for cold treatment, and GAPDH and UBQ for sucrose stresses, while the least stable genes were 60S, TIP41, and 18S respectively. The comprehensive results showed APT, GAPDH, and UBQ to be the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of 60S was the lowest during all experiments. These selected reference genes were further validated by comparing the expression profiles of the chalcone synthase gene in Chinese tallow in different samples. The results will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in Chinese tallow.

  10. ESTUDIO MORFO-ANATOMICO DE DOS ESPECIES DE SAPIUM (EUPHORBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica G de Pompert

    2010-01-01

    Morfología de polen, hojas, tallo y anatomía de la madera, el desarrollo de tejido secundario de protección y algunos caracteres morfológicos de los frutos de Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. y Sapium longifolium (Müll. Arg.) Huber fueron estudiados con el fin de evaluar su importancia taxonómica. Los resultados apoyan la validez de ambas especies.

  11. ESTUDIO MORFO-ANATOMICO DE DOS ESPECIES DE SAPIUM (EUPHORBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica G de Pompert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Morfología de polen, hojas, tallo y anatomía de la madera, el desarrollo de tejido secundario de protección y algunos caracteres morfológicos de los frutos de Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. y Sapium longifolium (Müll. Arg. Huber fueron estudiados con el fin de evaluar su importancia taxonómica. Los resultados apoyan la validez de ambas especies.

  12. Litter Fall and Its Decomposition in Sapium sebiferum Roxb.: An Invasive Tree Species in Western Himalaya

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    Vikrant Jaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that high litter fall and its rapid decomposition are key traits of invasive species, litter fall and its decay in Sapium sebiferum Roxb. were studied in Palampur. For this, litter traps of dimension 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 were placed in under-canopy and canopy gap of the species. Litter fall was monitored monthly and segregated into different components. For litter decay studies, litter bags of dimension 25 × 20 cm2 with a mesh size 2 mm were used and the same were analyzed on a fortnightly basis. Litter fall in both under-canopy and canopy gap was highest in November (1.16 Mg ha−1 y−1 in under-canopy and 0.38 Mg ha−1 y−1 in canopy gap and lowest during March. Litter production in under-canopy and canopy gap was 4.04 Mg ha−1 y−1 and 1.87 Mg ha−1 y−1, respectively. These values are comparable to sal forest (1.7 t C ha−1 y−1, chir pine-mixed forest (2.1 t C ha−1 y−1, and mixed oak-conifer forest (2.8 t C ha−1 y−1 of the Western Himalaya. The decay rate, 0.46% day−1 in under-canopy and 0.48% day−1 in canopy gap, was also fast. Owing to this the species may be able to modify the habitats to its advantage, as has been reported elsewhere.

  13. Production of biodiesel catalyzed by immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase from Sapium sebiferum oil in micro-aqueous phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qin; Yan, Yunjun [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2010-10-15

    A new technique of biodiesel production from Sapium sebiferum oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia G63 prepared in our laboratory was investigated in this study. The independent factors were studied and the significant factors to the yield of biodeisel were confirmed, and the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of those significant factors on yield in preparation of biodiesel. Results indicated the optimal condition for biodiesel preparation were: 4:1 methano/oil molar ratio, 2.7% (w/w) lipase, temperature 41 C, and the subsequent verification experiment got a result of (96.22%) kept coincided with the predicted biodiesel yield (97.07%) under the optimal conditions, and R{sup 2} = 98.19% shown the model was considered to be accurate and available for predicting the yield of biodiesel. There was no loss nearly in the immobilized lipase activity after being repeatedly used for 20 cycles at the optimal reaction condition. (author)

  14. The Plant Culture and Economic Value of Sapium Sebiferum%乌桕的植物文化与经济价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金久宁; 黄晶晶; 钱学射

    2014-01-01

    乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)是最早被我国先民所熟识和利用的经济树种之一,历代典籍中以乌桕为题的诗文屡见不鲜.探讨了乌桕的名称来源及种植历史,梳理了历代有关乌桕的诗文,总结了其代表的植物文化,简述了近现代关于乌桕的活性成分分析和综合利用研究进展.

  15. Suggestion of Establishing Sapium Sebiferum based Bioenergy Industry Clusters in Jiangxi Province%江西乌桕生物能源产业群建设刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉环; 马雯; 江香梅; 阮榕生

    2011-01-01

    Sapium Sebiferum is a multiple functional tree with application in energy,pharmaceutics,materials and sightseeing.Jiangxi is the adaptive region for the biological characteristics of Sapium Sebiferum.In this paper,the potential of establishing a Sapium Sebiferum based bioenergy industry clusters was disscussed.Among all,preparing green diesel from Sapium Sebiferum oil seeds by microwave assisted pyrolysis process is the key technology.An ambitious project was described,also foreground of this bioenergy-ecosystem remediation plan was estimated.%乌桕是一种集能源、药用、材用、观赏为一体的多用途树种。江西是乌桕的适生地,乌桕在有一定水源保障的山边地角、村庄四旁、河流湖泊沟渠道路两边都能生长良好,高产乌桕籽、保护水土、美化环境。由于乌桕具有突出的生物学和能源油料产出优势,在我国的历史上就是传统的能源树种。我省有深厚的乌桕选育种、栽培和利用基础,已经获得高产乌桕栽培种,其栽培技术也比较先进。乌桕主产品乌桕籽含油率高,采收相对容易。在科技进步的条件下,乌桕木又是生物能源的优质原料,乌桕梓油是干性油,是宝贵的天然化学工业原料。乌桕籽粕还是发展食用菌栽培的优质辅料。本文从乌桕生物能源产业群发展的产业布局、产业化技术集成研究与工程化示范需求、乌桕生物能源产业群发展前景预测三方面进行论述,为我省新能源产业与绿色江西建设献计献策。

  16. A Good Indigenous Tree,Sapium sebiferum%苗圃荐优 优秀的乡土树种乌桕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉林

    2007-01-01

    @@ 乌桕Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)Roxb.别名蜡子树、木油树,为大戟科落叶乔木,是上海地区一种重要的乡土树种.其秋叶深红、紫红或杏黄,娇艳夺目;落叶后满树白色种子似小白花,经冬不落,已成为长江流域主要的秋景树种,近年来受到园林设计师的青睐.

  17. Seedling Nursery Techniques of Color-leaf Sapium sebiferum%彩叶树种乌桕实生苗培育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏苏娟; 李洪光; 韩杰峰; 赵明; 赫春长

    2014-01-01

    乌桕是集观形、观叶、观果于一体的优良园林绿化树种,同时也是我国特有的重要工业用木本油料树种,经济价值极高。该文总结了乌桕实生苗培育技术,主要包括采种、育苗、病虫害防治等,为乌桕的推广种植提供一定参考。%Sapium sebiferum is an excellent landscape tree,integrating the view shape,the view foliage,the view fruit,also is an important industrial woody oil trees which is peculiar to China,with high economic value.This paper summarizes seedlings nursery technology,mainly including seed collection,seedling raising, pest control and other content,providing certain reference for the planting of Sapium sebiferum.

  18. 乌桕不同密度播种育苗试验研究%Study on Sowing Seedling with Different Density of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓芳

    2014-01-01

    于2013年期间采用株行距10 cm×10 cm、10 cm×15 cm、15 cm×20 cm等3种密度进行了乌桕播种育苗生长效果比较试验,结果表明:乌桕一年生播种苗的最适密度为株行距10 cm×15 cm,生长量最高,平均苗高达137.7 cm,平均地径达1.81 cm,平均主根长度达60.5 cm,≥5 cm长Ⅰ级侧根平均条数达26.3条。%Comparative test of growth effect of sowing seedling of Sapium sebiferum with 3 density designs,such as 10 cmí10 cm,10 cmí15 cm,15 cmí20 cm,was carried out in 2013. Results showed that the optimal density for the one-year Sapium sebiferum was 10 cmí15 cm,growth was the highest,the average height was 137.7 cm,the average diameter was 1.81 cm,the average root length reached 60.5 cm,≥5 cm Ⅰ-level lateral root average number was 26.3.

  19. 乌桕不同器官除草活性研究%Study on Herbicidal Activities of Different Organs of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 罗小勇

    2011-01-01

    在10 g/L的浓度下,乌桕不同器官粉末对生菜和小麦幼苗的生长均有较高的抑制活性,且以叶器官活性最高,果实最低.而叶在0.1~10.0 g/L的不同浓度下对夏至草、反枝苋、生菜、荠菜、小麦和黄瓜幼苗的生长具有不同程度的抑制作用,且抑制活性随浓度的增加而提高,其中以夏至草的敏感性最高,而黄瓜最低.%Inhibition activety of different organs of Sapium sebiferum on seedlings growth of Lactuca sativa and Triticum aestivum is much higher at the concentration of 10 g/L, and the leaves and fruits show the highest and lowest inhibition activity respectively. Moreover, the leaves of S. Sebiferum present different inhibition effects on seedling growth of Lagop-sis supina, Amaranthus TetToflexus, L. Sativa, Capsella bursa - pastoris, T. Aestivum and Cucumis sativus respectively at the concentration of 0. 1 ~ 10. 0 g/L, and the inhibition activety increases as the treat concentrations increase. Among all the receiver plants, L supine seedlings present the highest sensitivity and C. Sativus seedlings present the lowest sensitivity to the leaves of S. Sebiferum.

  20. A Study on Molluscicidal Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Leaves of Different Varieties (,Types) of Sapium sebiferum%不同品种(类型)的乌桕叶乙醇提取物灭螺活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤水; 余能富; 徐林初; 邹峥嵘; 王玉; 彭九生

    2009-01-01

    利用植物的有效成分毒杀钉螺(Oncomelania hupenaia)被认为是控制血吸虫病蔓延的有效方法.乌桕是一种耐水湿的抑螺植物,为比较不同乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)品种(类型)的灭螺活性,筛选出抑螺活性强的乌桕品种(类型),通过浸杀实验进行11个品种(类型)的乌桕叶乙醇提取物对钉螺毒杀作用的研究.结果表明,不同品种(类型)乌桕叶乙醇提取物对钉螺均具有一定的毒杀活性,且钉螺死亡率随着提取物浓度的增加及处理时间的增加而增加,其中以蜈蚣桕(Sapium sebiferum var.1axicarpa)、赣丰1号(Sapium sebiferum‘Ganfeng1')、大鸡爪(Sapium sebiferum vat.conferticarpa)3个品种(类型)灭螺效果较好.

  1. 乌桕叶化学成分研究%Chemical constituents of Sapium sebiferum leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 田华; 吕培军; 王佳平; 王易芬

    2015-01-01

    通过利用正相硅胶色谱、大孔吸附树脂柱色谱、葡聚糖凝胶LH-20色谱、制备薄层色谱和半制备HPLC等多种分离方法,运用现代波谱技术对所分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,从乌桕Sapium sebiferum叶中分离得到15个化合物,分别鉴定为(+)-(7R,7′R,7"S,7(''')S,8S,8′S,8"S,8(''')S)-4",4(''')-dihydroxy-3,3′,3",3('''),5,5′-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8";4′,8(''')-bisoxy-8,8′-dineo-lignan-7",7('''),9",9(''')-tetraol(1),1-(4′-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4"-(3-hydroxy propyl)-2",6"-dimethoxyphenoxy]propane-1,3-dio1(2),苏式-2,3-二-(4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯)-3-甲氧基丙醇(3),threo-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyphenylpropane-8,9-diol(4),boropinol B(5),threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol(6),5-羟甲基糠醛(7),5-甲氧甲基-1H-吡咯-2-甲醛(8),槲皮素(9),山柰酚(10),没食子酸乙酯(11),松柏醛(12),香草醛(13),7-羟基-6-甲氧基香豆素(14),正二十七烷醇(15),除化合物9~ 11,14外,以上化合物均为首次从乌桕中分离得到.

  2. Studies on the antibacterial activity of extracts from Sapium sebiferum leaves%乌桕叶提取物抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶舟

    2007-01-01

    采用生物活性追踪法,以金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus G+)为供试菌,对乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)叶提取物的抑菌活性进行探讨.结果表明:乌桕叶不同溶剂的提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌活性有很大区别,乙醇提取物的抑菌活性最强;进一步的研究表明:乌桕叶乙醇提取物之乙酸乙酯可溶部抑菌活性最强,乙酸乙酯可溶部经柱层析分离,所得流分皆无明显抑菌活性,各成分间存在协同作用.

  3. Growth characteristics of Sapium sebiferum seedlings from different provenances%不同种源乌桕苗期生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李熳; 李昌珠; 王丽云; 蒋丽娟

    2012-01-01

    为选择优良的乌桕苗木,通过收集不同种源优株乌桕种子进行播种育苗,观测种子及其幼苗植株生长特性,分析不同种源子代苗高、地径生长差异及其相关性.结果表明:不同种源子代幼苗在6月中旬进入速生期,7月进入生长高峰期,8月中旬进入缓慢生长期,10月生长速率下降且较快;不同种源优株子代苗高、地径生长呈显著差异;依据生长状况将子代幼苗划分为4类,其中编号21为种苗中最优.%In order to select fine seedling in Sapium sebiferum, seeds in Sapium sebiferum from difference provenances were sowed, growth characteristics of seed and seedling were observed, height and basal diameter of seedlings from different provenances and its relevant were analyzed. The results show that the fast growth period of seedlings from different provenances starts from middle June, the growth peak period starts from July, the slow growth period starts from middle August, growth speed is fast decreased after October. Height and basal diameter growth have significant differences among seedlings of superior plants from different provenances. According to growth status, young seedlings can be classified into 4 groups, of which No.21 is the optimal seed.

  4. 乌桕·枫杨和柳杉乙醇提取液的灭螺活性比较%Comparison of Molluscicide Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeria fortunei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤水; 李闪全; 徐林初; 余能富; 邹峥嵘

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较乌桕、枫杨和柳杉己醇提取液的灭螺活性.[方法]采用室内浸杀钉螺试验,测定了鸟桕、枫杨和柳杉乙醇提取液的灭螺活性.[结果]乌桕、枫杨和柳杉乙醇浸提液均具有一定的灭螺效果,其中乌桕和柳杉灭螺效果较好且相差不大,而枫杨相对较差;采用乙醇能较好地提取植物的有效灭螺成分,其灭螺效果比植物的水浸液要好.[结论]为生态柳螺植物材料的筛选提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] The aim was to compare molluscicide activity of ethanol extracts of Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeria fortunei. [ Method ] The molluscicide activity of ethanol extracts of Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeria fortunei were determined with indoor killing experiment. [ Result] Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeriafortunei exhibited activity against Oncanelania hupensis. Among them, the molluscicide activity of Sapium sebiferum and Cryptomeriafortunei was similar, but the activity of Pterocarya stenoptera was relatively poor. The effective components of plants were extracted more completely, so the molluscicide activity of ethanol-extracts was stronger than water-extracts. [ Conclusion] The study will provide theoretical basis for screening molluscicide plants.

  5. 响应面法优化乌桕梓油多元醇合成工艺%Optimization of the synthesis process of sapium sebiferum kernel oil polyol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 吴桂英; 闫云君

    2014-01-01

    Using epoxidized sapium sebiferum kernel oil,methanol,and water as raw materials,and fluobo-rie aeid as eatalyst,an investigation on the synthesis proeess of the sapium sebiferum kernel oil polyol via aleoholysis of epoxidized sapium sebiferum kernel oil was eondueted. Based on the single faetor experiment and response surfaee method,the optimized eonditions were eatalyst 0. 3%,molar ratio of methanol to ep-oxy group 12. 9 :1,molar ratio of methanol to water 4. 3 :1,stirring speed 200 r/min,reaetion time 73 min,and reaetion temperature 73 ℃. Under the optimal eonditions,the hydroxyl value of the sapium sbife-rum kernel oil polyol was 212. 67 mgKOH/g,the eonversion rate attained 96. 5%.%以环氧乌桕梓油、甲醇、水为原料,以氟硼酸为催化剂,对环氧乌桕梓油进行醇解开环合成乌桕梓油多元醇工艺进行了研究。结果表明,最佳工艺参数为:催化剂用量0.3%,甲醇环氧基摩尔比12.9:1,醇水摩尔比4.3:1,转速200 r/min,反应时间73 min,反应温度73℃。在此条件下,乌桕梓油多元醇羟值为212.67 mgKOH/g,转化率达96.5%。

  6. Estudo anatômico do lenho de Sapium haematospermum Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Siegloch, Anelise Marta; Marchiori, José Newton Cardoso; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Santos, Sidinei Rodrigues dos

    2014-01-01

    No presente estudo é descrito o lenho de Sapium haematospermum Müll. Arg., com base em material procedente de São Francisco de Assis, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram observadas as seguintes características anatômicas, comuns em Euphorbioideae e gênero Sapium: anéis de crescimento pouco conspícuos; poros de diâmetro médio, pouco numerosos e em curtos múltiplos radiais; placas de perfuração simples; pontoações intervasculares grandes; parênquima apotraqueal difuso-em-agregados; e raios uni e bisseriad...

  7. Mass propagation and genetic improvement of forest trees for biomass production by tissue culture. [Sapium sebiferum, Leucaena leucocephala, and Copaifera multijuga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venketeswaran, S.; Gandhi, V.

    1982-01-01

    Wood derived from forest trees can serve as a major alternative source of energy and fuel because of the current energy shortage and increase in price of oil and natural gas. Normally, trees take several years to grow and produce seeds. But, in recent years, test tube trees have been produced in large numbers (as many as 3000 plants per year) from one seedling using tissue culture by treating a few cells of a tree with specific chemical substances. Tissue culture is a promising technique for mass production of large numbers of superior trees, derived through genetic improvement, and may prove widely applicable to trees which show promise as energy sources. Three selected tree genera, viz. Sapium sebiferum (Chinese Tallow), Leucaena leucocephala (giant ipil-ipil, a tropical legume) and Copaifera multijuga (Copaiba tree from Brazil) have been studied because of their potential usefulness for biomass production. Regeneration of vegetatively produced plantlets has been achieved from embyros and callus cells grown in specific culture medium for two of the above genera. High yields of protoplasts have been obtained isolated from cells of different plant parts and grown as calli. Conditions which will enable callus derived from protoplasts to undergo in vitro regeneration, plantlet formation and eventually growth into plants are being investigated. 16 figures.

  8. 高油脂乌桕优良单株选择及苗期试验%The Selection of High Oil Sapium sebiferum and Its Seedling Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇

    2012-01-01

    Selection of superior tree is an very important means of tree genetic improvement, through selection of high oil Sapium sebiferum and its seedling test, the yield estimation 305 candidate trees was implemented in Fujian Province, the yield of 114 reached the standard in the first year and that of 26 in second year. 12 superior individual trees were selected according to seed yield and oil ratio. 11 superior families were selected. 12 superior trees could be divided into 4 groups by comprehensive selection index.%优树选择是林木遗传改良的非常重要的手段,通过福建省高油脂乌桕优良单株的优择及苗期试验,结果显示:对福建省305株候选优树进行测产评定,第一年初选出114株产量达标的优树,第二年初选出产量达标的优树有26株,综合产果量及含油率两个性状指标,共有12棵优良单株入选;对114株初选优树进行一年生苗木子代测定,共11棵优树家系入选,利用综合选择指数对亲代优树进行分类,可将入选的12棵优树分成4大类.

  9. 超声萃取一柱色谱法分离鉴定乌桕叶抑螺活性成分%Separation and determination of molluscicidal composition from Sapium sebiferum by supersonic extraction-column chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤水; 余能富; 邹峥嵘; 徐林初

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous research, ethyl acetate extraction of ethanol extract of Sapium sebiferum had strong molluscicidal activity. In order to separate and determine molluscicidal composition from Sapium sebiferum leaves, supersonic extraction, fractional solvent extraction and column chromatography were used to separate many constituent. According to their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic characteristics, three flavonoids were seperated, and were identified as kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercitrin. Three compounds were all separated from this plant.%根据笔者前期研究结果,乌桕叶乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取部位具有较强的抑螺活性.为分离鉴定乌桕叶中的抑螺活性物质,采用超声波辅助溶剂提取、溶剂分步萃取和多种柱层析联用等方法从乌桕叶乙醇提取物中分离得到多个单体化合物,依据化合物的理化性质和波谱学特征,鉴定出3个黄酮类化合物,分别为山柰酚、槲皮素和异槲皮苷,均为首次从该植物中得到.

  10. 乌桕、枫杨和柳杉乙醇提取液灭螺活性比较%Comparison of Molluscicide Activity of Ethanol Extract of Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeria fortunei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤水; 李闪金; 徐林初; 余能富; 邹峥嵘

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较乌桕、枫杨和柳杉乙醇提取液灭螺活性.[方法]采用室内浸杀钉螺试验,测定了乌桕、枫杨和柳杉乙醇提取液灭螺活性.[结果]乌桕、枫杨和柳杉均具有一定的灭螺效果,其中乌桕和柳杉灭螺效果相差不大,而枫杨的灭螺效果较差;采用乙醇能较好地提取植物的有效灭螺成分,比植物的水浸液灭螺效果要好.[结论]为生态抑螺植物材料的筛选提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to compare the molluscicide activity of ethanol extract of Sapium sebiferum, Pterocarya stenoptera and Cryptomeria fortunei. [ Method.] The molluscicide activity of ethanol extract of S. sebiferum, P. stenoptera and C. fortunei was determined through poison test of Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory. [ Result] S. sebiferum, P. stenoptera and C. fortunei had certain molluscicide effect, and S. sebiferum and C. fortunei had better effect with little difference than P. stenoptera; ethanol could extract the effective molluscicide component from plant more completely, and its molluscicide effect was better than that of plant infusion. [ Conclusion] Our study could provide theory reference for the plant selection of controlling O. hupensis ecologically.

  11. 乌桕叶化学成分研究%Studies on chemical constituents from leaves of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪庆; 赵春阳; 陈若芸

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究乌桕Sapium sebiferum叶中的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶柱色谱及制备型HPLC进行分离纯化,根据各种光谱技术进行化合物鉴定.结果:分离得到9个化合物,分别为莽草酸(1),山柰酚(2),槲皮素(3),异槲皮苷(4),金丝桃苷(5),山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(6),山柰酚-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(7),没食子酸(8),芦丁(9).结论:化合物1,5,6,7为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物9为首次从该种植物中分到.

  12. Study on Cooperatively Molluscicidal Effects of Ethanol Extract from Sapium Sebiferum Dry Leaves and Streptomycete%乌桕干叶乙醇提取液与链霉菌协同灭螺效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2015-01-01

    Cooperatively molluscicidal effects of ethanol extracts from Sapium sebiferum dry leaves and Streptomycete were studied.Results showed that,ethanol extracts from S.sebiferum dry leaves had better mol-luscicidal activity than from S.sebiferum fresh leaves.Treating for 72 h,LC50 of ethanol extracts from fresh and dry leaves of S.sebiferum was 160.21 mg·L-1 ,131.40 mg·L-1 ,respectively.When treated with ethanol ex-tracts from dry leaves of S.sebiferum and Streptomycete dilutions for 24 h,LC50 was 53.95 mg·L-1 .It proved that ethanol extracts from dry leaves of S.sebiferum and Streptomycete dilutions had obvious cooperatively molluscicidal effect.Therefore,the study will provide theoretical basis for reasonable using of plant resources and exploring of new ecological molluscicidal methods.%研究了乌桕干叶乙醇提取液与链霉菌协同灭螺效果。结果表明,用乌桕鲜叶乙醇提取液和干叶乙醇提取液浸杀钉螺72 h 后的 LC50分别为160.21 mg·L-1、131.40 mg·L-1,表明乌桕干叶乙醇提取液的灭螺活性更高;将乌桕干叶乙醇提取液与链霉菌稀释液联合浸杀钉螺24 h,LC50为53.95 mg·L-1,表明乌桕干叶乙醇提取液与链霉菌稀释液联合灭螺具有很明显的协同效应。为生态灭螺植物资源的合理使用及探索新的高效生态灭螺方法提供了理论依据。

  13. 乌桕树皮中的鞣花酸衍生物%Ellagic Acid Derivatives from the Stem Bark of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳润辉; 陈丽莉; 孔令义

    2002-01-01

    目的对乌桕(Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.)树皮的化学成分进行研究.方法采用95%乙醇提取,浸膏分别以石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇进行萃取.乙酸乙酯萃取物经反复硅胶柱层析和重结晶进行分离、纯化.通过波谱和化学方法进行结构鉴定.结果从乙酸乙酯萃取物中分离得到8个鞣花酸衍生物,分别为:3,3′,4′-三甲基鞣花酸(3,3′,4′-tri-O-methylellagic acid I),3,3′-二甲基鞣花酸(3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid Ⅱ),3,3′-二甲基鞣花酸-4′-O-α-D-阿拉伯糖苷(3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-α-D-arabinfuranosideⅢ),3,3′-二甲基鞣花酸-4′-O-β-D-木糖苷(3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside Ⅳ),3,3′,4-三甲基鞣花酸-4′-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3,3′,4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside V),3-甲基鞣花酸-4′-O-β-D-木糖苷(3-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-xylopyranosideⅥ),3,3′-二甲基鞣花酸-4′-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranosideⅦ),鞣花酸(ellagic acidⅧ).结论化合物Ⅰ~Ⅶ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  14. 常压下乌桕皮油的最佳提取工艺实验研究%An experimental study of optimal extraction technology of the bark oil of Sapium sebiferum under normal air pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓云; 袁玉霞; 郝志海; 张永胜

    2002-01-01

    @@ 乌桕 (Sapium sebiferum Roxb)是我国四大木本油料树种之一,被誉为 " 绿色原子弹 " 和 " 特种油料植物 ".世界上不少国家把乌桕林作为 21世纪重要的绿色能源,如美国 80年代在其沿河地带已营造 2000万 hm2的乌桕林.从乌桕籽白色的表皮中取得的油脂称 " 皮油 ",皮油不仅可以直接作为食用油,而且是一种重要的工业原料,广泛用于食品、医药、化工等行业.

  15. Insecticidal activity of Nerium indicum, Derris trifoliate and Sapium sebiferum against Homocentridia picta%夹竹桃、鱼藤、乌桕对锈同心舟蛾的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林同; 黎荣彬; 陆宁将

    2006-01-01

    为有效控制锈同心舟蛾Homocentridia picta Hampson对木荷(Schima superda Gardn.et Champ.)的危害,用索氏提取法获得夹竹桃(Nerium indicum Mill.)叶、鱼藤(Derris trifoliate Lour.)叶和乌桕(Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.)皮的乙醇提取物,在室内分别测定3种植物提取物对锈同心舟蛾3龄幼虫的防治效果.实验结果和方差分析表明,3种植物提取物为锈同心舟蛾都具有防治效果,3.5 d后,受试昆虫的校正死亡率都达到60%以上;其中以夹竹桃和乌桕的提取物对受试昆虫的影响最为明显,6 d后,受试昆虫的校正死亡率都达到90%以上.3种植物对锈同心舟蛾的毒杀作用由大到小的顺序依次是乌桕、夹竹桃和鱼藤.

  16. 发展我省乌桕生产的管见%Views on development of Sapium sebiferum in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正华

    1990-01-01

    @@ 乌桕(Sapium scpiferum Roxb.)是我国特产经济树种,在我省栽培广泛,历史悠久.它是化工、食品等工业的重要原料,经济价值甚高,发展前景诱人.但由于种种原因,近几十年出现低潮,不少地方大砍桕树,栽种面积和桕籽产量锐减.

  17. 乌桕种源经济性状遗传变异及优良种源选择%Genetic variation and excellent provenances′selection of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊新; 李宝银

    2014-01-01

    为了选择适于闽北地区种植的乌桕种源,研究以24份种源(来自6省份)为试材进行了乌桕引种造林试验.结果表明:不同种源乌桕的地径、树高、单序果数、千粒质量、单位面积种子产量、种子含油率性状均存在极显著的差异.乌桕单序果数、千粒质量、单位面积种子产量、种子含油率等主要经济性状种源遗传力分别为0.6819、0.7556、0.5137、0.7994,具有明显的种源效应;乌桕种源的地径、树高生长表现为水平地理变异模式,单序果数、千粒质量、单位面积种子产量、种子含油率等经济性状均表现为随机变异模式.参试的24个种源,经稳定性分析和聚类分析,可划分为4个种源类别:Ⅰ类种源(优良种源)、Ⅱ类种源(可利用种源)、Ⅲ类种源(一般种源)、Ⅳ类种源(较差种源).Ⅰ类种源 WJ-02(福建浦城)、WJ-19(湖北大悟)为2个优良种源,在经济性状综合表现上具有明显优势,且适应性强,遗传稳定性高,适用于福建闽北乌桕经济林、能源林培育.%In order to choice the suitabe species of Sapium sebiferum,24 germplasm from 6 Province were planted in Fuj ian Province.The result showed there was a significant differencees among ground di-ameter,height,single order fruit number,1000 grain weight,seed yield per unit area,seed oil content from the comparative trial on 24 provenances of Sapium sebiferum.The results showed the provenance herita-bility of single order fruit number,1 000 grain weight,seed yield per unit area,seed oil content was 0.681 9,0.755 6,0.513 7 and 0.799 4 respectively,and there was significant provenance effect.The ground diameter and height of provenance showed geographic variant pattern and the parameters of fruit number, 1000 grain weight,seed yield per unit area and seed oil content performed random variant pattern.With sta-bility and cluster analysis,the 24 provenances could be divided into 4 kinds of source categories

  18. 盐胁迫对乌桕幼苗光合特性及叶绿素含量的影响%Effects of salt stress on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of Sapium sebiferum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雅琴; 李冬林; 丁雨龙; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    Effects of salt stress on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of Sapium sebiferum seedlings was studied. The results showed that the change of net photosynthetic rate (Ph) of Sapium sebiferum seedlings from various provenances was different. The Pn of GC2 provenance showed the tendency of increased first and then decreased. The change of the rest provenances was gradually descending with increasing of salt stress. Compared with control the stomatal conductance(Gs)of both XN1and GC2 provenances increased under 0. 20 % NaCl stress, GS of the rest provenances decreased. According to the change ranges, they were ordered as HS1 > HZ2 > GCH1 > SC4. The GS of whole provenances was lower than that of the control under 0. 40 % ,0. 60 % NaCI stress. The intercellular CO2 concentration( Ci)of different provenances showed a distinct tendency. The chlorophyll content (Cid) of GC2, GCH1 and HZ2 provenances was gradually descending with increasing of salt stress, but provenances of XN1 ,SCa and HS1 showed irregular changes. Correlation analysis showed that Pn was significantly positively correlated to GS, Ci,Tr(p <0. 01 ) ,but correlation between Pn and Chl was not obvious. By combining the changing ranges of Pn and Cid, we drew a conclusion that both XN1 and GC2 provenance shewed stronger tolerance under lower salt stress, SC4 and GCH1 took the second place, whereas GC2 provenances could keep certain photosynthesis under middle salt stress, and its tolerance to salt stress was the strongest.%应用盆栽试验研究了不同盐(NaCI)胁迫下乌桕1年生幼苗光合特性与叶绿素指标的变化.结果表明:随着盐胁迫的加剧,GC2种源净光合作用速率(Pn)先上升后下降,其余种源Pn则随胁迫的加剧逐渐递减;在0.20%(NaCI质量分数)盐胁迫下,与对照相比XN1与GC2两种源气孔导度(Gs)增大,其余种源G.呈不同程度降低,按照降幅大小排序为:HS1、HZ2、GCH1、SC4.在质量分数为0.40%与0.60%

  19. Bioactivities of Ethanol Extracts from Leaves of Sapium sebiferum to Meloidogyne incognita%乌桕乙醇提取物对罗汉果根结线虫的生物活性初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋妮; 高微微; 缪剑华

    2007-01-01

    为寻找高效低毒的防治罗汉果根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)的新途径,该文通过毒力测定及盆栽试验进行了乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)Roxb.]叶乙醇提取物对罗汉果根结线虫的生物活性研究.结果表明乌桕叶乙醇提取物含具有较强毒杀线虫活性,浓度2.5g/L、处理48h活性最强,线虫校正死亡率达93.13%,LC50为333mg/L;乌桕叶乙醇提取物稀释100倍、1000倍、10000倍后处理接种了罗汉果根结线虫的番茄苗,植株平均根结数分别为12.5±3.84,20.17±4.01,31.8±5.09,均显著低于对照(5%乙醇水溶液)的平均根结数62.5±5.53,株高分别比对照提高28.10%、21.07%、12.23%,植株鲜重分别比对照增加33.07%、15.31%、2.73%.乌桕叶乙醇提取物能减轻线虫危害,促进植株生长,利用乌桕叶提取物防治根结线虫具深入研发的价值.

  20. 川渝地区乌桕天然群体种子性状表型多样性研究%A Study of Phenotypic Diversity of Seed Character in Natural Populations of Sapium sebiferum in Sichuan and Chongqing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯毅; 罗建勋; 杜波; 辜云杰; 王红莉; 向青

    2011-01-01

    讨论了川渝地区9个有代表性的乌桕天然群体群体间和群体内的表型多样性。每个群体30个家系(单株)为试验材料,对16个种实表型性状采用方差分析、多重比较、变异系数比较、重复力比较、相关分析和聚类分析等统计分析方法。结果表明,乌桕种内表型性状在群体间和群体内存在极其丰富的遗传变异,种子的质量性状比种子形状指数性状稳定,各种实性状的变异系数变幅为6.84%~39.54%,平均为16.78%;不同性状的重复力变幅为0.31~0.98,平均为0.61。群体间表型分化系数变异幅度为6.71%~42.72%,平均为25.47%。说明乌桕种实群体内的变异(74.53%)显著高于群体间的变异(25.47%);16个种实表型性状间多数呈极显著或显著相关;乌桕种内群体的种实表型变异在空间分布上呈现出以纬度为主的单向变异模式,变异主要受低温控制;利用群体间欧氏距离进行UPGMA聚类分析,可将乌桕群体划分为4类。%Researches were conducted on the inter-population and intra-population phenotypic diversity of nine representative natural Sapium sebiferum populations in Sichuan and Chongqing areas.Every group of 30 families(individuals) were chosen as the experiment materials,and statistical analysis methods such as variance analysis,multiple comparison,variation coefficient comparison,repeatability comparison,correlation analysis and cluster analysis were adopted to explore the phenotypic diversity of sixteen seed phenotypic character of Sapium sebiferum.The results showed that the intraspecific seed phenotypic character of inter-population and intra-population Sapium sebiferum had profuse genetic variation.The qualitative character of seeds was more stable than the shape index.The variation coefficient of different seed character ranged from 6.84% to 39.54%,with the average of 16.78%.The repeatability of each seed character ranged from 0.31 to 0.98,with the average

  1. Study on the causes of Sapium sebiferum seed dormancy and the methods for dormancy breaking%乌桕种子休眠原因及解除方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑娴; 刘菁菁; 田树霞; 尹佟明

    2011-01-01

    对乌桕种子的休眠原因进行了研究,发现乌桕种皮具有较好的透水性,所以种皮透水性不是造成乌桕种子休眠的主要原因.通过乌桕种子的离体胚发芽实验,证实乌柏种子的胚在离体条件下没有休眠现象;而乌桕种子的种皮及胚乳浸提物对种子发芽有显著抑制作用,所以乌桕种子的种皮及胚乳存在发芽内源抑制物,这可能是造成乌桕种子休眠的主要原因.另外,利用浓硫酸处理不能解除乌桕种子的休眠,直接低温层积也不能彻底打破乌桕种子的休眠;激素处理可有效解除内源抑制物造成的种子休眠,且通过比对实验发现,先用500或1 000 mg/L赤霉素处理,再层积100 d能有效打破乌桕种子的休眠.%In this paper, systematic study was conducted to explore the causes of seed dormancy in the Chinese tal-lowtree {Sapium sebiferum ( Linn. ) Roxb. ). Other than the early reports, coats of the tallowtree seeds were found to have good water permeability, which suggested that seed coats were not the main cause that inhibited the seed germination. Meanwhile, germination test indicated that in-vitro embryo of tallowtree seeds didn't undergo dormancy. However, extracting solutions of the seed coat and endosperm could suppress seed germination significantly, which implied the existence of endogenesis germination inhibitory substances in the corresponding seed parts. Based on these findings, we proposed that inhibitory substances could be the main reasons that caused tallowtree seeds dormancy. Ttie tests of breaking tallowtree seed dormancy showed that: dormancy of tallow tree seeds could not be broken by both treatment with concentrated H2SO4 and the cold stratification method. However, by testing with different gibberellic acid solutions, dormancy could be overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 or 1 000 mg/L GA3 followed by 100 (GA3) days stratification.

  2. 乌桕籽脱蜡工艺技术及脱蜡机械的设计%Dewaxing Process Technique and Mechanical Design for Sapium sebiferum Roxb. Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 张风; 王凯; 李晖; 徐向阳

    2011-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb.is high economic valuable species,which can be extacted two kinds of oil(sapium fat,kernel oil) from the same oil grain.Main application of the seed is producted sapium fat and kernel oil.The authors mainly introduces extraction process of sapium fat and design of dewaxing machine,Then practical significance for its industry development.%乌桕是经济价值较高的树种,是在同一油料籽粒上提取两种油脂(桕脂、梓油)的油料作物。乌桕的主要用途是利用乌桕籽来提取桕脂和梓油。笔者主要介绍了桕脂的提取工艺及脱蜡机械的设计,对发展乌桕产业具有现实意义。

  3. The analysis of correlation between ratio of different parts and their oil contents of Sapium sebiferum seed and environmental factors%乌桕种子各部位比率和油脂含量与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆龙; 刘金林

    2001-01-01

    对全国11个省16个市(县)19个鸡爪桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.var.laxicarpum Hu]种子样品进行分析,以探讨乌桕种子的外种皮、内种皮、种仁的比率及皮油、梓油的含量和种子总含油率、百粒重与纬度、经度、年积温和年降水量的相关性,结果表明,乌桕种子外种皮、种仁的比率和皮油含量与纬度、经度、年积温和年降水量呈正相关;梓油的含量与经度、年积温和年降水量呈正相关,内种皮的比率与上述环境因子均呈负相关;种子的百粒重与经度和年积温呈正相关,与纬度和年降水量的相关性不明显;种子的总含油量与经度、年积温及年降水量呈较明显的正相关,而与纬度没有明显的正相关.

  4. The Alcohol Extracts of Cerbera manghas, Nerium indicum, Alamanda cathartica and Sapium sebiferum Against Plagiodera versicolora%海芒果、夹竹桃、黄婵、乌桕对柳蓝叶甲的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 陈慧施; 丘海成; 林同

    2009-01-01

    用索氏提取法获得了海芒果Cerbera manghas、夹竹桃Nerium indicum、黄婵Alamanda cathartica和乌桕Sapium sebiferum的叶片乙醇提取物,在室内分别测定了这4种植物不同浓度提取物对柳蓝叶甲(Plagiodera versicolora)的防治效果,结果表明:4种植物提取液原液的校正死亡率最终均达到100%,尤以夹竹桃、海芒果处理的效果最为显著,仅1天后,供试昆虫的校正死亡率就达到100%,叶甲的校正死亡率都高于乌桕和黄婵处理的.海芒果和夹竹桃提取物处理后叶甲的校正死亡率曲线呈现平稳上升的趋势,乌桕和黄婵处理后叶甲的校正死亡率曲线趋向于平直.试验结果为进一步在生产实践中有效应用植物杀虫剂提供参考依据.

  5. A review of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Sapium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Muqarrabun, L M R; Ahmat, N; Aris, S Ruzaina S

    2014-08-08

    Several species from the genus Sapium possess a broad range of medicinal properties and they have been used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups in several regions such as Malaysia, Africa, Southern China and Bolivia. Most of the species reported to possess therapeutic effects which are used for the treatment of skin-related diseases such as eczema and dermatitis, but they may also be used for overstrain, lumbago, constipation and hernia. Species of this genus are also used to treat wounds and snake bites. In addition, the saps/latex of Sapium glandulosum, Sapium indicum and Sapium sebiferum have/has toxic effects and are used as bird and fish poisons. This review discusses the current knowledge of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicities of species from the genus Sapium to reveal their therapeutic potentials and gaps offering opportunities for future research. This review is based on a literature study of scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources, such as ScienceDirect, PubMed and ACS. As many as 65 compounds are included in this review. They belong to different classes of compounds including flavonoids, terpenoids and several other types of compounds, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids and amides. The pharmacological studies revealed that various types of preparations, extracts and single compounds of species from this genus exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. However, Sapium glandulosum, Sapium indicum and Sapium sebiferum were reported to possess toxic effects and Sapium sebiferum was found to contain phorbol esters acting as a tumor-promoting agent. The genus Sapium consists of 23 accepted (high confidence) species. However, only very few of species have been phytochemically and pharmacologically studied. There is great potential to discover new chemical constituents from this genus because only a

  6. 乌桕抑螺效果的研究%The Use of Sapium Trees for the Control of Schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永峰; 彭镇华; 孙启祥; 周金星

    2011-01-01

    In order to quest the snail-inhibiting plant resources, and also to enhance schistosomiasis-conirolling potential, in this work, we selected the important economic species - the traditional pesticides - Sapium sebiferum as an target object. It was found that there were good effectiveness to control snail in different organs of Sapium sebiferum through the investigation of the snail-inhibiting effeel by extraction of effective components in the roots, branches. Leaves and seeds of tube Sapium using four solvents, indicating that Sapium sebiferum is a great plant for snail-inhibiting material. By compared, we think that the new leaves were best one for controlling snail, and secondly, the old leaves failed the year before, showing a persisted characteristics of controlling snail. It also showed the petroleum ether was best solvent for extraction of active components among the fours.%为深入挖掘我国抑螺植物资源,加大血吸虫病植物防治力度,选择我国重要经济树种、传统上农药——乌桕为对象,对乌根、枝、叶和种了等不同器官用4种不同溶剂粗提物的抑螺效果进行分析,发现乌桕不同器官均具有良好的抑螺效果,表明乌桕是种优良的抑螺植物材料.结果表明,不同器官中以新叶的粗提物抑螺效果最佳,而目前年的落叶仍表现出良好的抑螺效果,说明乌桕叶具有持续稳定的抑螺特性,其活性物质提取最佳溶剂为石油醚.

  7. A partial revision of the Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia

    OpenAIRE

    Esser,Hans-Joachim

    1999-01-01

    The Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) are revised for Malesia. Only Excoecaria and Homalanthus are excluded. A key to all Malesian genera is provided. The generic concepts applied differ markedly from previous treatments for the region with the following genera accepted: Balakata, Falconeria, Gymnanthes, Microstachys, Sapium, Shirakiopsis, Stillingia and Triadica. All of these genera show peculiarities in biogeography and ecology, which are discussed. Among these genera only Stillingia is kept as t...

