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Sample records for sapiens bos taurus

  1. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  2. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (<1 μm), whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 μm or more). Here, we describe a new species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1 μm thick) and had minute protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had short, conical villar protrusions (vp) that were up to 0.5 μm long and up to 0.5 μm wide, similar to type 29. The vp on the sarcocyst wall lacked microtubules but had six or more disc-shaped plaques. The ground substance layer was smooth, approximately 0.5 μm thick, and without microtubules. The bradyzoites were 8-11 μm long. The structure of the sarcocyst wall was distinct from any species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts.

  3. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  4. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10,983 s...

  5. Caracterização do estro de novilhas cruzadas (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus por radiotelemetria

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    Claudia Maria Bertan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora a técnica de inseminação artificial (IA apresente inúmeras vantagens, no Brasil é empregada em apenas 7% das fêmeas de corte. Falhas na detecção de estros constituem o principal fator limitante para a obtenção de êxito no emprego da técnica. Um sistema eletrônico, que se baseia na radiotelemetria, foi desenvolvido para a detecção de estros. Este sistema fornece o registro da data, horário e duração das montas ocorridas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, pelo sistema de radiotelemetria, as características comportamentais de estro em novilhas cruzadas de corte (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus, criadas em regime extensivo, na região sudoeste do Brasil. A hipótese testada foi que a duração dos estros e o número de montas são bastante variáveis entre as fêmeas e que a maioria das montas ocorre no período noturno. Para a sincronização dos estros as novilhas receberam 0,5mg de MGA/cabeça/dia, uma vez ao dia, durante 8 dias, e uma injeção de 15mg de luprostiol (PG via IM no último dia da ingestão de MGA. Os estros foram registrados pelo sistema de radiotelemetria "Heat-Watch", durante um período de até 120 horas após a aplicação de PG. A duração média dos estros foi de 10,4 + 5,7 horas, duração que variou de 45 minutos a 22,7 horas. O número médio de montas foi de 26,2 + 13,6 e variou de 3 a 81 montas. A duração média das montas foi de 2,7 + 0,3 segundos. Dransfield et al.¹ classificaram os estros em curta (; 7 horas duração e baixa (; 1,5 montas/hora intensidade. Houve uma maior incidência dos estros de longa duração quando comparados aos de curta duração (72,8% vs. 27,2%; P<0,05 e uma maior incidência dos estros de alta intensidade quando comparados aos de baixa intensidade (70,2% vs. 29,8%; P<0,05. A média geral de montas diurnas foi de 10,0 + 9,7 (das 7:00 às 19:00 horas e de montas noturnas de 13,0 + 12,4 (das 19:00 às 7:00 horas, sendo que não foi observado

  6. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  7. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris) EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas; Eliana Mora-Peraza; Rodolfo WingChing-Jones; Sandra Calder\\u00F3n-Villaplana

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de I...

  8. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  9. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en terneros de cruces Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Córdova, Mary; Córdova, Cristian; Pérez., José

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatro meses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para lo cual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgian blue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descri...

  10. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en becerros de cruzas Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Córdova; Gustavo Rodríguez; Mary Córdova; Cristian Córdova; José Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatromeses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para locual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgianblue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Losresultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiv...

  11. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

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    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  12. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (Pbeef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force, susceptibility to calpain, apoptosis and postmortem glycolysis, which might also be related to differences in beef quality among Angus and Nellore.

  13. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  14. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  15. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

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    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  16. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión gené- tica, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus . Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromo- soma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos perte- necientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejem- plares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus , lo cual esta- ría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemen- te originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santan- dereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  17. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

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    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  18. Comparison of antral and preantral ovarian follicle populations between Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high or low antral follicles counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, K C; Siloto, L S; Santos, G M G; Morotti, F; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre-antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus-taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77-0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus-taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus-taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus-taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of Bos indicus cows (63 032 ± 58 705 follicles) with high AFC. However, there was no significant correlation between numbers of antral and preantral follicles.

  19. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  20. Comparative analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) sperm proteome identifies sperm proteins potentially responsible for higher fertility in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-07-30

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility.

  1. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  2. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds.

  3. History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages

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    Schibler, J.; Schlumbaum, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (similar to 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic unt...