  8. Euphorbiaceae novae vel criticae colombianae, iii

    OpenAIRE

    Croizat, León

    2012-01-01

    Croton pungens / Croton leptostachyus / Croton ferrugineus / Croton Holtonis / Croton malacophyllus / Croton dolichostachyus / Croton truxillanus / Croton meridensis / Croton sexmetralis / Plukenetia chaponensis / Sapium verum / Sapium Marmieri.

  9. 开发乌桕前景广阔%The brilliant prospect of exploiting Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐光旭

    1987-01-01

    @@ 乌桕一身都是宝.长期以来,桕脂、梓油是手工业和轻工业的重要原料,随着科学技术的发展,乌桕已成为化工、橡胶、纺织、医药、食品等多种工业部门的原料.

  10. 乌桕研究综述%The review of research on Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 黄栋; 王瑾; 金雅琴

    2009-01-01

    乌桕是一种集能源、药用、材用、观赏为一体的多用途树种.该文从资源现状、生物学特性、生态学特性与利用价值等方面对乌桕的特性进行了阐述.总结了播种育苗、无性繁殖及人工林培育等方面的研究进展,探讨了乌桕栽培、资源开发与可持续利用等方面应解决的问题.

  11. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  12. 乌桕脂制备生物柴油研究%Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Sapium Sebiferum butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑛; 郑海; 闫云君

    2010-01-01

    探讨了叔丁醇体系利用脂肪酶Novozym435催化乌桕脂制备生物柴油的工艺过程.获得的最优工艺条件为2.5 g乌桕脂中加入0.6 mL甲醇、0.75 mL叔丁醇和4 %油重的脂肪酶,50 ℃反应12 h后生物柴油得率为92.3 %.酶回收利用10次,生物柴油得率仍能保持大于90 %.结果表明: 该工艺条件下乌桕脂可有效转化为生物柴油,且脂肪酶能维持很好的操作稳定性.

  13. La familia Euphorbiaceae como fuente de aceites vegetales para la industria tecnoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correal Castellanos, E.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available The family Euphorbiaceae includes a huge number of species some of which provide important raw materials such as rubber, cassava, waxes and oils. In this study, the general botanical and chemical characteristics of this family are described firstly together with the chemical composition of their seed oils and a comparison with those of other families. Secondly, other chemical constituents of economic interest are reviewed and compared with the species already used for food, industry and medicine purposes. A further revision is included on some of its genus with potential interest and on current industrial oil crops such as Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finally, from an economic point of view, future prospects of some of these oils as raw materials for the chemical industry are given.La familia Euphorbiaceae contiene gran número de especies de las que se pueden obtener productos de interés económico como el caucho, la tapioca, ceras y aceites. En este trabajo se estudian en primer lugar las características botánicas y químicas de la familia y las peculiaridades de los aceites de sus semillas y se comparan con los de otras familias. En segundo lugar, se revisan otros compuestos químicos así como especies de interés económico utilizadas en alimentación, medicina o industria, incluyendo géneros con potencial interés y los actuales cultivos oleaginosos industriales como Ridnus, Euphorbia, Aleurites, Sapium, Jatropha, etc. Finalmente, desde un punto de vista de mercado, se apuntan las perspectivas de estos aceites como materias primas para la industria química.

  14. A família Euphorbiaceae nas caatingas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, BA, Brasil The family Euphorbiaceae on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nascimento Sátiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbiaceae é uma das famílias mais representativas da caatinga, particularmente nas áreas sobre dunas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O levantamento das espécies de Euphorbiaceae nessa formação foi efetuado com base em coletas realizadas na região e materiais de herbário. A família está representada nas áreas estudadas por 20 espécies, distribuídas nos seguintes gêneros: Alchornea Swartz (uma espécie; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 e Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule e M. heptaphylla Ule são endêmicas do Estado da Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl e C. urnigerus (Pax Pax são restritas às regiões de caatinga do Brasil. São apresentadas chaves para gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica e habitat, bem como comentários sobre as espécies.Euphorbiaceae is one of the most representative families in the caatinga especially on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The survey of Euphorbiaceae species from this formation was based on field work and herbaria collections. The family is represented in the study area by 20 species: Alchornea Swartz (one species; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 and Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule and M. heptaphylla Ule are endemic to the state of Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl and C. urnigerus (Pax Pax are restricted to caatinga regions of Brazil. Identification keys, morphological descriptions, illustrations, notes on geographic distribution, habitat and comments on

  15. Metodologias de aplicação de AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax Methodologies of IBA application in the rooting of Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax semi-hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.A. Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Sapium glandulatum, conhecida vulgarmente como leiteiro, é uma das espécies nativas potencialmente recomendada para a recuperação de áreas degradadas, devido principalmente ao seu caráter pioneiro, além de possivelmente possuir características medicinais, uma vez que a família Euphorbiaceae, a qual pertence, é rica em compostos fenólicos. Em abril/2000 e dezembro/2000 foram conduzidos experimentos em casa-de-vegetação para verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolilbutírico (AIB, em solução concentrada (10 segundos de imersão, solução diluída (16 horas de imersão e em talco, associadas ou não ao ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum. As estacas foram confeccionadas a partir de brotações do ano, coletadas de plantas matrizes localizadas no município de Bocaiúva do Sul -PR, mantendo- as com comprimento de cerca de 10 cm e 2 folhas apicais reduzidas à metade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, sozinhos e em associação com 150 mg L-1 de ácido bórico (solução concentrada, 0, 200 e 400 mg L-1 de AIB, sozinhos e em associação com 150 mg L-1 ácido bórico (solução diluída e 0, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, na forma de talco. Pelos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que, após 70 dias em casa-de-vegetação, a melhor época para coleta das estacas correspondeu à instalação realizada em dezembro/2000 (verão, onde o tratamento com 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, em solução concentrada, proporcionou o maior percentual de enraizamento (14%, porém não diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. A utilização da solução diluída não se mostrou promissora para a indução do sistema radicial devido à alta mortalidade das estacas. Os tratamentos com AIB veiculados em talco não superaram os resultados obtidos pelos melhores tratamentos para estacas enraizadas em solução concentrada

  16. Resources Survey of Wild Euphorbiaceae Plants in Youxi County,Fujian Province%福建省尤溪县野生大戟科植物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发好

    2016-01-01

    According to the survey ,there were 26 species 10 genus Wild Euphorbiaceae Plants in total in Youxi Coun‐ty ,Fujian Province .There are seven kinds of wild euphorbiaceae plants that have bigger value about development and utilization .They are Sapium discolor ,Vernicia montana ,Mallotus apelta ,Phyllanthus urinaria ,Glochidion pube‐rum ,Euphorbia hirta ,Acalypha australis .In this study ,it analysed wild euphorbiaceae plants about the species composition ,genus areal types ,dominant genera ,flowering fruit bearing stage ,the living environment ,life types ,the number of resources and the development of value .And the protection and development and utilization measures are put forward .%调查发现,福建省尤溪县野生大戟科植物共有10属26种,开发利用价值较大的种类有山乌桕(Sapium se‐biferum)、千年桐(Vernicia montana)、白背叶(Mallotus apelta)、叶下珠(Phyllanthus urinaria)、算盘子(Glochidi‐on puberum)、飞扬草(Euphorbia hirta)、铁苋菜(Acalypha australis)7种。对该区野生大戟科植物的种类、属分布区类型、优势属、花果期、生活型、生态环境与资源数量、开发价值进行了分析,同时提出保护与开发利用措施。

  17. 乌桕活性成分及其抑螺研究进展%Progress in researches on active constituents and molluscicidal activity of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤水; 贺义昌; 徐林初; 黄成林; 孙启祥

    2013-01-01

    乌桕含多种有机酸、黄酮及酚类物质,对钉螺具有毒杀作用,是一种良好的抑螺植物材料.本文就乌桕的品种资源、活性成分和抑螺研究进行综述,并对乌桕作为抑螺防病林的发展进行了展望,以期为乌桕的深入研究和开发利用提供科学依据.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of the Development and Utilization of Sapium sebiferum(L) Roxb%浅析乌桕的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均

    2007-01-01

    乌桕不仅是上等的用材,也是良好的木本油料、化工原料,并具有药用价值和观赏价值.乌桕广泛分布于我国南北东西数十个省,适应性强,栽培容易,用途很多,经济效益显著,是一个值得开发利用的树种.

  19. 不同处理对乌桕种子发芽的影响%Effects of Different Treatments on Seed Germination of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2009-01-01

    采用不同浓度的硫酸和草木灰水浸种,以及砂擦种皮方法处理乌桕种子,结果表明:用98%的浓硫酸去除乌桕种皮的蜡质,乌桕种子发芽率、发芽势最高,达到89.6%、67.6%,该处理操作简单,快捷,成本低,种子萌芽快,苗木生长整齐.

  20. New or noteworthy Euphorbiaceae from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1940-01-01

    Among the collections made by H. E. ROMBOUTS from 1935— 1938 on the expeditions to the Suriname-Brazil frontier there are a number of Euphorbiaceae which are either new, or rare. As I was engaged in other work I could not begin the study of these specimens before August of this year. Because of the

  1. Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae),

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Harris, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The small Guineo-Congolian tree Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) has been observed to dominate the undergrowth in an open type of southwest Ethiopian riverine forest not recorded before. The nearest previously known records of this species were at the South Sudan–Congo border and in Uganda...

  2. Effects of Waterlogging on Membrane Relative Conductivity and Osmotic Adjustment Substances of Sapium seb- iferum Seedlings%淹水胁迫对乌桕幼苗叶片质膜透性和渗透调节物质的影响1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金峰; 曹福亮; 张往祥

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the watelogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of Sapium sebiferum seedlings under watelogging conditions with one-yearseedlings of two provenances ( Zhejiang & Fujian) of Sapium sebife-rum grown in pots.Compared with Zhejiang provenance, Fujian provenance accumulates more MDA with larger damage to leaf.The content of soluble protein of Zhejiang provenance increases firstly and then decreases during the treatment, but that of Fujian provenance reduces significantly.Compared with controls, the content of free proline of Zhejiang provenance is significantly lower, while Fujian provenance is higher.The content of soluble sugar of Zhejiang provenance increases and then maintains at a higher level compared to controls, but that of Fujian provenance with a downward trend.%采用盆栽模拟涝渍环境的试验方法,研究了淹水胁迫对耐涝性不同的乌桕1年生实生苗的叶片质膜透性和渗透调节物质的影响。结果表明:与耐涝性强的浙江种源相比,耐涝性差的福建种源在淹水胁迫下叶片积累了更多的丙二醛,对叶片的伤害更大。浙江种源蛋白质质量分数先上升后缓慢下降,福建种源显著下降;浙江种源脯氨酸质量分数低于对照,福建种源则不同程度的高于对照水平;浙江种源可溶性糖质量分数一直保持较高的水平,且变化幅度不大,福建种源叶片可溶性糖质量分数均呈下降趋势。

  3. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be

  4. Constituintes químicos de Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae Chemical contituents of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila de Souza Conegero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae afforded a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the terpenoid loliolide, the guanidine alkaloid N-1,N-2,N-3-triisopentenylguanidine and the phenolic compound corilagin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves and of fractions from its fractionation, were investigated against a series of bacteria and fungi, as well as against four human cancer cell lines.

  5. Miniestaquia de Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax com o uso de ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Guerreira Alpande Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax. (Euphorbiaceae é uma árvore nativa de vários biomas brasileiros, com grande interesse para a recuperação de ecossistemas degradados devido a sua rusticidade. Entretanto, sua propagação sexuada apresenta dificuldades devido, principalmente, a pouca produção de sementes, baixa taxa de germinação e grande quantidade de flores masculinas. A miniestaquia constitui uma alternativa para a propagação da espécie, a qual pode fornecer material juvenil favorável ao enraizamento. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento e a produção de miniestacas por minicepa provenientes de mudas originadas por via seminal, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano (inverno, primavera, verão de 2006 e outono de 2007, no município de Colombo - PR, Brasil. As miniestacas foram confeccionadas com 3-5 cm de comprimento e um par de folhas na porção apical, com sua área reduzida pela metade. Estas foram submetidas a tratamentos com o uso dos reguladores vegetais ácido indol butírico (IBA e ácido naftaleno acético (NAA. Os reguladores foram utilizados na forma de solução por 10 segundos nas bases das miniestacas em concentrações de 0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 mgL-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de miniestacas enraizadas, o número e comprimento das raízes formadas, o percentual de miniestacas com calos, a sobrevivência e mortalidade, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 2x5x4 (tipos de reguladores vegetais x concentrações dos reguladores vegetais x estações do ano. A produção de miniestacas por minicepa a cada coleta variou de 1,4 a 2,2 em recipientes contendo 205 cm3. A estação do inverno mostrou-se promissora para o enraizamento adventício de miniestacas, apresentando 80,56% sem a aplicação dos reguladores vegetais sendo, portanto, desnecessária a aplicação destes para a indução radicial. Desta forma, a técnica de miniestaquia de prop

  6. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be unreliabl

  7. Systematic leaf anatomy of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, S.; Haegens, R.M.A.P.; Heuven, van B.J.; Baas, P.

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomical diversity of the genera Baccaurea Lour. (43 species), Distichirhops Haegens (3 species) and Nothobaccaurea Haegens (2 species) (Euphorbiaceae) is described. Two species of Aporosa and three species of Maesobotrya were examined for comparison. The following characters are importan

  8. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegens, Raoul Martin Anne Peter

    2000-01-01

    This study comprises a taxonomic revision and phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of the genera Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae). Baccaurea was chosen as a model genus for study in the framework of the research program ‘Pathways from Asia to new Guinea’ of the Dutch

  9. Neoshirakia, a new name for Shirakia Hurus. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Hans-Joachim

    1998-01-01

    Shirakia (Euphorbiaceae) was described by Hurusawa (1954) with three species. It was named after Croton shiraki, a nomen nudum used by Siebold & Zuccarini (1843) for the species currently known as S. japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) Hurus. Kruijt (1996) transferred five additional species to Shirakia. Ess

  10. A partial revision of the Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Hans-Joachim

    1999-01-01

    The Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) are revised for Malesia. Only Excoecaria and Homalanthus are excluded. A key to all Malesian genera is provided. The generic concepts applied differ markedly from previous treatments for the region with the following genera accepted: Balakata, Falconeria, Gymnanthes,

  11. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegens, Raoul Martin Anne Peter

    2000-01-01

    This study comprises a taxonomic revision and phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of the genera Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae). Baccaurea was chosen as a model genus for study in the framework of the research program ‘Pathways from Asia to new Guinea’ of the Dutch S

  12. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  13. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  14. A tribo Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The tribe Hippomaneae A. Juss. ex Spach. (Euphorbiaceae Juss. in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira de Jesus Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi baseado na análise morfológica de espécimes de herbários nacionais e provenientes de coletas. A tribo está representada no Estado por oito gêneros: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2 spp., Sapium P.Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1sp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. e Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Os gêneros com maior distribuição no Estado são Maprounea, Sapium e Sebastiania, ocorrendo em todas as zonas fitogeográficas. Actinostemon, Mabea e Senefeldera sao restritos a floresta atlantica. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.The study was based on morphological analysis of specimens from various national herbaria as well as collected material. The tribe is represented in the study area by eight genera: Actinostemon Sw. (3 spp., Mabea Aubl. (1sp., Maprounea Aubl. (1sp., Microstachys A. Juss.(2, Sapium P. Browne (2 spp., Sebastiania Spreng. (1 spp., Senefeldera Mart. (1sp. and Stillingia Garden ex L. (1sp.. Widely distributed genera are Sapium and Sebastiania occurring in all phytogeographical zones. Actinostemon, Senefeldera and Mabea are restricted to the Atlantic rainforest. Identification keys to genera and species, descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments are presented.

  15. 乌桕叶抽提物体外抗氧化活性的研究%Antioxidant Activity Study on Chinese Tallow Leaves (Sapium sebiferum) Extracts in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高荫榆; 霍光华; 何小立; 陈才水

    2003-01-01

    为了开发国产特色资源乌桕,综合利用乌桕叶,以90℃热水、70%乙醇、乙酸乙酯提取不同乌桕品种叶材料中的抗氧化物质,用清除羟自由基模型、抑制亚油酸过氧化模型和铁氰化钾还原力模型评价抗氧化活性.结果表明:70%乙醇浸提物和热水提取物显示出较强的还原力(200μg/ml样液相当于2×10-4mol/L的硫脲)和清除羟自由基活性(4mg/ml样液清除率:热水提取物为42.41%~63.62%,醇提取物为20.71%~54.49%),且极大地相关于所含的类黄酮含量(水提物上述两种抗氧化性与类黄酮含量相关性系数分别为:0.7793、0.8258;醇的分别为:0.8319、0.9335).抑制亚油酸过氧化以乙酸乙酯提取物较强.乌桕叶提取物可望开发抗氧化剂和健康佐剂.

  16. EFFECTS OF REGIONAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON TALLOW COMPONENTS IN ROXB SEEDS (SAPIUM SEBIFERUM L. )%地域环境对乌桕种子油脂成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆龙; 刘金林

    2001-01-01

    通过对全国11个省的21个市(县)74份乌桕种子样品的油脂成分含量及其与环境因素之间关系的分析,结果表明:①皮油中棕榈酸含量与纬度呈负相关,而皮油中油酸含量与纬度呈正相关:②皮油含量与经度呈正相关;③皮油含量、皮油中棕榈酸含量与年积温呈正相关,皮油中油酸含量与年积温呈负相关:④皮油含量、皮油中棕榈酸含量与年降水量呈正相关,皮油中油酸含量与年降水量呈负相关.

  17. Research on directed selective breeding strain of high content stillingia oil and Chinese vegetable tallow of Sapium sebiferum%乌桕皮油、梓油高含量品系定向选育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐光旭; 彭九生; 杜强; 徐九龙; 徐禄朝; 徐炳星; 刘少卡

    1995-01-01

    经定向培育、连续测定,结合其表型性状与经济性状进行综合评价,从21个无性系中选育出无3、无4,无20、无1 3、和无6、无12、无11、无10分别为高皮油与高梓油含量品系,其皮油的平均含量为74.5%, 高的达75.0%(无4);梓油的平均含量为64.1%,高的达65.06%(无12).经多年测定,高皮油与高梓油含量品系均具较好的丰产性、稳定性和可遗传性.

  18. 从乌桕脂中提取类可可脂方法的改进%Improvements of Method on Extracting Cocoa Butter Equivalent from Sapium Sebiferum Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻艳; 程晶; 宋峥; 蔡明才

    2004-01-01

    对用溶剂从乌桕脂中提取类可可脂的方法进行了改进,将溶剂改为95%酒精,省去了原来的"三脱"设备,采用二次分提结晶,加入了溶剂回收工艺.既简化了生产过程,同时也降低了生产成本.

  19. 贵州省乌桕资源调查与品种选育策略初探%Resources Survey of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.and Preliminary Study of Breeding Strategy in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃春; 陈波涛; 邓伯龙

    2008-01-01

    报道了贵州省乌桕资源的数量、分布、产量和主要类型,并据此提出了乌桕用作生物柴油开发的品种选育策略.贵州省目前拥有一定规模的可利用乌桕资源,在主要产区建立小型生物柴油加工厂以拓宽乌桕籽市场,将会促进贵州省乌桕资源的开发和保护,进一步扩大乌桕的原料来源.

  20. 乌桕综合评分法选优性状指标体系%Excellent selection standard index system of Sapium sebiferum based on comprehensive scoring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊新; 李宝银

    2010-01-01

    目前乌桕的资源分布特点,决定了只能采用综合评分法进行选优.采用改进的投影寻踪技术,通过优化指标函数,根据投影方向值确定各主要性状所占分值,建立乌桕综合评分的性状指标体系.建立在改进的投影寻踪技术上的综合评分法选优指标体系,具有较高的可靠性和较强的可操作性.

  1. Research into Individual Composite Element Content Changing Factors in Sapium sebiferum var. laxicarpum Hu. Seed Kernel Oil%鸡爪桕种子梓油各组分含量变化因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆龙

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对全国11个省16个市(县)19个鸡爪桕种子样品梓油各组成成分含量的分析,分别以纬度的升高、经度的东移、年积温和年降水量的增加为横坐标,以其各成分的含量为纵坐标,用计算机进行数据分析,以直观图解的方式探索鸡爪桕种子梓油各成分的变化趋势.

  2. Study on reforming low yielding stands of sapium sebiferum and establishing its high yielding stands%乌桕低产林改造及丰产林营造技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌桕研究课题协作组

    1992-01-01

    试验研究表明适宜本地种植的优良乌桕品种有赣丰2号、3号、铜锤桕和大粒鸡瓜桕.采用高接换冠技术对低产林进行改造,并用良种嫁接苗建立了丰产示范林.试验得出5种适于全省不同立地类型推广的栽培模式.

  3. 乌桕δ-羟基赖氨酸的鉴别及其含量测定%Identification and Determination of δ-Hydroxylysine from Sapium Sebiferum (L.) Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光华; 李艳; 郭成志

    2005-01-01

    本文报道采用溶剂提取和色谱法分离乌桕特殊氨基酸,然后利用保留时间、已知物峰高增加和核磁共振波谱法定性,并设计氨基酸离子交换色谱短程序定量测定乌桕特殊氨基酸.结果证明,乌桕中存在的特殊氨基酸为δ-羟基赖氨酸,而且是乌桕的一种非常见蛋白氨基酸.

  4. Diterpene esters and phenolic compounds from Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Purusotam; Yahara, Shoji

    2009-11-01

    From the leaves of Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil., two new phorbol derivatives, such as 16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (4) and 4beta-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (5) along with twelve known phenolic compounds such as 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1,3-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3), rutin (6), 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (7), quercetin (8), guaijaverin (9), nicotiflorin (10), scopolin (11), methyl gallate (12), corilagin (13) and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14) were isolated. All of these compounds have been isolated for the first time from this plant.

  5. Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

  6. Interação entre reguladores vegetais, épocas do ano e tipos de substrato no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax. (pau-de-leite Interactions Between Indolebutyric Acid, Uniconazol and Two Types of Growing Media in the Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax. (Pau–de–leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O pau-de-leite (Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax., Euphorbiaceae é uma árvore nativa de vários biomas  brasileiros, com grande interesse para a recuperação  de ecossistemas degradados devido à sua rusticidade e ornitocoria intensa. Contudo, sua propagação sexuada é difícil, uma vez que a maioria das flores é masculina  e a porcentagem de germinação das sementes é muito baixa. Durante os anos de 2001 e 2002, foram realizados trabalhos de propagação vegetativa via estaquia na Embrapa Florestas (Colombo-PR, com  estacas semilenhosas de 15 cm de comprimento e  duas metades de folhas, coletadas nas quatro estações  do ano. As bases das estacas foram tratadas com 0, 6000 e 12000 mg L-1 ácido indol butírico (IBA,  sozinho ou associado com 100 mg L-1 de uniconazol  (UZ em solução por 10 segundos. Posteriormente, as  estacas foram plantadas em caixas de polipropileno  contendo vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada,  sendo mantidas em casa-de-vegetação com  nebulização por 70 dias. Cada tratamento foi repetido  quatro vezes, com 20 estacas por parcela, num  delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo  fatorial de seis tratamentos aplicados às estacas e dois  ubstratos. Cada época do ano foi analisada  separadamente, perfazendo um total de 960 estacas  por época. Paralelamente, foi realizada uma segunda  análise num delineamento inteiramente casualizado  em arranjo fatorial de três doses de IBA na presença e ausência de UZ. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento  (11,3% ocorreu na primavera de 2001  com 6000 mg L-1 IBA + 100 mg L-1 UZ no substrato  casca de arroz carbonizada. A mortalidade das estacas  foi superior a 88% em todas as épocas e tratamentos  estudados.
    Pau-de-leite (Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax., Euphorbiaceae is a native tree of several Brazilian biomes, with great interest for rehabilitation of  degraded ecosystems due to its rusticity and intense seed

  7. Cloning of Casbene Synthases from Euphorbiaceae Plants and Implications for Diterpene Biosynthesis in This Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of diterpenes have been isolated from Euphorbiaceae plants, many of which are of interest due to toxicity or potential therapeutic activity. Specific Euphorbiaceae diterpenes of medical interest include the latent HIV-1 activator prostratin (and related 12-deoxyphorbol esters), the an...

  8. Studies on the pharmacological activity of Amazonian Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, W D; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    1988-01-01

    Plant material from 34 Amazonian species of the family Euphorbiaceae were collected and extracts prepared. Sixteen of these species have a documented use as a medicinal agent. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans; the dermatophytic fungi, Microsporum canis, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton gallinae; the viruses, Sindbis virus and murine cytomegalovirus; and tumours induced on potato discs by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. They were also examined for their toxicity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina. The results are discussed with respect to ethnobotanical information available for some of the species.

  9. Chilean Euphorbiaceae species as sources of fuels and raw chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnecco, S.; Bartulin, J.; Marticorena, C.; Ramirez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of some species of Chilean Euphorbiaceae as sources of hydrocarbon-like materials was evaluated. Samples of plants excluding roots, were analyzed for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ extractives, resins and hydrocarbons. The presence of waxes and natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) was confirmed using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. C/H values for representative fractions were calculated and extracted samples from selected species analyzed for apparent protein contents. Results suggested that at least two species, Euphorbia lactiflua and Euphorbia copiapina might have an industrial potential.

  10. Sapium ellipticum (Hochst. Pax Ethanol Leaf Extract Maintains Lipid Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osasenaga Mcdonald Ighodaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder especially in diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, the ability of Sapium ellipticum (SE leaf extract to restore lipid homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was examined. DM was induced in experimental rats (Wistar strains using single intraperitoneal dose (55 mg/kg body weight BW of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment of diabetic rats with SE was oral (p.o, at doses of 400 and 800 mg kg−1 BW, twice daily at 8 h interval for 21 days. Lipid parameters were analyzed in the serum of rats using test kits. SE caused a significant (P≤0.05 reduction in STZ-induced hypercholesterolemia in a dose dependent pattern (13.7 and 17.89%. These effects were comparable to that provided by metformin (15.45%, a standard antidiabetic drug. Similar pattern was noted with serum triglycerides (TG (10.63 and 19.06% and LDL (31.47 and 25.97%. Adipose tissue TG level was improved to near normal. Besides, the cardiovascular risk predictors in terms of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and LDL/HDL ratio were lowered by 57.85 and 44.12%, respectively. However, the extract failed to significantly reverse the STZ-induced decline in serum HDL. Overall, with AIP value of 0.28 and LDL/HDL ratio of 0.91, SE demonstrated the potential to maintain lipid homeostasis in the diabetics.

  11. Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae: Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Gangwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae are widely distributed perennial shrub or small tree in tropical and subtropical region in outer Himalayas regions with an altitude below 1,000 m and are reported to have wide range of pharmacological activities. Mallotus philippinensis species are known to contain different natural compounds, mainly phenols, diterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, isocoumarins, and many more especially phenols; that is, bergenin, mallotophilippinens, rottlerin, and isorottlerin have been isolated, identified, and reported interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory activity protein inhibition against cancer cell. We have selected all the pharmacological aspects and toxicological and all its biological related studies. The present review reveals that Mallotus philippinensis is a valuable source of medicinally important natural molecules and provides convincing support for its future use in modern medicine. However, the existing knowledge is very limited about Mallotus philippinensis and its different parts like steam, leaf, and fruit. Further, more detailed safety data pertaining to the acute and subacute toxicity and cardio- and immunotoxicity also needs to be generated for crude extracts or its pure isolated compounds. This review underlines the interest to continue the study of this genus of the Euphorbiaceae.

  12. 油桐的开发利用%Exploitation and Utilization of Aleurites fordii Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝丽霞

    2011-01-01

    油桐(Aleurites fordii Hemsl)为大戟科油桐属落叶乔木,是我国特有的经济树种,与油茶、核桃、乌桖并称我国四大木本油料植物。介绍了油桐资源与分布,探讨了其作为天然油料资源的市场开发利用价值。%Aleurites fordii Hemsl is a kind of Vernicia deciduous arbor of Euphorbiaceae.A.fordii is a unique economic tree species.A.fordii,Camellia oleifera Abel.,Juglans regia L.and Sapium sebiferum were named as the species of woody oil plants in China.A.fordii

  13. 不容忽视的树种——山乌桕%An Important Spiece of Sapium discolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌铭

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the economic value of Sapium discolor-a common tree spiece which widely distributed in South China but never been taken seriouly. Artificial cultivation techniques was summed up, and it was proposed that S. discolor is worth promoting in local area. The resesrch of seedling cultivation techniques as well as super provenance collection must be strengthened in the current promotion.%文章介绍了山乌桕的经济用途,总结了山乌桕的人工栽培技术,认为山乌桕是值得大力推广的一种乡土经济树种,并提出加强壮苗培育和栽培技术研究、收集山乌桕种源是当前推广研究该树种的重点.

  14. Chemotaxonomy of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae): antidesmone and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Alexander; Schmidt, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Petra

    2002-07-01

    Selected species of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae, subfamily Phyllanthoideae) have been screened for antidesmone occurrence and its content by quantitative HPLC (UV) and qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The LC-MS analysis allowing the additional detection of 17,18-bis-nor-antidesmone, 18-nor-antidesmone, 8-dihydroantidesmone and 8-deoxoantidesmone was carried out in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Leaf material from herbarium specimens of 13 Antidesma spp., Hyeronima alchorneoides and Thecacoris stenopetala (all subtribe Antidesminae), as well as Maesobotrya barteri, Aporosa octandra (both Scepinae) and Uapaca robynsii (Uapacinae) were analysed. Additionally, freshly collected samples of different plant parts of two Antidesma spp. were investigated to ensure the significance of the results on herbarium specimens and to compare the antidesmone content in bark, root and leaves. Antidesmone could be unambiguously identified in 12 of 13 Antidesma spp., as well as in the two other investigated genera of subtribe Antidesminae, in levels of up to 65 mg/kg plant dry weight. Antidesmone was not found in specimens from other subtribes. Antidesmone-derived compounds occur in much lower concentrations than antidesmone.

  15. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  16. Phyllanthus balgooyi (Euphorbiaceae s.l.), a new nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Palawan and Sabah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, P.; Baker, A.J.M.; Madulid, D.A.; Proctor, J.

    2003-01-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M. Baker (Euphorbiaceae s.l. or Phyllanthaceae) is described from Palawan (Philippines) and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) as a species of Phyllanthus sect. Emblicastrum. The species is restricted to ultramafic sites and easily identified by its unusual leaf venation

  17. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  18. Re-shaping spurge pioneers : circumscription, taxonomy and phylogeny of Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae s.s.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Daza, Soraya Elizabeth Catalina

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the tropical plant genus Mallotus. This genus belongs to the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), and comprises c. 110 species. These species are mainly found in (sub)tropical Asia and the West Pacific, with only two species in Africa and Madagascar. Mallotus and its sister genus Mac

  19. The Growth Form of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) - Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of a Neotropical Liana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallenmüller, F.; Müller, U.; Rowe, N.; Speck, T.

    2001-01-01

    Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) is a woody climber of the lowland rainforest in French Guyana and Surinam. During ontogeny, a shift from a juvenile free-standing growth phase to an older supported growth phase is observed. The following biomechanical parameters were studied: structural Young's modulus

  20. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies Ac

  1. 桂林乌桕的化学成分研究%Studies on chemical constituents of Sapium chihsinianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆淑华; 吴少华; 马云保; 罗晓东; 吴大刚

    2003-01-01

    目的研究桂林乌桕Sapium chihsinianum的化学成分.方法利用反复硅胶柱层析进行分离和纯化,通过理化方法及光谱分析鉴定其结构.结果从桂林乌桕茎的乙酸乙酯提取物中分离得10个已知化合物,分别鉴定为矛瑞屯醇(moretenol,Ⅰ),矛瑞屯酮(moretenone,Ⅱ),油酮酸(acetylaleuritolic acid,Ⅲ),东莨菪内酯(scopo-letin,Ⅳ),2-羟基-4-甲氧基苯乙酮(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone,Ⅴ),正三十四烷酸(Ⅵ),硬脂酸(Ⅶ),3,3'-二-氧-甲基鞣花酸(3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid,Ⅶ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅸ),胡萝卜苷(Ⅹ).结论化合物Ⅵ、Ⅵ均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  2. Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae, com nome popular de favela, é uma planta normalmente espinhosa comum na caatinga. É considerada como forrageira e os animais, principalmente durante a seca, consomem as folhas que estão ao seu alcance ou as folhas secas caídas. A intoxicação espontânea por esta planta é relatada por fazendeiros no semi-árido quando animais têm acesso a plantas ou ramos recentemente cortados. Diferentes partes da planta moídas e secas, diluídas em água, são utilizadas por caçadores para matar pássaros. Para determinar a toxicidade de C. phyllacanthus, folhas verdes de plantas sem espinhos foram administradas a uma cabra em pequenas quantidades por via oral. Após o consumo de 4,7g por kg de peso do animal (g/kg a cabra apresentou taquicardia, taquipneia, dispnéia, nistagmo, opistótono e decúbito esterno abdominal seguido de decúbito lateral. A morte ocorreu 30 minutos após o começo dos sinais. Folhas frescas de plantas sem espinho foram administradas a 8 caprinos em doses de 0,5-2,5g/kg sem que causassem sinais clínicos. Três animais apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg. Os sinais clínicos foram similares aos observados na intoxicação por ácido cianídrico e dois animais tratados com uma solução de tiossulfato de sódio a 20%, na dose de 0,5ml/kg se recuperaram rapidamente em seguida ao tratamento. O terceiro recuperou-se espontaneamente. Folhas das mesmas plantas foram secadas ao sol durante períodos varáveis de 8-30 dias. O caprino que ingeriu a planta que tinha sido secada por 8 dias morreu após a ingestão de 3g/kg. O caprino que ingeriu a planta secada por 9 dias apresentou sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 1,13g/kg e se recuperou. Os caprinos que ingeriram a planta exposta ao sol por 10-29 dias apresentaram sinais clínicos após a ingestão de 3g/kg e se recuperaram espontaneamente ou mediante tratamento com tiossulfato de sódio. O caprino que ingeriu a

  3. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  4. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  5. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae, a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cheek

    Full Text Available Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae, a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  6. Estudio morfológico y anatómico de E uphorbia peplus linneo ( Euphorbiaceae Morphological and Anatomical Study of Euphorbia peplusLinneo (Euphorbiaceae

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    Palacios Catalina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras de ejemplares de Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae de los predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá (Bello 262. Se realizaron cortes con micrótomo siguiendo procedimientos de histotecnia y cortes a mano alza-da para estudiar y establecer la anatomía de esta planta. Se observaron ejemplares frescos al estereoscopio para estudiar y determinar la morfología. Se establecieron características morfológicas como la arquitectura propia de E. peplus L. y la organización de su inflorescencia en ciatio, su sistema radical alorricico, las diversas formas de sus hojas, y particularidades del fruto, la semilla, y características anatómicas como el crecimiento secundario limitado en tallo y raíz entre otros.Samples of Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae specimens were taken from the ground at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Bello 262. Microtome slices and freehand slices were made following histological techniques, to study and determine the plant anatomy; fresh samples were observed to study and determine the plant morphology. Morphological features were established, as the plant specific architecture, the ciatium, the radical system, the leaves diverse shapes and the characteristics of the fruit and seed. Anatomical features as the limited secondary growth on stemand root were also determined.

  7. Preparation of Sapium Discolor Honey Vinegar and Its Beverage%山乌桕蜂蜜醋及其蜂蜜醋饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 曾志将; 颜伟玉; 吴小波

    2011-01-01

    The brewing technology of Sapium discolor honey vinegar and its beverage production condition were both investigated in this study, where Sapium discolor honey was used as raw material. The optimum fermentation condition of acetic acid and the beverage's preparing technology were determined through orthogonal tests. Results showed that the optimum conditions of acetic acid fermentation were 7% initial alcohol content, 10% inoculum amount, initial pH 4.5, fermentation temperature 30 ℃, rotary velocity 200 r/min and fermentation period 6 days; The optimal composition of this honey vinegar beverage were 10%(V/V) honey vinegar, 18%(V/V) lotus pollen wall-broken juice, 0.2% citric acid, 8% Sapium discolor honey. The resulting beverage had natural fragrant smell of honey and pollen, proper sour taste and u-nique flavor.%以山乌桕蜜为原料,研究了蜂蜜醋的酿造工艺及其饮料的生产工艺条件.通过正交实验确定了醋酸发酵最优工艺条件及其饮料调配的最佳条件.结果表明:醋酸发酵的最佳工艺条件为起始酒精度7%(体积分数),接种量10%(体积分数),起始pH 4.5,发酵温度30℃,转速200 r/min,发酵周期6d;蜂蜜醋饮料调配的最佳条件是:山乌桕蜂蜜原醋10%(体积分数),莲花粉破壁液18%(体积分数),柠檬酸0.2%(质量分数),山乌桕蜂蜜8%(质量分数).所调配的蜂蜜醋饮料具有天然的蜜香和淡淡的花粉香,酸甜爽口,风味独特.

  8. Flavonóides O-glicosilados de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae Glycosyl flavonoids from Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M.L. dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato butanólico de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae foram isolados quatro flavonóides, todos O-glicosídeos da quercetina. Estas substâncias foram identificadas como 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosil-(1®2-galactopiranosil quercetina (1, 3-O-b-D-galactopiranosil quercetina (hiperina (2, 3-O-a-L-arabinopiranosil quercetina (guaijaverina (3 e 3-O-a-L-ramnopiranosil quercetina (quercitrina (4.O presente trabalho relata a presença destas substâncias pela primeira vez para esta espécie de Croton, cuja elucidação estrutural deu-se por espectroscopia em UV, EM e RMN, incluindo as técnicas bidimensionais: ¹H-¹H (2D NOESY, 2D COSY, ¹H-13C (2D HETCOR e 13C (APT, além de comparações com os dados da literatura.Four flavonoids were isolated from the butanolic extract of the aerial parts of Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae. These compounds were identified as 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosyl-(1®2-galactopyranoside quercetin (1, 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside quercetin (hyperin (2, 3-O-a-L-arabinopyranoside quercetin (guaijaverin (3 and 3-O-a-L-ramnopyranoside quercetin (quercitrin (4. They have been isolated for the first time from Croton campestris. Their structures were elucidated by UV, MS and NMR experiments including ¹H-¹H (2D NOESY, 2D COSY, ¹H-13C (2D HETCOR, 13C (APT and by comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature.

  9. Dos nuevas especies de Croton (Euphorbiaceae) en el Neotrópico

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramírez, José; Poveda Álvarez, Luis

    2016-01-01

     Se describen e ilustran dos nuevas especies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae) restringidas a Costa Rica: Croton corinthius, de las tierras bajas de la vertiente Caribe, y Croton megistocarpus, de las tierras medias en ambas vertientes de las principales cordilleras. La primera se distingue por la presencia de glán- dulas pedunculadas cerca de las axilas de los nervios secundarios de las hojas. La segunda se compara con C. pachypodus Webster, de Panamá y Colombia.  Two new species of Croton L...

  10. Flavonóides O-glicosilados de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Paula M.L. dos; Schripsema, Jan; Kuster, Ricardo M

    2005-01-01

    Do extrato butanólico de Croton campestris St. Hill. (Euphorbiaceae) foram isolados quatro flavonóides, todos O-glicosídeos da quercetina. Estas substâncias foram identificadas como 3-O-b-D-apiofuranosil-(1®2)-galactopiranosil quercetina (1), 3-O-b-D-galactopiranosil quercetina (hiperina) (2), 3-O-a-L-arabinopiranosil quercetina (guaijaverina) (3) e 3-O-a-L-ramnopiranosil quercetina (quercitrina) (4).O presente trabalho relata a presença destas substâncias pela primeira vez para esta espécie ...

  11. 乌桕菌用林栽培技术%Cultivation techniques of Sapium discolor ( Champ. ) Mfiell - Arg for fungus-producing forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彪; 陈孝丑; 高文; 雷莹; 林雄平

    2011-01-01

    Sapium discolor (Champ.) Mtiell - Arg with a long cultivation history and versatility is a unique arbor species China, which is a versatile tree used as energy, herb, wood, fungus and ornament. The paper reviews and summarizes the local distribution, Biol%乌桕是我国特有的乔木树种,栽培历史悠久、用途广泛,是一种集能源、药用、材用、菌用、观赏为一体的多用途树种.阐述了乌桕的地区分布、适生环境和生物学特性,并就乌桕菌用林栽培技术进行了实验,为乌桕菌用林播种育苗、人工林培育提供借鉴经验.

  12. 乌柏皮油低熔点POP高含量品系定向选育的研究%Research on directed selective breeding of low melted point and high Content POP strain of chinese vegetable tallow of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐光旭; 彭九生; 杜强; 徐九龙; 徐禄朝; 徐炳星; 刘少卡

    1995-01-01

    从大量的分析样品中选出皮油熔点较低、而POP含量较高的无性系17个,经定向培育、连续测定、结合其表型性状和经济性状进行:综合评定、筛选出无6、无13、无12、无10、无4、无3等6个无性系、皮油熔点平均为35℃,与芙然可可脂(32~35℃)十分接近.而POP含量与其熔点呈密切负相关(r=0.9644).

  13. Intoxicação experimental com as folhas de Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura I. Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As folhas recém-colhidas de Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae foram letais para ovinos em administrações únicas de 40g/kg. A dose de 5g/kg não causou sintomas de intoxicação; as doses intermediárias provocaram a morte de parte dos animais. A evolução da intoxicação foi de 6 a 22 dias. O quadro clínico-patológico nos ovinos experimentais era caracterizado por perturbações digestivas, pulmonares, cardíacas e ainda alterações regressivas leves somente evidenciadas através de exames histológicos, hepáticas e renais. Esses achados são semelhantes aos observados em experimentos com as sementes de Jatropha curcas em caprinos, ovinos e bezerros, e com os com os frutos e as folhas de Jatropha glauca e Jatropha aceroides em caprinos, realizados por outros autores. Estas comparações indicam que, independentemente das espécies, as folhas de Jatropha spp. devem conter compostos semelhantes aos encontrados nas sementes.Fresh green leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae were lethal for sheep in single administrations of 40g/kg. The dose of 5g/kg did not cause poisoning, but intermediate doses caused death in part of the animals. The clinical course of poisoning was 6 to 22 days. The clinic and pathological picture in the experimental sheep was characterized by digestive, lung and heart disturbances, and also by slight microscopic liver and renal regressive alterations. These findings are similar to those observed in experiments with the seeds of Jatropha curcas in goats, sheep and calves, and with the fruits and leaves of Jatropha glauca and Jatropha aceroides in goats, performed by other authors. A comparison indicates that, independently of the plant species, the leaves of Jatropha spp. contain toxic compounds similar to those found in the seeds.

  14. Structure and development of fruits and seeds of weed species of Euphorbiaceae Estrutura e desenvolvimento de frutos e sementes de espécies invasoras de Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bertechine Gagliardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbiaceae s.l. presents several morphological types of fruits, of which the schizocarp is the most common. The fruits of weed species of Euphorbia graminea Jacq., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Euphorbia hirta L. (= Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. and Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (= Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton Small are objects of this study. Inflorescences and fruits in development were collected on the campus of the State University of Maringa (UEM, Brazil, fixed in FAA 50 and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated and sectioned with a rotary microtome according to standard morphology and anatomy techniques. The species present several anatomical similarities, though there are some differences related to the outer epidermis of the ovaries, which is glabrous in E. graminea and hairy in the other species. The ripe fruits present a papilose exocarp and lack trichomes, except for E. hirta. The ovules are anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate; the seeds are exotegmic and the embryos are straight.Euphorbiaceae s.l. apresenta vários tipos morfológicos de frutos, sendo o mais comum o esquizocarpo. Os frutos das espécies invasoras Euphorbia graminea Jacq., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Euphorbia hirta L. (= Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. and Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (= Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton Small são objetos do presente estudo. As inflorescências e frutos em desenvolvimento foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM, Brasil, fixados em FAA 50 e glutaraldeído, desidratados e secionados em micrótomo de rotação, de acordo com as técnicas usuais em anatomia. As espécies apresentam muitas semelhanças anatômicas, embora haja algumas diferenças relacionadas à epiderme externa do ovário, que é glabra em E. graminea e pilosa nas outras espécies. O fruto maduro apresenta exocarpo papiloso e desprovido de tricomas, com exceção de E. hirta. O óvulo é anátropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado, e as sementes são exotégmicas com

  15. Chrozophorin: a new acylated flavone glucoside from Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae Crozoforina: uma nova flavona glicosilada e acetilada de Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae

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    A. Delazar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparative reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae yielded five flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (1, rutin, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside (2, apigenin 7-O-b-D-[(6-p-coumaroyl]-glucopyranoside (3, apigenin 7-O- b-D-glucopyranoside (4 and apigenin 7-O-b-D-[6-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl]-glucopyranoside (named, chrozophorin, 5, the last one being a new natural product. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by UV spectroscopic analyses using shift reagents, ESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. The free-radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract (RC50 = 2.24 x 10-1 mg/mL as well as the isolated compounds (1-5 (RC50 = 4.38 x 10-3, 2.26 x 10-2, 7.69 x 10-4, 8.71 x 10-3 and 3.19 x 10-4 mg/mL, respectively were assessed by the DPPH assay.Análise das partes aéreas de Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae através de HPLC preparativa com coluna de fase reversa produziu cinco glicosídeos de flavonóides, quercetina 3-O-rutinosídeo (1, rutina, acacetina 7-O-rutinosídeo (2, apigenina 7-O-b-D-[(6-p-cumaroil]-glicopiranosídeo (3, apigenina 7-O-b-D-glicopiranosídeo (4 e apigenina 7-O-b-D-[-(3,4-diidroxibenzoil]-glicopiranosídeo (chamado crozoforina, 5, sendo o último um novo produto natural. As estruturas dessas substâncias foram inequivocamente elucidadas por análise de espectrofotometria de UV com o uso de reagentes de deslocamento, ESIMS, e técnicas de RMN 1D e 2D. A atividade de captura de radicais livres do extrato metanólico (RC50 = 2,24 x 10-1 mg/mL bem como das substâncias isoladas (1-5 (RC50 = 4,38 x 10-3, 2,26 x 10-2, 7,69 x 10-4, 8,71 x 10-3 e 3,19 x 10-4 mg/mL, respectivamente foram analisados pelo método DPPH.

  16. Actividad antiparasitaria de extractos de plantas colombianas de la familia Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernanda Neira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La familia Euphorbiaceae es un grupo heterogéneo de plantas distribuidas en el territorio colombiano utilizadas algunas de ellas, como plantas medicinales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad tóxica de aceites esenciales (AE y extractos de plantas obtenidos de la familia Euphorbiaceae contra tripanosomátidos. Materiales y métodos: Los AE de Croton pedicellatus Kunth (AE1 y C.leptostachyus Kunth (AE2 y el extracto de Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas y maceración con metanol; se caracterizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Fueron evaluados contra las formas extracelulares e intracelulares de Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, L. (V. braziliensis y células Vero y THP-1. La actividad antiparasitaria fue determinada por recuento microscópico y el efecto tóxico en células por la prueba colorimétrica de MTT. Los resultados fueron expresados como la concentración que inhibe (CI50 o destruye (CC50 el 50% de parásitos o células. Resultados: Los componentes mayoritarios de los AE fueron borneol, γ-terpineno, germacreno D y trans-ß-cariofileno. Los AE1 y AE2 inhibieron el crecimiento de epimastigotes de T.cruzi y de promastigotesde L. (V. panamensis y L. (V. braziliensis con CI50 entre 7,14-8,78μg/mL y fueron activos contra amastigotes intracelulares de L. (V. braziliensis (AE1:CI50 36,74 y AE2:19,77μg/mL. El extracto 1 mostró baja actividad contra los parásitos. Los AE y extractosmostraron toxicidad en células THP-1(CC50 9,29-64,12μg/mL y células Vero (CC50 24,86-3,52μg/mL. Conclusión: Los AE obtenidos de plantas de la familia de Euphorbiaceae mostraron actividad antiparasitaria con toxicidad moderada en células de mamífero

  17. Influence de quelques facteurs environnementaux sur la germination d'Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ipou Ipou, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of some Environmental Factors on Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae Seeds Germination. In Ivory Coast, Euphorbia heterophylla appears as a weed in cotton fields. Effects of temperature, light and burying levels on its seed germination were tested. Temperature effects were monitored by means of 4 procedures, using a range of temperatures between 20 and 35 °C. The germination latency period can vary between 1 and 2 days, according to the temperature. After 4 days, germination rates were not longer related to temperature and were very similar. Germination can not happen without light. In order to measure the effect of burying levels, six series of 100 seeds were buried; the first at ground level, the others respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 cm deeper. Optimal germination rates were found for seeds that were buried between 0 and 6 cm.

  18. Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Neotropical Vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae

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    Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to assess polymorphism and level of genetic diversity in four Mexican populations of the neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae. Methods and Results: Thirty-seven microsatellite markers representing bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotide microsatellite repeats were developed. In total, 166 alleles were identified across 54 individuals. The number of alleles varied from one to 11 with an average of 4.49 alleles per locus. All loci except one were highly polymorphic between populations, whereas considerably less variation was detected within populations for most loci. The average observed and expected heterozygosities across study populations ranged from 0 to 0.63 and 0 to 0.59, respectively, for individual loci, and a deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was observed for most loci. Conclusions: The developed markers may be useful for studying genetic structure, parentage analysis, mapping, phylogeography, and cross-amplification in other closely related species of Dalechampia.

  19. Volatiles, a glutarimide alkaloid and antimicrobial effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Rosana N S; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; das Graças B Zoghbi, Maria; Araújo, Isabella S; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Santos, Lourivaldo S; do S B Brasil, Davi

    2013-03-12

    Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively). Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  20. Volatiles, A Glutarimide Alkaloid and Antimicrobial Effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourivaldo S. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively. Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EUPHORBIACEAE FAMILY PLANT LEAVES- ACALYPHA INDICA L., CROTON BONPLANDIANUM BAILL

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    SATYA PRASAD M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plants are the most important sources of medicines. Now a day the large number of drugs in use is derived from plants. The important advantages for therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in various ailments are their safety besides being effective, economical and easy availability. The present study investigates the phytochemical, and phrmacological activity of two medicinal plants Acalypha indica L., Croton bonplandianum BAILL Methods: Leaves of two plants from the family Euphorbiaceae - were collected, dried and powdered. The powdered material is subjected to soxhlet extraction using various solvents and allowed to evaporation. The crude extracts thus obtained were used for further investigation of phytochemicals, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from euphorbiaceae plants- Acalypha indica L., Croton bonplandianum BAILL. leaves. Results:The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, tannins, flavanoids, anthrocyanins and β-cyanins, quinones, glycosides and phenols in aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts. Terpenoids and coumarins are present in aqueous and methanol extracts and absent in chloroform extracts. Alkaloids present only in the chloroform extract. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that presence of high concentration of proteins, sugars, phenol and tannins in methanol extracts of screened plants. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay. The antioxidant activity was compared with standard antioxidant such as ascorbic acid. All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Methanol extract of Acalypha indica L. has high antioxidant activity and low IC50 value. The plant preparations were also screened individually for antimicrobial activity against three gram negative (E.coli, S.typimurium, S,paratypi and three gram positive (S.epidermis, B.subtilis, S

  2. Anemia hemolítica causada por Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., planta herbácea da família Euphorbiaceae, causou experimentalmente em bovinos um quadro caracterizado por hemoglobinúria em virtude de sua ação hemolítica, quando administrada por via oral em doses diárias de 1,0 a 2,5 g/kg (planta fresca, a partir do 4° ao 8° dia do experimento. Após um período de 3 a 5 dias em que os animais tiveram hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas, apesar de continuarem a receber a planta (durante um total de 12 a 14 dias, em três dos quatro animais esses sintomas desapareceram. Verificou-se nesses casos uma rápida recuperação dos valores hemáticos logo que cessou a hemoglobinúria. O quarto bovino, que recebeu 2,5 g/kg/dia durante 5 dias, morreu no 8° dia, tendo apresentado durante os últimos 4 dias de vida hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas. À necropsia e nos exames histopatológicos deste animal foram verificadas nefrose hemoglobinúrica e distrofia hepática com necrose centrolobular do parênquima. Dose de 7,7 g/kg única ou quantidades de 2,5 e 3 g/kg/dia administradas durante 2 dias seguidos, causaram em três outros bovinos quadro clínico de cólica, com morte em questão de horas, verificando-se à necropsia acentuado edema da parede do rúmen e do retículo. Pelos históricos obtidos somente ocorre, sob condições naturais, a intoxicação caracterizada pelo quadro da anemia hemolítica, indicando que possivelmente a ingestão de D. desertorum em quantidades necessárias para causar o quadro com lesões dos proventrículos ser, apesar de sua boa palatabilidade, autolimitada pelo efeito cáustico da planta.Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., a herbaceous plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, caused hemoglobinuria due to its hemolytic properties, when force-fed fresh to bovines in daily doses of 1.0 to 2.5 g/kg; the hemoglobinuria appeared from the 4th to 8th day of the experiment. After a period of 3 to 5 days of severe hemoglobinuria and anemia, these

  3. Summary of Exploitation on Sapium sebiferum(L.) Roxb. Seeds%乌桕籽综合开发利用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖; 杨志斌; 胡静

    2011-01-01

    In order to further study on the utilization value of Sapium sebiferum(L.) Roxb.,which belongs to biomass energy.The authors illustrates the utilization value of its Seeds,which concluded the waxes,kernel and shell.Based on summarization the main application of its fat,kernel oil and seed shell,the author puts forward suggestions for solving practical problems and realizing efficient use of its seeds exploitation.%为了深入研究乌桕作为生物质能源的利用价值,笔者从乌桕籽蜡、仁、壳各部分利用价值等方面对乌桕籽的开发利用进行了阐述。通过综述乌桕籽所提取的皮油、梓油及籽壳的主要用途,对乌桕籽资源开发利用提出建议,从而解决实际应用中出现的问题,实现乌桕籽的高效利用。

  4. Screening of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from Some Plants of Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae

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    Berna Elya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is recognized as a serious global health problem that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 DM is more common in diabetic populations. In this type of DM, inhibition of α-glucosidase is a useful treatment to delay the absorption of glucose after meals. As a megabiodiversity country, Indonesia still has a lot of potential unexploited forests to be developed as a medicine source, including as the α-glucosidase inhibitor. In this study, we determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 80% ethanol extracts of leaves and twigs of some plants from the Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Inhibitory activity test of the α-glucosidase was performed in vitro using spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC50 117.20 μg/mL, thirty-seven samples of forty-five were shown to be more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values in the range 2.33–112.02 μg/mL.

  5. Screening of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from some plants of Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elya, Berna; Basah, Katrin; Mun'im, Abdul; Yuliastuti, Wulan; Bangun, Anastasia; Septiana, Eva Kurnia

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as a serious global health problem that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 DM is more common in diabetic populations. In this type of DM, inhibition of α-glucosidase is a useful treatment to delay the absorption of glucose after meals. As a megabiodiversity country, Indonesia still has a lot of potential unexploited forests to be developed as a medicine source, including as the α-glucosidase inhibitor. In this study, we determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 80% ethanol extracts of leaves and twigs of some plants from the Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Inhibitory activity test of the α-glucosidase was performed in vitro using spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC(50) 117.20 μg/mL), thirty-seven samples of forty-five were shown to be more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC(50) values in the range 2.33-112.02 μg/mL.

  6. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  7. 油溶型乌桕脂烷醇酰胺一步法合成研究%Studies on Direct Synthesis of Oil-Soluble Sapium Fat Alkyldamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天祥; 邵璐

    2001-01-01

    以中国乌桕脂为原料,用正交实验法在常压下对投料比、温度、催化剂用量和加料方式诸因素进行系统考察,取得由乌桕脂直接合成非水溶性乌桕脂烷醇酰胺的优化工艺条件,乌桕脂收率达90%,具有可观的开发前景。%The direct synthsis of water insoluble sapium fat alkanolanide from Chinese vegatable tallow has been studied by the method of orthognal experimental design. The input ratio, the reaction temperature, the amount of catalyst and the addition time were investigated under atmospher and reation time was 4 h. The optimum technical conditions with the yield of sapium fat over 90 % have been obtained. The investigation have important development and application value on chiese vegatable tallow.

  8. 茂兰喀斯特森林圆叶乌桕AM真菌多样性研究%Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity in Sapium Rotundifolium in Maolan Karst Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭金玉; 张传博; 罗充

    2012-01-01

    对贵州省荔波县茂兰国家自然保护区圆叶乌桕(Sapium rotundifolium Hemsl)的丛枝茵根(Arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌进行了初步分离、鉴定与多样性分析.结果表明,乌桕根系的菌根侵染率为44.3%;从乌桕根系土壤中分离到AM真菌2个属29种,分别为球囊霉属(Glomus)21种、无梗囊霉属(Acaulosp ora)8种.其中,球囊霉属(Glomus)为优势属,枫香球囊霉(G.liquidambari)和凹坑无梗囊霉(A.excavatadun)为优势种.%Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Sapium rotundifolium Hemsl. In Maolan National Nature Reserve of Libo in Guizhou province was isolated and identified to study their diversity. The result showed that the root colonization rate of 5. Rotundifolium was 44.3%. 29 species in 2 genera(21 Glomus species and 8 Acaulospora species) were identified from the rhi-zospheres soil of S. Rotundifolium. Glomus was the dominant genus; while G. Liquidambari and A. Excavatadun were dominant species.

  9. Espécies de formigas que interagem com as sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae Interaction between ant species and seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli

    2004-10-01

    areas in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to determine the type of ant-seed interaction and the possible ant species dispersing this Euphorbiaceae. Insect hand collecting was performed in four sites where M. fistulifera is abundant in the region of Viçosa, MG, at the moment of seed visiting. The ants were taken to the laboratory and species identified. During collection, observations on ant behavior when interacting with seeds were recorded. Seed removal rate was also obtained. Sixteen species of ants interacted with the seeds; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Ectatomma edentatum, Pachycondyla sp.1 and Pheidole sp.2 were in fact dispersing agents as they effectively transported the seeds. Ac. subterraneus subterraneus, Camponotus rufipes, Ectatomma permagnum, Megalomyrmex sp.1, Pachycondyla sp.1, Pachycondyla sp.2, Pheidole sp.4, Pheidole sp. 5 and Pogonomyrmex sp. are reported for the first time as interacting with seeds. Seed removal rate ranged from 85 to 97%.

  10. The systematic position of Cubanthus and other shrubby endemic species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae in Cuba

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    Steinmann, Víctor W.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae has traditionally been recognized as a small genus of three similar species restricted to Cuba and Hispaniola. In this study we used DNA sequence data from the nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF gene regions to investigate its systematic position and the position of four other shrubby Euphorbia species endemic to Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, and E. podocarpifolia. The results demonstrate that all of these taxa belong to a well-supported Antillean clade nested within Euphorbia that also includes E. punicea and E. gymnonota. For that reason, we treat Cubanthus as a section of Euphorbia instead of a separate genus. Euphorbia sect. Adenorima is relegated to a synonym of sect. Cubanthus. New names are proposed for Cubanthus brittonii and Cubanthus linearifolius (Euphorbia millspaughii and E. scutiformis, respectively, and a new combination is made for Cubanthus umbelliformis (Euphorbia umbelliformis. Section Cubanthus belongs to clade C of Euphorbia and is part of a New World assemblage that includes members of sections Euphorbiastrum, Pteroneurae, Portulacastrum, Stachydium, and the former genus Pedilanthus. Based on both the molecular results and morphological differences, two subsections are proposed: subsect. Cubanthus and subsect. Moa. The molecular phylogeny supports the hypothesis that section Cubanthus radiated entirely within the Antilles and the nearby Bahamian archipelago.Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae ha sido tradicionalmente reconocido como un género de tres especies muy similares entre sí y endémicas de las islas de Cuba y La Española. En este estudio se emplearon datos de secuencias de ADN tanto nuclear (ITS como del cloroplasto (ndhF para investigar la posición sistemática de Cubanthus y de cuatro especies arbustivas de Euphorbia endémicas de Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, y E. podocarpifolia. Los resultados muestran que todas las especies analizadas pertenecen a un clado Antillano

  11. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  12. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  13. In vitro antioxidant property of the extract of Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae

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    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Excoecaria agallocha L. (Family: Euphorbiaceae is a Bangladeshi medicinal plant found predominantly in the tidal forests and swamps of the Sundarbans and other coastal areas in Bangladesh.  As part of our on-going phytochemical and bioactivity studies on medicinal plants from Bangladeshi flora, the in vitro antioxidant property on the bark of this plant was evaluated. Methods: The hydroalcohol extract of the dried and ground bark of E. agallocha was assessed for antioxidant activity using a series of well-established assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid (TBA, the reducing power, the nitric oxide (NO. and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenging assays. Results: In the DPPH, the NO and the H2O2 scavenging assays, the extract of E. agallocha displayed significant antioxidant activities with the IC50 values of 179.16, 120.24 and 134.29 μg/ml, respectively.  The reducing power of the extract increased dose-dependently, and the extract reduced the most Fe3+ ions to the extent less than butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT. In the lipid peroxidation assay, the extract showed significant inhibition of peroxidation effect at all concentrations, with an IC50 value of 189.27 μg/ml. Conclusion: Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to serious ailments such as atherosclerosis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cancer, the antioxidant property of the extract of E. agallocha as observed in the present study might be useful for the development of newer and more potent antioxidants.

  14. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  15. Combining distances of ballistic and myrmecochorous seed dispersal in Adriana quadripartita (Euphorbiaceae)

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    Beaumont, Kieren P.; Mackay, Duncan A.; Whalen, Molly A.

    2009-05-01

    The separate contributions of different vectors to net seed dispersal curves of diplochorous systems have rarely been characterised. In Australia, myrmecochory is a common seed dispersal syndrome and in the majority of such systems, seeds are initially dispersed ballistically. We measured ballistic and myrmecochorous seed dispersal distances in relation to canopies of Adriana quadripartita (Euphorbiaceae) and used a simulation model to estimate the net dispersal curve. We also compared seed removal rates and ant abundances under, and outside, plant canopies to examine how foraging patterns by ants may affect net dispersal. Overall ant abundance did not show a significant numerical response to seedfall; however, the abundance of the main seed dispersing ant, Rhytidoponera 'metallica' did. Despite this, seed removal rates did not differ significantly between canopy and open locations. Rhytidoponera 'metallica' account for 93% of observed seed dispersal events. On average, the ants dispersed seeds 1.54 m and in doing so, moved seed a mean radial distance of 0.76 m away from canopy edges. This contribution to net dispersal distance by ants is considerable since ballistic dispersal moved seeds a median distance of 7.5 cm. Our simulation model indicated that the combination of ballistic and ant seed dispersal is expected to result in seeds being transported a median net radial dispersal distance of 1.05 m from the canopy edge. Thus in this system, an important function of diplochory may simply be to move a higher proportion of seeds from under the canopy of parent plants than is possible by ballistic dispersal alone. This 'dispersal-for-distance' may result in reduced parent-offspring competition or may increase the probability that seeds reach rare safe sites for germination and recruitment.

  16. Nutrient-induced modifications of wood anatomical traits of Alchornea lojaensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannl, Susanne; Homeier, Jürgen; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-05-01

    Regarding woody plant responses on higher atmospheric inputs of the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) on tropical forests in the future, an adaptive modification of wood anatomical traits on the cellular level of woody plants is expected. As part of an interdisciplinary nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) carried out in Southern Ecuador, we present here the first descriptive and quantitative wood anatomical analysis of the tropical evergreen tree species Alchornea lojaensis (Euphorbiaceae). We sampled branch wood of nine individual trees belonging to treatments with N fertilization, N+P fertilization, and a control group, respectively. Quantitative evaluations of eleven different vessel parameters were conducted. The results showed that this endemic tree species will be able to adapt well to the future effects of climate change and higher nutrient deposition. This was firstly implied by an increase in vessel diameter and consequently a higher theo. area-specific hydraulic conductivity with higher nutrient availability. Secondly, the percentage of small vessels (0-20µm diameter) strongly increased with fertilization. Thirdly, the vessel arrangement (solitary vessels vs. multiple vessel groupings) changed towards a lower percentage of solitary vessel fraction (VS), and concurrently towards a higher total vessel grouping index (VG) and a higher mean group size of non-solitary vessels (VM) after N and N+P addition. We conclude that higher nutrient availability of N and N+P triggered higher foliage amount and water demand, leading to higher cavitation risk in larger vessels. This is counteracted by a stronger grouping of vessels with smaller risk of cavitation to ensure water supply during drier periods that are expected to occur in higher frequency in the near future.

  17. Checklist das espécies de Euphorbiaceae Juss. ocorrentes no semi-árido pernambucano, Brasil Checklist of Euphorbiaceae Juss. of the semi-arid in Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Marccus Vinícius Alves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o check-list das Euphorbiaceae da região semi-árida do Estado de Pernambuco (zona da Caatinga, subzonas do Agreste e do Sertão, nordeste do Brasil. Foram estudados os materiais oriundos das coletas realizadas durante os anos de 1997-1999 e aqueles depositados nos Herbários locais (IRA, PEUFR, TASH e UFP. Foram registradas 89 espécies, distribuídas em 22 gêneros, sendo Croton L., Cnidoscolus Pohl, Dalecliampia Plum, ex L., Euphorbia L. e Phyllanthus L. os melhor representados, com 21, 7, 6, 6 e 6 táxons, respectivamente. Caperonia castanefolia A. St.-Hil, Euphorbia phosphorea Mart, e Rotnanoa tamnoides (A. Juss. Radcl.-Sm. são novas citações para a flora pernambucana.This paper presents a checklist of Euphorbiaceae of the semi-arid area - Caatinga zone, subzones Agreste and Sertão - in Pernambuco State (Northeast of Brazil. Materials from field work done from 1997 to 1999 and from the local Herbaria (IRA, PEUFR, TASH and UFP, were studied. Up to now, 89 species, distributed within 22 genera have been listed. Croton L. (21, Cnidoscolus Pohl (7, Dalecliampia Plum, ex L. (6, Euphorbia L. (6 and Phyllanthus L. (6, were the most important genera as regards number of species. Caperonia castanefolia A. St.-Hil, Euphorbia phosphorea Mart, and Rotnanoa tamnoides (A. Juss. Radcl.-Sm. are new records for Pernambuco State.

  18. A new species of Gadirtha Walker (Nolidae: Collomeninae): a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadirtha fusca, new species, is described from Hong Kong. Adult, male and female genitalia, larva, and pupa are described, illustrated, and compared with Gadirtha impingens Walker. Species is a possible biological control agent for Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, Euphorbiaceae) in the ...

  19. The host range and impact of Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising candidate agent for biological control of Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...

  20. First report of predation on floral visitors by crab spiders on Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae Primeiro registro de predação de visitantes florais por aranhas-caranguejo em Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Reinaldo Rodrigo Novo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature it has been extensively mentioned that crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae prey on floral visitors of several plant species. Here we present observations of Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, a monoecious species harboring individuals of crab spiders in an area of coastal vegetation of Pernambuco state, Brazil. The species is visited by several invertebrate orders, and some of them were preyed upon by the spiders, mainly Diptera species. The spiders rubbed the forelimbs within the flowers, which may constitute a strategy to camouflage these structures. Croton selowii seems to represent a suitable foraging site for the spiders, because it has a generalist pollination system (thus being visited by a wide range of invertebrate species and blooms in a period of low flower resource availability in the area.Na literatura tem sido amplamente registrado que aranhas Thomisidae predam visitantes florais de várias espécies de planta. Neste estudo nós apresentamos observações de Croton selowii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, uma espécie monóica, abrigando aranhas Thomisidae em uma área de restinga de Pernambuco, Brasil. A espécie é visitada por invertebrados de várias ordens e vários deles são predados pelas aranhas, principalmente espécies de Diptera. As aranhas apresentaram um comportamento de esfregar as pernas dianteiras dentro das flores, o que pode ser interpretado como uma estratégia de camuflagem das pernas. Croton selowii parece representar um bom sítio de forrageamento para essas aranhas, pois possui um sistema de polinização generalista, sendo visitado por ampla gama de invertebrados e floresce em um período de baixa disponibilidade de flores na área.

  1. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research. A literature search was performed on Acalypha species using ethnobotanical text books and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar and other web sources such as records from PROTA, PROSEA, and Botanical Dermatology Database. The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Kew Botanical Garden Plant name databases were used to validate scientific names. Plants from Acalypha genus are traditionally used in the treatment and/or management of diverse ailments such as diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, fever, liver inflammation, schistosomiasis, dysentery, respiratory problems including bronchitis, asthma and pheumonia as well as skin conditions such as scabies, eczema and mycoses. Approximately 124 species were listed in ethnobotanical studies with some botanical description and others mentioned from different web sources. However, only 40 species have been included in the present review due to the unavailability of ethnopharmacological data on the remaining species. Among the 40 cited species, 30 were traditionally used for the treatment and/or management of approximately 70 human diseases or health conditions. Two species

  2. A new species of Gadirtha Walker (Nolidae, Eligminae: a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L. Small (Euphorbiaceae in the United States

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    Michael Pogue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gadirtha fusca sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. Gadirtha fusca differs in forewing color and pattern, male and female genitalia, and in larval pattern from all other species of Gadirtha. Gadirtha fusca has been evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L. Small, Euphorbiaceae in the southeastern United States. Adult, male and female genitalia, larva, and pupa are described, illustrated, and compared with Gadirtha impingens Walker.

  3. A new species of Gadirtha Walker (Nolidae, Eligminae): a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Gadirtha fusca sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. Gadirtha fusca differs in forewing color and pattern, male and female genitalia, and in larval pattern from all other species of Gadirtha. Gadirtha fusca has been evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, Euphorbiaceae) in the southeastern United States. Adult, male and female genitalia, larva, and pupa are described, illustrated, and compared with Gadirtha impingens Walker.

  4. 中国大戟科一新归化种——硬毛巴豆%Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae), A New Alien Species from Hainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清隆; 邓云飞; 王祝年; 黄明忠

    2012-01-01

    首次报道了大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)巴豆属硬毛巴豆(Croton hirtus L'Hér.)在中国的归化新记录,并提供该种的特征描述和形态图.凭证标本保存于中国科学院华南植物园标本馆((B)SC).

  5. 乌桕根皮乙酸乙酯部位抑菌活性研究%Research on the Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate in the Root Bark of Chinese Sapium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭元丽; 邹坤; 陈国华; 何晓雯; 周媛

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The antibacterial activity of acetate ethyl in the root bark of Chinese sapium was investigated. [Method] The antibacterial activity of the different flowing products of ethyl acetate after over normal phase silica gel column to pathogenic Escherickia coli ,Staphybcoccus aureus and Bacillus aeruginosus and Bacillus subtilis was determined with the disk diffusion method. [ Results] The results showed that the material with the antibacterial activity in sapium root bark primarily was in the part of large polarity,but there was antibacterial activity in the material of the methanol elution with larger polarity; and the inhibitory components of the soluble material of ethyl acetate was complex and the different parts had the variable inhibition to different bacteria and in general these materials had a certain inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus and Esche-richia coli. [ Conclusion] There was a quite difference in the antibacterial activity of different flowing products of ethyl acetate isolated by normal phase silica gel column chromatography.%[目的]研究乌桕根皮乙酸乙酯部位的抑菌活性.[方法]采用纸片扩散法,以病原菌大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)和绿脓杆菌(Bacillus aeruginosus) 以及枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)作为受试菌,测定乌桕根皮乙酸乙酯部位过正相硅胶柱后各流分的抑菌活性.[结果]乌桕根抑菌活性物质主要存在极性较大的部分,但极性很大的甲醇洗脱部分也没有抑菌活性;乙酸乙酯可溶部抑菌成分较复杂,不同部分对不同细菌的抑制作用不同,总体来说对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌有一定的抑制作用.[结论]乙酸乙酯部位经正相硅胶柱层析分离所得不同流分对各细菌的抑菌活性有很大区别.

  6. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.

  7. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae): A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva-Jr, Arnóbio Antonio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products. PMID:25002902

  8. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  9. Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Bonani, Vanderlea F.L.; Peruzzo, Gisele M.; Peres, Marize T.L.P.; Hess, Sania C. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Morel, Ademir Farias Morel; Stuker, Caroline Z. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Poppi, Nilva Re; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFMS), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the stem bark of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 83 compounds were identified and borneol (14.7%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), 1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,3,4,5,6,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalane-4a-ol (14.7%), sesquicineole (10.5%) and {gamma}-gurjunene epoxide (5.4%) were the main components. The EC{sub 50} value of the crude essential oil in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was 3.21 mg mL{sup -1}. The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The EC{sub 50} value measured for the bioactive oil fraction in the DPPH assay was 1.05 mg mL{sup -1}. The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  11. Galler-induced reduction of shoot growth and fruit production in the shrub Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae Insectos cecidómidos reducen el crecimiento de brotes y la producción de frutos en el arbusto Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFREDO L. GONZÁLES

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated experimentally the effect of a gall-maker insect on vegetative and reproductive traits of the shrub Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae. We performed two experiments: (1 a chemical (insecticide exclusion to prevent gall formation, and (2 a mechanical removal of new galls at the early stage to prevent gall growth. In the study area, galled shrubs were common (77 %. Because the pattern of insect attack may influence plant fitness, the distribution of egg clusters deposited by the galler and the number of galls among shrubs were also evaluated. Fruit production was inversely associated with the number of galls, but did not correlate with shrub height, shrub cover, and number of shoots. Ungalled shoots were longer than galled shoots after 12 months initiated the experiment. Chemical exclusion produced a delayed positive effect on plant reproduction. Fruit production was higher in experimental than control branches after 24 months. Mechanical removal of galls increased fruit production in comparison to control branches in the next reproductive season. These results indicate that the galler reduces shoot growth, and has a delayed detrimental impact on fruit production of C. integerrima. Because the chance of finding new galls was higher on the previously infected shrubs, it is possible that reinfection processes account for the cumulative negative effects of the bud-galling insect on plant fitnessEvaluamos experimentalmente el efecto de un insecto cecidómido sobre rasgos vegetativos y reproductivos del arbusto Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae. Efectuamos dos experimentos: (1 una exclusión química (insecticida para impedir la formación de cecidias, y (2 una remoción mecánica de cecidias recién formadas para evitar su crecimiento. En el sitio de estudio, los arbustos con cecidias fueron comunes (77 %. Como el patrón de ataque del insecto puede influir en el desempeño de la planta, evaluamos también la distribución de

  12. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Capability of Woody Plants in Mine wasteland of Karst Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuru, Wang; Zhongliang, Huang; Xuan, Zhang; Zijian, Wu

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation capability and transfer characteristics of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soil and 6 different woody plants collected from a typical lead-zinc mine wasteland of Karst area, Hunan province were investigated, including Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook., Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.), Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. The results showed that the 6 plants could adapt to the heavy metal polluted environment, and there was a positive correlation between the heavy metal content in plants and soil.Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.) and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. had the largest Pb bioaccumulation factor of 0.03; Paulownia. had the highest Zn bioaccumulation factor of 0.37; the largest Pb transfer factor of 1.31 were found in Koelreuteria paniculata; and Zn transfer factor of Paulownia. reached 1.45. These 4 woody plants are suitable for phytoremediation of mine wasteland of Karst areas.

  13. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

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    Pasricha J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  14. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and ricinine against the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Maria Fátima; Torkomian, Vera L V; de Groote, Suzanne T C S; Hebling, Maria José A; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; da Silva, Maria Fátima G F

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this study was the identification of compounds from plant extracts for use in crop protection. This paper reports on the toxic activity of fractions of leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (Euphorbiaceae) and isolated active compounds in the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller. The main compounds responsible for activity against the fungus and ant in leaf extracts of R communis were found to be fatty acids for the former and ricinine for the ants.

  15. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of crown of Christ (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae latex submitted to pH variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Maurício Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field bioassays have confirmed the specificity of the molluscicidal activity of the Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex (crown of Christ (Euphorbiaceae over snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea, B. pfeifferi and Bulinus sp. in the control of Schistosoma mansoni. In the present study, the effect of the pH variation on lethal concentration (LC90 over B. tenagophila was evaluated. Bioassays with the aqueous solutions of the latex ranging from 0.4 to 12 µl/l were adjusted for pH of 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0, and tested in accordance with methods standardized by World Health Organization. The results obtained indicated that the minor concentration of the latex occurred at pH 6.0 (LC90 = 3.2 µl/l and the maximum at pH 8.0 (LC90 = 10.3 µl/l. Lethal concentrations adjusted for pH 5.0 and 7.0 were 3.4 µl/l and 4,7µl/l, respectively. From the results it could be concluded that the molluscicidal toxicity was not altered when the concentrations were adjusted for pH 5.0 and 6.0, as we observed that mortality rate was 100% starting at a concentration of 2.0 µl/l, not the same for the concentrations with adjustment for pH 7.0 and 8.0.

  17. Air Force Materiel Command Readiness Training Center Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    regulations applied on a facility-wide basis (visible emissions, odor , unconfined emissions) and to regulations that require only that they be able to prove...treatments have been conducted on known cogon grass sites. In 1996 and 1997, herbicide treatments were initiated on Chinese tallow trees. Of...these exotic species known to occur on Eglin, Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) and cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) are considered the most

  18. 乌桕载植技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平华; 柯先雨

    2009-01-01

    @@ 乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)Roxb.].又名木子树,属大戟科乌桕属落叶乔木,根系发达,树皮暗灰色,纵裂,叶菱形或菱状卵形,果扁球形,径约1.5 cm,黑褐色,3裂,果皮脱落,种子黑色,外被白蜡.

  19. Taxonomy of the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae in the Iberian PeninsuIa and the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedí, Carles

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study is undertaken of the ten taxa (nine of them specific belonging to the genus Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae which are present in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands and a dichotomic key is provided. The taxonomic characteristics or each taxon are discussed and the correct name, synonyms, description, chorology and ecology are given. The presence of Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh. in the Iberian Peninsula is confirmed and Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small is recorded for the first time from Europe.

    Es realitza un estudi taxonòmic dels 10 tàxons (nou específics del gènere Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (Euphorbiaceae presents a la Península Ibèrica i les Illes Balears. Per a cada tàxon es valoren els caràcters d'interès taxonòmic i s'indica el nom correcte. la sinonímia, descripció, corologia i ecologia. Es confirma la presència de Chamaesyce humifusa (Willd. Prokh, a la Península Ibèrica i se cita Chamaesyce humistrata (Gray Small coma novetat per a Europa.

  20. Manejo químico de convolvulaceae e euphorbiaceae em cana-de-açúcar em período de estiagem Chemical Management of Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in Sugarcane during Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.M. Azania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As famílias Convolvulaceae e Euphorbiaceae possuem diferentes espécies que infestam os canaviais de forma rápida e agressiva, especialmente em áreas cobertas pela palha remanescente da colheita que não foram queimadas. Essa infestação, associada às extensas áreas de cultivo, tem dificultado a operacionalidade do manejo químico exclusivamente durante a estação chuvosa do ano, levando aos produtores a necessidade de aplicar os herbicidas também no período de estiagem. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou estudar a persistência dos herbicidas aplicados durante o período de estiagem em resistir às intempéries climáticas até o início da estação chuvosa, avaliando-se o controle sobre as espécies dos gêneros de Ipomoea, Merremia e Euphorbia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 42 tratamentos, distribuídos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com seis repetições. Os herbicidas amicarbazone (1.050 g ha-1, imazapic (1.22,5 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 e as associações clomazone (1.000 g ha-1 + hexazinone (250 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1 + diurom (936 g ha-1 + hexazinone (264 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (500 g ha-1 + amicarbazone (700 g ha-1 e testemunha foram alocados nas parcelas. As espécies Ipomoea nil, I. hederifolia, I. quamoclit, I. grandifolia, Merremia aegyptia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas diretamente no solo, cobertas com o equivalente a 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar e alocadas nas subparcelas. Após a aplicação dos herbicidas, registraram-se 70 dias de ausência de chuvas e o estresse hídrico impossibilitou a avaliação de controle, devido à não emergência das plantas daninhas em todos os tratamentos. Entretanto, com o início da estação chuvosa aos 90 dias após o tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações de eficácia devido à emergência das plantas daninhas. Aos 150 DAT (dias após os tratamentos os herbicidas sulfentrazone e sulfentrazone

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Ronia; Ahmed, Shanta; Begum, Mst Marium; Sohanur Rahman, Md; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Das, Munny; Hossain, Amir; Sharma, Manju; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-05-16

    The medicinal plants signify a massive basin of potential phytoconstituents that could be valuable as a substitute to allopathic drugs or considered as an analogue in drug development. Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is generally used in traditional medicine to treat ulcer and inflammation. In this project we investigated the methanolic extract of leaves of Phyllanthus niruri for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves was evaluated at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. The animals used were Swiss albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. Paw tissues from the different groups were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of P. niruri leaves at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as reference. The rats were dissected and the stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. P. niruri significantly (p gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Administration of the extract's doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (p gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. The methanolic extract at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) resulted in better inhibition of ethanol-acid induced gastric ulcer as compare to omeprazole (20 mg/kg). Histological studies of the gastric wall revealed that toxic control rats revealed mucosal degeneration, ulceration and migration of numerous inflammatory cells throughout the section. On the other hand, MEPN treatment groups showed significant regeneration of mucosal layer and significantly prevented the formation of hemorrhage and edema. The

  2. CGAR E CGAR-EM na análise dos constituintes químicos isolados do extrato hexanico de Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae HRGC and HRGC-MS in the analysis of the chemical constituents isolated from hexanic extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Branco

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation column with SiO2 of the hexane extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae yielded fractions containing hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes. Besides, one fraction showed the presence of several methyl esters, including four uncommon long chain palmitate esthers as minor components. The characterization of these chemical constituents have been done by High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC and HRGC coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, glutin-5-en-3-ol were identified by HRGC co-injection with standards.

  3. Morfologia do polén anemófilo e alergizante no Brasil: II. Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Em continuação à primeira parte deste catálogo (Barth et al., 1975, é estudada a morfologia dos grãos de polén das espécies anemófilas pertencentes às famílias Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrta ceae, cujo conhecimento interessa a estudos relacionados à poluição atmosférica e a processos alérgicos, especialmente das vias respiratórias.In continuation to the first part of this catalogue (Barth et al., 1975, the morphology of the pollen grains of the anemophilous species of six additional families is studied, their correct identification being relevant to studies concerning air pollution and allergic processes, chiefly of the respiratory tract.

  4. Análisis del papel de los caracteres foliares de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) en la defensa contra herbívoros y patógenos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-González, Daniel; García-Guzmán, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Se analizó el papel de algunos caracteres foliares (área específica, grosor, densidad de tricomas, contenido hídrico y producción de látex) de tres especies de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) en la defensa contra insectos herbívoros y hongos patógenos. Se examinó el daño foliar en adultos de las especies arbóreas C. spinosus y C. megacanthus y de la especie herbácea C. urens, en poblaciones localizadas en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Chamela-Cuixmala (Jal.) y en la región de Huatulco-Zimatán (Oax...

  5. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude root and fruit extracts of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbiaceae (Croton macrostachyus H.; bā dòu) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, diabetes, wounds, fungal infections, and helminths. No scientific investigations have been performed to substantiate these claims. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract of the fruit and the root of Croton macrostachyus H. in a rodent model of malaria. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was used to inoculate healthy 8-week-old male Swiss albino mice weighing 23-27 g. Each of the hydroalcoholic crude extracts (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of mice. The parameters of parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were determined using Peter's test and Rane's test. Both extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia and increased survival time in infected mice. Maximum suppression and prolongation were obtained at the highest doses used in the study. The crude extracts prevented loss of weight and temperature, but did not affect the packed cell volume. This study suggests that the root and fruit extracts of the plant both have promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner, which supports the folkloric use of the plant for treating malaria.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and ectomycorrhizas of Uapaca bojeri L. (Euphorbiaceae): sporophore diversity, patterns of root colonization, and effects on seedling growth and soil microbial catabolic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanankierana, Naina; Ducousso, Marc; Rakotoarimanga, Nirina; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Randrianjohany, Emile; Ramaroson, Luciano; Kisa, Marija; Galiana, Antoine; Duponnois, Robin

    2007-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to describe the diversity of mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Uapaca bojeri, an endemic Euphorbiaceae of Madagascar, and (2) to determine the potential benefits of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi [ectomycorrhizal and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] on the growth of this tree species and on the functional diversity of soil microflora. Ninety-four sporophores were collected from three survey sites. They were identified as belonging to the ectomycorrhizal genera Afroboletus, Amanita, Boletus, Cantharellus, Lactarius, Leccinum, Rubinoboletus, Scleroderma, Tricholoma, and Xerocomus. Russula was the most frequent ectomycorrhizal genus recorded under U. bojeri. AM structures (vesicles and hyphae) were detected from the roots in all surveyed sites. In addition, this study showed that this tree species is highly dependent on both types of mycorrhiza, and controlled ectomycorrhization of this Uapaca species strongly influences soil microbial catabolic diversity. These results showed that the complex symbiotic status of U. bojeri could be managed to optimize its development in degraded areas. The use of selected mycorrhizal fungi such the Scleroderma Sc1 isolate in nursery conditions could be of great interest as (1) this fungal strain is very competitive against native symbiotic microflora, and (2) the fungal inoculation improves the catabolic potentialities of the soil microflora.