  4. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  5. Analysis of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa X and Y chromosome transcriptome highlights reproductive driver genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Kai; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Shujun, Zhang

    2017-08-15

    The biology of sperm, its capability of fertilizing an egg and its role in sex ratio are the major biological questions in reproductive biology. To answer these question we integrated X and Y chromosome transcriptome across different species: Bos taurus and Sus scrofa and identified reproductive driver genes based on Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. Our strategy resulted in 11007 and 10445 unique genes consisting of 9 and 11 reproductive modules in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa, respectively. The consensus module calculation yields an overall 167 overlapped genes which were mapped to 846 DEGs in Bos taurus to finally get a list of 67 dual feature genes. We develop gene co-expression network of selected 67 genes that consists of 58 nodes (27 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated genes) enriched to 66 GO biological process (BP) including 6 GO annotations related to reproduction and two KEGG pathways. Moreover, we searched significantly related TF (ISRE, AP1FJ, RP58, CREL) and miRNAs (bta-miR-181a, bta-miR-17-5p, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-146a) which targeted the genes in co-expression network. In addition we performed genetic analysis including phylogenetic, functional domain identification, epigenetic modifications, mutation analysis of the most important reproductive driver genes PRM1, PPP2R2B and PAFAH1B1 and finally performed a protein docking analysis to visualize their therapeutic and gene expression regulation ability.

  6. Investigation of X- and Y-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in taurine (Bos taurus) and indicine (Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, C; Hellborg, L; Seddon, J; Hanotte, O; Götherström, A

    2007-12-01

    Initially, domesticated African cattle were of taurine type. Today, we find both African Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, as well as their crossbreeds, on the continent of Africa and they all share the same set of African taurine mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. In this study, we report genetic variation as substitutions and insertions/deletions (indels) on both the X and Y chromosomes, and use the variation to assess hybridization between taurine and indicine cattle. Six African cattle breeds (four Sanga breeds, including Raya Azebu, Danakil, Caprivi, Nguni; and two Zebu breeds, including Kilimanjaro Zebu and South Kavirondo Zebu) were screened for six new X-chromosomal markers, specifically three single nucleotide polymorphisms and three indels in the DDX3X (previously DBX) and ZFX genes, and five previously identified Y-chromosomal markers in the DDX3Y (previously DBY) and ZFY genes. In total, 90 (57 bulls and 33 cows) samples from the African breeds were analysed. We identify five diagnostic haplotypes of indicine and taurine origins on both the X and Y chromosomes. For each breed, the level of indicine introgression varies; in addition to pure taurine, indicine and hybrid X-chromosome individuals, recombinant X-chromosome variants were also detected. These markers are useful molecular tools for assessing the level of indicine admixture in African cattle breeds.

  7. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

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    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  8. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  9. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M L

    2004-07-01

    A significant proportion of postpartum beef cows are anestrus at the onset of the breeding season. Much progress has been made in understanding anestrus and the changes that lead to spontaneous resumption of reproductive function. Likewise, knowledge regarding the impact of hormonal interventions on the endocrine and ovarian changes normally associated with spontaneous resumption of estrous cycles continue to accumulate. A wide range of hormonal treatment programs designed to induce estrous cycles in anestrous cows to coincide with the start of the breeding season have been developed. Programs structured to provide for increased progesterone, estradiol and LH concentrations at the appropriate times during the period leading to the first ovulation, and an induced preovulatory gonadotropin surge when the dominant ovarian follicle is of appropriate maturity have been demonstrated to induce estrous cycles of normal duration and acceptable fertility in a majority of anestrous, Bos taurus beef cows.

  10. Acquisition and expression of resistance by Bos indicus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus calves to Amblyomma americanum infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Osburn, R L; Wikel, S K

    1985-04-01

    Purebred and crossbred Bos indicus calves were infested 1, 2, or 3 times with 10 female and 5 male Amblyomma americanum. Resistance was acquired by both the purebred and the crossbred calves after 1 infestation and resulted in statistically significant decreases in the percentages of females that engorged, the mean weights of engorged females, and the mean weights of egg masses. Comparisons between breeds of the percent of female ticks that engorged during the first and second infestations indicate that purebred B. indicus expressed a stronger acquired resistance to A. americanum more readily than did crossbred animals. However, calves of both genetic compositions displayed similar levels of resistance during a third exposure. All tick-exposed and control animals were skin tested with salivary gland extracts of A. americanum, A. cajennense and Dermacentor andersoni. Control, uninfested calves, did not display significant cutaneous reactivity to these extracts. All calves that had been infested had immediate, 30-min, 5-hr and delayed, 24-hr, skin reactions to Amblyomma species antigens. Reactions to D. andersoni salivary antigens in tests of both purebred and crossbred calves with acquired resistance to A. americanum suggest that Amblyomma species salivary gland antigens might have cross reactive moieties with a salivary extract prepared from D. andersoni. Peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro responsiveness to Amblyomma species antigens was detected in purebred calves after a first, second, and third infestation, indicating the presence of cells of the immune system capable of recognizing and undergoing blast transformation in response to tick salivary components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, Preproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma cortisol (Pcattle were acclimated to human handling. In conclusion, temperament impacts productive, reproductive