  7. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  8. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  9. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  10. Myrmecochores can target high-quality disperser ants: variation in elaiosome traits and ant preferences for myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura Carolina; Lima Neto, Mário Correia; de Oliveira, Antônio Fernando Morais; Andersen, Alan N; Leal, Inara R

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the traditional view of myrmecochory as a highly diffuse interaction between diaspores and a wide range of ant species attracted to their elaiosomes may not be correct. The effectiveness of dispersal varies markedly among ant species, and combined with differential attractiveness of diaspores due to elaiosome size and composition, this raises the potential for myrmecochorous plants to target ant species that offer the highest quality dispersal services. We ask the question: Do particular physical and chemical traits of elaiosomes result in disproportionate removal of Euphorbiaceae diaspores by high-quality disperser ants in Caatinga vegetation of north-eastern Brazil? We offered seeds of five euphorb species that varied in morphological and chemical traits of elaiosomes to seed-dispersing ants. High-quality seed-disperser ants (species of Dinoponera, Ectatomma and Camponotus) were identified as those that rapidly collected and transported diaspores to their nests, often over substantial distances, whereas low-quality disperser ants (primarily species of Pheidole and Solenopsis) typically fed on elaiosomes in situ, and only ever transported diaspores very short distances. Low-quality disperser ants were equally attracted to the elaiosomes of all study species. However, high-quality dispersers showed a strong preference for diaspores with the highest elaiosome mass (and especially proportional mass). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to identify a mechanism of diaspore selection by high-quality ant dispersers based on elaiosome traits under field conditions. Our findings suggest that myrmecochorous plants can preferentially target high-quality seed-disperser ants through the evolution of particular elaiosome traits.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  12. MORFOLOGIA DOS DIÁSPOROS, GERMINAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS FASES JUVENIS DE Adelia membranifolia (MÜLL. ARG. PAX & K. HOFFM. (EUPHORBIACEAE

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    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Pax & K. Hoffm. é uma árvore de pequeno porte, dioica, com distribuiçãorestrita à América do Sul, sendo a única espécie do gênero Adelia L. (Euphorbiaceae com ocorrência noBrasil, frequente e abundante na floresta ripária do rio da Prata, região sudoeste de Mato Grosso do Sul. Esteestudo descreve os aspectos morfológicos dos frutos, das sementes e o desenvolvimento das fases juvenisde Adelia membranifolia e analisa o padrão de nervação foliar das plantas jovens visando contribuir com oconhecimento biológico e auxiliar na identificação da espécie em ambiente natural. O fruto é esquizocárpico,seco, de coloração amarelada, tricoco, mede em média 6,71 mm (± 0,51 de comprimento, 10,11 mm (±0,78 de largura e pesa 0,42 g (± 0,12. A dispersão primária é autocórica e as sementes possuem formaglobosa, coloração acinzentada, carúncula rudimentar, medem em média 3,90 mm (± 0,20 de comprimentoe 3,76 mm (± 0,23 de largura. A taxa de germinação é de aproximadamente 90 % em câmara de germinaçãoe 80 % em viveiro de mudas. A germinação é do tipo fanerocotiledonar epígea e o desenvolvimento dasplântulas ocorre entre 5 a 15 dias. Os cotilédones e eofilos apresentam nervação do tipo pinada com padrãocamptódromo broquidódromo.

  13. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Análisis del papel de los caracteres foliares de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae en la defensa contra herbívoros y patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torres-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el papel de algunos caracteres foliares (área específica, grosor, densidad de tricomas, contenido hídrico y producción de látex de tres especies de Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae en la defensa contra insectos herbívoros y hongos patógenos. Se examinó el daño foliar en adultos de las especies arbóreas C. spinosus y C. megacanthus y de la especie herbácea C. urens, en poblaciones localizadas en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Chamela-Cuixmala (Jal. y en la región de Huatulco-Zimatán (Oax.. También se analizó el daño en las plántulas de C. spinosus. Además se evaluaron los siguientes caracteres foliares: área específica, grosor, densidad de tricomas en el haz y en el envés, contenidos hídrico y de látex. En las tres especies el daño foliar causado por herbívoros forrajeros fue mayor que el causado por patógenos. La especie en la que se registró menor daño foliar fue C. spinosus, aunque el nivel de daño en plántulas fue mayor que en los adultos. Las especies arbóreas presentaron mayores niveles de daño por forrajeros que la herbácea. Sólo en las plántulas de C. spinosus se encontró que a mayor grosor foliar hubo más daño por herbívoros. Los resultados sugieren que los caracteres foliares evaluados son poco importantes en la defensa de las especies estudiadas.

  15. Efeito do solo contaminado com óleo diesel na estrutura da raiz e da folha de plântulas de Sebastiania commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae e Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae Effect of diesel contaminated soil on root and leaf of Sebastiania commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae and Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae

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    Cleusa Bona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se o solo com óleo diesel altera a estrutura da raiz e do eofilo de plântulas de S. commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae e S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae. Para cada espécie foram testados três tratamentos com solo contaminado e um solo controle, não contaminado. Os tratamentos diferiram pelo tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura. S. commersoniana foi semeada 60, 120 e 210 dias e S. terebinthifolius 30, 90 e 180 dias após a contaminação. As amostras de raiz e eofi lo foram coletadas 30 dias após a semeadura, fixadas e processadas segundo técnicas convencionais para anatomia vegetal e analisadas de forma qualitativa e quantitativa. Plântulas de S. commersoniana e S. terebinthifolius, em solo com óleo diesel, apresentaram alterações anatômicas na raiz e eofilo. O intervalo de tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura interferiu na fitotoxicidade do solo. Isto é, quanto maior o intervalo de tempo entre a contaminação e a semeadura, menores foram as alterações anatômicas. As plântulas de S. terebinthifolius pareceram mais resistentes à contaminação por óleo diesel do que as de S. commersoniana.The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the diesel contaminated soil alters the structure of the root and eophyll of S. commersoniana (Euphorbiaceae and S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae seedlings. For each species three treatments with contaminated soil were tested, and compared to a control of uncontaminated soil. The treatments differed by the time between contaminations and sowing. S. commersoniana was sown 60, 120 and 210 days and S. terebinthifolius 30, 90 and 180 days after contamination. Samples of root and eophyll were collected 30 days after sowing and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Seedlings of S. commersoniana and S. terebinthifolius, grown in diesel contaminated soil, had their root and eophyll anatomy modifi ed. The time interval between contamination and

  16. Effects of Flooding on the Growth and Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Taxodium ascendens Brongn and Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb Seedlings in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%模拟三峡库区淹水对植物生长及生理生化方面的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 周倩; 王大铭; 辜夕容

    2011-01-01

    以池杉Taxodium ascendens Brongn.和乌桕Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)Roxb.当年实生幼苗为材料,通过人为控水进行淹水胁迫,设置了对照组CK和水淹组,测定了两树种生长及生理生化等方面的指标.结果表明:淹水胁迫结束后,两树种水淹组幼苗主根长、主(粗)根数、地径、株高和株质量都显著(p〈0.05)低于对照组,而乌桕在长期淹水胁迫后各生长指标(株质量除外)比池杉降低的程度更大.两树种叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的质量分数也发生了显著变化,到试验结束时,池杉幼苗叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的质量分数分别比对照组降低41.28%和35.38%;而乌桕幼苗比对照组降低68.10%和59.19%.随着淹水胁迫时间的延长,叶片丙二醛(MDA)质量分数呈上升趋势,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性呈先降后升趋势,而过氧化物酶(POD)活性则一直低于对照水平.%Under the condition of water controlling and submergence stress,two different kinds of water treatments(control group and submergence group) were applied to examine the growth,physiological and biochemical characteristics of Taxodium ascendens Brongn and Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings.The result indicated that growth indices in submergence group were significantly lower than those in control group,while the growth indices(except the plant fresh weight) of S.sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings were lower than those of T.ascendens Brongn seedlings.And the chlorophyll and carotenoid had changed greatly.The chlorophyll and carotenoid of T.ascendens Brongn seedlings in submergence group respectively lowered 41.28%,35.38% than control group,and S.sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings 68.10%,59.19%.With submergence stress treatment prolonged,the content of MDA increased,the SOD activity had a change of descend firstly then ascend,but the POD activity was always lower than the controlled level.

  17. Morphology and anatomy of the developing fruit and seed of Dalechampia stipulacea Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4834

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    Luiz Antonio de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In forest remnants of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, there is abundance of the liana species, with little studied reproductive structures, morphologically and anatomically. Among these species occurs Dalechampia stipulacea Müll. Arg., which is the object of the present study. It is a Euphorbiaceae with pseudanthium and trichomes that cause irritation of the skin. The fruits and seeds were fixed and cut freehand and in a rotation microtome, according to the usual techniques. The fruit is a schizocarp tricocca with loculicidal and septicidal dehiscence. The mature pericarp presents sclerenchymatous middle mesocarp and endocarp that originate from meristems installed in the ovary mesophyll and epidermis. The inner mesocarp is constituted by a layer of macrosclereids of subepidermic origin. The seed originates from anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucelate ovule; it is exotegmic and albuminous. The seed presents structural characteristics verified in Acalyphoideae, except for the mesotegmen vascularization

  18. Design of Degenerate Drimers and Cloning Analysis of Three Novel DNA Fragments of WAX from Euphorbiaceae%简并引物设计与大戟科3种植物WAX基因片段的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏志强; 陈新; 王海燕; 周新成; 王文泉

    2012-01-01

    在大戟科3种重要经济植物木薯、蓖麻、小桐子中,扩增WAX基因片段。利用CODEHOP方法设计简并引物,同时在3种植物中提取高质量的总RNA并反转录为eDNA,结果扩增在3种植物中得到特异性片段,克隆测序,并采用生物信息学技术进行序列分析。结果证明CODEHOP简并引物设计科学。同时证明WAX基因的保守性较高,在大戟科3个物种中同时得到了WAX基因片段序列信息,具有较高同源性。为以后WAX基因研究奠定重要基础。%Using degenerate primers which are designed according to known sequences to amplify new members in a gene family is a good way to find WAX gene Fragments from three important economic plant Cassava, Castor bean, Jatropha in Euphorbiaceae. The fragment was compared in the Genbank by blastx, and the results prove CODEHOP degenerate primer design science. Prove conservative WAX gene is higher, at the same time to get the in Euphorbiaceae three species WAX gene fragment sequences with high homology. WAX gene research has important foundation in future.

  19. The potential of the extracts of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalypha fruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae, the vector for Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor

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    Laban N. Ireri, Jedida Kongoro, Peter Ngure, Charles Mutai, Bernard Langat, Willy Tonui, Albert Kimutai, Obadiah Mucheru

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Harmful effects of synthetic chemical insecticides including vectorresistance, environmental pollution and health hazards have necessitated the current significancein the search for plant-based insecticide products that are environmentally safe and effective toleishmaniases control. The insecticidal activity of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalyphafruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae extracts wereinvestigated against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae.Methods: The extracts were prepared from dried aerial parts soaked in methanol and ethyl acetatetwice until the filtrates became clear, filtered and dried out by rotary evaporation at 30–35oC. Thesolid extracts obtained were later prepared into 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml. Two millilitres of the solutionswere blotted on filter papers, which were dried overnight and placed into jars where adult sandflieswere aspirated. Males and females were assayed separately.Results & conclusion: The extracts had significant mortality (p<0.05 in both males and femalesbioassays but were not significantly different between sexes. The extracts of Acalypha fruticosaand Tagetes minuta had significantly higher mortality rates than those of Tarchonanthuscamphoratus and the different concentrations used showed significantly different mortality ratesand 10 mg/ml was the most effective concentration. Cent percent mortality was obtained at 96 hof exposure to 5 and 10 mg/ml concentrations except for Tarchonanthus camphoratus which had amortality of only 46.7% in 10 mg/ml bioassay. These extracts were found to be insecticidal to adultsandflies.

  20. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  1. Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E L; Viana, B F

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions.

  2. Aumento da Sobrevivência de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, em Condições de Laboratório, pela Ingestão de Néctar Extrafloral de Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The objective this study was to determine if in laboratory, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L., an important vector of dengue and yellow fever, feeds on the nectar of Euphorbia milii Des Moul (Euphorbiaceae , plant commonly used in homes as a hedge, and evaluate the effect of feeding on survival. The lifetime of both sexes was checked daily and a test for fructose was used for verification of sugar intake by mosquitoes. The daily access to the nectar gave a significant increase in the lifetime of males and females (12.8 and 18.4 days, respectively in relation to mosquitoes maintained only with water (6.4 and 7.4 days, respectively. Plants in domestic environments, producing nectar and suitable for feeding by mosquitoes of the same, as well as E. milii, have the potential to play a significant role in the energy budget of mosquitoes. An increase in the survival of females can mean an increased likelihood of infection and disease transmission in males and an increased likelihood of insemination of females. Although often overlooked in research and control tactics, the propensity of the mosquito Ae. aegypti ingesting sugars can be a variable that confers advantages to this vector.

  3. 水盐胁迫对上海常见4种绿化树种根系生长的影响%The impact of simulated fresh water and seawater stress on root growth of 4 common tree species in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盟; 万福绪

    2011-01-01

    试验选取了上海较为常见的4种绿化树种,落羽杉、鸟桕、栾树、喜树,针对上海泥质海岸沿海防护林的建设需要,对其进行了模拟海水的耐盐、耐水淹交叉胁迫处理.结果表明,栾树和喜树的根系在水盐胁迫环境中受到的影响比鸟桕和落羽杉大,从根系表面积、长度、体积、平均直径来看,栾树和喜树的敏感程度比较大,均出现早期上升,中后期下降的情况.落羽杉和鸟桕根系对环境的表现则不是那么明显.%Four common greening tree species in Shanghai, which are Taxodium distichum, Sapium sebifenan , Koelreuteria paniculate, and Camptotheca acuminate were chosen to conduct an experiment on the seawater stress according to the requirement of the construction of coastal protection forests for muddy coast. The effects of seawater stress on root growth of Koelreuteria paniculata and Camptotheca acuminate were higher than Taxodium distichum and Sapium sebiferum . The sensitive degree of Koelreuteria paniculata and Camptotheca acuminate to seawater stress was higher than other two species according to data of the root surface area, length, volume, average diameter, all of which increased at the beginning and declined in the middle period. Root growth of both Taxodium distichu and Sapium sebiferum was not so sensitive to stress environment.

  4. 大戟科植物MVK基因家族的全基因组鉴定与分析%Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MVK Gene Family in Euphorbiaceae Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 杨礼富; 安锋; 王真辉; 袁坤

    2013-01-01

    基于已公布的基因组和EST数据,对蓖麻、麻疯树、木薯和橡胶树4种大戟科植物的MVK基因家族进行系统鉴定,并在此基础上分析其基因结构与进化关系.结果表明,这4种植物均含有2个MVK基因,所有基因均含有4个内含子.同源分析表明,MVK广泛存在于各种古细菌、真细菌和真核生物中,显示出较早的起源;虽然MVK在大多数基因组已测序的物种中主要以单拷贝的形式存在,但在所研究的4种大戟科植物中均出现了基因加倍现象,这与玉米和杨树类似.基因表达谱分析显示,在蓖麻的叶片、花、Ⅱ/Ⅲ期胚乳、Ⅴ/Ⅵ期胚乳和种子等组织中,RcMVK1的表达丰度总体高于RcMVK2;虽然2个基因表达丰度最高的组织均为Ⅱ/Ⅲ期胚乳,但丰度最低的组织却分别为种子和叶片.%The mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene family of four plant species from Euphorbiaceae family i.e.,castor bean (Ricinus communis),physic nut (Jatropha curcas),cassava (Manihot esculenta) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) was identified systematically based on the published genome-wide and EST data,and the gene structure and the revolutionary relations of these species were analyzed consequently.The results showed that there were 2 MVK genes in all of the four plant species respectively,and all of the genes contained 4 introns.Homologous analyses revealed that MVK genes were widely distributed in different organisms including archaea,eubacteria and eukaryotes,suggesting an early origin of this gene family.Although a single copy of MVK gene was identified in most genome released species,gene amplification was found in these four Euphorbiaceae plant species similarly as in maize and poplar.The analyses on digital expression profiling suggested that in the leaf,flower,Ⅱ/Ⅲ stage endosperm,Ⅴ/Ⅵ stage endosperm and seed organ tissues,the expression level of RcMVK1 was generally higher than that of RcMVK2.The highest expression of both the

  5. Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the Euphorbiacea Aleurites montana as consequence of growth under 700 ppm CO{sub 2} in air. A study on photosynthesis and photorespiration in the Chinese tung-oil tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P. [Central South Forestry Univ., Zhuzhou/Hunan (China); Bader, K.P.; Radunz, A.; Schmid, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Zellphysiologie; Kahmann, U.; Ruppel, G.H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Morphologie der Pflanzen und Feinbau der Zelle

    1998-03-01

    Three months old plants of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana (Euphorbiaceae) were cultivated for 4 months in air containing 700 ppm CO{sub 2}. These plants, which grow substantially better in the CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere, were analyzed by mass spectrometry for photosynthesis and photorespiration together with control plants grown all the time in normal (350 ppm CO{sub 2}) air. Thereafter part of the plants was subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and again analyzed for photosynthesis and photorespiration. Gas exchange measurements carried out by mass spectrometry show that the ratio of O{sub 2} evolved to CO{sub 2} fixed is about 0.5. Apparently, part of the CO{sub 2} fixed is channelled into a metabolic path without concomitant O{sub 2}-evolution. Although the plant has no succulent appearance, apparently a Crassulacean type metabolism is performed. When Aleurites plants grown all the time in normal air with 350 ppm, are exposed for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2} the treatment completely inhibits this CO{sub 2}-fixing portion. When Aleurites plants, grown for 4 months in a CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere of 700 ppm CO{sub 2}, are subjected for two weeks to 0.3 ppm SO{sub 2}, the features of control plants show up again. When these plants are tested under 350 ppm CO{sub 2} the Crassulacean type CO{sub 2}-fixation apparently is not inhibited by SO{sub 2}. Photorespiration, although low, is present in the same activity as in the controls. Seemingly, an increased level of CO{sub 2} in air trends to alleviate the impact of the SO{sub 2} at least in the Chinese tung-oil tree. (orig./MG)

  6. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level.

  7. Leaf structure, microanalysis and characterization of the latex protein profile of Pachystroma longifolium (Nees I.M. Jonhst. (Euphorbiaceae in a seasonally dry Atlantic Forest Estrutura foliar, microanálise e caracterização do perfil protéico do látex de Pachystroma longifolium (Nees I.M. Jonhst. (Euphorbiaceae em uma Floresta Atlântica semidecidual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rodrigues Rabelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pachystroma longifolium is an evergreen species of Euphorbiaceae that occurs in tabuleiro forest, a type of lowland Atlantic Forest. The site chosen for this study was a fragment of tabuleiro forest that has a history of being selectively logged for timber. P. longifolium is very successful at colonizing disturbed areas in this forest fragment in comparison with preserved fragments. In the present work, which was based on using different microscopy (electron and light microscopy, X-ray analysis and biochemistry techniques, we describe the leaf and latex traits of P. longifolium and their role as defense mechanisms against desiccation and herbivory. Our results suggest the richness of P. longifolium populations, in the disturbed forest area studied, is primarily a consequence of unpalatable leaves because of an abundance of calcium oxalate crystals in the subjacent epidermis; the presence of phenolic compounds in the adaxial surface; and a laticifer system that contains a complex mixture of proteins, which provides resistance to herbivores. In addition, this species is resistant to desiccation during dry periods because of an extensive amount of wax that occurs on the outer cell walls of the epidermis, and its ability to retain water because of a biseriate epidermis.Pachystroma longifolium é uma espécie perenifólia de Euphorbiaceae presente na floresta de tabuleiros, uma formação de floresta estacional semidecidual de terras baixas da Mata Atlântica. A área de estudo é um fragmento de floresta de tabuleiros com histórico de corte seletivo de madeira, na qual P. longifolium apresenta grande sucesso na colonização de áreas perturbadas em comparação com outras áreas mais preservadas dentro deste fragmento. No presente trabalho nós caracterizamos a estrutura foliar e látex de P. longifolium e sua importância como mecanismos de defesa contra dessecação e herbivoria a partir de diferentes técnicas de microscopia (microscopia eletr

  8. Study on the Dust Retention Capacity of the Street Trees in Hangzhou District%杭州地区常见行道树滞尘效益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江胜利; 金荷仙; 周金富; 许小连

    2012-01-01

    Street trees have a important role in city, in order to select street trees which have the strongest dust retention capacity, by surveying and experiment in the selected street trees in Hangzhou, the results showed that: the order of the dust retention capacity of selected plants in the winner was: Liquidambar formosana> Koelreuteria integrtfoliola> Liriodendron chinense> Cinnamomum camphora> Sapindus mulorossf>Platanus. Acerifolia>Elaeocarpus sylvestris> Ginkgo biloba>Sapium aebiferunr, In the spring, that was Elaeocaipus sylvestris> Cinnamomum camphors; In summer, that was: Cinnamomum camphora>Elaeocarpus sylveatris> Liquidambar formosana> Sapindus mulorossi> Koelreuteria integrifoliola>Liriodendron chinense>P. Acerifolia> Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum, In autumn, that was: Koelreuteria integrifoliola> Sapindus mulorossi> Cinnamomum camphora>Elaeocarpus sylvestris>Liquidambar formosana> Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum> Liriodendron chinense>P. Acerifolia. The order of the average dust retention capacity in the seasons was: Elaeocarpus sylvestris> Koebeuteria integrifoliola>Liquidambar formosana>Sapindus mulorossi> Cinnamomum camphora> Liriodendron chinense>P.acerifolia>Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum; The order dust retention capacity in the four seasons of Liquidambar formosana, Koelreuteria integrifoliola, Liriodendron chinense, Sapindus mulorossi, Platanus.acerifolia, and Ginkgo biloba was: spring> autumn>summer>winner; that of Elaeocarpus sylvestris was: spring>autumn>winner>summer; that of Cinnamomum camphora was: winner>autumn>summer>spring; that of Sapium sebiferum was: autumn> winner> summer.%行道树的滞尘效益在城市绿化中有着重要的作用,为了筛选出滞尘能力强的行道树,对杭州地区实地调查及试验测定,结果表明:所选9种行道树中,冬季滞尘能力的顺序为:枫香>黄山栾树>鹅掌楸>香樟>无惠子>悬铃木>杜英>银杏>乌桕;春季滞尘能力的顺序为:杜英>香樟;夏

  9. El complex Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae al nord-est de la península Ibèrica: precisions corològiques, ecològiques i taxonòmiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula (southern and central Catalonia of three populations belonging to the Euphorbia esula–E. virgata complex (Euphorbiaceae prompted us to conduct a macro- and micromorphological study to ascertain their taxonomic identity. Only two previous records of plants from this complex existed in the area and these were gathered in 1908/1909 (previously identified as E. esula subsp. saratoi and in 1930 (E. esula s. l.. Our results indicate that all the material examined (both recent and old samples can be attributed to E. virgata, a taxon whose main distribution area lies in eastern Europe, and whose southwestern distribution limit lies in northeastern Iberian Peninsula. The macromorphological characteristics vary somewhat between populations and some individual plants bear a strong resemblance to forms that are usually referred to E. ×pseudovirgata, a supposed hybrid of E. virgata and E. esula. It is not possible, however, to confirm the presence of this hybrid in the region without further studies. After this study, E. esula subsp. esula should be excluded from Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon. The present-day populations we attribute to E. virgata are highly localized but dense. They are found in herbaceous habitats with clear anthropic influence (abandoned fields and the edges of roads and tracks, on deep, fairly dry soils. These habitats are similar to those typical of E. virgata in eastern and central Europe. It is likely that the populations are temporal and indeed in two of the three recent localities it has been confirmed that they date from after 2005. Current data suggest that this is a non-indigenous species, but in view of the fact that it was detected a century ago, the possibility that it is a rare indigenous species with itinerant populations cannot be ruled out.El hallazgo reciente de tres poblaciones del complejo Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae en el nordeste de la

  10. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  11. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  12. 乌桕的经济价值与壮苗培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 薛大阵; 李冬林

    2010-01-01

    @@ 乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.]是我国南方重要的木本油料树种,其分布范围广,经济价值大.大力发展以乌桕为代表的木本油料植物,对于推动我国工业能源林建设,促进我国边际土地资源利用具有重要意义.作者通过近2年的育苗实践,基本掌握其壮苗培育技术,现总结如下,以期为基层林业工作者参考.

  13. Woody biomass production systems for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pathak, N.N.; Satapathy, P.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Woody biomass production research in Florida has addressed genetic improvement, coppice productivity, clonal propagation, biomass properties, and economics of Eucalyptus and other species in short rotation, intensive culture systems. Improved E. grandis seedlings could more than double productivity, but exceptional clones offer more immediate potential in southern Florida. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis appear to have frost-resistance and good growth in central and southern Florida. For northern Florida, E. amplifolia has good frost-resilience and coppicing ability. Eucalytpus species are suitable for fermentation processes. Other promising species include Casuarina glauca and Taxodium distichum in southern Florida, and Sapium sebiferum state-wide. Break-even costs for biomass production systems with Eucalyptus range from approximately $2.00 to $4.00 GJ[sup -1]; short rotation culture appears feasible for slash pine in northern and central Florida but cannot yet be advised for sand pine. (author)

  14. 乌桕主要害虫及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪承昊; 陈京元; 查玉平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 乌桕Sapium sebiferum Roxb 属大戟科乌桕属,别名木蜡树、乌桕籽、木梓、桕子柴等,为落叶乔木.乌桕是我国的原生树种,据记载,在我国已有1 000年以上的栽培和利用历史.乌桕的栽培十分广泛,是山区、丘陵、平原及城市园林中常见的树种.乌桕分布范围遍及全国19个省、市、区,华中地区是乌桕自然分布的中心地带.

  15. 《本草纲目》中有关植物果实与鸟类之间的生态关系%A preliminary study on ecological relationship between fruits and birds found in Compendium of Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2004-01-01

    李时珍的是我国古代伟大的本草学巨著,该书除了在中医药学、药用植物学、本草考证等方面的杰出成就外,在生态学方面也提供了许多有价值的科学资料.考察了中有关鸟类对梧桐(Firmiana simplex)、楝(Melia azedarach)和乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)等9种植物果实的取食作用,以及鸟类取食果实对植物的影响等内容记载,并结合现代研究资料,分析了有关植物果实与鸟类之间的生态关系.

  16. Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheld, H.W.; Cowles, J.R.

    1981-10-01

    The Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.) ia a rapid-growing species that has become naturalized along the Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts. The tree is particularly well adapted to poorly-drained and saline soils. Chinese tallow seedlings planted at 2' x 2' spacing produced over 5 dry tons of biomass/acre at the end of the second growing season, while the biomass accumulation on coppiced plots was more than 7 dry tons/acre at the end of the second year. The Chinese tallow tree has considerable promise as a woody biomass species in the southern coastal regions of the United States. 4 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Food and petroleum resources from the Chinese tallow tree. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheld, H.W.; Cameron, G.N.; Lester, L.J.; Mason, S.I.

    1983-12-15

    The general data base on the biology of the Chinese tallow tree (sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was expanded and specific data regarding its genetics and ecology were developed. A morphmetric study and a genetic characterization of the tree was made via isozyme electrophoresis as a basis for a crop-improvement program. Both flowers and seeds were analyzed electrophoretically. Observations were begun of the environmental effects of tallow forest and assessment of possible monoculture effects aimed at predicting impact upon the human environment and predicting potential pest and disease problems associated with large-scale cultivation of the tree. Average temperature was slightly higher in a prairie near the tallow forest, but probably was not different enough to adversely effect prairie organisms.

  18. Revision of the genus Endospermum Bth. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The revision was undertaken because the latest monograph by Pax & Hoffmann, dating from 1912, did not provide a satisfactory key, and because since that time a very large amount of new material has been collected and several new species were described. In the present revision 12 species have been re

  19. Flavonoides e terpenoides de Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Müll. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6α-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and comparison with data from the literature.

  20. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Freitas, Joao Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V., E-mail: nilce@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Muell.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6{alpha}-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  1. A revision of Ostodes (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Winkel, E.

    2015-01-01

    The variability of Ostodes paniculata var. paniculata, the only representative of the genus in Malesia, is described. The variety and the species have a disjunct distribution as they are found in India to Southern China and the Southeast Asian mainland, Sumatra and Java. The variability in leaf glan

  2. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  3. Euphorbiaceae novae vel criticae colombianae, iv

    OpenAIRE

    Croizat, León

    2012-01-01

    Croton Linnaeus / Croton palanostigma / Croton cearensis / Croton huitotorum / Croton Killipianus / Croton Smithianus / Croton chocoanus / Croton sibundoyensis / Croton boavitanus / Croton Purdiei / Croton polycarpus / Croton magdalenensis / Croton Mutisianus / Croton ater / Croton Lechleri / Croton gossypiifolius / Croton hibiscifolius.

  4. 夹竹桃等七种植物野外栽培灭螺效果的试验研究%Study on Molluscicidal Effect of Nerium indicum and other 7 kinds of plants in Field Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴宜; 唐万鹏; 张玲; 荣新军

    2012-01-01

    The tests of killing snails with 7 molluscicidal plants in field cultivation were carried out,including Nerium indicum,Pterocarya stenoptera,Sapium sebiferum,Leonurus heterophyllus,with Populus cathayanna,Phragmites australis and weed as control plants.The results showed that the snail mortality of molluscicide plants was higher than that of control plants and reached significant difference.At the same time,it was found that the molluscicidal effect of Nerium indicum was the best,and that of Pterocarya stenoptera,Sapium sebiferum,Leonurus heterophyllus differed little,but better than that of Populus cathayanna and wors than that of Nerium indicum.Furthermore,the molluscicidal effect of Populus cathayanna was better than that of Phragmites australis and weed.%对灭螺植物材料夹竹桃、枫杨、乌桕、益母草和对照植物材料杨树、芦苇、杂草开展野外栽培灭螺试验。结果表明:灭螺植物材料的钉螺死亡率高于对照植物材料,并达到显著差异水平,其中夹竹桃灭螺效果最好,乌桕、益母草、枫杨相差不大且均大于杨树小于夹竹桃,对照植物杨树的灭螺效果好于芦苇和杂草。

  5. 10种亚热带绿化树种净化大气能力初步研究%Preliminary Study on Air Purification of 10 Greening Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋绪忠; 杨华; 邹景泉; 余家中; 潘忠民; 叶华琳; 姚刚

    2012-01-01

    通过对香樟(Cinnamonum campora)、广玉兰(Magnolia grandiflora)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、朴树(Celtis sinensis)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、桂花(Osmanthus fragrans)、马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)、含笑(Michelia figo)、杜鹃(Rhododendron spp.)、三角枫(Acer buergerianum)10种亚热带绿化树种对大气中的粉尘、N、S、Cl 4种有害物质的吸收净化能力的初步测定,结果表明:单位面积滞尘量最高的树种是朴树,氮吸收最高的树种是乌桕,硫吸收最高的树种是银杏,氯吸收最高的树种是杜鹃;乔木树种的全氮含量、全硫含量、单位面积滞尘量都比灌木树种的含量高,但是全氯含量比灌木树种的含量低;落叶树种的各净化指标平均值都比常绿树种的高.%Determinations were conducted on air purification capability of ten greening tree species in Hangzhou. The result demonstrated that Celtis sinensis had the strongest capacity of dust retention, Sapium sebiferum had the best effect of absorption of N, and Ginkgo biloba of S, Rhododendron ssp of Cl. TN, TS, unit area dust retention of arbor species was larger than that of shrub species, except TCL. The air purification cabilities of deciduous trees were higher than that of evergreen trees.

  6. New oilseed crops on the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Princen, L.H.

    Fats and oils for food uses are now plentiful on a worldwide basis. Tallow, lard and fish oils, as well as vegetable oils, such as those derived from soybean, sunflower, palm, rapeseed, peanut and cottonseed, are often overproduced. Although many of these products are also used for industrial chemicals, they often are not of the most favorable composition for nonfood applications. A search for new oilseed crops with more advantageous oil composition has led to the development of excellent candidates that are now close to commercial acceptance. Among them are Crambe, Limnanthes, Vernonia, Sapium and Simmondsia. Other crops are at a much lower stage of development but also have excellent potential. They include Cuphea, Foeniculum, Stokesia, Lesquerella and Lunaria. One new oilseed crop which is being considered for hydrocarbon-like fuel is the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium Sebiferum). Recent research estimates predict that seed yield could amount to 10,000 lbs. per acre. At 40% seed lipid levels, this can translate to 4000 lbs. per acre of fuel, more than any other plant species now growing in the US. 24 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Diterpenos casbanos e acetofenonas de Croton nepetaefolius (Euphorbiaceae Casbane diterpenes and acetophenones of Croton nepetaefolius (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Silva Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton nepetaefolius is an aromatic plant native to the northeast of Brazil where it is extensively used in folk medicine as a sedative, orexigen and antispasmodic agent. The present work deals with the chromatographic analysis of the ethanolic extract of Croton nepetaefolius stalk. It allowed the isolation and characterization of two diterpenoids named 1,4-dihydroxy-2E,6E,12E-trien-5-one-casbane and 4-hydroxy-2E,6E,12E-5-one-casbane, two acetophenones named 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone and 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone and the steroids 3-O-b-D-glucopiranosylsitosterol and a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Structural elucidation was done on the basis of spectral data, mainly high field NMR and EIMS.

  8. Chemical constituents of Sebastiania macrocarpa Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Sebastiania macrocarpa Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Michele A.A.; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P.; Bezerra, Beatriz P.; Fereira, Yana S.; Veras, Helenicy N.H. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia, Odontologia e Enfermagem. Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: gil@ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the aerial part of Sebastiania macrocarpa allowed the isolation of the mixture of steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, gallic acid, and scopoletin. The hexane extract of the roots allowed the isolation of the triterpene lupeol and of the macrocyclic diterpene (+)-tonantzitlolone. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species (author)

  9. Casbane diterpenes and acetophenones of Croton nepetaefolius (Euphorbiaceae); Diterpenos casbanos e acetofenonas de Croton nepetaefolius (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helcio Silva; Mesquita, Francisca Maria Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Lemos, Telma Leda G.; Monte, Francisco Jose Queiroz [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2008-07-01

    Croton nepetaefolius is an aromatic plant native to the northeast of Brazil where it is extensively used in folk medicine as a sedative, orexigen and antispasmodic agent. The present work deals with the chromatographic analysis of the ethanolic extract of Croton nepetaefolius stalk. It allowed the isolation and characterization of two diterpenoids named 1,4-dihydroxy-2E,6E,12E-trien-5-one-casbane and 4-hydroxy- 2E,6E,12E-5-one-casbane, two acetophenones named 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone and 2-hydroxy-3,4,6- trimethoxyacetophenone and the steroids 3-O-beta-D-glucopiranosylsitosterol and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Structural elucidation was done on the basis of spectral data, mainly high field NMR and EIMS. (author)

  10. MORPHOLOGY OF EMBRYOS AND SEEDLINGS OF WOODY SPECIES NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA MORFOLOGÍA DE EMBRIONES Y PLÁNTULAS DE ESPECIES LEÑOSAS DEL NORDESTE ARGENTINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Franceschini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper embryos and seedlings of six native woody species of Northeast of Argentina are studied: Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. et Arn. Radlk. subsp. marginatum (Sapotaceae,
    Eugenia uniflora L., Hexachlamys edulis (O. Berg Kausel et D. Legrand (Myrtaceae, Polygala albicans (A.W. Benn. Grondona (Polygalaceae, Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. and Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae. Descriptions and illustrations of seeds, embryos, germination and seedlings are given
    En este documento se estudian embriones y plántulas de seis especies leñosas nativas del nordeste de Argentina: Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. et Arn. Radlk. subsp. marginatum (Sapotaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., edulis Hexachlamys (O. Berg Kausel et D. Legrand (Myrtaceae, Polygala albicans (AW Benn. Grondona (Polygalaceae, Sapium haematospermun Müll. Arg. y Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae. Comprende las descripciones e ilustraciones de las semillas, embriones, germinación y plántulas

  11. 4种大戟科植物Lhca基因家族的全基因组鉴定、分类与进化分析%Genome-wide identiifcation, classiifcation and phylogenetic analysis of Lhca gene family in four Euphorbiaceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 杨礼富; 安锋; 林位夫

    2014-01-01

    LHCI是植物光系统I(PSI)中与色素分子结合的一系列膜蛋白,由Lhca基因家族编码,主要参与光能的捕获与传递。虽然Lhca基因家族已在拟南芥、水稻、杨树等模式植物中得到了系统鉴定,但在以高光效和高生物量著称的大戟科植物中,至今还未见Lhca类基因的报道。研究基于蓖麻、麻风树、木薯和橡胶树等4种大戟科植物已公布的基因组和EST数据对Lhca基因家族进行全面鉴定,并分析了其基因结构、生化特性及进化关系。结果表明,蓖麻、麻风树、木薯和橡胶树分别含有6、6、9和9个Lhca基因,分属于Lhca1、Lhca2、Lhca3、Lhca4、Lhca5和Lhca6等6个亚家族,每个亚家族含有1~2个成员不等,基因的内含子数目在2~5个之间,部分基因还存在可变剪接形式。进化分析显示,Lhca1和Lhca3亚族具有较早的起源,Lhca2和Lhca6存在于陆生生物中,Lhca4和Lhca5则只存在于高等植物中;在木薯和橡胶树中,Lhca1、Lhca2和Lhca4亚族都出现了基因的扩增。%The Lhca gene family in green plants encodes several light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins that collect and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of photosystem I (PSI). Although this gene family is well documented in model plants such arabidopsis, rice and poplar, little information is available in Euphorbiaceae plants which are characterized with high photosynthesis and high biomass. In this study, a genome-wide search was carried out to identify Lhca genes in four genome sequenced Euphorbiaceae plants. As a result, a number of 6, 6, 9 and 9 Lhca genes representing 6 subgene families denoted Lhca1, Lhca2, Lhca3, Lhca4, Lhca5 and Lhca6 were identified from castor bean, physic nut, cassava and rubber tree, respectively. These genes contain 2~5 introns, and some of them were found to have alternative splicing isoforms. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an early origin of sub

  12. 施用保水剂对4种绿化植物叶片结构和功能性状的影响%Effects of Different Rate of Super Absorbent Polymer on Leaf Structural and Functional Traits of 4 Greening Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    有祥亮; 沈烈英; 曹海东; 秦勇惠; 郗金标

    2014-01-01

    与CK相比,施用保水剂对‘紫花’海棠、乌桕、红叶石楠、梓树叶片的结构性状(叶面积、叶绿素含量、比叶面积、气孔导度)和功能性状(光合速率、蒸腾速率、水分利用效率)均有显著影响。4种供试植物在高温干旱环境下,0.1%用量保水剂能显著改善叶片结构和功能性状。而随保水剂用量的继续增加,4种植物的叶性状变化趋势并不一致,其中在0.2%保水剂用量下,红叶石楠和梓树叶面积、叶绿素含量、比叶面积、气孔导度、光合速率、蒸腾速率继续显著高于CK或0.1%用量,在0.3%用量下,2种植物上述指标大多接近于0.2%用量,而‘紫花’海棠和乌桕在0.2%~0.3%用量下已显著下降到接近CK水平。这表明,红叶石楠和梓树比‘紫花’海棠和乌桕较能适应水分较多的环境。而‘紫花’海棠和乌桕水分利用效率在CK条件下显著增大,则表明两者较能适应干旱环境。4种植物比叶面积在CK和不同保水剂用量下的显著变化表现出适宜水分条件下植物获取资源促进生长的能力和水分胁迫下的适应性。%This study was conducted to investigate effects of different rate of super absorbent polymer (SAP) on leaf structural and functional traits of 4 greening plants (i.e. Malus‘Purple’, Sapium sebiferum, Photinia × fraseri, Catalpa bignonioides). The results showed that the SAP had significant effect on the leaf structural traits (such as leaf area, chlorophyll content, specific leaf area and Gs) and functional traits (such as Pn, Tr and WUE) of Malus‘Purple’, Sapium sebiferum, Photinia × fraser and Catalpa bignonioides. 0.1% SAP content added to the soil could remarkably improve leaf structural and functional traits of the 4 greening plants. Applied with 0.2% SAP content, Photinia × fraser and Catalpa bignonioides had higher leaf area, chlorophyll content, specific leaf area, Gs, Pn and Tr than that of

  13. Estudo preliminar toxicológico, antibacteriano e fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill. (pinhão-bravo, Euphorbiaceae, coletada no Município de Tauá, Ceará, Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.D. BRAQUEHAIS

    Full Text Available RESUMO A cada dia, cepas bacterianas estão tornando-se resistentes a diversos antibióticos, o que faz necessária a busca de novas substâncias eficazes para o tratamento de doenças. Desta forma, este trabalho reporta o estudo preliminar toxicológico, antibacteriano e fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Jatropha mollissima (pinhão-bravo, Euphorbiaceae, coletada no Município de Tauá, Ceará, Nordeste Brasileiro. Inicialmente, realizou-se o teste de toxicidade do extrato contra Artemia salina. Na sequencia, foi realizado o ensaio antibacteriano contra quatro cepas bacterianas Gram-negativas (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Hafnia alvei ATCC 51873, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 e uma cepa Gram-positiva (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Finalmente, fez-se a análise fitoquímica preliminar do extrato ativo para detecção das principais classes de metabólitos especiais. Como resultado, o extrato etanólico das folhas de J. mollissima se mostrou tóxico para Artemia salina, pois apresentou CL50 igual a 406,02 μg/mL. Quanto à ação antibacteriana, o extrato se mostrou ativo contra a bactéria Gram-positiva Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, apresentando moderada atividade antibacteriana (halo de inibição igual a 7,03 mm. Evidenciou-se no extrato bioativo a presença de cumarinas, fenóis, taninos, flavonoides (flavonóis e flavanonas, alcaloides e esteroides, ambas as classes reportadas como antimicrobianos. Portanto, esse extrato tem potencial para ser usado na produção de fármacos contra infecções causadas por bactérias Gram-positivas. No entanto, as informações direcionam estudos futuros para o isolamento e identificação dos compostos bioativos, monitorados sob a ação antibacteriana mais expressiva.

  14. Study on the Effect of Six Sawdust Media on the Growth of the Strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk%6种木屑培养基对银耳菌种生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彪; 戴维浩; 林雄平; 雷银清; 阮毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide the medium optimization and high yield and good quality information, effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth and development, yield and quality on 6 kinds of sawdust medium was studied, [method] 6 tree as culture medium of Multiple hatches of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth was tested on Six Sawdust Media from different tree including Cyelobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ) Oerst. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Sapium sebiferum (L. ) Roxb. and Alniphyllum forut-nei (Hemsl. )Makino. [Result] Tremella fuciformis Berk grew well on six tree media, but growth indexes were different on different tree media. Among these media, Machilus pauhoi Kanehira was the most appropriate, Alniphyllum fortunei (Hemsl. ) Makino was the last one. On Cyclobalarwpsis glauca (Thunb. )Oerst. medium, the mycelium grew slowly ,but strongly and yellowish green, biological efficiency was higher , dried product conversion rate reaching 11. 5% , having better quality. The other tree medium showed general at all aspects. [Conclusion] 6 kinds of tree sawdust medium was suitable for growth as culture medium raw material of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk. Controlling these tree as culture medium, Machilus pauhoi was the best culture medium raw material, followed by Cyclohalanopsis glauca ( Thunb. ) Oerst. , then Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Alniphyllum forutnei (Hemsl. ) Makino.%[目的]研究6种木屑培养基对银耳(Tremella fuciformis Berk)生长发育、产量及品质的影响,为银耳菌种培养基的优化以及银耳的优质高产提供资料.[方法]6个适生银耳树种作为培养基[①青冈木[ Cyclobalanopsis glauca( Thunb.) Oerst.]木屑73%;②柿树(Diospyros kaki L.f.)木屑73%;③盐肢木(Rhus chinensis Mill.)木屑73%;④刨花楠(Machilus pauhoi Kanehira)木屑73%;⑤乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.]木屑73

  15. Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi; Nowicke; Webster; Orli; Yankowski

    2000-06-01

    This is the third paper of an extensive study of pollen morphology and exine structure of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) following the most recent system of Webster. Pollen from 120 collections representing 96 species and 30 genera is described and illustrated with light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These taxa are from tribes Epiprineae, Adelieae, Alchorneae, and Acalypheae pro parte. Pollen of eight genera, Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis and Cephalocroton, of the nine assigned to Epiprinae share 3-colporate apertures, microreticulate, punctate or deeply punctate tecta, well developed or prominent columellae (Koilodepas excepted) and thin foot layers; pollen of the ninth genus, Cephalomappa, has porelike colpi, a coarsely reticulate exine, irregular columellae and an irregular foot layer. Of the five genera assigned to Adelieae, pollen of Adelia, Lasiocroton and Leucocroton is similar: 3-colp(oroid)ate with stratified opercula, crotonoid tecta and thin foot layers; grains of Enriquebeltrania and Crotonogynopsis lack opercula and the latter has a distinctive infratectum of poorly differentiated columellae. All genera examined of tribe Alchorneae, seven of the nine, have exines with unstratified opercula and elongated columellae near the endoaperture. Exines of subtribe Alchorneinae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia) have complex infratecta of poorly differentiated columellae, whereas pollen of Conceveiba and Gavarretia, the two genera examined of the three assigned to subtribe Conceveibinae, has a single layer of short columellae and almost identical tectal morphology. In the large tribe Acalypheae, pollen of the first six of the 11 subtribes was examined. Pollen of Ricinus (Ricininae) and Adriana (Adrianinae) share indistinguishable exine structures and tecta. Pollen of Mercurialis and Leidesia of subtribe Mercurialinae and pollen of Dysopsis of

  16. Revision of the genus Cleistanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    The Philippine species of the euphorbiaceous genus Cleistanthus are revised. Sixteen species are recognised for this archipelago of which two are recorded from there for the first time. The oldest available combination from the Philippines [C. orgyalis (Blanco) Merr.] remains obscure and three colle

  17. Resurrection of Hancea and lectotypification of Adisca (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Kulju, K.K.M.; Veldkamp, J.F.; Welzen, van P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic studies with DNA sequence data, the formerly monotypic genus Cordemoya was recently expanded with 16 additional species previously assigned to Mallotus. However, the earliest legitimate generic name available is Hancea, and, therefore, Cordemoya is here reduced to Hancea (20 ne

  18. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SAUROPUS BACCIFORMIS BLUME (EUPHORBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Jenecius Alphonse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of different parts of Sauropus bacciformis Blume. Among the investigated plant parts, highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were reported in the stem. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity with reference standard ascorbic acid and trolox. The methanol extract showed highest in vitro antioxidant activities. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extracts is a significant source of natural antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  19. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2015-01-01

    and the taxonomic distribution of this value. Materials and Methods: We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term “Euphorbia medicinal”. Results: Medicinal uses were identified for > 5% of the species in the genus, including...

  20. 7 CFR 201.56-10 - Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED... organs) usually persisting in the laboratory test. (3) Shoot system: The hypocotyl lengthens,...

  1. Dos nuevas especies de Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardiel, José María

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Acalypha L. are described and illustrated, A. longipetiolata and A. venezuelica. Comments on the differences between these and related species are included.Se describen e ilustran dos nuevas especies del género Acalypha L., A. longipetiolata y A. venezuelica, descritas sobre material venezolano; se comentan las principales diferencias con las especies afines

  2. Overlooked synonyms of Philippine species of Croton (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stearn, William T.

    1967-01-01

    In a footnote to his description of Tiglium officinale Klotzsch ( Croton tiglium L.) in Hayne’s ‘Getreue Darstellung und Beschreibung der in Arzneykunde gebräuchlichen Gewächse’ 14: sub t. 3 (1843), Johann Friedrich Klotzsch (1805—60) published brief Latin diagnoses of four other species known to hi

  3. Pollen morphology of the Euphorbiaceae with special reference to taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.

    1962-01-01

    In the present study pollen morphology of the Euphorbeaceae is treated as an additional character in taxonomy. Besides the greater part of the genera occurring in the system of PAX and K. HOFFMANN (1931), most of the genera published after 1931 are studied. The pollen grains have been described with

  4. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques Da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E. grami....... graminea, E. ophthalmica and E. thymifolia for Santa Catarina. Finally, we provide an updated identification key to all 30 species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina, including native, naturalised and cultivated species....

  5. The identity of the genus Austrobuxus Miq. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    During a geographical survey of the genus Buxus in Malaysia I came across the name Buxus nitidus (Miq.) Hall. ƒ. Med. Rijksherb. n. 37 (1918) 16. This is based on a plant from Sumatra, collected by Teysmann (HB 769) on the coast of Sibolga, and described by Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 444—44

  6. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pereira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days, was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5 containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung, MCF-7 (breast cancer, and U251 (glioma. The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54 higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.. F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung (GI50 1.2 μg/mL, which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05, while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36. It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  7. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  8. Ethnoflora a taxonomie rodu Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on genus Croton, especially C. socotranus, C. sulcifructus and C. sarcocarpus in particular. It describes the historical context of taxonomical approaches, botanical description of the genus Croton, taxonomy of the genus and its system classification. Another topic the work deals with is description of ethnobotanical usage of Croton species. The main goal of this thesis is distinguishing the chosen problematical taxa Croton socotranus and evaluating the degree/lev...

  9. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae shows antidiarrheal activity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dayse Soares da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect

  10. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  11. An Exploration of Diterpene Biosynthesis in the Euphorbiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpenes constitute one of the most structurally diverse groups of natural products found in nature. In plants they range from essential and relatively universal primary metabolites, such as sterols, carotenoids, and hormones, to more unique secondary metabolites that serve roles in plant defense an...

  12. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E. grami...

  13. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... times the leaf blade is interrupted along the midrib and become divided into an ... Two-month room temperature air-dried samples of six cultivars of ..... of garden horticulture and landscape design, De Lux ed, Garden City.

  14. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S.C. Albuquerque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report cases of spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Ricinus communis (castor beans in Paraíba, a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cases were observed in 2 herds on neighboring properties in 2013. Clinical signs developed within 6-24 h and consisted of weakness, tachycardia, dyspnea, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, depression, instability, cramps, permanent lateral recumbency and death within 48-72 h. Of the 60 cattle at risk, 19 were affected and 14 died. Five fully recovered after the course of 12 days. Three animals were necropsied. The main gross lesions were hemopericardium, hemothorax, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and endocardium, ecchymoses at the papillary muscles and suffusions on the intercostal muscles. Hemorrhages were also observed in the abdominal cavity, spleen and mucosa of the abomasum and small intestine. The rumen content was liquid with a large amount of castor bean seeds. There were circular, whitish and focally diffuse areas in the liver parenchyma. The main microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal coagulative myocardial necrosis with the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and varying degrees of bleeding between cardiac muscle fibers. The abomasum and small intestine mucosae and submucosa had mild edema and mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. The diagnosis of R. communis was based on the history of plant consumption, clinical signs, pathology of the disease and the presence of large amounts of castor bean seeds in the forestomachs.

  15. A synopsis of taxonomic changes in Aporosa Blume (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Anne M.

    1995-01-01

    Some major nomenclatural and taxonomic changes in Aporosa Blume are treated, i.e., the spelling of the genus name, some new combinations, and descriptions of four new species of from West Malesia, six from New Guinea, and two new varieties from West Malesia. Notes on a number of often misunderstood

  16. Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucena Amorim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras das folhas frescas, murchas e dessecadas de Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. foram administradas manualmente por via oral a caprinos da raça Moxotó, em dosagens únicas de até 12g/kg de peso do animal. O teste do papel picrosódico foi realizado para determinar a presença do ácido cianídrico nas amostras de planta. A colheita da planta foi realizada no período de janeiro a junho de 2004. Os animais que apresentaram sinais clínicos foram tratados após apresentarem queda e permanência em decúbito lateral, com uma solução aquosa de tiossulfato de sódio a 20% na dose de 50ml/100kg por via endovenosa. O presente trabalho foi dividido em três experimentos. No Experimento 1, a planta recém colhida foi fornecida a 6 caprinos, sendo que 4 receberam a planta não triturada e 2 a planta triturada. A planta foi triturada em uma forrageira, sem peneira. No Experimento 2, a planta não triturada permaneceu na sombra, em local ventilado, acondicionada fora e dentro de saco plástico, os quais eram trocados todos os dias. A planta armazenada dentro de sacos plásticos foi administrada a 18 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após a colheita e a armazenada fora de saco plástico foi administrada a 13 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 24, 48, 72 horas e 9, 10, 23 e 30 dias após a colheita. No Experimento 3, a planta triturada e conservada dentro e fora de saco plástico foi administrada em diferentes períodos após a colheita (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Foram utilizados 33 animais (Exp. 3, 17 para a planta conservada dentro do saco plástico e 16 animais para a planta conservada fora do saco plástico. Nos Experimentos 2 e 3 foram utilizados um ou dois caprinos por cada período de administração. Foram utilizados 40 caprinos como controle, nos quais foram avaliadas a temperatura e as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória. No Experimento 1, as amostras da planta triturada e não triturada apresentaram toxicidade semelhante. No Experimento 2, a planta conservada fora de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade durante todo o experimento (30 dias, enquanto que a conservada dentro de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade por até 96 horas após a colheita. No Experimento 3, a planta triturada conservada dentro e fora de saco plástico manteve a toxicidade por até 72 horas após a colheita. Em todos os experimentos, os caprinos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação cianídrica. Todos os animais intoxicados se recuperaram clinicamente imediatamente após o tratamento. Conclui-se que para a alimentação de caprinos com Manihot glaziovii a planta deve ser triturada imediatamente após a colheita e conservada fora de sacos plásticos e só deve ser administrada após 96 horas. O feno deve ser produzido após a moagem da planta e administrado também somente após 96 horas.Samples of fresh, dried and partially dried leaves of Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. were administered orally to Moxotó goats in single doses up to 12g/kg body weight (bw. The cyanide content of the plant samples was determined by the picrosodic paper test. The plant was collected from January to June 2004. When the goats with clinical signs were in lateral recumbency, they were treated intravenously with 50ml/100kg/bw of a 20% aqueous solution of sodium tiosulfate. Three experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the plant was given immediately after collection to six goats; two ingested the plant after been ground and four ingested the plant without having been ground. In Experiment 2, the plant was maintained in the shade, in open air or inside plastic bags. The plastic bags were changed daily. The plant kept in plastic bags was given to 18 goats, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after collection. The plant kept in the open air was given to 13 goats, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and 9, 10, 23 and 30 days after collection. In Experiment 3, the previously ground plant kept in the open air or inside plastic bags was administered 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after collection. Seventeen goats received the plant kept in plastic bags, and 16 goats the plant left in the open air. In Experiments 2 and 3, two or three goats were used for each period after collection, and the plant was given until the loss of its toxicity. Forty goats were used as controls for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory frequencies. In Experiment 1, the ground and not ground plant had similar toxicity. In Experiment 2, the plant kept in the open air maintained its toxicity during the whole experiment (30 days, and the plant kept inside the plastic bags was toxic until 96 hours after collection. In Experiment 3, the ground plant, left in the open air or kept inside plastic bags, was toxic for 72 hours after collection. In all experiments clinical signs were characteristic of cyanide poisoning. All poisoned goats were treated successfully. In conclusion, Manihot glaziovii, which is used as forage in northeastern Brazil, should be ground and left for at least 96 hours in the open air before feeding to animals. The plant for preparing hay should be previously ground, and the hay should be given to animals also only 96 hours after its preparation.

  17. Breeding Biology of Night Heron (Nycticorax Nycticorax) and Lillte Egret (Egretta Garzetta) in West Lake of Huizhou, China%惠州西湖景区鹭鸟繁殖生物学习性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李周玉

    2008-01-01

    2008年3-8月对栖息在惠州西湖景区内鹤屿、琵琶岛上夜鹭(Nycticorax nycticorax)和白鹭(Eegrttagarzetta)的繁殖生物学进行了初步调查.结果表明:两个岛上的植被以榕树Ficus retusa Linn和鸟桕Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)为主.两岛共营巢497个,其中鹤屿上营巢388个,琵琶岛上营巢109个;平均密度分别为0.776个/m2、0.273个/m2,每棵树上平均巢数分别为14.37个、6.06个,最多达49个/棵.繁殖期3-7月,每窝产卵2-4枚,卵蓝绿色,孵化期为23-25天.白鹭雏鸟主要以小型鱼类和虾类为食,夜鹭雏鸟主要以鱼类和两栖类为食.此外,针对惠州西湖风景区的鹭类资源保护现状提出了合理化的建议.

  18. 生财无尽种乌桕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦

    1987-01-01

    @@ 乌桕(Sapium sebiferum Roxbury)是我国特产的经济树木.明代徐光启在中称之为"生才无尽",竭力劝人种植.乌桕全树都有用处.柏木坚韧,纹理细致,不翘不裂,是雕刻的优良材料.桕籽能榨油,种外皮榨出的油叫皮油,义称桕脂,为白色固体油脂;种仁可榨取青油,俗称梓油,为液体油脂.每百公斤桕籽约可榨出皮油22公斤,梓油15公斤.古时一般用皮油制蜡烛、肥皂,梓油主要用于点灯、润滑、染发和入漆、入药.

  19. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  20. Construction and application of comprehensive evaluation system in tree species selection for Shanghai coastal protection forest%上海海岸防护林树种选择综合评价体系的构建和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 万福绪

    2014-01-01

    采用层次分析法(AHP)建立上海海岸防护林树种选择综合评价体系,涵盖生长适应性、生态功能、景观效应和经济价值4个准则层和生长势等19个评价因子.对上海海岸防护林29个树种的评价结果表明,苦楝(Melia azedarach)、青桐(Firmiana simplex)、栾树(Koelreuteria paniculata)、金丝垂柳(Salix×aureo-pendula)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)、中山杉(Ascendens mucronatum)、喜树(Camptotheca acuminata)、墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium mucronatum)、雪松(Cedrus deodara)、枫香(Liquidamb ar fo rmos ara)、南酸枣(Choerosponias axillaris)等12个树种为该区适宜的防护林造林树种.

  1. Cultural and management practices for the Chinese tallow tree as a biomass fuel source: Final report, 1978-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, J.R.; Scheld, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    The growth and cultural conditions of the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb., were studied over a 6-year period. Plots from seeds or seedlings at designated densities and plots established in natural stands were studied. The maximum growth rate of the Chinese tallow tree in a marginal soil near the Texas gulf coast was 10 to 15 dry tons/hectare/year. The young trees were able to withstand long periods of flooding as well as extended dry periods. The tree species also is resistant to diseases and pathogens. The Chinese tallow tree is particularly adaptable to close spacing, direct seeding, coppicing, and short-rotation growth cycles. These factors all favor the economic usefulness of the tree as a bioenergy species. In addition, the tallow tree is economically valuable in honey production and as a chemical feedstock. Fertilization is important during the early phases of stand establishment but has diminished usefulness in subsequent years. The Chinese tallow tree appears to be an excellent bioenergy species in the southern coastal areas of the United States and especially in marginal soils. The Chinese tallow tree has the potential of producing 15 to 20 tons/hectare annually by coppicing on a 5- to 8-year rotation at close spacings. 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Leaf anatomical structure for 15 tree species' seedlings in Zhejiang Province%浙江省15个树种苗期叶片解剖结构特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 邹伶俐; 吴刚; 阴卓越; 吕钺香

    2013-01-01

    植物叶片结构与其耐阴性具有密切关系.为揭示浙江西部常见树种叶片对光环境的适应性,采用常规石蜡切片制片法,比较观察了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,短尾柯Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,浙江楠Phoebe chekiangensis,乌冈栎Quercus phillyraeoides,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,马尾松Pinus massoniana,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,红叶石楠Photinia × fraseri,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa和红花檀木Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum等15个树种叶片的解剖结构特征.结果表明:①水杉和红豆杉上、下表皮均为1层,栅栏组织和海绵组织均不发达.马尾松叶片为2针1束,横截面为半圆形.②9个阔叶树种栅栏和海绵组织平均厚度最厚;木荷、乌桕和竹柏栅栏组织为1层,短尾柯、杜英、石栎和浙江楠为2层,苦槠和乌冈栎栅栏组织最发达,为3层;海绵组织均排列疏松.③灌木树种栅栏组织、海绵组织厚度排序均为红叶石楠>美丽胡枝子>红花檀木.④对15个树种叶片解剖结构特征进行聚类分析,认为竹柏为耐荫树种;马尾松为强阳性树种;乌桕、红叶石楠、苦槠、乌冈栎归类为阳性树种;短尾柯、美丽胡枝子、浙江楠、杜英、木荷、水杉、红豆杉、石栎和红花栏木归为中性树种.研究结果可为调控现有马尾松单优群落的结构组成,恢复亚热带低山丘陵区地带性森林植被提供理论依据.%To reveal leaf adaptability to the light environment for tree species common to the Western Zhejiang,characteristics of the leaf anatomical structure in 15 tree species'seedlings:Castanopsis sclerophylla,Schima superba,Elaeocarpus decipiens,Sapium sebiferum,Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,Lithocarpus glaber,Phoebe chekiangensis,Quercus phillyraeoides,Podocarpus nagi,Pinus massoniana,Metasequoia glyptostroboides

  3. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  5. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition in Polyspora axillaris Community in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen%深圳马峦山大头茶(Polyspora axillaris)群落种内与种间竞争研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦新; 廖国新; 徐晓晖

    2013-01-01

    The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in Polyspora axillaris in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen City were quantitatively analyzed using Hegyi single tree competition index model. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was decreased gradually with the increase of forest tree diameter class, and the interspecific competition in P. axillaris was more intensive than that in associated tree species. The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was: P. axillaris > Toxicodendron verniciflua >Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongtfolia >Schima superba >Microcos paniculata >Sapium sebiferum>Litsea cubeba>Sapium discolor. There was significantly negative correlation between the competition intensity and the individual size of objective tree, and the relationship of the competition intensity between the competitive tree and the objective tree and the individual size of objective tree obeyed power function rule. When the diameter at breast height of P. axillaris reached 15 cm, the competition intensity inconspicuously changed into stable situation.%采用Hegyi的单木竞争指数模型对马峦山的大头茶群落种内、种间的竞争强度进行定量分析.结果表明,大头茶种内竞争强度随着植株径级的增大而具减小趋势,种内竞争显著大于种间竞争,对象木种内、种间竞争强度的顺序为:大头茶>漆树>豺皮樟>荷木>布渣叶>乌桕>山苍子>山乌桕.竞争木对对象木的竞争强度与对象木的个体大小服从幂函数关系,竞争强度和对象木个体的大小呈极显著的负相关关系,当大头茶胸径达到15 cm后,竞争强度趋于稳定.

  6. 浙江省常见15个树种的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics for fifteen potted seedlings common to Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 温国胜; 张俊; 邹伶俐; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    为比较不同树种对光的适应能力和耐荫性,探讨树种在植被恢复过程中的配置依据,利用Licor-6400便携式光合仪,于2010年秋季测定了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens等15个浙江常见树种的光响应过程和光合日进程,并计算上述树种的光能利用率.研究结果表明:①所测15个树种的净光合速率日变化均呈单峰型,无“光合午休”现象.②东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa分别是阔叶、针叶和灌木树种中光能利用率峰值较高的树种.③光饱和点苦槠最高,浙江楠Phoebe chekiongensis最低;光补偿点马尾松Pinusmassoniana最高,红豆杉最低.④对光补偿点和光饱和点进行聚类分析,认为马尾松,乌冈Quercus phillyraeoides,属于强阳性树种;苦槠,美丽胡枝子,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboide,东南石栎归属于阳性树种;红花(槛)木Loropetalum chinense,红叶石楠Photinia×fraseri,杜英,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,木荷,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,红豆杉和浙江楠归类为耐荫树种,对弱光的利用能力较强.图5表1参16%To compare the light adaptation anil shade tolerance of 15 different tree species, and to provide development bases for tree species in the vegetative recovery process, diurnal changes of photosynthesis and light response characteristics for Castanopsis sclerophyila, Schima superba, Elaeocarpus decipiens, Sapium sebiferum, Lithocarpus harlandii, Lithocarpus glaber, Phoebe chekiangensis, Quercus phillyraeoides, Podocarpus nagi, Pinus massoniana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides , Taxus chinensis, Photinia x fraseri, Les-pedeza formosa, and Loropetaium chinense var. rubrum were measured by Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system in the autumn of 2010, Then, light use efficiency of the 15 potted seedlings was determined. Results showed that: 1) the diurnal process of the net

  7. Constituintes químicos das folhas e caule de Croton sellowii (Euphorbiaceae Chemical constituents from the leaves and stems of Croton sellowii (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião F. Palmeira Júnior

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o isolamento de terpenóides (sitosterol, estigmasterol, cicloart-25-eno-3b,24b-diol, cicloart-25-eno-3b,24a-diol e ácido betulônico, flavonóides (artemetina, crisosplenetina, casticina, penduletina e tilirosídeo e fenilpropanóide (treo-7-etoxi-8-hidroxi-diidroanol nas folhas e caule de Croton sellowii Baill. Todos os compostos isolados estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez nesta espécie e foram identificados com base na análise de dados espectrais (IV, UV e RMN, incluindo APT, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMQC e HMBC, bem como pela comparação com dados descritos na literatura.This work describes the isolation of terpenoids (sitosterol, stigmasterol, cycloart-25-ene-3b,24b-diol, cycloart-25-ene-3b,24a-diol and betulonic acid, flavonoids (artemetin, crysosplenetin, casticin, penduletin and tiliroside and phenylpropanoid (threo-7-ethoxy-8-hydroxy-dihydroanol from the leaves and stems of Croton sellowii Baill. All isolated compounds are being described for the first time in this species and were identified on basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, and NMR, including APT, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC, and by comparison with literature data.

  8. Sinopse das espécies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Synopsis of the species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi baseado na análise de materiais de herbário, referências bibliográficas e coletas, revelando a ocorrência de 35 espécies do gênero Croton para o estado de Pernambuco. A maior parte destas espécies tem distribuição exclusiva na zona fitogeográfica das Caatingas; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. e C. blanchetianus Baill. estendem-se da zona da Mata até a zona das Caatingas; C. polyandrus Spreng. e C. sellowii Baill. ocorrem principalmente na faixa litorânea, em vegetação de restinga; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. e C. triqueter Lam. foram observados apenas na zona da Mata, e C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. e C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. apresentam ampla distribuição no Estado. São apresentadas chave de identificação, comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitats, juntamente com ilustrações de características diagnósticas das espécies.This study was based on the analysis of herbarium material, specialized bibliography and field collections, recording the occurrence of 35 species of the genus Croton for the state of Pernambuco. Most of these species are distributed exclusively in the Caatinga phytogeographic region; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. and C. blanchetianus Baill. are found from the forest zone to the caatinga zone; C. polyandrus Spreng. and C. sellowii Baill. occur mainly along the coast, in restinga vegetation; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. and C. triqueter Lam. were observed only in the forest zone, and C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. and C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. are widely distributed. Identification keys, comments on geographic distribution and habitats and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of the species are provided.

  9. The comparison of waterlogging resistance of 10 trees%1O个树种耐水淹能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    教忠意; 罗祺; 张纪林; 郝日明; 许万根; 潘伟明

    2007-01-01

    以黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)、石楠(Photinia serrulata)、蓝果树(Nyssa sinensis)、薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis)、榉树(Zelkova papyrifera)、一球悬铃木(Platanus occidentalis)、白蜡(Fraxinus chinensis)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium macronatum)、花叶杞柳(Salix integra cv.Hakuro Nishiki)等10种树种为研究对象,在人工控制的淹水条件下,观察其叶形态受害程度,运用涝害指数方法分别研究各树种的耐水淹能力.结果表明:淹水胁迫下,黄连木、石楠、榉树、薄壳山核桃、蓝果树、一球悬铃木涝害指数达到0.90的时间分别在10,20,25,35,40,50 d左右;乌桕、白蜡水淹50 d涝害指数分别为0.54和0.80,耐涝性明显;墨西哥落羽杉和花叶杞柳受水淹60 d内无明显受害现象.乌桕、白蜡、墨西哥落羽杉、花叶杞柳等树种水淹后茎基部能产生不定根和皮孔,是对淹水胁迫的积极适应,可作为河岸带绿化的备选树种.

  10. 水淹胁迫下10个树种某些生理指标的变化及其耐水淹能力的比较%Change of some physiological indexes of ten tree species under waterlogging stress and comparison of their waterlogging tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祺; 张纪林; 郝日明; 许万根; 潘伟明; 教忠意

    2007-01-01

    以游离脯氨酸和丙二醛(MDA)含量及相对电导率为指标,比较了水淹条件下10个树种的耐水淹能力.结果表明,水淹胁迫下,不同树种的相对电导率及丙二醛含量均呈上升趋势,而游离脯氨酸含量的变化则有显著差异.根据生理指标的变化可以看出,黄连木(Pistacia chinensis Bunge)和石楠(Photinia serrulata Lindl. )的耐水淹能力较弱,耐水淹时间仅为5至10 d;蓝果树(Nyssa sinensis Oliv.)、薄壳山核桃[Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) Koch]、榉树(Zelkova schneideriana Hand.-Mazz.)和一球悬铃木(Platanus occidentalis L.)具有一定的耐水淹能力,耐水淹时间约为25 d;乌桕[Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.]和白蜡(Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.)的耐水淹能力较强,耐水淹时间超过45 d;墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium macronatum Ten.)和花叶杞柳(Salix integra 'Hakuro Nishiki')的耐水淹能力最强,受水淹的60 d内无受害现象.

  11. Mapping Chinese tallow with color-infrared photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.; Seeger, E.B.; Martella, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne color-infrared photography (CIR) (1:12,000 scale) was used to map localized occurrences of the widespread and aggressive Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum), an invasive species. Photography was collected during senescence when Chinese tallow's bright red leaves presented a high spectral contrast within the native bottomland hardwood and upland forests and marsh land-cover types. Mapped occurrences were conservative because not all senescing tallow leaves are bright red simultaneously. To simulate low spectral but high spatial resolution satellite/airborne image and digital video data, the CIR photography was transformed into raster images at spatial resolutions approximating 0.5 in and 1.0 m. The image data were then spectrally classified for the occurrence of bright red leaves associated with senescing Chinese tallow. Classification accuracies were greater than 95 percent at both spatial resolutions. There was no significant difference in either forest in the detection of tallow or inclusion of non-tallow trees associated with the two spatial resolutions. In marshes, slightly more tallow occurrences were mapped with the lower spatial resolution, but there were also more misclassifications of native land covers as tallow. Combining all land covers, there was no difference at detecting tallow occurrences (equal omission errors) between the two resolutions, but the higher spatial resolution was associated with less inclusion of non-tallow land covers as tallow (lower commission error). Overall, these results confirm that high spatial (???1 m) but low spectral resolution remote sensing data can be used for mapping Chinese tallow trees in dominant environments found in coastal and adjacent upland landscapes.

  12. Comparative Studies on Physical-Chemical Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil from Seven Plants and Their Bio-diesel Fuels%7种木本植物油理化性质及其生物柴油脂肪酸组成的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姹月; 唐琳; 陈放

    2012-01-01

    通过对麻疯树、乌桕、毛叶山桐子、油茶、巴豆、蝴蝶果和东京桐7种产于西南地区木本植物种子油的理化性质及其制备的生物柴油脂肪酸组成进行比较研究,根据各国制定的生物柴油标准,筛选出蝴蝶果、油茶和东京桐也是生物柴油的理想原料植物.巴豆和毛叶山桐子可作为生产生物柴油的备选资源,通过优化反应条件,添加催化剂等方式达到优产的目的.%Because of the energy shortage in 21th century, the plant resources for bio-diesel fuels should be further developed. The physical-chemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition in their bio-diesel of the seed oil of Jatropha curcas , of Sapium sebiferum , of Idesia polycarpa Maxim, of Camellia oleifera , of Croton tiglium , of Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei and of Deutzianthus tonkinensis have been analyzed in order to find out new plant resources. According to the standards of bio-diesel in several counties, we have found that Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei, Deutzianthus tonkinensis and Camellia olei fera are suitable new plant resources for bio-diesel fuels. By optimizing the reaction conditions and adding catalyst, Croton tiglium and Idesia polycarpa Maxim could be the alternative plant resources.

  13. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wang

    Full Text Available Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080 on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  14. 几种乌桕桕脂甘油三酯的组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静萍; 于凤兰等

    1988-01-01

    采用胰脂酶分解的方法对几种乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.) Roxb.]种子桕脂甘油三酯组成进行了测定,桕脂的甘油三酯是由9-14种甘油三酯所组成,与可可脂相似之处是甘油三酯2-位上的脂肪酸,82-88%为油酸,二饱和酸甘油酯中81-88%,其中以POP为主(74-81%);单饱和酸甘油酯占1.8-6.0%;而三饱和酸甘油酯占9.6-15.6%,主要是PPP(8.5-14.0%)。桕脂经过适当的加工处理,可以做可可脂的代用品,将湖南产的乌桕与广西栽培的4个品种(“大粒鸡爪”,“蜈蚣”,“铜锤”和“小粒鸡爪”)桕脂中的甘油三酯组成比较,以“大粒鸡爪”桕脂中二饱和酸甘油酯的比较最高(88.0%),三饱和酸甘油酯的含量最低(9.6%)。

  15. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  16. Pollen harvest by Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Dourados region, Mato Grosso do Sul state (Brazil Pólen coletado por Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae na região de Dourados, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Apolito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the pollen harvest by Apismellifera L. at a central-western Brazil site not yet studied. Corbiculae pollen loads were collected during one year in front of the hive, acetolysed and slides mounted for optical microscopy. Identification followed comparisons with a local pollen collection. Forty-two pollen types were utilized by the bee; the most important families were Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae and Poaceae. The genus/species level ranking of relative importance showed Eucalyptus (19%, Raphanus raphanistrum (13%, Poaceae type 2 (7.5%, Jatropha cf. gossypiifolia (7% and Sapium glandulatum (6.5%. Overall, the majority of pollen types (80% were not abundantly harvested, and a minority (4% reached values of 10%. Given that the study area has cultivated plants and not natural vegetation, we indicate most of the identified species as manageable and point out that weedy vegetation can be an important food source for bees since it frequently occurred in the pollen spectra even within a totally cultivated area.Apresentamos dados sobre a coleta de pólen por Apis mellifera L. em uma localidade no centro-oeste do Brasil, ainda não estudada. Cargas corbiculares de pólen foram coletadas durante um ano em frente ao ninho, acetolisadas e montadas em lâminas para microscopia óptica. A identificação foi feita por comparação com uma coleção de referência local. Quarenta e dois tipos polínicos foram utilizados pelas abelhas; as famílias mais importantes foram Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae e Poaceae. O ranqueamento de importância relativa para gênero/espécie mostrou Eucalyptus (19%, Raphanus raphanistrum (13%, Poaceae tipo 2 (7,5%, Jatropha cf. gossypiifolia (7% e Sapium glandulatum (6,5%. No geral, a maioria dos recursos (80% não foi utilizada com abundância, e uma minoria (4% alcançou valores de 10%. Dado que a área de estudo não possui uma vegetação natural, mas cultivares, n

  17. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  18. Preliminary Study on the MoHuscacidal Effects of Water-soluble Extracts of 3 Plants including liquidambar ~ormosana%枫香等3种植物水浸液灭螺效果的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建民; 刘洪剑; 董广平

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a comparative study was made on the oncomelania-control ettects of water-soluble leaf extracts of Liquidambar formosana, Sapindus mukorossi,Macleaya cordata, Pterocarya stenoptera and Sapium sebiferum and their mixtures at normal and controlled (25±1℃) temperature,,s respectively, and the oncomelania-killing effects of water-soluble extracts from different parts of Macleaya cordata were alsostudied. The following were the results. (1)The oncomelania-killing L. formosana, S. mukorossi and temperatures. (2)Under the same M. cordata were all quite good experimental conditions, there was effects of water-soluble leaf extracts of at normal and controlled (25±1℃) no marked difference in oncomelania-killing effects between the water-soluble extracts from the mixture of L. formosana +P. stenoptera + S. sebiferum and those from their respective single species. The inhibition ratio of the mixture of P. stenoptera + S. sebiferum was lower than that of the 2 single species.(3)The oncomelania-killing effects of different parts of Macleaya cordata were quite different, with those of the roots being much lower that those of the leaves and stems. The sequence of their oncomelania-killing effects were: Leaves 〉 Stems 〉 Roots.%对枫香、无患子、博落回3种植物与枫杨、乌桕及其组合叶片水浸液抑螺效果在控湿(25±1)℃和常温两种条件下进行了比较研究,同时初步研究了博落回不同部位水浸液的杀螺效果。结果表明:(1)在控温(25±1)℃和常温条件下,单一树种枫香、无患子、博落回叶片的水浸液均有较好的灭螺活性。(2)在相同的试验条件下,枫杨+乌桕+枫香等组合处理与单一植物材料水浸液的灭螺效果差异不显著,枫杨+乌桕组合对钉螺的抑制率略低于单一树种。(3)博落回不同部位灭螺效果有一定差异,根的灭螺效果明显低于叶和茎,不同部位的

  19. Establecimiento del protocolo de micropropagación para la planta medicinal Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Jiménez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri es una planta medicinal nativa de América, bastante común en terrenos húmedos y sombreados. Esta planta es usada popularmente para la expulsión de cálculos renales y biliares, como antiespasmódico, diurético, y auxiliar en la eliminación del ácido úrico.La presente investigación permitió analizar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos en la inducción de germinación de la semilla (inmersión en AG3, KNO3, agua destilada y escarificación con agua caliente de esta planta medicinal. Se estudió la respuesta morfogénica in vitro con dos reguladores de crecimiento BA y ANA, en concentraciones de 1, 3 y 5 mg/L, respectivamente. Se determinó el porcentaje de germinación y el desarrollo de las vitroplantas. El porcentaje más alto de germinación en el cultivo in vitro (60% se obtuvo con el tratamiento de inmersión en AG3 durante 4h. El tratamiento con 3mg/L de BA fue el que generó los mejores resultados en cuanto al número de yemas y brotes producidos. Este fue significativamente diferente a los demás tratamientos, con una exactitud del 0.05 y una precisión del 95% empleando la prueba de Tukey

  20. Floral morphology and anatomy of Dalechampia alata Klotzsch ex Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), with emphasis on secretory structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F M; Cunha-Neto, I L; Pereira, T M

    2016-02-01

    The morphology and anatomy of the flower of Dalechampia alata, as well as the chemical nature of the exudates secreted in the inflorescence were studied using light microscope. This is the first report showing the presence of colleters in the genus Dalechampia. In the staminate flower occur a group of small secretory glands. The histochemical results indicate that the substance secreted from the glands is lipidic and resinuous in nature, while in the colleters it consists of polysaccharides and lipid-rich substances. The ovule of D. alata are anatropous, subglobose and bitegmic. It presents obturator, micropyle occluded by nucellar beak and meristematic activity in the ovary wall. The secretion produced in the stigmatic and transmitting tissue consists of polysaccharides.

  1. Physiotypic Plasticity and Survival of Arido-active Euphorbia triaculeata (Euphorbiaceae in its Natural Habitat

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    Turki A. Al-Turki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafless stem succulent Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. is abundant in arid regions southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions are characterized by short wet season with erratic rainfall and long dry season with high temperature and high irradiance. Field observations indicated that the plant survives the long dry season and acquires a red stem colour under high irradiance and protracted drought. Our work aimed at investigating survival of this arido-active species in its natural habitat by studying diurnal and seasonal changes in stomatal conductance, cell sap acidity, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Results showed that E. triaculeata is obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM plant. Under protracted drought, low stomatal conductance and dampening of CAM denoted a shift to CAM-idling. Observed stress-induced reduction of Photosystem II activity occurred in concomitance with increased non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and increased anthocyanin content. These results reflected operation of a photoprotective mechanism involving interplay of non-photochemical energy dissipation via xanthophyll cycle and alleviation of oxidative stress by anthocyanin. It was concluded that E. triaculeata survives in its arid habitat by performing obligate CAM, shifting to CAM-idling under protracted drought, increasing non-photochemical excess energy dissipation, and accumulating anthocyanin pigment for its antioxidant attributes.

  2. Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Abiodun; Nworgu, Z A M; Osayemwenre, Erharuyi

    2011-12-20

    Jatropha curcas is a herbal preparation used in the tropics for the treatment of threatened abortion and related problems associated with pregnancy. The Stem bark of Jatropha curcas is used ethno medicinally in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country for the treatment of infertility and spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). The present study was undertaken in order to validate the folkloric claim, using scientific experimental procedures and bioassay guided fractionation. The crude powdered sample was subjected to phytochemical screening testing for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and VLC) were carried out using various solvent systems. The effect of methanolic extracts on rat uterine contractions was studied in vitro, in 40ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution of De Jalon maintained at 370C, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 with an isometric transducer connected an UgoBasile recorder under a resting tension of 750mg. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract abolished significantly the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50mg/ml. The tocolytic effects indicate the presence of active principle(s) which would explain the ethno medicinal use of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas to treat spontaneous abortion.

  3. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalli Linnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, G; Melo-Reis, P R; Araújo, L A; Mrué, F; Freitas, G B; Brandão, M L; Silva Júnior, N J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as "avelós" plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL) to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis.

  4. Establishment of cell suspension cultures of two Costa Rican Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Solís Ramos, Laura Yesenia; Miranda Carballo, Laura; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2013-01-01

    J. curcas has been studied in different countries and some interesting agronomic, pharmacological and industrial properties have been reported. More recently, it has been considered an important alternative source for biofuel production. The objective of this study was to establish a long-term method for the maintenance of calli and cell suspension cultures of the local species J. curcas and J. gossypifolia, in order to allow future studies for novel compounds with pharmaceutical or industria...

  5. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera – Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Welzen, van, P.C.; J. W. F. Slik

    2005-01-01

    A revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera) in Malesia and Thailand is given. Descriptions, distribution maps, habit drawings, and a key to the species are provided. The diagnostic characters for the section are briefly discussed. Five species (M. kongkandae, M. leptostachyus, M. pallidus, M. philippensis, and M. repandus) are recognised. Mallotus chromocarpus is excluded from the section because it has more shared characters with the monospecific genus Octospermum...

  6. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera – Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Welzen, van P.C.; Slik, J.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    A revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera) in Malesia and Thailand is given. Descriptions, distribution maps, habit drawings, and a key to the species are provided. The diagnostic characters for the section are briefly discussed. Five species (M. kongkandae, M. leptostac

  7. CRECIMIENTO Y PRODUCTIVIDAD DE CHAYA (Cnidoscolus chayamansa MCVAUGH, EUPHORBIACEAE CON DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mao E. Aguilar Luna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto que tiene la competenciainterespecífica en el crecimiento y la productividad de la chayacon densidad de plantación (DP variable, en un suelocalcimórfico de tipo rendzina negra en Noh-Bec, Quintana Roo,México. La chaya se estableció a 1.50 x 3.00 m, utilizando estacassin hojas; se asoció con árboles jóvenes (menores de dosaños de Cedrela odorata y Citrus latifolia en un diseño deplantación en círculo 'Nelder' de 3154 m2. Se establecieron ochoDP de 2602 a 3772 plantas.ha-1 con 10 repeticiones. Lasvariables de respuesta fueron: capacidad de enraizamiento,tasa de crecimiento, índice de vigor, índice de área foliar yproducción de biomasa. El mayor enraizamiento de estacas dechaya se obtuvo de 2889 a 3772 plantas.ha-1; sin embargo, elmejor crecimiento y productividad se obtuvo de 2706 a2889 plantas.ha-1.

  8. Larvicidal efficacy of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arivoli S; Samuel T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  9. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  10. Repellency of Hydroethanolic Extracts of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) to Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cinthia Pacheco-Sánchez; Patricia Villa-Ayala; Roberto Montes-Belmont; Rodolfo Figueroa-Brito; Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agave snout weevil Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an ubiquitous insect and the main pest of blue tequila agave, Agave tequilana Weber, and other agaves...

  11. Efeito leishmanicida in vitro do látex de Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Azevedo Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana é uma infecção causada por uma variedade de espécies de Leishmania, é transmitida ao homem por flebotomíneos. Os antimoniais pentavalentes são utilizados na quimioterapia dessa doença; no entanto, esses fármacos provocam uma série de efeitos colaterais, além de apresentar altos índices de toxicidade. Na busca por novos agentes leishmanicidas, avaliamos in vitro o extrato do látex de Croton lechleri (Sangue de dragão frente a formas promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis e Leishmania guyanensis. O extrato foi obtido através da desidratação do látex de C. lechleri e diluído em solução 10% de etanol em salina tamponada com fosfato. As promastigotas de Leishmania foram cultivadas juntamente com o extrato nas concentrações de 6,25; 12,5 e 25μg/ mL por 72 horas. O extrato apresentou eficácia em todas as concentrações testadas apresentando um IC 50 (concentração inibitória de 5,04μg/mL para L. amazonensis e IC 50 de 9,05μg/mL para L. guyanensis. Foi realizada a avaliação citotóxica em células J774 nas mesmas concentrações usadas no ensaio leishmanicida, porém a concentração de 25μg/mL apresentou  índice de toxicidade de aproximadamente 50% para a célula hospedeira. Os testes realizados mostraram-sepromissores, pois o extrato testado também foi capaz de inibir o crescimento de promastigotas de L. amazonensis após ensaio de infecção com células J774.Palavras-chave: Croton lechleri. Atividade leishmanicida. Atividade citotóxica. ABSTRACTIn vitro leishmanicidal effect of Croton lechleri latexCutaneous Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by a several species of Leishmania, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies. Pentavalent antimonial compounds are used in the chemotherapy of this disease; however, these drugs cause several collateral effects, besides presenting high levels of toxicity. The search for new antiLeishmanial agents, we assessed in vitro the extract of Croton lechleri latex (Blood Dragon against the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania guyanensis. The extract was obtained by dehydration C. lechleri latex mass and the solution was diluted with 10% ethanol in phosphate buffered saline solution. The Leishmania promastigotes were grown with the extract following concentrations 6.25; 12.5 and 25μg/mL for 72 hours. The extract showed efficacy in all concentrations tested showing an IC 50 (inhibitory concentration of 5.04 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and IC 50 of 9.05 μg/mL for L. guyanensis. Cytotoxic evaluation was performed in J774 cells at the same concentrations used in the leishmanicidal assay, but the concentration of 25μg/mL showed toxicity index of approximately 50% for the host cell. Tests carried out proved promising, since the extracts tested was also able to inhibit the L. amazonensis promastigotes growth after infection assay with J774 cells.Keywords: Croton lechleri. Leishmanicidal Activity. Cytotoxic activity.

  12. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalliLinnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bessa

    Full Text Available AbstractTo assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as “avelós” plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p < 0.05 and the inhibitor control (p < 0.05. This suggests that under the experimental conditions tested, the aqueous latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO PROSPECTIVA DO GÊNERO JATROPHA (Euphorbiaceae) COM FOCO EM BIOTECNOLOGIA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O gênero Jatropha apresenta uma grande diversidade de espécies e potencial socioeconômico, mas existem poucas informações sobre o gênero e estas se encontram dispersas dificultando a tomada de decisão para a inovação. A prospecção científica e tecnológica se apresenta viável nesse processo por indicar temas de interesse para a pesquisa e tecnologia estratégica na tomada de decisão, como é o caso da biotecnologia que tem se destacado por suas aplicações na geração de novos produtos e/ou proces...

  14. Pollen morphology of Philippine species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, S.-H.; Huang, T.-C.; Wu, M.-J.

    2009-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 21 Philippine Phyllanthus species belonging to five subgenera and eleven sections was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Eleven pollen types were recognized, of which seven were previously reported and four are newly described, i.e., the Phyllanthus erythrotrichus

  15. Leaf Protein Electrophoresis and Taxonomy of Species of Jatropha L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniran Temitope OLADIPO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic relationship existing among members of the all important genus Jatropha was studied using leaf protein electrophoresis. The aim was to identify possible taxonomic importance of the protein profile in the estimation and elucidation of the taxonomic affinity of the six species of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linn., J. podagrica Hook., J. gossypifolia Linn., J. mutifida Linn., J. tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja and J. integerrima Linn. found in Nigeria. The species were screened for total protein banding patterns using gel electrophoresis. Young leaves (0.8 g of the plants were washed with distilled water and macerated with sterile mortar and pestle in 0.8% Phosphate Buffer-Saline (PBS containing 0.4 M NaCl at pH 8.0. Results reveal that protein banding pattern was taxon specific. Generic band occurs at 8.3. The highest number of interspecific bands (4 exists between J. podagrica and J. multifida. Variations exist not only in the number of bands but also in the intensity of the bands. Sokal and Sneath coefficient of similarity ranges between 11.1-44.4 %. Single linkage Cluster Analysis (SLCA of the relative mobility values of the protein in the taxa shows partial agreement with current sub generic and sectional delimitation of the species based on morphology and anatomy of the species.

  16. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Momtaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured ′Hela cells′. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 µg/ml. In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 of 37.7 µg/ml on the viability of ′HeLa cells′ using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: ′Tutin′ and ′hyenanchin′ were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant ( P < 0.01 inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts.

  17. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured ‘Hela cells’. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 μg/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 37.7 μg/ml on the viability of ‘HeLa cells’ using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: ‘Tutin’ and ‘hyenanchin’ were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant (P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts. PMID:20548934

  18. Leaf Epidermal And Pollen Morphological Studies Of Genus Jatropha L. Euphorbiaceae In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyewo. L.T.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The predominated plant genus of Jatropha were studied using the epidermal cell morphology and pollen morphology to express more reliable power to its identification aside from the normal flower and other features key arrangement they all had paralytic stomata type with absence of stomata at the abaxial with no traces of trichomes J. multifida is having the highest stomata length of 27.5m with highest stomata with 17.5m while J. curcas J. podagrica and J. gossypifolia varies between 15.0 m in stomata length to 12.5 m in stomata width. They also have straight to curve anticlinal cell walls. They all possess large grain with exine pattern all croton while only J. multifida has the smallest gemmae size of 2.50 m and its polar axis and equatorial diameter carries lower parameters of 52.1 m and 51.6 m respectively while it may be more affected by environmental factor and that is why the results is good but calls for more genetic expression.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of the "sacaca" clade: novel relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruzo, Maria Beatriz R; van Ee, Benjamin W; Cordeiro, Inês; Berry, Paul E; Riina, Ricarda

    2011-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Klotzsch) Baill. were evaluated using the nuclear ribosomal ITS and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnH-psbA regions. Our results show a strongly supported clade containing most previously recognized section Cleodora species, plus some other species morphologically similar to them. Two morphological synapomorphies that support section Cleodora as a clade include pistillate flowers in which the sepals overlap to some degree, and styles that are connate at the base to varying degrees. The evolution of vegetative and floral characters that have previously been relied on for taxonomic decisions within this group are evaluated in light of the phylogenetic hypotheses. Within section Cleodora there are two well-supported clades, which are proposed here as subsections (subsection Sphaerogyni and subsection Spruceani). The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis identifies the closest relatives of the medicinally important and essential oil-rich Croton cajucara Benth. as candidates for future screening in phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  20. New names of Chinese Euphorbiaceae%大戟科植物学名订正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增莱; 余伯阳; 徐珞珊

    2004-01-01

    One name of Chinese Croton L., Croton olivaceus Y. T. Chang & P. T. Li is corrected as Croton sanyaensis Z. L.Xu. Another illegitimate name, Sauropus pierrei (Beille) Webster is corrected based on St. Louis Code.

  1. Croton maasii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the western Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riina, R.; Berry, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Croton maasii, a new species from South America, is described and illustrated. The species is only known from terra firme forests of the extreme western Amazonian region, in W Brazil and adjacent E Peru. Croton maasii resembles C. pachypodus, a more abundant and widely distributed species in the Neo

  2. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin, flo

  3. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and geography of Neoscortechinia Hook. f. ex Pax (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Six species are recognized in Neoscortechinia, two more than before, because N. angustifolia is raised to species level and N. forbesii is split into N. philippinensis (new combination) and N. forbesii s.s. The varieties of N. kingii are united. The genus Cheilosa, which closely resembles

  4. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin,

  5. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation app

  6. Change in biomass of symbiotic ants throughout the ontogeny of a myrmecophyte, Macaranga beccariana (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Chihiro; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yoneyama, Aogu; Nakamura, Masashi; Sakaguchi, Mari; Takahashi, Narumi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Kenzo, Tanaka; Ichie, Tomoaki; Itioka, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) provide their partner symbiotic ants (plant-ants) with food bodies as their main food, and they are protected by the plant-ants from herbivores. The amount of resource allocated to food bodies determines the plant-ant colony size and consequently determines the intensity of ant defense (anti-herbivore defense by plant-ants). As constraints in resource allocation change as plants grow, the plant-ant colony size is hypothesized to change with the ontogenesis of Macaranga myrmecophyte. To determine the ontogenetic change in the relative size of the plant-ant colony, we measured the dry weights of the whole plant-ant colony and all of the aboveground parts of trees at various ontogenetic stages for a myrmecophytic species (Macaranga beccariana) in a Bornean lowland tropical rain forest. Ant biomass increased as plant biomass increased. However, the rate of increase gradually declined, and the ant biomass appeared to reach a ceiling once trees began to branch. The ant/plant biomass ratio consistently decreased as plant biomass increased, with the rate of decrease gradually accelerating. We infer that the ontogenetic reduction in ant/plant biomass ratio is caused by an ontogenetic change in resource allocation to food rewards for ants related to the physiological changes accompanying the beginning of branching.

  7. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  8. Development of a novel set of microsatellite markers for castor bean, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Kiihl, Tammy Aparecida Manabe; Batista, Carlos Eduardo Araújo; Monteiro, Mariza; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, and to provide support to germplasm management. Eleven microsatellite loci were isolated using an enrichment cloning protocol and used to characterize castor bean germplasm from the collection at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC). In a survey of 76 castor bean accessions, the investigated loci displayed polymorphism ranging from two to five alleles. The information derived from microsatellite markers led to significant gains in conserved allelic richness and provides support to the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for castor bean.

  9. A synopsis or chinese euphorbia L. s.l. (euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majinshuang, J. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic treatment or the Chinese species or Euphorbia (s.l. is summarized. Altogether 5 subgenera., 12 sections and 77 species (including cultivated and escaped ones are recognized as occurring in China. Keys to subgenera., sections and species of Euphorbia (s.l. found in China are presented; the original literature of each species, synonyms and distribution to the provincial level within China and more briefly outside China, as well as comments where necessary, are reported also. One new species (E.tlongchuanensis C. Y. Wu & J. S. Ma, sp. nov. and one new section (Sect. Wentsai C. Y. Wu & J.S. Ma, sect. nov. are described.

    Síntesi del tractament taxonòmic de les espècies d'Euphorbia s.l. de la Xina. En conjunt es reconeixen per aquest país 5 subgèneres, 12 seccions i 77 espècies (incloent cultivades i naturalitzades. També es presenten claus de subgèneres, seccions i espècies; a més s'apona per a cada espècie lloc de publicació. sinònims i distribució a nivell provincial dins la Xina i més breument per a fora de la Xina, així com comentaris on siguin precisos. Es descriu una nova espècie (E. tongchuanensis Wu & Ma. i un nova secció (Sect. Wentsai Wu & Ma..

  10. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  11. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL PELAS SEMENTES TRITURADAS DE Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae EM COELHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marilene de Farias

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis, administradas em doses únicas por sonda intragástrica a coelhos causou graves sintomas de intoxicação com êxito letal nos três coelhos que receberam a dose de 2 g/kg e em um dos quatro que receberam 1 g/kg. Os outros três coelhos que receberam 1g/kg desenvolveram sintomas discretos a moderados e se recuperaram, e os três que receberam 0,5g/kg só mostraram sintomas discretos. O período entre a administração das sementes e a morte ou recuperação variou de 12h47min a 68h08min, e de 3 a 6 dias, respectivamente. Os primeiros sintomas após a administração das sementes, foram observados dentro de cerca 8 horas nos casos letais e nos animais que adoeceram moderadamente, e dentro de cerca 24 horas nos casos com sintomatogia discreta. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 4 a 56 horas nos casos letais e de 2 a 5 meio dias nos casos de recuperação. A sintomatologia consistiu principalmente de perturbações digestivas. Os animais apresentaram inapetência até anorexia. As fezes geralmente eram escassas, com forma e tamanho das síbalas alteradas, eram escuras, às vezes pastosas, com muco. Havia nítidas manifestações de cólica. Os achados de necropsia mais evidentes foram constatados no intestino delgado e ceco. O conteúdo destes segmentos do intestino era líquido. A parede do intestino delgado apresentou congestão e edema e havia fibrina recobrindo a mucosa sob forma de pseudomembranas, ou na luz intestinal sob forma de flocos e/ou filamentos. No ceco havia edema da mucosa como também congestão da parede e fibrina aderida à mucosa ou encontrada em flocos e/ou filamentos no conteúdo. As alterações histológicas mais importantes foram verificadas no intestino delgado e ceco. No intestino delgado observou-se necrose de coagulação associada a congestão/hemorragias na mucosa. Havia ainda congestão/hemorragias e edema na submucosa. Lesões semelhantes foram vistas no ceco onde porém, com exceção do edema da submucosa, eram menos acentuadas. No cólon e reto as lesões eram leves ou ausentes. Foi verificado no apêndice vermiforme e em um caso também no ceco rudimentar, necrose com acentuada cariorrexia de macrófagos que migraram dos folículos linfóides para aparte superior da mucosa.

  12. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Euphorbia caracasana and E. cotinifolia (Euphorbiaceae) from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Janne; Baldovino, Shirley; Vizcaya, Marietta; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils from leaves of E. caracasana Boiss collected from Miyoi, Pueblo Llano, Mérida State at 1800 m above sea level and leaves of E. cotinifolia L collected from Manzano Alto-Ejido, Mérida State at 1520 m were analyzed by GC/MS. Beta-Caryophyllene (33.7 %), alpha-humulene (18.8 %) and aromadendrene (8.4 %) were the major constituents of E. caracasana oil, whereas those of E. cotinifolia oil were beta-caryophyllene (39.3 %), germacrene-D (21.5 %) and alpha-copaene (9.3 %).

  13. 非水溶性乌桕脂烷醇酰胺直接法合成研究%Direct Synthesis of Water-insoluble Sapium Fat Diethanolamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天祥; 吴邦信; 郑蓓; 邵璐

    2000-01-01

    为开发利用中国乌桕脂优势资源,采用正交实验法研究了乌桕脂与二乙醇胺直接酰胺化,在常压,复合碱性催化剂质量分数为0.28%, 反应温度为120 ℃,加料时间为0.5 h,反应时间为4 h,n(二乙醇胺):n(乌桕脂)=3.3:1.0的条件下,乌桕脂的酰胺化率达90%.产品作为助选剂在低磷高镁磷矿上进行浮选实验,P2O5和MgO的质量分数分别达到35%和1%,效果和甲酯法产品接近.

  14. MINIESTAQUIA DE Sapium glandulatum (Vell. PAX COM O USO DE ÁCIDO INDOL BUTÍRICO E ÁCIDO NAFTALENO ACÉTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Guerreira Alpande Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento e a produção de miniestacas por minicepa provenientes de mudas originadas por via seminal, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano (inverno, primavera, verão de 2006 e outono de 2007, no município de Colombo - PR, Brasil. As miniestacas foram confeccionadas com 3-5 cm de comprimento e um par de folhas na porção apical, com sua área reduzida pela metade. Estas foram submetidas a tratamentos com o uso dos reguladores vegetais ácido indol butírico (IBA e ácido naftaleno acético (NAA. Os reguladores foram utilizados na forma de solução por 10 segundos nas bases das miniestacas em concentrações de 0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 mgL-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de miniestacas enraizadas, o número e comprimento das raízes formadas, o percentual de miniestacas com calos, a sobrevivência e mortalidade, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 2x5x4 (tipos de reguladores vegetais x concentrações dos reguladores vegetais x estações do ano. A produção de miniestacas por minicepa a cada coleta variou de 1,4 a 2,2 em recipientes contendo 205 cm3. A estação do inverno mostrou-se promissora para o enraizamento adventício de miniestacas, apresentando 80,56% sem a aplicação dos reguladores vegetais sendo, portanto, desnecessária a aplicação destes para a indução radicial. Desta forma, a técnica de miniestaquia de propágulos oriundos de mudas produzidas por semente é viável e pode ser recomendada para o enraizamento da espécie.

  15. 适合园林应用的三种乌桕属乡土观赏植物%Three Indigenous Ornamental Sapium Plants for Landscape Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新生

    2011-01-01

    乌桕属植物在我国分布广泛,具有较高的经济价值和观赏价值.文章从形态特征、分布、习性、繁殖、观赏价值、应用特点等方面,介绍了适合在园林中推广应用的乌桕属三种植物.

  16. The Application of Sapium P. Br. in Urban Afforestation%乌桕属植物资源在城市绿化中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱民; 戴洪

    2009-01-01

    介绍了乌桕属多种植物的生态分布,阐述了该属植物在城市绿化中的前景;并具体分析了以乌桕和山乌桕(红叶乌桕)为代表的该属植物在城市绿化中的配置原则(色彩适宜性、生境适宜性)及应用模式(自然式配置、规则式配置).最后,建议在乌桕属植物分布区内的城市绿化中大力推广使用.

  17. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    had diameters of 100 cm, i.e. Melanochyla caesia and Lithocarpus urceolaris. Based on the basal area of all species, the logged-over forest at Sekundur is estimated to reach the situation similar to undisturbed primary forest in 56 years after logging, but on the basis of basal area of Dipterocarpaceae such condition could be achieved in 172 years. The canopy has not fully recovered and the complete closure of gaps is estimated to take 53 years since the logging started. The canopy consisted of gap phase (24.6 %, building phase (19.7 % and mature phase (55.7 %. During the period of 18 years the tree mortality was 25.57 % or the rate of 1.4 %/year. Euphorbiaceae experienced the highest mortality, particularly among the trees with diameters of 10-20 cm. Mortality decreased with the increase of diameters. During the same period 520 new trees of 16 species were recruited. The densities of 53 % of the species experienced changes of only one tree or no changes at all. Drastic increase in tree population occurred in light demanding species, such as Baccaurea kunstleri, Endospermum diadenum, Mallotus penangensis, Sapium baccatum and Macaranga diepenhorstii .

  18. Use of Several Plant Materials and Chemicals to inhibit Soil Urease Activity and Increase Nitrogen Recovery Rate of Urea by Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of residues of 9 plants, lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., P1), robust eucalyptus (E. robusta Smith, P2), Nepal camphortree (Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Nees, P3), tea (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze. f., P4), oleander (Nerium indicum Mill, P5), rape (Brassica campestris L., P6),Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum L., P7), tung (Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.), P8), and croton (Croton tiglium L., P9), 7 chemicals, boric acid (C1), borax (C2), oxalic acid (C3), sodium oxalite (C4), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (C6), sodium silicate (C7) and sodium citrate (C8), and a natural organic substance,humic acid (C5), on urease activity of a neutral purple soil and recovery of urea nitrogen by maize were studied through incubation and pot experiments. Hydroquinone (HQ) was applied as the reference inhibitor. After incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, 7 inhibitors with higher ability to inhibit urease activity were selected and then incubated for 14 days at 25 ℃. Results of the incubation experiments showed that soil urease activity was greatly inhibited by them, and the inhibition effect followed an order of P2>P4>C3>C2>P3>C1>HQ>P1.The 7 selected materials reduced the accumulative amounts of N released from urea and the maximum urease activity by 11.7%~28.4% and 26.7%~39.7%, respectively, and postponed the N release peak by 2~4 days in the incubation period of 14 days under constant temperature, as compared to the control (no inhibitor).In the pot experiment with the 7 materials at two levels of addition, low (L) and high (H), the C1 (H), C3(H), C1 (L), P4 (L) and C2 (L) treatments could significantly increase the dry weights of the aboveground parts and the total biomass of the maize plants and the apparent recovery rate of urea-N was increased by 6.3%~32.4% as compared to the control (no hibitor).

  19. 上海植物园典型群落景观美景度评价%Scenic Beauty Evaluation of Typical Plant Communities in Shanghai Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启臻; 吴泽民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive field survey on plant communities of Shanghai Botanical Garden, the study made the landscape aesthetic evaluation for 33 typical communities using scenic beauty evaluation (SBE) . The results indicated that the aesthetic value of the plant communities was - 1.38 -1.37. Sixteen communities were valued≥0, all of which included almost deciduous species and had 3 layers in vertical structure. The major canopy species of the communities with higher aesthetic value were Koelreteria paniculata, Salix madthudana, Sapium sebiferum, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Diospyros kaki, Albizzia julibrissin, etc; and the major understory species were colorful leaf or flower species such as Loropetarum chinense var. rublum, Malus spp. , Rhododendron spp. , Cerasus lannesiana. The factors affecting scenic beauty of plant communities include species composition, colors, vertical structure, harmonization between communities and ambient environment, health conditions of trees and canopy line change. The plant communities in city botanical garden provides a key basis for green space establishment in urban area, so it was proposed to pay close attention to the effects of botanical garden in city greening.%在全面调查上海植物园植物群落的基础上,采用美景度评判法(SBE)对33个典型群落进行美学价值评价,结果表明其美景度值为-1.38~1.37。得分值≥0的有16个群落,其建群树种几乎全为落叶阔叶树、且多为3层结构,得分较高的群落建群树种主要包括栾树、旱柳、乌桕、香樟、银杏、柿树、合欢等,下层以彩叶或观花树种如红花檀木、海棠、杜鹃、日本晚樱、八仙花等为主。影响群落景观关学特点的因素主要有树种组成、色彩、垂直结构、群落与周围环境的协调度、树木的健康状况及林冠线变化度等。植物园的植物群落关景度评价是构建城市绿地群落的重要参考。

  20. Study on the selection of afforestation species for coastal protective in Shanghai city%上海海岸防护林造林树种的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 万福绪; 顾汤华; 李盟

    2012-01-01

    We utilized a multi factor comprehensive evaluation system to select fine coastal protective tree species among a total of 29 tree species, the system focus on growth adaptability, ecological function, landscape effects and economic value to evaluate wheather the tree is appropriate for coastal protection in Shanghai city. Four categories were created after evaluation, among the 29 tree species, 3 were excellent, 3 were good, 6 were common, 17 were inappropriate. Thus those species which had a common and better performance such as Melia azedarach were recommend as the appropriate species for coastal protection in Shanghai city.%以上海市海岸防护林树种为研究对象,用层次分析法建立涵盖生长适应性、生态功能、景观效应、经济价值等多因子的综合评价指标体系,对该区域营造的29个防护林树种进行了评价筛选.结果表明试验树种分为4类:表现优良的树种3种,表现较好的树种3种,表现一般的树种6种,不适应树种17种.在水盐协同胁迫逆境下,推荐苦楝(Melia azedarach)、青桐(Firmiana simplex)、栾树(Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.)、金丝垂柳(Salix×aureo-pendula)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum (L.)Roxb.)、黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)、中山杉(Taxodium hybrid)、喜树(Camptotheca acuminata Dencne)、墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium mucronatum)、雪松(Cedrus deodara)、枫香(Liquidambar formosara)、南酸枣(Choerosponias axillaris)等12个乔木树种作为上海地区海岸防护林体系建设的适宜树种.

  1. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

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    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  2. 生态景观林树种选择定量研究%Tree species selection for an ecological landscape forest at Qingshan Lake, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊; 韦新良; 尤建林; 徐小军

    2008-01-01

    树种选择是生态景观林营建中重要的技术要素.以浙江省青山湖国家森林公园为研究对象,针对当地的自然环境条件、生态建设与旅游发展的要求,制订了树种选择标准.根据专家建议,以树种的生物学特性、观赏特性和生态功能作为生态景观林树种选择的主要依据,确定了形态习性、生长速度、土壤适应性和抗病虫性等12个树种评价指标,采用5级评分制对每一项指标进行量化分级,并运用层次分析法确定了各个指标的权重,为研究区生态景现林树种选择提出了一个完整的评价指标体系和数量化评价模型.应用树种评价模型对研究区41个绿化树种进行了综合评价.结果表明:合欢Albizzia julibrissin,枫香 Liquidamba formosana,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,黄连木 Pistacia chinensis,臭椿Ailanthus altissima.银杏 Ginkgo biloba等落叶树种综合性状良好;苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,樟树Cinnamomum camphora,深山含笑Michelia maudiae和木荷Schima superba等常绿树种综合性状较好.但因合欢分枝较低,不宜做大面积绿化树种,建议选择枫香、乌桕、苦槠和樟树作为青山湖国家森林公园生态景观林建设的基调树种.表2参64

  3. 浙江省常见15个树种的光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 温国胜; 张俊; 邹伶俐; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    为比较不同树种对光的适应能力和耐荫性,探讨树种在植被恢复过程中的配置依据,利用Licor-6400便携式光合仪,于2010年秋季测定了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens等15个浙江常见树种的光响应过程和光合日进程,并计算上述树种的光能利用率。研究结果表明:①所测15个树种的净光合速率日变化均呈单峰型,无"光合午休"现象。②东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa分别是阔叶、针叶和灌木树种中光能利用率峰值较高的树种。③光饱和点苦槠最高,浙江楠Phoebe chekiangensis最低;光补偿点马尾松Pinus massoniana最高,红豆杉最低。④对光补偿点和光饱和点进行聚类分析,认为马尾松,乌冈Quercus phillyraeoides,属于强阳性树种;苦槠,美丽胡枝子,水杉Metasequoiaglyptostroboide,东南石栎归属于阳性树种;红花木Loropetalum chinense,红叶石楠Photinia×fraseri,杜英,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,木荷,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,红豆杉和浙江楠归类为耐荫树种,对弱光的利用能力较强。

  4. 珠海市典型区域生态景观林树种资源构建研究%Status Research of Afforestation Species of Ecological Landscape Forest in Zhuhai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪辉; 赵庆; 魏丹; 陈家平; 周咏文; 林溪

    2014-01-01

    以广东省珠海市2005-2009年间营建的生态景观林为研究对象,采用文献与理论、调查与评价的研究方法,对该地区的植物区系、植物资源进行初步研究,结果如下:(1)调查的24个典型样地以及沿途路线中,共有39种乔木,分属于19科31属;(2)有24种观赏性比较突出的植物:南洋楹、樟树、黎蒴、红锥、青冈、铁冬青、海南红豆、杨梅、红花荷、醉香含笑、大头茶、木荷、灰木莲、蓝花楹、海南蒲桃、银桦、山杜英、尖叶杜英、南酸枣、乌桕、山乌桕、木蜡树、枫香、楝叶吴茱萸;(3)将选取的24个样地利用SPSS 软件进行组间平均距离连接法聚类,划分为6个群系:米老排群系、樟树群系、金合欢属群系、木荷群系、山杜英+马占相思群系、大头茶群系。%based on themethod of investigation and evaluation, the plant resources and flora of ecological landscape forest planted between 2005 and 2009 in Zhuhai were studied.The results were as following: (1) there were a total of 39 species of trees, belonging to 19 families and 31 genus, in 24 typical plots as well as the route;(2) there were24 kinds of plants with high or namental value, including Albizia falcataria, Cinnamomum camphora, Castanopsis fissa, Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Ilex rotunda, Ormosia pinnata, Myrica rubra, Rhodoleia championii, Michelia macclurei, Gordonia axillaris, Schima superba, Manglietia glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Syzygium hainanense, Grevillea robusta, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Elaeocarpus apiculatus, Choerospondias axillaris, Sapium sebiferum, Sapium discolor, Toxicodendron succedaneum, Liquidambar for mosana and Cassia siamea; (3) using SPSS software for connecting the average distance between groups clustering, the selected 24 plots could be divided into six flora: Mytilaria laosensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Acacia, Schima superba, Elaeocarpus sylvestris+ Acacia mangium

  5. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  6. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  7. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL, in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida dos hidrolatos obtidos por destilação à vapor de caule e folha das espécies de Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus e Croton zehntneri contra Aedes aegypti. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 25 larvas de 3º estádio juntamente com 50 mL de cada hidrolato, dispostos em recipientes plásticos, num esquema de quatro repetições, utilizando-se como controle a água e avaliando-se a mortalidade com 24 horas de tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa tanto em relação aos hidrolatos das diferentes espécies vegetais, quanto em relação às diferentes partes de cada planta (p < 0,001. Os hidrolatos referentes ao caule e folha de C. nepetaefolius e C. zehntneri causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas e diferiram das demais espécies, exceto da folha do C. argyrophylloides que apresentou o mesmo resultado. Os compostos presentes em C. zehntneri e C. nepetaefolius são fenil propanóides mais solúveis em água que os monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos detectados em C. argyrophylloides e C. sonderianus. Esta pesquisa evidenciou que todas as espécies testadas possuem compostos com propriedades larvicidas, com diferenças entre as partes da planta analisadas.

  8. Wood axial characterization of 32-year-old Croton piptocalyx Müll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae. Caracterização axial da madeira de Croton piptocalyx Müll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae com 32 anos de idade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Aparecida VIANNA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the wood anatomy of Croton piptocalyx. To carry out an investigation of axial variation, discussing it in a functional context, helping to increase knowledge about the species. Five randomly selected 32-year-old trees were felled at the Luiz Antonio Experimental Station, located in Luiz Antonio City, São Paulo state, Brazil. From stems, discs were cut from six different stem heights (stem base, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4 m, and 5 m. For each disc, samples close to the bark were removed for wood anatomy studies and specific gravity calculation. Wood anatomy of C. piptocalyx generally agrees with that of other species of the genus as described in the literature. However, variation in both quantitative and qualitative data could be related to tree age and species differences. Axial variations found in vessel element length, vessel diameter and ray height can be respectively related to the hypothesized Typical Radial Pattern based on the occurrence of shorter and narrower cells in younger parts of the wood, involving vessel element length and diameter, and mechanical requirement in the case of higher rays at the trunk base.Nosso objetivo foi caracterizar anatomicamente a madeira de Croton piptocalyx, investigando a variação axial e discutindo-a em um contexto funcional, contribuindo para aumentar o conhecimento sobre a espécie. Cortamos aleatoriamente cinco árvores com 32 anos de idade na Estação Experimental de Luiz Antonio, na cidade de Luiz Antonio, São Paulo, Brasil. Dos troncos retiramos discos em seis alturas diferentes (base do tronco, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4 m e 5 m. Em cada um dos discos, retiramos amostras próximas à casca para estudos anatômicos e determinação da densidade aparente. A anatomia da madeira de C. piptocalyx em geral é similar com o que já está descrito na literatura para outras espécies do gênero. No entanto, há variações quantitativas e qualitativas, que em parte podem estar relacionadas às diferenças na idade de árvores e, obviamente, à diferença entre espécies. As variações axiais no comprimento dos elementos de vaso, diâmetro do vaso e altura do raio, devem estar relacionadas, respectivamente, ao Típico Padrão Radial, caracterizado pela ocorrência de células menores e mais estreitas em partes mais jovens da madeira (comprimento do elemento de vaso e diâmetro do vaso e aos requerimentos mecânicos, no caso dos raios mais altos na base do tronco.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ETHANOL STEM BARK EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN. (EUPHORBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Wakirwa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of the ethanol stem bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linn. The results obtained indicates the presence of some secondary metabolites; saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, flavonoids and terpenoids. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial activities which were dose-dependent with zones of inhibition ranging from 10-15mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 11-17mm for E. coli, 10-18mm for Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 14-26mm for Candida albicans. The MIC of the extract on the clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia was 25mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml, respectively. While the MBC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 50mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml, respectively. The results obtained indicate that ethanol stem bark extract of Jatropha curcas has antibacterial and antifungal activity which can be attributed to the presence of some of the essential secondary metabolites.

  10. Morfologia polínica de plantas cultivadas no parque do Museu Goeldi. VI. Família Euphorbiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Léa Maria Medeiros; Raposo, Rita de Cássia O.; Lobato, Edna Suely P.

    1991-01-01

    Os grãos de pólen das espécies Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (seringa verdadeira), H. camargoana Pires, H. guianensis Aubl. (seringa vermelha), H. nitida Muell. Arg., Hura crepitans L. (açacu), Joannesia hevenoides Ducke (castanha-de-arara), Omphalea diandra Aubl. (Casiatê) e Phyllanthus niruri L.. (quebra-pedra) foram analisados quanto ao tamanho, forma, número de aberturas, ornamentação e estratificação da exina. Foi verificado que esses grãos de pólen variam de pequenos a médios, de apola...

  11. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    M.V. Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.

  12. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Berry, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. We sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of C(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • Two nuclear (ITS and exon 9 of EMB2765) and three chloroplast markers (matK, rpl16, and trnL-F) were sequenced for 138 ingroup and six outgroup species. Exon 9 of EMB2765 was cloned in accessions with >1% superimposed peaks. • The Chamaesyce clade is monophyletic and consists of three major subclades [1(2,3)]: (1) the Acuta clade, containing three North American species with C(3) photosynthesis and C(3)-C(4) intermediates; (2) the Peplis clade, mostly North American and entirely C(4); and (3) the Hypericifolia clade, all C(4), with both New World and Old World groups. Incongruence between chloroplast and ITS phylogenies and divergent cloned copies of EMB2765 exon 9 suggest extensive hybridization, especially in the Hawaiian Islands radiation. • The Chamaesyce clade originated in warm, arid areas of North America, where it evolved C(4) photosynthesis. From there, it diversified globally with extensive reticulate evolution and frequent long-distance dispersals. Although many species are weedy, there are numerous local adaptations to specific substrates and regional or island radiations, which have contributed to the great diversity of this group.

  13. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  14. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae in Mice

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    Lenise de Morais Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09% and α-phellandrene (15.43% as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system.

  15. Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Excoecaria agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, Vundru; Ammani, Kandru; Jobina, Rajkumari; Parasuraman, Paramanandham; Siddhardha, Busi

    2016-12-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extracts has been achieved by eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal efficacies of AgNPs synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts of Excoecaria agallocha against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The 3(rd) and 4(th) instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extracts of E. agallocha, synthesized AgNPs and also crude solvent extracts (methanol and chloroform) for 24 h. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extracts was observed after 30 min with a characteristic colour change. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, XRD, FTIR, EDX, SEM and HR-TEM were used to characterize and confirm the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The highest larvicidal efficacy of synthesized AgNPs was observed against 3(rd) instar larvae at LC50 4.65 mg/L, LC90 14.17 mg/L and 4(th) instar larvae with a concentration of LC50 6.10 mg/L, LC90 15.64 mg/L. A significant larvicidal activity was also observed with crude methanolic extracts against 3(rd) instar larvae at a concentration LC50 41.74 mg/L, LC90 123.61 mg/L and 4(th) instar larvae at a concentration of LC50 52.06 mg/L, LC90 166.40 mg/L as compared to the chloroform extract.

  16. Anti-allergic agents from natural sources (4): anti-allergic activity of new phloroglucinol derivatives from Mallotus philippensis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikonya, Akihiro; Katsuki, Shigeki; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2002-12-01

    Two new phloroglucinol derivatives, mallotophilippen A (1). and B (2). were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis. These compounds were identified, using chemical and spectral data, as 1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-isobutyryl-5-methyl-benzyl)-2H-chromen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one and 1-[6-(3-Acetyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one, respectively. They inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene expression by a murine macrophage-like cell line (RAW 264.7), which was activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant mouse interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Furthermore, they inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by Compound 48/80. These results suggest that the novel phloroglucinol derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus.

  18. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that it may be used as a new source of bioactive molecules against bothropic venom. PMID:25126759

  19. Aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae inhibits enzymatic and biological actions of Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs, including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs, as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2. Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that it may be used as a new source of bioactive molecules against bothropic venom.

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladão; Valadares, Marize Campos; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Synadenium umbellatum Pax., popularly known in Brazil as “cola-nota,” “avelós,” “cancerola,” and “milagrosa”, is a plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. leaves (EES) and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), and methanol/water (MF) fractions using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, formalin-induced paw licking test, tail flick test, croton oil-induced ear edema test, and carrageenan-induced peritonitis test. EES and MF reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, while CF and HF did not. EES effect on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reversed with a pretreatment with naloxone. EES reduced licking time in both phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test, but did not prolong the latency in the tail flick test. These results show that EES presented antinociceptive activity, probably involving the opioid system, anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test, and leukocyte migration into the intraperitoneal cavity. MF also presented anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In conclusion, EES and MF have antinociceptive activity involving the opioid system and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23401717

  1. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  2. Evaluation of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens var. Hispolii (N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae: 2. Investigation in lotic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Baptista

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m; 92.6% (50 m and 94.7% (100. No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata.

  3. Studies on the flora of the Guianas 21. Mabea species (Euphorbiaceae) of the Guianas – a precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den G.; Berg, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    The nine species of Mabea, some with subspecies, recognized for the Guianas are keyed out and listed with their synonyms and distributions. Several of these species are lectotypified. One new species is described: M. angularis den Hollander, while four new combinations are made: M. montana Müller-Ar

  4. Studies on the flora of the Guianas 21. Mabea species (Euphorbiaceae) of the Guianas – a precursor

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, den, WThF Frank; C.C. Berg

    1983-01-01

    The nine species of Mabea, some with subspecies, recognized for the Guianas are keyed out and listed with their synonyms and distributions. Several of these species are lectotypified. One new species is described: M. angularis den Hollander, while four new combinations are made: M. montana Müller-Argoviensis subsp. biglandulosa (Müller-Argoviensis) den Hollander, M. montana Müller-Argoviensis subsp. lucida (Pax & K. Hoffmann) den Hollander, M. setulosa (Müller- Argoviensis) den Hollander, and...

  5. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae myrmecophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Ueda

    Full Text Available A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  6. Effects on spermatogenesis in swiss mice of a protein isolated from the roots of Ricinus communis (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Swathy, S S; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62 kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study showed that sperm motility and count were decreased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. The fertility index of the treated groups was reduced by 100%. The activity of HMG Co A reductase and cholesterol were increased significantly in the treated group. The testicular activities of 3βHSD, 17βHSD, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme and the level of serum testosterone were decreased significantly in the treated group. The expression of 3βHSD and 17βHSD were decreased and the expression of StAR increased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. Proteolytic digestion of the native protein with trypsin and chymotrypsin showed that the proteolytic cleavage did not affect the spermicidal action of Rp. Hence this study can be concluded that Rp impaired spermatogenesis in vivo by suppressing the production of testosterone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS+ assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS+) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS+ free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS+ radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  8. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines.

  9. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we concluded that J. oaxacana requires special protection, and J. ciliata and J. rufescens were species under extinction risk. The conservation status of the plant communities inhabited by populations of Jatropha spp. was moderate, taking into account the rate of disturbance. The main factors affecting the habitats of Jatropha were livestock and human activities; the floristic composition of the surrounding plant communities has low richness. These results support the urgent need of conservation strategies to avoid the loss of important wild growing species of Jatropha populations.

  10. Wound-Healing potential of Sebastiania hispida (Mart. Pax (Euphorbiaceae ointment compared to low power laser in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Rizzi

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired wound healing represents a serious complication in some pathologies and the use of plant extracts has proved to improve tissue repair. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the healing potential of the ointment of Sebastiana hispida compared with Aluminum-Gallium Indium-Phosphide Laser (InGaAlP in surgically induced wounds in rats and to perform the phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical analysis was performed in the classic way and also by HPLC. A controlled study was developed with 80 rats (200-250 g in which a linear excision was performed in the dorsal region after shaving, measuring 2 cm × 1 cm (epidermis and dermis exposing the muscle fascia. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of twenty animals each. The experimental groups (n = 5 were G1 (Saline; G2 (crude methanol plant extract 2% + Carbopol Gel 98%; G3 (crude methanol plant extract 2% + lanolin/vaseline and G4 (laser. The incision healing processes were monitored during 3, 7, 14 and until 21 days after excision. The histologic parameters evaluated were Collagen fiber types, microscopic examination and neovascularization. There was a significant increase in the deposition of collagen fibers, as evidenced by a better organized epithelial tissue, keratinized and showing greater proliferation of new blood vessels in the inflammatory phase in the group treated with both the extract and laser. The results were correlated to the phenolic derivatives found after qualitative and quantitative analysis. These compounds were considered responsible for the healing process. The topical treatment with S. hispida leaves, in the two different formulations, was more effective than the application of the laser (Ingan ALP 660 nm in the model used.

  11. In vivo anti-salmonella activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostrata Aiton(Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicological evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald; Sédric; Tala; Donatien; Gatsing; Siméon; Pierre; Chegaing; Fodouop; Charles; Fokunang; Fabrice; Kengni; Merline; Namekong; Djimeli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vivo anti-salmonella activity and the safety of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostratra(E. prostratra), a plant commonly used in Cameroon by traditional healers.Methods: A Salmonella typhimurium-infected rat model was used for the study. The physiological, biochemical and histopathological markers of possible side effects of this extract were studied using standard methods.Results: The extract had a significant effect on the number of viable Salmonella typhimurium recovered from faeces, and could stop salmonellosis after 8 and 10 days of treatment for male and female rats, respectively, with non-toxic doses. However, the biochemical and histopathological analyses revealed that at relatively high doses(≥ 73.48 mg/kg for female and ≥ 122.71 mg/kg for male) the extract could induce liver damage, as illustrated by a rise of serum transaminases’ levels and significant inflammation of the parenchyma and portal vein.Side effects were also observed on the kidneys, as shown by both serum and urinary creatinine,and urinary proteins.Conclusions: The overall results indicate that the aqueous extract of E. prostrata has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. However,it is necessary to extrapolate these results in large animals, in further studies.

  12. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo das folhas de Jatropha molissima (Pohl) Baill. e Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Leal, Crislaine Kieva; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo um estudo farmacobotânico comparativo das folhas de Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl) Baill. e Jatropha molissima (Pohl) Baill., espécies usadas na medicina popular do Nordeste do Brasil. Realizou-se estudos morfológicos para as identificações e morfodiagnoses macroscópicas, além de cortes paradérmicos e transversais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, à mão livre, posteriormente corados com safranina, para as morfodiagnoses microscópicas. Observou-se que as du...

  13. Effects of waterlogging on growth, porosity and radial oxygen loss of three tree species%涝渍对3个树种生长、组织孔隙度和渗漏氧的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪贵斌; 曹福亮; 王媛

    2012-01-01

    Aims Flooding reduces soil oxygen content, and leads to oxygen deprivation in the root system of plants. Since oxygen is essential for mitochondrial respiration, this process cannot be maintained under anoxic conditions and must be replaced by other pathways. Our objective was to understand flooding adaptation mechanisms of baldcy-press (Taxodium distichuni), Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) under waterlogged conditions. Methods One-year seedlings of baldcypress, Chinese tallow tree and pecan were grown in pots, and three treatments were implemented: CK (control, common soil water content), WA (waterlogging, water level equal with soil surface) and FL (flooding, water level 8 cm above soil surface). Treatments lasted 65 days, and indexes of growth, porosity and root oxygen consumption were determined at different times after treatment. Important findings We found that WA and FL treatments inhibited growth of both Chinese tallow tree and pe-can,but biomass and biomass increment of baldcypress increased under WA condition, indicating that baldcypress was more tolerant to flooding. Root/shoot ratio of the three tree species increased significantly under WA and FL treatments, which was primarily due to the decrease of stem and leaf biomass. WA and FL treatments also stimulated aerenchyma formation in the roots, stems and leaves of the three tree species, thereby the porosity in the roots, stems and leaves of the three tree species increased significantly under WA and FL conditions. The aerenchyma formation and increased porosity enhanced O2 diffusion to roots and rhizosphere. Our results indicate that baldcypress, Chinese tallow tree and pecan exhibit several adaptive mechanisms in response to waterlogging, including formation of new roots, aerenchyma formation, increased porosity of the roots, stems and leaves, and increased O2 release into the rhizosphere.%为了了解落羽杉(Taxodium distichum)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum

  14. Isolation, Identification of Honey Yeast for Sapium Discolor Mead and Application%山乌桕蜂蜜酒酿造酵母的筛选、鉴定及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史莹; 张丽珍; 曾志将; 王子龙; 颜伟玉

    2013-01-01

    目的:从天然蜂蜜中筛选1株适合山乌桕蜂蜜酒酿造的酵母,采用分子生物学方法进行鉴定,同时分析蜂蜜酒香味成分.方法:以自然发酵的陈旧蜂蜜酵母菌进行富集培养和划线分离,通过镜检、杜氏管发酵法进行初筛,通过产酒精能力、耐性能力、发酵力测试以及凝聚性比较进行复筛.通过26S rDNA Dl/D2区序列测定、系统发育分析,对所筛选的酵母菌进行分子生物学鉴定,并采用气相色谱-质谱法分析山乌桕蜂蜜酒香味成分.结果:从自然发酵的蜂蜜中分离出39株酵母菌,通过复筛得到1株适合山乌桕蜂蜜酿酒的优良酵母S2.该酵母菌在30%(质量分数)糖,20%(体积分数)酒精,200 mg/L NaHSO3,pH 4.0条件下发酵7d,可产酒精13.12%(体积百分数),且酒香浓郁.该酵母菌与季也蒙毕赤酵母(EU177574)和毕赤酵母(FN398021)的遗传距离最近,相似性均为99%.从山乌桕蜂蜜酒中鉴定出55种香味化合物,占总香味成分的97.74%.结论:所筛选的酵母菌S2(JX233487)最适合山乌桕蜂蜜的酿造,该菌株被鉴定为毕赤酵母属.山乌桕蜂蜜酒中的香味成分主要是醇类和酯类.

  15. 湖南省乌桕属植物分类及其园林应用研究%Study on Categories and Application of Sapium in Landscape of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕丽霞; 刘克旺; 赵深

    2007-01-01

    阐述了湖南省乌桕属植物的形态特征、生态习性、地理分布及其观赏特性和园林应用,探讨了乌桕属植物在园林中的开发与利用的意义及前景,建议大力开发与利用乌桕属植物.

  16. Characteristics of garden trees in resistance to the early winter snow in Hefei%合肥市园林树种抗初冬雪压特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄媛媛; 黄成林

    2011-01-01

    通过对合肥市2009年初冬雪灾后园林树种受损情况的调查,分析得出:(1)受雪压的树种中香樟、杨树、雪松、乌桕、悬铃木平均每株断枝、干数在30枝以上,抗雪压能力很差;朴树、广玉兰、羽毛枫、无患子等平均每株断枝、干数在20-30枝,抗雪压能力差;紫叶李,女贞、国槐、圆柏等平均每株断枝,干数在10~20枝,抗雪压能力中等;白榆、柳树、栾树、蜀桧、池杉、黄连木等平均每株断枝、干数在10枝以下,抗雪压能力较强;(2)常用的15种园林树木中,香樟、悬铃木、雪松、合欢、女贞、紫叶李等在胸径30 cm以下的断枝、干数量较多,平均每种断枝、干数为2 469枝,抗雪压能力较弱:在胸径30 cm以上的15种树种断枝、干数量较少,平均每种断枝、干数为117枝,抗雪压能力较强.通过以上研究,发现合肥市园林树种抗雪压能力的差异,为城市园林树种规划提供理论依据,也为在灾害天气来临时提前做好园林树种的保护措施提供参考.%Through the investigation of the damaged garden trees in Hefei city after snow disaster in early winter of 2009, we could make conclusion as follows. (1) The abilities of anti-snow pressure, with average num ber in broken branches and trunks, are obviously different, Cinnamomum camphora, Populus canadensis cv.Ⅰ,Cedrus deodara, Sapium sebiferum and Platanus acerifolia, with average number above 30, is poor; for Celtis tetrandra, Magnolia grandiflora, Acer palmatum cv. Dissecum, Sapindus mulorossi ect, with average number be tween 20 and 30, shows relatively poor; for Prunus ceraifera cv. Ateopurpurea, Ligustrum lucidum, Sophora ja ponica, Sabina chinensis ect, with average number between 10 and 20, gets medium; for Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, Koelreuteria paniculata, Sabina komarovii, Taxodiu mascendens, Pistacia chinensis, with average number below 10, becomes strong; (2) Among 15 common garden tree species

  17. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties.

  18. Interacciones planta-insecto-parasitoide en semillas de Alchornea grandiflora (Euphorbiaceae en el Santuario De Fauna y Flora Otún-Quimbaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la depredación pre-dispersión por insectos en semillas de Alchornea grandiflora y algunos aspectos de
    la interacción con parasitoides. Se colectaron frutos de nueve árboles por medio de trampas de semillas. La
    depredación se evaluó con categorías de daño y se determinóla influencia de algunos atributos de las semillas,
    como tamaño y estado de madurez. Así mismo, se determinaron las especies depredadoras de las semillas, los niveles de daño asociados, la duración de sus estados inmaduros y la interacción con parasitoides. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la cantidad y el tamaño de semillas producidas por cada árbol durante la
    temporada de cosecha. De 60 a 90% de las semillas de A. grandiflora presentaron niveles de depredación elevados,
    ejercidos principalmente por dos especies de lepidópteros, Gnorimoschema sp. y Gelechia sp., cuya frecuencia
    fue de hasta 60% por árbol. Las semillas fueron dispersadas en diferente estado de madurez, factor que
    influencia en gran medida los niveles de daño. La depredación constituye la mayor fuente de mortalidad de las semillas y los árboles con la mayor producción de frutos presentaron los porcentajes de depredación más bajos, lo que sugiere un mecanismo de saciación. Se encontraron ocho especies de parasitoides con diferentes estrategias parasíticas asociados con los depredadores de las semillas en estados inmaduros, todas ellas causando
    la muerte de sus huéspedes en estados larvales avanzados, por lo que el control sobre la depredación no es
    inmediato. El aborto de las semillas constituye un segundo factor relevante para la mortalidad.

  19. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus..

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  20. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex willd.(Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Sa

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  1. Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, I R

    2011-01-01

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family:Euphorbiaceae) andBacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensiListon. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  3. The area ratio of leaves and green stems and degree of leaves reduction of succulent plants of the genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii O. Kalashnyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between area of green leaves and stem area for model photosynthetic plants of 23 Euphorbia L. species were determined. On the base of this ratio studied species were divided onto three groups: a leaf surface area exceeds area of green stems more than in twice; b leaf surface area exceeds area of green stems less than in twice; c area of green stems exceeds leaf surface area more than in twice. Correlation between these groups and arid degree of native habitats of investigated species has been ascertained. It was established that current grouping method is more objective in sense of morphological characteristic stem-succulent representatives from the genus Euphorbia in context of their ecological specifications than simple statement of leaves presence and photosynthetic activity of the stem.

  4. Análise fitoquímica e atividade fotoprotetora de extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.F ORLANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau, conhecida popularmente como “avelós”, “cachorro pelado” ou “pau-pelado”, é utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de câncer, antibiótico e antivirótico. As plantas medicinais são, frequentemente, utilizadas com o intuito de substituir ou auxiliar as terapias convencionais no tratamento de várias doenças, inclusive para evitar os malefícios causados por radiações ultravioletas. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial fotoprotetor e a triagem fitoquímica do extrato etanólico das partes aéreas de avelós. A atividade fotoprotetora foi avaliada por meio de ensaios in vitro segundo o método adaptado de Mansur, utilizando extrato etanólico das partes aéreas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o estudo fitoquímico evidenciou a presença de açúcares redutores, alcaloides, fenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, esteroides e triterpenóides na fração etanólica. O extrato apresentou capacidade antioxidante (EC50 de 16,98 ± 0,35 μg.mL-1, teor de compostos fenólicos de 96,18 ± 1,33 mg EqAG/g e flavonoides de 63,57 ± 2,74 mg EqC/g que podem favorecer a atividade fotoprotetora. Avaliando o fator de proteção solar, pode-se observar que todas as concentrações testadas (0,01 a 0,1 µg.mL-1 apresentaram potencial de fotoproteção da radiação ultravioleta com variação de FPS de 6,05 a 19,84, respectivamente. Esses resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau apresenta possível efeito fotoprotetor.

  5. The morphological range in Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) and a taxonomic revision of its section Rottleropsis (including Axenfeldia) in Malesia, Thailand and Africa .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Aparicio, M.; Gebraad, M.J.H.; Kulju, K.K.M.; Welzen, van P.C.

    2007-01-01

    The range of diagnostic morphological features in the whole genus Mallotus is reviewed as background to the taxonomic treatment of section Rottleropsis s.l. Special emphasis is given to the indumentum, habit, stipules, leaves, extrafloral nectaries, domatia, inflorescences, flowers, pollen and fruit

  6. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the positive control (amoxicillin). None of the fungi was inhibited by the acetone extract of E. golondrina except Candida albicans wherein the zone of inhibition was not significantly different from that of the positive control (Amphotericin B). The ABTS scavenging activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon.

  7. Sectional rearrangement of arborescent clades of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in South America : evolution of arillate seeds and a new species, Croton domatifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarda Riina; Benjamin van Ee; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Alfonso Cardozo; Paul E. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Most of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect....

  8. Physiological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata say, 1818 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. Many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of E. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to treatment for 24 h. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid and total proteins in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopodal mass were determined. The LD50 value was 1 mg/l. The highest escape index was found to be at a concentration of 0.6 mg/l. The results showed that the latex of E. splendens var. hislopii caused a sharp reduction in the reserves of glycogen in the digestive gland and elevation of the protein content in the hemolymph of B. glabrata.

  9. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b. (Euphorbiaceae - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  10. Evaluation of the larvicidal activity of extracts obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lúcia da Cunha e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the public health problems affecting the human population, at the national and world levels, dengue fever stands out, whose primary vector of the virus is Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. For reducing the population density of this vector, an integrated control is recommended and, as an element of this control, the use of insecticides. However, this practice has led to the selection of resistant insect populations. Thus, there is a need to seek alternative insecticides that can contribute to control this vector. This study aimed to evaluate the larvicidal potential of an extract obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius against larvae of A. aegypti, as well as conduct a phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract and the hexane, dichloromethanic, and hydroalcoholic fractions, besides ethyl acetate, were tested on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. The biological assays revealed the larvicidal effectiveness of the extract of the stem of C. linearifolius against A. aegypti, especially the dichloromethanic and hexane fractions. Phytochemical screening showed the presence in the ethanolic extract of strong fixed acids, alkaloids, catechins, free steroids, flavonoids, flavones, resins, condensed tannins, and xanthones.

  11. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  12. Identification and modulatory activity assessment of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone isolated from croton anisodontus müll. Arg.(euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria T A; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Sena, Diniz M; Santos, Hélcio S; de Mesquita, Bruna M; Albuquerque, Maria R J R; Bandeira, Paulo N; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2014-05-01

    The n-hexane extract of the stem bark of Croton anisodontus yielded 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone, a well-known substance, but isolated from this species for the first time. The antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the compound towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis strains were assessed. Antibiotics such as amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin were used in a sub-inhibitory concentration. Significant activity was observed towards P. aeruginosa and S. aureus 358, with p < 0.001 in association with amikacin. The present results place C anisodontus as an alternative source of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone with antibacterial potential.

  13. Interacciones planta-insecto-parasitoide en semillas de Alchornea grandiflora (Euphorbiaceae) en el Santuario De Fauna y Flora Otún-Quimbaya

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió la depredación pre-dispersión por insectos en semillas de Alchornea grandiflora y algunos aspectos de
    la interacción con parasitoides. Se colectaron frutos de nueve árboles por medio de trampas de semillas. La
    depredación se evaluó con categorías de daño y se determinóla influencia de algunos atributos de las semillas,
    como tamaño y estado de madurez. Así mismo, se determinaron las especies depredadoras de las semillas, los niveles de daño asociado...

  14. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-01-27

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml(-1), respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml(-1), respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg(-1) and 2,500 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse.

  15. Phytochemical constituents and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata Linn. (Euphorbiacea) leaf extracts against chikungunya vector,Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramar Ganasekar; Jeyasankar Alagarmalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the phytochemical and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata (T. involucrata) leaf extracts against fourth instar larvae ofAe. aegypti. Methods:Phytochemical analysis of hexane leaf extract was performed and larvicidal activity was determined againstAe. aegypti at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The hexane extracts ofT. involucrata was found to be higher mortality against the larvae ofAe. aegypti with a LC50 value of 153.51 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggested that the leaf extracts ofT. involucrata showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of theAe. aegypti.

  16. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

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    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  17. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V

    2016-07-01

    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales.

  18. Biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Jatropha gossypiifolia, commercial (Manihot esculenta) and wild cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalí, Arturo; Belloti, Anthony C; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2010-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests of cassava in Africa and several countries of Asia due to the damage caused by direct feeding, the excretion of honeydew, and its capacity as a vector of cassava mosaic geminivirus. There is a general consensus that B. tabaci is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable populations with different biotypes. In the Americas, the polyphagous biotype B does not appear to feed on cassava. Recent studies indicate that it is possible, however, for biotype B to gradually adapt to cassava using phylogenetically related hosts. Therefore, the possibility that some wild species of cassava constitute intermediate hosts in the adaptation process may lead to the establishment of biotype B on commercial varieties of Manihot esculenta. In here, we evaluated Jatropha gossypiifolia, two wild species of cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) and a commercial cassava variety (MCol 2063) as hosts of biotype B. The highest oviposition rate (2.7 eggs /two days) occurred on M. esculenta, although the development time (44 d) was the longest when compared to M. carthaginensis and J. gossypiifolia. About 60% of the population could reproduce on the wild cassava species vs. 55% on J. gossypiifolia and 27.5% on the commercial variety. Our data suggest that J. gossypiifolia is a suitable host and the wild species M. carthaginensis can constitute a potential intermediate host in the adaptation of biotype B to commercial varieties of cassava.

  19. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  20. Environ: E00405 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00405 Plau-noi Crude drug Plaunotol [CPD:C13273] Croton sublyratus [TAX:107238] Euphorbiaceae (spurge...ugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00405 Plau-noi ...

  1. Drug: D04417 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 06562], (+)-Gallocatechin [CPD:C12127] Mallotus japonicus [TAX:29747] Same as: E00033 Therapeutic category: 2399 Euphorbiaceae (spurg...icot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) D04417 Mallotus bark PubChem: 17398099 ...

  2. Application of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil (Euphorbiaceae and microcurrent on the healing of experimental wounds in Wistar rats Aplicação do óleo das sementes de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae e microcorrente no reparo de lesões experimentais em ratos Wistar

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    José Roberto Passarini Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and microcurrent stimulation on the healing of wounds experimentally induced in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight animals were divided into four groups: (A control; (B treated with microcurrent (10 µA/2 min; (C treated with J. curcas seed oil, and (D treated with J. curcas seed oil plus microcurrent. Tissues samples were obtained two, six, ten and 14 days after injury and submitted to structural and morphometric analyses. RESULTS: The animals of groups A and C showed similar responses in terms of repair area, total number of cells, number of newly formed blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and percentage of area occupied by mature collagen fibers. Significant differences in all parameters analyzed were observed between animals of groups B and D and the control 10 and 14 days after experimentally induced injury. The morphometric data confirmed the structural findings CONCLUSIONS: The application of J. curcas seed oil alone was not effective on experimental wound healing when compared to control, but microcurrent application alone or combined with the oil exerted significant differences in the parameters studied. These findings suggest that the positive results were due to microcurrent stimulation.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos do óleo das sementes de Jatropha curcas L.e microcorrente em lesões experimentais em de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: (A controle, (B tratado com aplicação de microcorrente, (C tratado com óleo de sementes de J. curcas e (D tratado com de óleo de sementes de J. curcas associado à microcorrente. Amostras de tecido foram obtidas no 2º, 6º, 10º e 14º dia após a lesão e submetidas às análises estrutural e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos A e C apresentaram respostas semelhantes quanto a seus efeitos sobre as medidas da área de reparo, número total de células e de vasos sanguíneos neoformados, espessura do epitélio e porcentagem da área ocupada por fibras colágenas maduras. Os grupos de animais B e D apresentaram resultados diferenciados e significativos em todos os parâmetros analisados nos dez e 14 dias após a lesão experimental. Os dados morfométricos confirmaram os achados estruturais. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação do óleo das sementes de J. curcas não promoveu respostas significativas no reparo das lesões experimentais quando comparadas ao controle, mas a microcorrente aplicada isolada ou combinada a este óleo apresentou diferenças significativos nos parâmetros estudados Este fato sugere que os resultados positivos se devem provavelmente a ação da aplicação da microcorrente

  3. Análise anatômica qualitativa e quantitativa e densidade básica da madeira de Alchornea sidifolia Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae. Qualitative and quantitative anatomical analysis of the wood of Alchornea sidifolia Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz SANTINI JUNIOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar a anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Alchornea sidifolia (tapiá-guaçu, e investigar a variação radial destas características. O material de estudo procede do lote cinco do Rodoanel trecho sul no Estado de São Paulo, onde cinco árvores foram identificadas no campo, retirando-se discos do DAP com média de 30 cm de diâmetro. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. A espécie apresentou camadas de crescimento distintas; vasos solitários e múltiplos; placas de perfuração simples; parênquima axial apotraqueal em linhas; raios unisseriados, alternando células quadradas e eretas com inclusões cristalíferas e amido; fibras libriformes, não septadas e gelatinosas; canais radiais; máculas medulares; densidade básica baixa (0,38 g cm-3. Ocorreu aumento no sentido medula-casca apenas para o comprimento das fibras, diâmetro dos vasos e diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares, características que denotam madeira homogênea e de baixa resistência. Fibras com maiores lume estão associadas a menores valores de densidade básica.In this paper, we characterize the anatomy and basic density of wood in Alchornea sidifolia (tapiá-guaçu, and investigate the radial variation of these characteristics. Five trees were cut in the “Rodoanel” section southern in São Paulo state, were removed disks with 30 cm at breast height. Six samples were taken from the pith to bark, which were analyzed according to the usual methods in anatomy and properties of wood. The results revealed the presence of layer growth, solitary and multiples vessels; simple perforation plate; axial parenchyma in lines up three cells wide; rays exclusively uniseriate, all ray cells upright and/or square with inclusions crystals and starch; ground tissue fibers, non-septate and gelatinous; radial canals; pith fleck present; low basic density (0.38 g cm-3. There was an increase in the pith to bark only for the fiber length, vessel diameter and intervessel pits diameter, which features a wood homogeneous and low resistance. Fibers with higher lumen are associated with lower basic density.

  4. Growth and carbon assimilation limitations in Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae under soil water stress conditions Crescimento e limitações à assimilação de carbono em Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae sob condições de estresse hídrico do solo

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    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water availability may influence plant carbon gain and growth, with large impacts on plant yield. Ricinus communis (L., a drought resistant species, is a crop with increasing economic importance in Brazil, due to its use in chemical industry and for the production of biofuels. Some of the mechanisms involved in this drought resistance were analyzed in this study by imposing progressive water stress to pot-grown plants under glasshouse conditions. Water withholding for 53 days decreased soil water gravimetric content and the leaf water potential. Plant growth was negatively and significantly reduced by increasing soil water deficits. With irrigation suspension, carbon assimilation and transpiration were reduced and remained mostly constant throughout the day. Analysis of A/Ci curves showed increased stomatal limitation, indicating that limitation imposed by stomatal closure is the main factor responsible for photosynthesis reduction. Carboxylation efficiency and electron transport rate were not affected by water stress up to 15 days after withholding water. Drought resistance of castor bean seems to be related to a pronounced, early growth response, an efficient stomatal control and the capacity to keep high net CO2 fixation rates under water stress conditions.A disponibilidade hídrica pode influenciar o ganho de carbono e o crescimento, com grande impacto na produtividade das plantas. Ricinus communis (L., uma espécie resistente à seca, é uma cultura de grande importância econômica no Brasil, devido ao seu uso na indústria química e para a produção de biocombustíveis. Alguns dos mecanismos envolvidos na resistência à seca desta espécie foram analisados através de um progressivo estresse hídrico em plantas cultivadas em vasos sob condições de casa de vegetação. A suspensão da irrigação por 53 dias decresceu o conteúdo gravimétrico de água no solo e o potencial hídrico das folhas. O crescimento das plantas foi negativamente e significativamente reduzido pelo aumento do déficit hídrico do solo. Com a suspensão da irrigação, a assimilação de carbono e a transpiração foram reduzidas e permaneceram praticamente constantes ao longo do dia. A análise das curvas A/Ci demonstrou o aumento da limitação estomática, indicando que a limitação imposta pelo fechamento dos estômatos é o principal responsável pela redução da fotossíntese. A eficiência de carboxilação e a taxa de transporte de elétrons não foram afetadas pelo estresse hídrico até 15 dias de suspensão da irrigação. A resistência à seca da mamona parece estar relacionada a uma resposta inicial e pronunciada do crescimento, a um eficiente controle estomático e a capacidade de manter uma alta taxa de fixação de CO2 sob condições de estresse hídrico.

  5. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

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    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of chemically controlling these invertebrates date back to the beginning of the 20th century. The substances used were unspecific toxins which were already used for controlling other pests. Synthetic molluscicides have technical limitations that stimulated a search for natural substitutes. Among the many vegetal species that have molluscicidal activity, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia tirucalli L. call attention because of the excellent results that have been obtained when they are used on aquatic mollusks. However, studies on the activity of molluscicidal plants on terrestrial mollusks are rare, in spite of its great importance in controlling parasites and to agriculture. Anatomical and physiological similarities among species of aquatic and terrestrial mollusks suggest that chemical control strategies can be effective on both groups of invertebrates. Based on this hypothesis, we assessed the molluscicidal activity of the latex of three species of the genus Euphorbia on the terrestrial gastropod Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, described as an intermediate host of digenetic trematode helminths that parasitize domestic animals. E. milii var. splendens had the highest molluscicidal effect on L. unilamellata, being 100% lethal in concentrations up to 1:1800 in the first minutes after application. Although E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli have been cited in the literature as toxic to aquatic mollusks, they did not have molluscicidal activity on L. unilamellata. The results of our study indicate that the latex of E. milii var. splendens may be a viable strategy for the chemical control of terrestrial mollusks.

  6. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

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    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Olímpia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in two rubber tree plantations. Every three months, about 1.000 cm³ of leaves of each one of the five dominant weeds in each plantation was taken to determine the phytoseiids. As the dominant weeds varied during the study, a total of 20 species were evaluated. Only Cecropia sp. was a dominant weed throughout the study, in both plantations. A total of 336 phytoseiids of the following species were found: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 and N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 specimens and N. tunus (138 specimens were the most abundant species. The highest abundance (231 specimens and diversity (5 species were observed on Cecropia sp. On this plant was found the largest number of mites per sample (29 specimens, followed by Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 and Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius has been determined as the most abundant predatory mite on rubber trees in the region where this work was conducted. Cecropia sp. seems to be the most important of the weeds considered as reservoir of E. citrifolius because it is continuously present in the plantations. Complementary studies could indicate the viability of managing this weed in or around rubber tree plantations to promote the biological control of mite pests on that crop.

  7. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

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    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%. The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m ± 0.74 m vs. 0.96 m, but was lower than the ballistic distance (7.27 m ± 0.13 m. Ants increased the total dispersal distance (8.66 m ± 0.60 m, but the main benefit for the plant was the directed dispersal, with seed deposition on the enriched soil of ant nests.Este estudo testou a eficiência de formigas como dispersores secundários de Ricinus communis no Brasil. Em uma população natural de 143 indivíduos, a distância de dispersão balística foi determinada para 62 sementes. Além disso, 100 sementes adicionais foram oferecidas a formigas em grupos de 10, ao longo de um transecto de 50 m. Cinqüenta e três sementes foram removidas por formigas, principalmente pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens (90,4%. A distância de dispersão por formigas foi alta se comparada à média global (4,38m ± 0,74 m vs. 0,96 m, porém menor que a distância de dispersão balística (7,27 m ± 0,13 m. As formigas aumentaram a distância de dispersão total (8,66 m ± 0,60 m, mas o principal benefício para a planta foi a dispersão direcionada, com a deposição das sementes no solo enriquecido encontrado nos ninhos das formigas.

  8. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd.(Family:Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and microbial insecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae(Metsch.)against malaria fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the biological activity of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Ethanolic A. alnifolia leaf extract tested against 1st through 4th instars and pupae o...

  9. 白背叶(大戟科)性系统和传粉生物学研究%Sexual System and Pollination Biology of Mallotus apelta (Euphorbiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雅麦; 罗世孝; 张奠湘

    2013-01-01

    为探讨野桐属(Mallotus)雌雄异株的进化和传粉机制,对白背叶(Mallotus apelta)野生居群的性系统和传粉生物学进行了研究。结果表明,所调查的白背叶居群均由雌性(F)、雄性(M)和少数两性(B)个体组成,平均性比为1:0.66:0.18(F:M:B);3种性别植株的基径大小差异不显著;雌株与两性植株的单花胚珠数、单果结籽数和自然结实率无显著差异;雄株与两性植株的花粉萌发率、花粉组织化学和花粉微形态特征也无显著差异,但雄株的单花花粉量是两性植株的1.26~1.63倍,且差异显著;雌株的异交结实率为96.67%,两性植株的异交结实率为76.00%,两者差异显著,说明居群内雌株的潜在种子生产力明显高于两性植株;野外观察到雄株和两性植株上的雄花具有访花者而雌株没有;雌株经套网处理后结实率超过30%而套袋处理不结实。这些表明白背叶具典型的亚雌雄异株性系统,雌株和雄株的适合度均高于两性植株;雌株以风媒传粉结实,两性植株可能兼有风媒和虫媒传粉特征。%In order to understand the evolution of dioecy and pollination modes in the genus Mallotus, the sexual system and pollination biology of M. apelta were studied in wild populations from Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The results showed that all the investigated populations contained female (F), male (M) and bisexual (B) individuals, and the average sex ratio was 1 : 0.66 : 0.18 (F : M : B). There were no significant differences in base diameter of trunk among three sexual individuals. Although the pollen of male lfowers from pure male individuals and that from bisexual individuals had the same germination rate, histochemical and micro-morphological characters, the single male flower from male individuals produced 1.26 - 1.63 times pollen grains more than those of bisexual individuals. Female individuals shared the same ovule numbers per lfower, seeds per fruit and fruit setting per inlforescence with bisexual individuals. The control crossing (pollen came from males) signiifcantly increased the fruit setting of pure females (96.67%) comparing to bisexual individuals (76.00%) (P<0.001), indicating higher potential seed fertility in female individuals than that in bisexual individuals. Insects (lfy, beetle) were observed to visit male and bisexual but not female individuals in the ifeld, indicating that insects made no contribution to the fruit production of female individuals. More than 30%of the netted female lfowers set fruits, while all the bagged female lfowers failed to set fruits. Therefore, these indicate that M. apelta is a typical subdioecious species. The results also demonstrate that the male and female individuals have higher iftness than bisexual individuals in populations. Females are pollinated by wind, while bisexual individuals show a combination of entomophilous and anemophilyous characteristics. More comprehensive investigation of the sexual system and pollination mode in the species and its congeners may shed light on our understanding of the evolution of dioecy and pollination modes in the genus Mallotus.

  10. Moderation of hematological and plasma biochemical indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana ‘Godseffiana’ Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikewuchi Jude C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana (A. wilkesiana) on plasma chemistry and hematological indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats.Method:The control group received a diet consisting 100% of the commercial feed, while the four test groups were received a diet consisting 8% salt and 92% commercial feed all through, except for the reference treatment group that had its salt-loading discontinued after six weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight; while the test control, reference and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route.Results:The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, produced hemoconcentration, significantly higher (P<0.05) plasma calcium and potassium levels, and significantly lower (P<0.05) plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to test control. Conclusions: This result supports the traditional use of A. wilkesiana in the management of hypertension and suggests that the extract may be a potassium sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be via alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances or calcium mediated alteration in vascular muscle tone.

  11. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-10-01

    The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns) against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  12. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown") (Euphorbiaceae) against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae): 1- test in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-06-01

    The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown) against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90): 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05), as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05). In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  13. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown" (Euphorbiaceae against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae: 1- test in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90: 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05, as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05. In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  14. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  15. Diferenciación morfológica y por ISSR (Inter simple sequence repeats de especies del género Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae de la Amazonía peruana: propuesta de una nueva especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudian cinco especies del género Plukenetia de la Amazonía peruana: P. brachybotrya, P. loretensis, P. polyadenia, P. huayllabambana, P. volubilis (procedencia San Martín; y de un supuesto morfotipo (P. volubilis, procedencia Cusco. Los 126 especímenes estudiados fueron identificados mediante claves de caracteres morfológicos (formas de hojas, tallos y semilla; posición de glándulas basilaminares y posteriormente mediante marcadores moleculares ISSR (CAA, CAG, GACA. Los análisis morfológicos permitieron separar las cinco especies descritas: P. brachybotrya, P. loretensis, P. polyadenia, P. volubilis y P. huayllabambana. Los dos supuestos morfotipos de P. volubilis fueron discriminados por la posición de las glándulas, tamaño de semillas y forma del tallo. Los resultados proporcionados por el Análisis Factorial de Correspondencia (AFC y corroborados por el Índice de fijación (FST, distancia genética y el dendograma estimado por el método UPGMA, evidencian una fuerte diferenciación entre los seis taxa, corroborando la identidad taxonómica molecular de las cinco especies ya descritas morfológicamente. Además, los resultados (Fst y la distancia genética indicarian que P. volubilis (del Cusco podría ser una nueva especie de Sacha Inchi, aún no descrita para la ciencia.

  16. Karyotype in fifteen populations belonging to thirteen species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in China%中国大戟属13种15个居群的核型报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛恒钢; 周颂东; 何兴金; 余岩

    2007-01-01

    对国产大戟科Euphorbiaceae大戟属Euphorbia的13种15个地方居群的核型进行研究, 以期为解决该属的种间亲缘关系和物种进化机制提供依据.结果如下: 地锦E. humifusa (望江居群), 2n=2x=22=20m (2SAT)+2sm;地锦E. humifusa (红旗村居群), 2n=2x=22=18m+4sm;千根草E. thymifolia, 2n=4x=40=40m;斑地锦E. maculata, 2n=4x=40=36m+4sm;银边翠E. marginata, 2n=8x=56=40m+ 8sm+8st;铁海棠E. milii, 2n=4x=40=32m+8sm;金刚纂E. neriifolia, 2n=6x=60=6m+36sm+12st+6t;火殃勒E. antiquorum, 2n=6x=60=24m+24sm+12st;一品红E. pulcherrima, 2n=4x=28=24m(3SAT)+4sm;猩猩草E. cyathophora, 2n=4x=28=16m+12sm;齿裂大戟E. dentata, 2n=4x=28=28m;续随子E. lathyris, 2n=2x=20=12m+8sm;泽漆E. helioscopia, 2n=6x=42=36m+6sm;乳浆大戟E. esula (陈家沟居群), 2n=2x=20=14m+6sm;乳浆大戟E. esula (樱桃沟居群), 2n=4x=40=32m+8sm.千根草和斑地锦两个种的核型以及乳浆大戟的四倍体居群核型均为首次报道.

  17. Diagnóstico ecológico para la conservación de Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae y sus hábitats, en la Reserva Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Hernández-Nicolás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha spp., es un importante recurso fitogenético usado como alimento, medicina y biocombustible. En este estudio verificamos la identidad taxonómica de las especies de Jatropha para la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, y las unidades ambientales (UA que ocupan. Evaluamos el estado de conservación de sus hábitats y la vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones de Jatropha. Los sitios de muestreo seleccionados en la Reserva fueron 15. El trabajo taxonómico estuvo basado en especímenes, descripciones originales y material tipo de herbarios y aquellos en línea. Las UA fueron clasificadas mediante variables biofísicas y el software gvSIG. Los atributos ecológicos fueron determinados con análisis cuantitativo por el método de cuadrado centrado en un punto; el disturbio fue estimado a través de indicadores de sitio, y el estado de conservación de las poblaciones de Jatropha con el Método para la Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción de Plantas en México (MER. Jatropha frecuentemente dominó la fisonomía de las comunidades vegetales. La distribución actual de las especies de Jatropha en la Reserva estuvo principalmente determinada por las variables altitud, temperatura y precipitación. Las especies confirmadas fueron: Jatropha ciliata Sessé ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, y Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., las cuales estuvieron distribuidas en cuatro de las seis UA definidas. J. neopauciflora y J. rzedowskii son las especies más ampliamente distribuidas; estas últimas especies concurrieron en cuatro, J. oaxacana en dos, mientras que J. rufescens y J. ciliata en una UA, siendo ésta la especie más restringida. La riqueza de géneros en las comunidades asociadas varió entre 16 y 42. Los máximos y mínimos Índices de Valores de Importancia fueron observados en San Nicolás Tepoxtitlan para J. neopauciflora (53.75% y J. rzedowskii (1.50%. El índice de disturbio varió entre 0.22 y 0.82, con promedio de 0.51, mientras que la variable ganado tuvo mayor contribución. Considerando las categorías de riesgo del MER, concluimos que J. oaxacana requiere protección especial, mientras que J. ciliata y J. rufescens fueron especies en riesgo de extinción. El estado de conservación de los hábitats ocupados por poblaciones de Jatropha spp. es moderado, tomando en cuenta la tasa de disturbio. Los principales factores que afectan a los hábitats de Jatropha son el ganado y las actividades humanas; la composición florística de las comunidades vegetales tuvo baja riqueza. Estos resultados apoyan la necesidad de establecer estrategias de conservación para evitar la pérdida de importantes poblaciones silvestres de Jatropha.

  18. Environ: E00836 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available roton lechleri [TAX:323063], Croton salutaris [TAX:765406], Croton [TAX:100370] Euphorbiaceae Croton lechleri bark, resin Traditional medicinal plants of the Amazon in South America ...

  19. Environ: E00361 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00361 Speranskia herb Crude drug Speranskia tuberculata, Speranskia [TAX:316743], ...Impatiens balsamina [TAX:63779], Phryma leptostachya [TAX:41401] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Speranskia tu...amily) Phryma leptostachya herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00361 Speranskia herb ...

  20. Environ: E00443 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00443 Euphorbia lathyris seed Euphorbiae lathyridis semen Crude drug Esculetin [CP...D:C09263], Epoxylathyrol, Ingenol-3-hexadecanoate, Euphorbetin Euphorbia lathyris [TAX:212925] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbi...a lathyris mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00443 Euphorbia lathyris seed ...

  1. Environ: E00393 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00393 Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf Crude drug Euphorbia helioscopia [TAX:154990] Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) E00393 Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf ...

  2. Environ: E00388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00388 Euphorbia kansui radix Euphorbia kansui root Crude drug Tirucallol, alpha-Eu...20-acetate, 13-Oxyingenol-13-dodecanoate-20-hexanoate Euphorbia kansui [TAX:239687] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia... kansui root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00388 Euphorbia kansui root ...

  3. Environ: E00634 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00634 Euphorbia herb Euphorbia thymifolia [TAX:318061], Euphorbia prostrata [TAX:212836], Euphorbia... makinoi, Euphorbia [TAX:3990] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia thymifolia, Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia... makinoi herb (mixed, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00634 Euphorbia herb ...

  4. Environ: E00602 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00602 Euphorbia root Crude drug 24-Methylenecycloartanone Euphorbia pallasii [TAX:457262], Euphorbia... ebracteolata [TAX:526193] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia root (dried) Crude drug...s [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00602 Euphorbia root ...

  5. Environ: E00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00595 Euphorbia pekinensis root Crude drug Euphorbon Euphorbia pekinensis [TAX:273621] Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) Euphorbia pekinensis root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00595 Euphorbia pekinensis root ...

  6. Peraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Esser, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent phylogenetic analyses of the Malphigiales place the family Rafflesiaceae in the Euphorbiaceae, near the base of the clade. Combining both families is not an attractive option, because the Rafflesiaceae are very recognisable, while the Euphorbiaceae is one of the most polymorphic fami

  7. Environ: E00049 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ystearic acid Ricinus communis L. [TAX:3988] Same as: D06462 Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Ricinus communis ...L. seed Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00049 Castor oil CAS: 8001-79-4 ...

  8. Drug: D06462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : 2356 ATC code: A06AB05 Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Ricinus communis L. seed Therapeutic category of drug...P16/USP) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) D06462 Castor oil CAS: 8001-79-4 PubChem: 47208118 NIKKAJI: J203.720C ...

  9. Environ: E00452 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein, Lipase, Ricinine [CPD:C01526], Ricin [CPD:C01362] Ricinus communis [TAX:3988] Euphorbiaceae (spurge ...family) Ricinus communis mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00452 Ricinus communis seed ...

  10. General Plan Environmental Assessment, Hurlburt Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    particularly in disturbed areas transitioning between developed and un- developed areas. Non-native invasive plant species such as Chinese tallow tree (Sapium...facility was renovated in 1994 that included an addition. Frequent reccurring problems with the HVAC, plumbing, moisture, and moldy odor , lead to

  11. Posthurricane Survey of Experimental Dunes on Padre Island, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Fimbristylis castanea 5 35 2 ______________ Scirpus americanus_____________ _______ ______ _ _______ Leguminosae ... Leguminosae _____________ Baptisa aleucophaea ___________ _________ Cassia fasciculata 4 1 T 4_____9 __ Euphorb iaceae _______ Croton capitatus - -TTI TCroton... Leguminosae ______ Baptisia leucophaea ______ ______ _______ _______ Cassia fasciculata 43_____ Euphorbiaceae______ Croton capitatus_______

  12. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  13. Identification and differentiation of Ricinus communis L. using SSR markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zdenka Gálová; Martin Vivodík; Želmíra Balážová; Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2015-01-01

    The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), is a versatile industrial oil crop that is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world...

  14. DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF WHITEFLIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key Words: Diversity, Euphorbiaceae, host-plant, rainforest. RÉSUMÉ. Les mouches ... part of the Bemisia tabaci complex. Considerable ..... and ventral structure. The caudal setae ... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. (IITA), Ibadan ...

  15. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sowemimo, A; Venter, M.; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum panic...

  16. 江西官山国家级自然保护区彩叶植物资源及其开发利用%Protection and Utilization about Coloured Leaves Plants Resources of Guanshan Mountain Nature Reserve in Jiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬淑萍

    2008-01-01

    通过实地调查和统计,官山国家级自然保护区彩叶植物共有59科81属115种.重点介绍红楠(Macldus thunbergii)、山鸟桕(Sapium discolor)等8种彩叶植物的观赏特性.并对官山保护区开发利用彩叶植物资源提出建议.

  17. Teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do vigor de lotes de sementes de Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. Smith & Downs (branquilho – Euphorbiaceae. Accelerated aging test to evaluation of the vigor of Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. Smith & Downs seeds lots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Garcia dos SANTOS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabeleceruma metodologia específica para a condução doteste de envelhecimento acelerado para lotes desementes de Sebastiania commersoniana. Para tanto,foram utilizados três lotes de sementesacondicionadas em embalagens de vidro, pano eplástico, e armazenadas por seis meses, em bancadade laboratório. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado(EA, foram estudados os períodos de envelhecimentode 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, a 42 e 45 ºC.O teste de EA foi conduzido pelo método gerbox.O envelhecimento das sementes foi feito emcâmaras modelo jaqueta d’água. Após cada períodode envelhecimento, as sementes foram submetidasao teste de germinação, em quatro repetições de25 sementes, avaliando a porcentagem e o índicede velocidade de germinação. O delineamentoexperimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado,no esquema fatorial 3 x 6, para cada temperatura.As médias entre os lotes foram comparadas peloteste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, e o comportamentode cada lote foi analisado por regressão polinomial.O período de envelhecimento recomendado para obranquilho é de 96 horas a 45 ºC.The objective of this work was toestablish a specific methodology for the acceleratedaging test in Sebastiania commersoniana seeds.Three seed lots were used, which were packed insmall bottle container, cloth, and plastic, and storedat room temperature for six months. Severalperiods of aging were studied (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and120 hours at 42 and 45 oC in the accelerated aging(AA test. Accelerated aging test was conducted bythe gerbox method. The aging of the seeds wasdone in water jacket model chambers. After eachperiod of aging, the seeds were submitted to thegermination test, in 4 repetitions of 25 seeds,evaluating the percentage and the speed germinationindex and comparing the results with the germinationstandard test. The adopted experimental line wasthe whole fortuitous in the factorial 3 x 6 scheme,to each temperature. The mean among seed lotswere compared by Tukey test at 5% of probability.The behavior of each seed lots was analysed bypolynomial regression. The period of recommendedaging is 96 hours at 45 ºC.

  18. [Erythroderma secondary to latex-producing plants (Synadenium grantii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Patricia C; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Paladino, Nadia; Parreño, María L; Ruffolo, Virginia; Mutti, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The Euphorbiaceae family are plants that have in common latex production. There are over 8000 species. They have worldwide distribution. We can find trees, shrubs or herbs. Many important species belong to this family and they are used in our country for industrial and medical purposes. There are also ornamental plants with attractive appearance that stimulate children curiosity, intake or manipulation. In the National Poison Center consultations for plants represent a small number (0.2%) of the total accidents in children, however they can be serious. We report the case of a 4 years old girl who manipulated and swallowed part of an Euphorbiaceae family plant (Synadenium grantii).

  19. Using internet images to gather distributional data for a newly discovered Caloptilia species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) specializing on Chinese tallow in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera (L.), Euphorbiaceae) is a noxious and highly invasive species that was deliberately introduced to GA in 1772. In early 2009, an unfamiliar caterpillar was independently discovered feeding on T. sebifera trees in Gainesville, FL and Slidell, LA. Adult moths were...

  20. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  1. Wonder crop could pave the way for bio-fuel revolution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available , which preclude them from being used in bio-diesel production. This small tree from the Euphorbiaceae family produces seeds containing high percentages (30-35%) of oil, which can easily be extracted for further processing (trans-esterification into bio...

  2. Pre-release assessment of Gadirtha inexacta a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native to China, Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The noctuid, Gadirtha inexacta, is a multivoltine herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological control agent in the United States...

  3. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  4. Terpenoides e cumarinas de Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Jataí Batista

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds, including terpenoids (jatrophone, hydroxyjatrophone, 6-hydroxycyperene, cabraleadiol monoacetyl, and cabraleadiol and coumarins (fraxetin, fraxidin, and isofraxidin, were isolated from Jatropha ribifolia (Euphorbiaceae. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectra, HRESIMS and comparison with published data.

  5. Terpenoides e cumarinas de Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl) Baill

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Jataí Batista; Andrade,José Roberto M. de; Taynara Simão Matos; Thiciana da Silva Sousa; Pinto,Francisco das Chagas L.; Edilberto Rocha Silveira; Maria Iracema B. Loiola; Otilia D. Loiola Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Eight compounds, including terpenoids (jatrophone, hydroxyjatrophone, 6-hydroxycyperene, cabraleadiol monoacetyl, and cabraleadiol) and coumarins (fraxetin, fraxidin, and isofraxidin), were isolated from Jatropha ribifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) spectra, HRESIMS and comparison with published data.

  6. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  7. Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  9. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals genetic diversity in xanthomonads associated with poinsettia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. poinsettiicola is traditionally identified as the primary causal agent of bacterial leaf spot on poinsettia (Family Euphorbiaceae). Sixty-seven strains of xanthomonads isolated from lesions associated with several species within Euphorbia were collected over a 64 year peri...

  10. Four new species of Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) and redescriptions of three other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis

  11. New furanoditerpenoids from Croton jatrophoides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbwambo, Z.H.; Foubert, K.; Chacha, M.; Kapingu, M.C.; Magadula, J.J.; Moshi, M.M.; Lemière, F.; Goubitz, K.; Fraanje, J.; Peschar, R.; Vlietinck, A.; Apers, S.; Pieters, L.

    2009-01-01

    Four furanoditerpenoids were isolated from roots of Croton jatrophoides (Euphorbiaceae) collected in Tanzania. In addition to the known compounds penduliflaworosin and teucvin (mallotucin A), a new teucvin isomer, which was named isoteucvin, and a furanoditerpenoid with a new skeleton, for which the

  12. Canariomyces notabilis, a peculiar Ascomycete from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arx, von J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Canary Islands are famous not only for the climate, but also for the flora. Many endemic plants are found, mainly succulents or woody shrubs belonging to the Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Crassulaceae, Boraginaceae and Asteraceae. Monocotyledons are inconspicuous, except for Phoenix canariensis and t

  13. Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti R. Queiroz; José Henrique L. Cardoso; Tomé, Adriana R; Roberto C. P. Lima Jr.; Jamile M. Ferreira; Daniel F. Sousa; Felipe C. Lima; Campos, Adriana R.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) leaf essential oil (EOCz) was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities, that were significantly (p

  14. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a hi...

  15. New flavan and unusual chalcone glycosides from Drypetes parvifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviane Nadege Nenkep; Jovita Chi Shirri; Hanh Trinh Van-Dufat; Falindor Sipepnou; Philippe Verite; Elisabeth Seguin; Francis Tillequin; Jean Wandji

    2008-01-01

    Two new compounds 7-hydroxy-5-O-(β-D-glucopyranoside) flavan (1) and (Z)-4',6'-dihydroxy-2'-O-(β-D-glucopyranoside) chalcone (2), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from the stem bark of Drypetes parvifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  16. 乌桕繁育与栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春生; 彭秀; 谭名照; 何邦亮; 王兴兵; 姜乾林

    2009-01-01

    乌桕(SaPium sebiferum Roxb.),又名木蜡树、蜡子树,为大戟科乌桕属植物。乌桕喜光,耐旱,耐短期积水;对土壤要求不严,在pH5-8的各种土壤上均可栽培。乌桕是一种经济价值较高的木本油料树种。乌桕树冠整齐,叶色秀丽,入秋后红艳美观不亚于丹枫;冬天白色的种子簇生枝头经久不落,

  17. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  18. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M.; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae genome sequence. Our analysis shows that most key castor oil metabolism genes are single-copy while the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage. PMID:20729833

  19. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  20. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  1. Tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar de especies del género Croton L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Payo Hill

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar a 23 partes vegetales de 14 especies del género Croton L., de ellas 8 endémicas, familia Euphorbiaceae. Se detectaron alcaloides, aminoácidos, cardenólidos, fenoles simples, flavonoides, proantocianidinas, quinonas, saponinas, taninos, triterpenos/esteroles, según el método establecido por Rondina y Coussio. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos para cada especie; los triterpenos y esteroles constituyen los principales metabolitos encontrados para las especies tamizadas.The preliminary phytochemical screening of 23 vegetal parts from 14 species of the genus Croton L. was carried out. 8 of them were endemic, Euphorbiaceae family. Alkaloids, aminoacids, cardenolides, simple phenols, flavonoids, proantocyanidins, quinones, saponins, tannins, triterpenes and sterols were detected, according to the method established by Rondina and Coussio. The results obtained for each species were presented. Triterpenes and sterols were the main metabolites found for the screened species.

  2. Evaluation on the Introduction and Domestication of Wild Ornamental Plants by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Sanming City%利用层次分析法评价三明市野生观赏植物的引种驯化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄清平

    2009-01-01

    在大量野外调查和驯化试验的基础上,采用层次分析法对三明市41种野生观赏植物的引种驯化效果进行综合评价,建立了定性与定量相结合的评价模型.评价结果认为枫杨(Pterocarya stenoptera)、美丽胡枝子(Lespedeza formosa)、野含笑(Michelia skinneriana)、金樱子(Rosa laevigata)、山乌桕(Sapium discolor)等植物不仅具有较高的观赏价值,也易于驯化利用,便于今后推广相应的驯化技术,为野生观赏植物资源的合理利用提供依据.

  3. Baliospermum montanum (Danti): Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology- A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mali Ravindra; Wadekar Raju

    2008-01-01

    Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a leafy monoecious undershrub distributed throughout the greater parts of India, Burma and Malaya. The various parts of the plant (leaves, roots, seeds and seed oil) are widely used by various tribal communities and forest dwellers for the treatment of variety of ailments. The roots of the plant are ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic system of medicine and used in preparation of important Ayurvedic formulations. The p...

  4. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  5. A New Antimicrobial Flavonol Glycoside from Alchornea davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-xyloside, was isolated from the extract of leaves and twigs of Alchornea davidii (Euphorbiaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of the spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Antimicrobial assay showed that it moderately inhibited the growth of test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton rubrum) with MICs at 50 μg/Ml.

  6. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  7. First occurrence of Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes (Nixon, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae in Brazil and new biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Penteado-Dias

    Full Text Available Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes (Nixon, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae was reared from the host Fountainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae, collected on Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae in São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The hyperperparasitoids Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae and a Pteromalidae species are registered on this microgastrine species. Male and female specimens and cocoon of Protapanteles (Protapanteles enephes are illustrated for the first time.

  8. First occurrence of Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) in Brazil and new biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado-Dias, A M; Fernandes, L B R; Iemma, L G R; Dias, M M

    2011-08-01

    Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) was reared from the host Fountainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae), collected on Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) in São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The hyperperparasitoids Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) and a Pteromalidae species are registered on this microgastrine species. Male and female specimens and cocoon of Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes are illustrated for the first time.

  9. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    SHIVANAND BHAT; M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY; L. Rajanna

    2014-01-01

    Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species), Apocynaceae (11spp.), Cucurbitaceae (10 spp.) and Fabaceae (10 spp.) are the predominant f...

  10. Proteolytic activity in some Patagonian plants from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Cynthia; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Natalucci, Claudia L

    2003-09-01

    Six Patagonian plants were screened for proteolytic activity: Colliguaja integerrima, Euphorbia collina, E. peplus and Stillingia patagonica (Euphorbiaceae), Philibertia gilliesii (Asclepiadaceae) and Grindelia chiloensis (Asteraceae). P. gilliesii extracts showed the highest specific activity, followed by S. patagonica and E. collina. Proteolytic activity was unnoticeable in the other three species studied. Inhibition assays revealed that P. gilliesii and S. patagonica extracts contain cysteine-type peptidases and that in E. collina serine-type peptidases are present.

  11. Labaditin, a novel cyclic decapeptide from the latex of Jatropha multifade L. (Eurphorbiaceae); Isolation and sequence determination by means of two-dimensional NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosasi, S.; Sluis, W.G. van der; Hart, L.A. ' t; Labadie, R.P. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy); Boelens, R. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Department of Chemistry)

    1989-10-09

    An immunologically active novel cyclic decapeptide, consisting of 1 Ala, 2 Gly, 1 Ile, 2 Thr, 2 Trp and 2 Val, has been isolated from the latex of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae). The structure was elucidated by means of amino acid analysis and FAB-mass spectroscopy. The animo acid sequence was obtained by two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy (COSY and NOESY). 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  13. Occurrence of Trissolcus jatrophae Rajmohana et al. 2011 (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae in Pune City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish N. Nerlekar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trissolcus jatrophae Rajmohana et al. 2011, a parasitoid wasp has been observed to parasitize hemipteran eggs laid on Jatropha nana Dalzell & Gibson (Euphorbiaceae growing in Pune city, Maharashtra. In the present communication, this wasp has been reported for the first time on a new host plant species, and the occurrence of this wasp also forms a new distributional record.  

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  15. Observaciones sobre la distribución taxonómica y ecológica de la fotosíntesis C4 en la vegetación del noroeste de Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Meinzer, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of Kranz type leaf anatomy, 107 species in 11 families out of 682 species in 47 famines surveyed were identified as C4 plants. The families in which C4 representatives were found ¡nclude the Aizoaecae, Amaranthaecae, Boraginaceac, Compositae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, Nyctaginaceae, Portulacaceae, and Zygophyliaceae. Several of the species identified have not been reported in previously published lists of C4 plants.The presence of C4 photosynthesis was...

  16. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  17. Inventario de los parasitoides de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) en la región sur de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta un inventario de 25 especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera) que atacan a tres especies de minadores foliares (Liriomyza) en tres departamentos de la región sur de Honduras. La especie predominante fue Liriomyza sativae. criada de 25 especies de cultivos y plantas silvestres. Las infestaciones de L. sativae fueron mayores en cultivos de Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae y Fabaceae, y en las plantas silvestres Kallstroemia maxima (Zygophyllaceae) y Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae). Se detall...

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Jaime; Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M

    2012-12-01

    On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae), collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli). Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae). The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and susceptibility of

  19. Breakdown of Leaf Litter in a Neotropical Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuriau, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the breakdown of 2 leaf species, Croton gossypifolius (Euphorbiaceae) and Clidemia sp. (Melastomataceae), in a 4th-order neotropical stream (Andean Mountains, southwestern Colombia) using leaf bags over a 6-wk period. We determined the initial leaf chemical composition and followed the change in content of organic matter, C, N, and ergosterol, the sporulation activity of aquatic hyphomy cetes, and the structure and composition of leaf-associated aquatic...

  20. A new friedelane triterpenoid and saponin with moderate antimicrobial activity from the stems of Drypetes laciniata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Veronique Fannang; Victor Kuete; Celine Mbazoa Djama; Marlise Diane J. Dongfack; Jean Duplex Wansi; Francois Tillequin; Elisabeth Seguin; Elizabeth Chosson; Jean Wandji

    2011-01-01

    A new friedelane-type triterpene named 3β-hydroxyfriedelane-7,12,22-trione, as well as nine known compounds were isolated from the whole stems of Drypetes laciniata Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The new triterpene derivative and a known saponin were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities and they appeared to be moderate active.

  1. Meiotic behavior during microsporogenesis of Alchornea triplinervia (Sprengel) Müller Argoviensis Comportamento meiótico durante a microsporogênese de Alchornea triplinervia (Sprengel) Müller Argoviensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mataroli de Godoy; Andréia Rodrigues Alonso Pereira; Mariza Barion Romagnolo; Claudicéia Risso-Pascotto

    2012-01-01

    The Alchornea triplinervia specie belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, one of the main families of the Brazilian flora. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the specie, a counting of chromosome number and the microsporogenesis analysis of A. triplinervia were done. The inflorescences were collected in the municipalities of Paranavaí and Diamante do Norte, State of Paraná, Brazil, and the slides were prepared by squashing technique and staining with 1% acetic carmine. The analys...

  2. Genome-wide identification of Jatropha curcas aquaporin genes and the comparative analysis provides insights into the gene family expansion and evolution in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi eZou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are channel-forming integral membrane proteins that transport water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Despite the vital role of AQPs, to date, little is known in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop with great potential for the production of biodiesel. In this study, 32 AQP genes were identified from the physic nut genome and the family number is relatively small in comparison to 51 in another Euphorbiaceae plant, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the JcAQPs were assigned to five subfamilies, i.e., 9 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 2 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs. Like rubber tree and other plant species, functional prediction based on the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies of JcAQPs. Genome-wide comparative analysis revealed the specific expansion of PIP and TIP subfamilies in rubber tree and the specific gene loss of the XIP subfamily in physic nut. Furthermore, by analyzing deep transcriptome sequencing data, the expression evolution especially the expression divergence of duplicated HbAQP genes was also investigated and discussed. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of Jc/HbAQP genes, but also provide a useful reference to survey the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceae plants and other plant species.

  3. Conservation and divergence of microRNAs and their functions in Euphorbiaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Changying; Wang, Wenquan; Zheng, Yun; Chen, Xin; Bo, Weiping; Song, Shun; Zhang, Weixiong; Peng, Ming

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt non-coding RNAs which regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of nearly all essential biological processes. Aiming at understanding miRNA's functions in Euphorbiaceae, a large flowering plant family, we performed a genome-scale systematic study of miRNAs in Euphorbiaceae, by combining computational prediction and experimental analysis to overcome the difficulty of lack of genomes for most Euphorbiaceous species. Specifically, we predicted 85 conserved miRNAs in 23 families in the Castor bean (Ricinus communis), and experimentally verified and characterized 58 (68.2%) of the 85 miRNAs in at least one of four Euphorbiaceous species, the Castor bean, the Cassava (Manihot esculenta), the Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) during normal seedling development. To elucidate their function in stress response, we verified and profiled 48 (56.5%) of the 85 miRNAs under cold and drought stresses as well as during the processes of stress recovery. The results revealed some species- and condition-specific miRNA expression patterns. Finally, we predicted 258 miRNA:target partners, and identified the cleavage sites of six out of ten miRNA targets by a modified 5' RACE. This study produced the first collection of miRNAs and their targets in Euphorbiaceae. Our results revealed wide conservation of many miRNAs and diverse functions in Euphorbiaceous plants during seedling growth and in response to abiotic stresses.

  4. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  5. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  6. Absolute configuration of (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-[6''-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, macarangiosides E, and F isolated from the leaves of Macaranga tanarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazunari; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Yoshio

    2009-07-01

    A lignan glucoside, (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-[6''-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and two megastigmane glucosides, named macarangiosides E and F (2,3), together with 15 known compounds (4-18) were isolated from leaves of Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. In addition, the absolute stereochemistry of macarangiosides B and C isolated previously from the same plant was also determined for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 were galloylated on glucose and possessed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity.

  7. Chemical Constituents of Excoecaria acerifolia and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new kaurane diterpenoid, 3α,18-dihydroxy-3β,20-epoxykaur-15-ene (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Excoecaria acerifolia (Euphorbiaceae together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of compounds 1-6 and 9-17 were evaluated using a zebrafish model, with compound 9 being active in this bioassay. At the same time, compounds 4, 6, 10, 11 showed activity in inhibiting the growth of A549 lung cancer cells, and the compound 10 also showed apoptosis-inducing effects on A549 lung cancer cells.

  8. Identification of Minor Secondary Metabolites from the Latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Iorizzi; Francesco Visioli; Gelsomina Fico; Sara Vitalini; Franco Zollo; Fulvio Gala; Simona De Marino

    2008-01-01

    Dragon’s blood (Sangre de drago), a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae), is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ol...

  9. PLANTAS ARVENSES ASOCIADAS A CULTIVOS DE MAÍZ DE TEMPORAL EN SUELOS SALINOS DE LA RIBERA DEL LAGO DE CUITZEO, MICHOACÁN, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se muestrearon comunidades de plantas arvenses en cultivos de maíz de temporal creciendo sobre suelos con problemas de salinidad, durante el ciclo agrícola 1996 en 10 sitios de la ribera del Lago de Cuitzeo. Se registraron 133 especies correspondientes a 94 géneros y 34 familias. De estas últimas las que presentaron el mayor número de especies fueron Compositae, Gramineae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae y Leguminosae que en conjunto representan más de la mitad de la riqueza específica con 63.89%. ...

  10. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  11. The First Occurrence of A Mallotus 3,4-Seco-Taraxerane Triterpenoid from Mallotus barbatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Minh Giang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of a 3,4-seco-taraxerane triterpenoid in Mallotus species (Euphorbiaceae is reported. The triterpenoid was isolated from the leaves of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Mallotus barbatus ( Wall. Muell.-Arg. and its structure was determined to be 3,4-seco-taraxer-14-en-3-oic acid on the basis of HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. For the first time, the 1 H and 13C NMR data and stereochemistry of this compound were fully established on the basis of the 1H- 1H COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data.

  12. Determinação de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Denilson Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractIons of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae, caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae, cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae, marupá (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae, were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (¹H and 13C NMR, IR.

  13. Estudio de polifenoles, taninos y métodos químicos para determinar la actividad antioxidante de la semilla de Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sacha inchi, es una euphorbiaceae conocida como maní del Inca. Se encuentra distribuida en el Perú, en San Martín, Huánuco, Amazonas, Madre de Dios y Loreto.OBJETIVODeterminar la actividad de los compuestos fenólicos de las semillas de sacha inchi y su rol en el color, conservación, sabor de los alimentos y bebidas.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOEl presente estudio se realizó con semillas de sacha inchi colectadas en Tarapoto por el Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Extensión Agraria (INIA). En el Cent...

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  16. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  17. Research Advance in Wolfsbane and Stellera chamaejasme L.%狼毒及瑞香狼毒的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦洪举; 李锋; 侯勇跃

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia contains volatile constituents, terpenes, plant sterols, anthraquinone, tannins, acetophenone and insecticidal constituents, and flavonoids are also isolated from Euphorbia ebiacteolata. Stellera chamaejasme L. contains lignans, flavonoids, diterpenoid compound, coumarins, pentacyclic triterpenoid, sterols and other components. Both Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia and Stellera chamaejasme L. have biological activities like cancer or antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, anticonvulsants and insecticidal activity, but the way is different. Besides, Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia has anti-leukemia effect, while Stellera chamaejasme L. has stellera treatment and prevention of immune deficiency. Euphorbia has long records and research, but the records and research about Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and Euphorbia ebiacteolata are more chaos. So ecological shape, distribution, chemical composition and biological activity research on Stellera chamaejasme L. and Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia were compared.%大戟科狼毒含有挥发油成分、萜类、植物甾醇类、蒽醌、鞣质类、苯乙酮、杀虫成分,月腺大戟还分离出了黄酮类化合物;而瑞香狼毒含有木脂素、黄酮类化合物、二萜类化合物、香豆素类化合物、三萜类化合物、甾醇类以及其他成分。大戟科狼毒与瑞香狼毒的生物活性都有抗癌或抗肿瘤、抗菌、抗病毒、抗惊厥、杀虫作用,但二者的作用方式却不同,大戟科狼毒还独有抗白血病作用,而瑞香狼毒独有治疗和预防免疫缺陷的作用。关于狼毒的记载与研究的历史较早,但对于瑞香狼毒与大戟科植物狼毒大戟和月腺大戟的收载比较混乱,因此,对瑞香狼毒与大戟科狼毒在植物形态、生长分布、化学成分研究以及生物活性研究上进行了对比。

  18. Chemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas L and effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Santos; Silva, Thanany Brasil da; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bernardo, Antonio Rogerio; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Fernandes, Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pessoa, Angela Maria dos Santos; Silva-Mann, Renata, E-mail: djbf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agronomica

    2012-07-01

    The biological activity of seven extracts from leaves of different Jatropha curcas L (Euphorbiaceae) accessions was evaluated on Spodoptera frugiperda. Methanol extracts were incorporated into an artificial diet and offered to the larval stage of S. frugiperda. The parameters evaluated were length of larval and pupal stages, mortality of larval and total cycle stage, and weight of pupae. The extracts of the EMB accessions showed the best result for larval mortality at 60.00 and 56.67%, compared with the control, respectively. Hexane partition of the methanol extract of the leaves of PM-14 accessions allowed the identification of phytosterols, phytol and n-alkanols. (author)

  19. Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W J; Lin, G D

    2000-03-01

    This review illustrates the distribution of tropane alkaloids within the families Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Proteaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Convolvulaceae and Cruciferae. Whereas tropane alkaloids are characteristic of the genera Datura, Brugmansia (tree datura) and Duboisia of the Solanaceae, the distribution is more widespread with novel tropane derivatives in families not traditionally associated with these bases. The chemical nature of more recently discovered water-soluble calystegines and the di- and trimeric forms from the Convolvulaceae (e.g. schizanthines from Schizanthus spp.), truxillines from Bolivian coca leaves and moonines of Erythroxylum moonii are highlighted. Where possible and appropriate, links between the phytochemistry and taxonomy are discussed.

  20. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-11

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  1. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS India

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    Tanveer A Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae, EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae, Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae, Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae. These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections.

  2. A Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics of Amentoflavone, a Naturally-Occurring Biflavonoid

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    Sheng Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone (C30H18O10 is a well-known biflavonoid occurring in many natural plants. This polyphenolic compound has been discovered to have some important bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, and anti-senescence effects on many important reactions in the cardiovascular and central nervous system, etc. Over 120 plants have been found to contain this bioactive component, such as Selaginellaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Calophyllaceae plant families. This review paper aims to profile amentoflavone on its plant sources, natural derivatives, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics, and to highlight some existing issues and perspectives in the future.

  3. A new species of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae from Brazil, with biological notes

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    Cássia I. V. de Abreu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus, with koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. Aleiodes japi sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Type specimens of the new species were reared from Physocleora grosica and Ischnopteris sp. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae larvae. Host larvae were collected on Alchornea triplinervia (Euphorbiaceae at the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. This is the second species of circumscriptus/gastritror group described from Brazil.

  4. Variación ecológica, morfológica y química: atributos clave para el aprovechamiento y conservación de Jatropha sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Nicolás, Nancy Yazmin

    2014-01-01

    En México se consignan 45 especies para el género Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). La Reserva de las Biosfera de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán concentra riqueza genética y endemismo para este género, que proporciona alimento, medicina y energía a los habitantes, pero falta información sobre la distribución, ecología y aprovechamiento de las especies. Esta tesis se organizó en tres capítulos. En el primero se precisaron taxonómicamente las especies de Jatropha, se diferenciaron las Unidades Ambientales (UA) en ...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

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    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  6. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

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    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  8. Diversidad florística de la Serranía de las Quinchas, Magdalena medio (Colombia

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    Rangel Churio Jesus Orlando

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An alphabetical list of vascular herborized plants is presented along with the diversity analysis of the called "Las Quinchas" mountain ridge placed on Puerto Boyacá (Boyacá and Yacopí (Cundinamarca, between 380 m (on the Magdalena river shores and 1450 m. 1036 species belonging to 496 genera and 118 families were recorded. 76.4% of this amount are dicots, 16.8% monocots, 6.8% pteridophytes and 0.1% gymnosperms. The families that show the highest number of species are: Polypodiaceae (Pteridophytes; Araceae, Arecaceae, and Poaceae (monocots and Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Piperaceae, and Moraceae (dícots. It has been observed that the richest families in species number on the tropical region are also important on the Subandean life region. Among the richest families on both life regions figure: Rubiaceae, Araceae, Polypodiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Piperaceae. The richest genera are: Philodendron, Piper, Anthurium, Psychotria, Inga, and Miconie, This pattern is repeated on both life regions.En la serranía de Las Quinchas, en sectores del municipio de Puerto Boyacá (Boyacá y de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, entre 380 m en las riberas del río Magdalena y 1450 m de altitud, se registraron 1036 especies, distribuidas en 496 géneros y 118 familias; el 76.4% corresponde a dicotiledóneas, el 16.8% a monocotiledóneas, el 6.8% a pteridófitos y el 0.1 % a gimnospermas. Lasfamilias que presentan el mayor número de especies son: Polypodiaceae entre los teridófitos; Araceae, Arecaceae y Poaceae entre las monocotiledóneas, y Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae. Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Piperaceae y Moraceae entre las dicotiledóneas. Las familias más ricas en especies en la región Tropical son igualmente importantes en la región de vida Subandina. Entre las familias más ricas en las dos regiones de vida figuran: Rubiaceae, Araceae, Polypodiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae y Piperaceae. Los géneros m

  9. Curcacycline A--a novel cyclic octapeptide isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, A J; Horsten, S F; Kettenes-van den Bosch, J J; Kroes, B H; Beukelman, C J; Leeflang, B R; Labadie, R P

    1995-01-30

    From the latex of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) a novel cyclic octapeptide was isolated, which we named curcacycline A. The compound was found to contain one threonine, one valine, two glycine, and four leucine residues. By two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy (HOHAHA and ROESY), its sequence was determined to be Gly1-Leu2-Leu3-Gly4-Thr5-Val6-Leu7-Leu8-Gly1+ ++. Curcacycline A displays a moderate inhibition of (i) classical pathway activity of human complement and (ii) proliferation of human T-cells.

  10. Synergy effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and the essential oil of Croton zehntneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2009-11-01

    The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity by gaseous contact. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MID of 0.5 and<1mg/l air, respectively. The activity of the antibiotic gentamicin was increased by 42,8% against P. aeruginosa after contact with the gaseous component, showing that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  11. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  12. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, M Jaya Prakash; Komraiah, A; Rao, K Narasimha; Ragan, A; Raju, V S; Charya, M A Singara

    2008-06-18

    Antibacterial activity and phytochemical tests of eight whole plant methanol extracts belonging to family Euphorbiaceae were evaluated. In agar well diffusion assay the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 3-13 mm. Phyllanthus emblica showed maximum activity of 13 mm. The MIC and MBC observed were 30-140 mcg/ml and 40-160 mcg/ml, respectively. P. piscatorum and P. emblica showed the lowest MIC (30 mcg/ml), P. emblica the lowest MBC (40 mcg/ml) and thus an effective inhibitor of the tested bacteria. Alkaloids, saponins and tannins were detected in 7 out of 8 tested plants.

  13. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela.

  14. A new record of longicorn beetle, Acanthophorus rugiceps, from India as a root borer on physic nut, Jatropha curcas, with a description of life stages, biology, and seasonal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Mathyam; Prasad, Y G; Rao, G R; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    Longicorn beetle, Acanthophorus rugiceps Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is reported for the first time as a confirmed host on physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), from India, causing extensive damage to roots. Plants of three years age and above were prone to attack by this pest. In a six year study beginning in 2005, about 11.3 percent of plants in a 16.25 acre physic nut plantation were severely damaged by A. rugiceps. Life stages of A. rugiceps, including egg, larvae, pupae, and adult, are described with a note on their habitat, biology, and behavior. Strategies to manage this pest on physic nut are discussed.

  15. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  16. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

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    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  17. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves; Determinacao de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: ladetec@iq.gov.br; Cabral, Jose Augusto; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Cid [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Elias, Vladimir O. [Analytical Solution, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, IR). (author)

  18. Primeros resultados de la caracterización botánica de mieles producidas por Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae en Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina First results of botanical characterization of honeys produced by Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae in Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis melisopalinológico de diez muestras de miel de Tetragonisca angustula Latreille criadas en la localidad Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; O 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. Se reconoció un total de 49 tipos polínicos. En las mieles monoflorales, los tipos dominantes correspondieron a: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., Myrtaceae nativas y un tipo indeterminado (tipo 6. Las restantes muestras fueron multiflorales. El 62 % de los tipos polínicos corresponde a representantes de la Selva Montana de Yungas; tipos como Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, tipo Myrsine y un conjunto de Myrtaceae nativas que constituyen la primera cita como plantas nectaríferas para T. angustula. También se identificó polen proveniente de plantas típicas de ambientes antropizados como Carica papaya, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Leonurus sibiricus, entre otros. Estos resultados constituyen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de la flora utilizada por T. angustula y al origen geográfico de sus mieles, estableciendo el primer registro para Selva Montana de Yungas.The melissopalynological analysis was performed on ten honeys samples of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille breeding in the locality Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; W 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. We found a whole of 49 pollen types. In the honey monofloral, the dominant types corresponded to: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., native Myrtaceae and a type undetermined (type 6. The remaining samples were multifloral. 62% of pollen types corresponding to representatives of the Yungas mountain forest; types like Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, type Myrsine and a set of native Myrtaceae, which constitute the first appointment as nectar sources for T. angustula. Also identified pollen

  19. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  20. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea. PMID:28166280

  1. Distribution, Use Pattern and Prospects for Conservation of Medicinal Shrubs in Uttaranchal State, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhupendra S. Adhikari; Mani M. Babu; Prem L. Saklani; Gopal S. Rawat

    2007-01-01

    The present paper gives an insight into the distribution and use pattern of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State. A total of 222 medicinal and aromatic shrub species have been appended based on secondary information. Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae,Verbenaceae, and Fabaceae have the highest representatives of medicinal shrubs. Twenty one families had one species each in medicinal use. Verbenaceae and Euphorbiaceae in the sub-tropical region,Rosaceae in the temperate region, and Ericaceae and Rosaceae in the sub-alpine and alpine regions,respectively, had the highest representatives of medicinal shrubs. The distribution of medicinal shrubs was 42 % in sub-tropical, 29 % in warm temperate, 13 % in cool temperate, 9 % in sub-alpine and 7 % in the alpine region. Of the total species, 70 medicinal shrubs were native to the Himalayas and 22 native to Himalayan region including other Himalayan countries. The most frequently used plant parts for various ailments were leaves (31%) and roots (23%). Most shrubs are being used for the diseases, viz.skin diseases, dysentery, cough, fever, wounds, and rheumatism. The present paper will help in the execution of strategies for promotion and cultivation of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State.

  2. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: A review

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    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane. Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae, Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae, Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae, Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  3. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III. Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  4. Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Maradana Tarakeswara Naidu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity and density of trees were assessed in four 1-ha plots (at 457–925 m in elevation in the Eastern Ghats of the Andhra Pradesh region comprising mostly of tropical deciduous forests based on a census of all trees with girth at breast height ≥ 15cm. We compared tree community characteristics like stem density, basal area, diversity, and species composition of four plots using a tree dataset of eight belt transects (5 m×1000 m in the study area. A total of 2,227 individuals of 44 families, 98 genera, and 129 species were recorded. Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Anacardiaceae, showed the greatest importance value index. It was noticed that the most species were contributed by Euphorbiaceae and the tree density varied from 435 ha–1 to 767 ha–1 with an average basal area of 25.82 m2/ha. Shannon–Weiner index (H' ranged from 3.76 to 3.96, the Simpson index ranged from 0.96 to 0.97, evenness index ranged from 0.60 to 0.78, and species richness index ranged from 10.04 to 11.24. At present the biodiversity of these forests are under threat due to the anthropogenic and upcoming mining activities. The present study will help us to understand the patterns of tree species composition and diversity in the Eastern Ghats of India.

  5. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  6. Flórula ruderal da cidade de Lavras, MG Ruderal plants from Lavras, MG

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se o levantamento e a identificação das plantas ruderais ocorrentes na cidade de Lavras, MG. Foram identificadas 175 espécies, representando 122 gêneros, pertencentes a 41 famílias. As famílias. Compositae, Leguminosae, Graminese, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Amaranthaceae, são as que apresentaram o maior número de espécies. O material foi coletado em áreas ajardinadas, beiras de caminhos, calçadas, muros e cercas, e em terrenos baldios.A survey and identification of ruderal plants occuring in Lavras City, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. One hundred and seventy five species, representing 122 genera belonging to 41 families were indentified. Families Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Amaranthaceae presented the greatest numbers of species among all families. All plant materials were collected in garden areas, along roadsides and streets, walls and fences, and wastelands.

  7. Aspectos fitossociológicos de um fragmento da floresta natural de Astronium balansae engl., no município de Bossoroca, RS Phytosociological characteristics of a fragment of the natural forest of Astronium balansae engl, in the county of Bosssoroca, RS

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    Alexandra Augusti Boligon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento da Floresta Natural de Astronium balansae Engl., no município de Bossoroca, RS, Brasil. Foram demarcadas 7 unidades amostrais de 10x100m (1000m2 onde observou-se a ocorrência de 476 indivíduos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito (CAP = 30cm, distribuídos em 35 espécies e 25 famílias. As espécies mais características e importantes da floresta foram Astronium balansae, Myrcianthes pungens, Patagonula americana, Eugenia uniflora e Parapiptadenia rigida. As famílias Myrtaceae, Meliaceae e Euphorbiaceae foram as mais representativas do fragmento florestal estudado. O valor do Índice de diversidade de Shannon foi 3.The study was carried out to evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological characteristics of a fragment of the natural forest of Astronium balansae Engl, in Bossoroca county, RS, Brazil. Seven 10x100m (1000m² units were inventoried: 476 measured trees (CBH = 30cm were distributed in 35 species and 25 families. The most important species were Astronium balansae, Myrcianthes pungens, Patagonula americana, Eugenia uniflora and Parapiptadenia rigida. The families Myrtaceae, Meliaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most representative families in the forest fragment studied. The Shannon diversity index was 3.

  8. Uma revisão das atividades biológicas da trans-desidrocrotonina, um produto natural obtido de Croton cajucara A review of the biologic activities of trans-dehydrocrotonin, a natural product obtained from Croton cajucara

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    Marcília Pinheiro da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara Beth (Euphorbiaceae uma espécie medicinal nativa da região Amazônica do Brasil, onde é vulgarmente conhecida como 'sacaca', representa um recurso terapêutico eficaz no tratamento e cura de várias doenças. O metabólito majoritário trans-desidrocrotonina (DCTN, isolado das cascas do caule desta planta, encontra-se correlacionado com grande parte das propriedades medicinais da sacaca. Este artigo de revisão, descreve os resultados fitoquímicos e farmacológicos que foram realizados com o diterpeno do tipo clerodano DCTN, bem como seus derivados semi-sintéticos. Adicionalmente, apresenta perspectivas para a biodisponibilização deste protótipo de fármaco em nanosistemas.Croton cajucara Beth (Euphorbiaceae is a plant found in the Amazonian Region of North Brazil, where it is popularly known as sacaca. The major secondary metabolite, trans-dehydrocrotonin (DCTN a clerodane-type diterpene, isolated from the stem bark is a chief bioactive compound of Croton cajucara. This review describes results of extensive pharmacological studies of DCTN, as well as its semi-synthetic derivatives, and also presents insights into the use of DCTN as a therapeutic agent and some potential advantages of its incorporation in drug delivery systems.

  9. Medicinal Plant Resource in Hengshan Mountain and Its Classification%南岳衡山药用植物资源与分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭友林; 李庆辉; 刘光明; 王云

    2011-01-01

    为了对衡山地区药用植物资源的综合利用和保护提供科学依据,对衡山药用植物的种类、分布特点与资源进行了调查研究.经标本采集、拍摄照片和资料整理,该地区有药用植物1 025种,195科,其中,20种以上的优势科有樟科(Lauraceae)、毛茛科(Ranunculaceae)、大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)、蔷薇科(Rosa-ceae)、蝶形花科(Papilionaceae)、菊科(Compositae)、唇形科(Labiatae)、百合科(Liliaceae)等;并对361种药用植物根据其药用功效进行了分类.%The medicinal plant species, distribution characteristics and resource evaluation in Hengshan mountain were investigated to provide scientific basis for comprehensive utilization and protection of medicinal plant resource in Hengshan mountain. The results showed that there are 1 025 medicinal plant species belonging to 195 families in Hengshan mountain with more than 20 dominant families, such as Lauraceae, Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae, Papilionaceae, Compositae,Labiatae, Liliaceae, et al. The 361 medicinal plant species were classified as well according to their effect.

  10. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  11. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  12. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae.

  13. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

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    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  14. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

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    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  15. 山乌桕化学成分研究(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾靓; 施瑶; 刘晓燕; 闵知大

    2007-01-01

    采用硅胶和凝胶柱层析,对广西产山乌桕(Sapium discolor(champ.)Muell.-Arg)茎枝的化学成分进行研究,从醋酸乙酯部位分离得到了五个酚性化合物,运用化学及波谱学方法分别鉴定为3,3',4'-三甲氧基鞣花酸(I),3,3'-二甲氧基鞣花酸-4'-0-β-D-木糖苷(Ⅱ),香草酸(Ⅲ),短叶苏木酚酸乙酯(Ⅳ),次没食子酸(V).化合物I-V均为首次从该植物中分离得到.对以上化合物的抗菌活性进行了初步研究,结果显示,化合物Ⅲ和Ⅳ具有弱的抗嗜血放线伴生杆菌A.actinomycetemicomtans活性,其它化合物没有明显活性.

  16. Application of Foliage Plants and Ornamental Fruit Plants to Garden Building%秋色叶及观果树木在园林造景中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思政; 聂东伶; 柏文富

    2001-01-01

    我国秋色叶和观果树木资源极其丰富,开发利用秋色叶及观果树木资源对我国园 林建设具有重要意义.分析了枫香、鸡爪槭、重阳木等18种秋色叶植物及南天竺、天目琼花等7种观果植物的形态美学特征及在秋季的观赏特性,探讨了它们在园林造景中的应用.%The resources of foliage and ornamental fruit plants in China are very rich, and the exploitation and utilization of foliage and ornamental fruit plan ts are of great significance. This paper discusses the morphological aestheti cs features and the autumnal ornamentation features of 18 foliage plants (Liquidambar formosan,Acer sapium,Bischofia racemosa,etc.) an d 7 ornamental fruit plants( Na ndina domestica,Vibumam sargentw,etc.). The application of the plants is als o discussed.

  17. 广东增城主要森林群落优势种群的生态位研究%Study on Niche of the Woody Species in the Major Forest Communities in Zengcheng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄久香; 王通; 庄雪影

    2003-01-01

    在广东省增城市次生林区和马尾松林、南洋楹林和湿地松林等主要人工林群落中设置了76个100 m2的样方, 开展这些群落优势种群的生态位研究.结果显示,变叶榕(Ficus variolosa)、山乌桕(Sapium discolor)、罗浮柿(Diospyros morrisiana)和山苍子(Listea cubeba)等阳性、鸟播树种具有较高的生态位宽度,大多数次生林种类均具有较小的生态位宽度和生态位重叠.南洋楹与较多植物种类有较大的生态位重叠,反映南洋楹能与较多的乡土种类共存.建议根据植物生态位特点,采用相应的方法促进天然林树种的恢复和发展.

  18. A study on four species of trees seed-oil with flax acid%富含亚麻酸的四种林木种子油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庐山植物园油脂组

    1983-01-01

    本文报道福建柏[Fokienia hodginsii(Dunn.)Herry et Thomas.]、重阳木(Bischoffia trifoliata Hook.)、化香(Platycarya strobilacea Sieb.ct Zucc.)和白木乌桕(Sapium japonicum pax et Haffmann)种子的含油量、油的理化性质和脂肪酸组成.气液色谱法分析表明,亚麻酸是它们种子油的主要成分,其含量分别为44.58%、50.23%和31.52%.这些种子油的碘值与折光率相关图证实不含有特殊脂肪酸.富含亚麻酸的这四种林木种子油,碘值为163.27-175.12,属干性油.高的碘值与油脂中亚麻酸、亚油酸这两种不饱和脂肪酸比例高相一致.分析表明,这些种子油可以代替亚麻油.

  19. 湖南的新记录植物(四)%SOME NEWLY RECORDED PLANTS FROM HUNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光万; 雷立公; 刘克明

    2002-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录科1个,即无叶莲科Petrosaviaceae;新记录属2个,即无叶莲属Petrosavia Becc.和鸢尾兰属Oberonia Lindl.;新记录种11个,即小药八旦子Corydalis caudata (Lam.) Pers、韫珍金腰Chrysosplenium wuwenchenii Jien、桂林乌桕Sapium chihsinianum S. K. Lee、蛛毛苣苔Paraboea sinensis (Oliv.) Burtt、扁穗牛鞭草Hemarthria compressa (Linn. f.) R. Br.、曲轴黑三棱Sparganium fallax Graebn、无叶莲Petrosavia sakuraii (Makino) J. J. Smith ex Steenis、北重楼Paris verticillata M.-Bieb.、大叶仙茅Curculigo capitulata (Lour.) O. Kuntze、狭叶鸢尾兰Oberonia caulescens Lindl.、无距虾脊兰Calanthe tsoongiana T. Tang et F. T. Wang;新记录变种1个,即峨嵋金腰Chrysosplenium hydrocotylifolium Lévl. et Vant. var. emeiense J. T. Pan.

  20. 乌桕树皮亲脂性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳润辉; 孔令义

    2003-01-01

    @@ 乌桕Sapium sebferum(L.)Roxb.为大戟科植物,落叶乔木,高达15 m,具乳汁.其根皮、茎皮、种子及叶子均可入药.树皮、根皮四季可采,去栓皮,切片晒干;叶多鲜用或晒干,全年可采;秋季采收种子[1,2].乌桕性微温、味苦、有毒,具有利水、消积、杀虫、解毒、通便之功效;主治水肿、膨胀、湿疹、疥癣等.现代药理实验表明,乌桕具有多种生理活性,如体外抑菌、抗炎、降压、降胆固醇及促癌作用[2].20世纪50年代乌桕根皮制剂治疗由晚期血吸虫病而引起的腹水病引起一些学者对其化学物质基础的研究[3].