  12. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  13. Imputation of Microsatellite Alleles from Dense SNP Genotypes for Parentage Verification Across Multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Charles Mcclure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N=479 from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8,000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus were used to predict 9,410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles for 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N=2 to 36 breeds. These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had <1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents’ reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.

  14. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

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    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  15. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

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    Cristina Ballarin

    Full Text Available The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ, and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  16. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  17. Effect of the g.98535683A>G SNP in the CAST gene on meat traits of Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Valencia, Cruz Elena; Pereira, Guilherme Luis; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto I I; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Curi, Rogério Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate allele frequencies of the g.98535683A>G:BTAU7 SNP in the CAST gene in different genetic groups of beef cattle produced in Brazil (Nellore and their crosses with Bos taurus), and to evaluate associations between this polymorphism and meat traits. Five hundred animals from six different genetic groups were genotyped and phenotyped for shear force (SF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), rib eye area, backfat thickness, and total lipids. Alleles A and G of the SNP were detected in all genetic groups and the frequency of A was higher than G. Significant association (P<0.05) was observed between the polymorphism and meat tenderness (SF and MFI), in which genotype AA exhibited the best values. These results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of the studied SNP in a Zebu breed and its potential application to the genetic improvement of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) and its crosses with Bos taurus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resposta imunológica contra gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG) em novilhas Bos taurus e Bos indicus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas experimentais. O objetivo do Experimento 1 foi avaliar o perfil de produção de anticorpos anti-eCG em novilhas Bos taurus e Bos indicus tratadas uma, duas ou três vezes, com 400 e com 2000UI de eCG. O experimento foi realizado em duas réplicas com o mesmo desenho experimental, porém com padrões raciais distintos. Os animais foram divididos em 6 grupos: os grupos eCG2000UI_1x (n = 5), eCG2000UI_2x (n = 5) e eCG2000UI_3x (n = 5) receberam, respe...

  19. A cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic study of the insular cortex of the bull, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Domenico; Paparcone, Rosa; Genovese, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Insula is characterised by considerable morphologic variability, however, it shows a cytoarchitectonic homogeneity within the species so far studied. Three cytoarchitectonic areas are generally recognisable in the Insula: an "agranular", a "dysgranular" and a "granular" area. The numerous functions attributed to the Insula (visceral sensory, visceral motor, somatosensorial, supplementary motor area, area speech and/or language related, etc.) have recently attracted renewed interest. Considering the involvement of the Insula in the control of gastroenteric motility and the structural and functional complexity of this region in ruminants, it seemed interesting to analyse the cyto- and myelo-architectonic arrangement of the Insula of the bull, Bos taurus. Unlike that of the other species described, all the insular Neocortex of the bull, is of the "agranular" type. The latter includes at least four variants that differ according to the organisation of the cortical layer pattern. Considering the available evidence in laboratory animals and primates of a role played by the agranular insular cortex in gastroenteric motility control, the trademark presence of a very much extended insular agranular cortex in the Insula of the bull may be related to the necessity of motor activity control of a gastroenteric complex that is extensively more developed than in the monogastric species.

  20. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  1. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  2. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  3. Ultrastructural studies of sarcocystis cruzi (Hasselmann,1926 Wenyon, 1926 infection in cattle (Bos Taurus: Philippine cases

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    Claveria F.G

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the first report of Sarcocysli s cruzi infection in domesticated cattle (Bos taurus in the Philippines. Fusiformshaped microscopic sarcocysts (183-578 μm long and 20-98 μm wide with distinct septae were found in the skeletal, striated and heart muscle. The sarcocyst wall or parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, 1.37-2.75 μm thick consisted of closely-packed villar protrusions 80-400 nm in dm. Middle and distal segments of VP were bent approximately 90 degrees parallel to the cyst wall surface. The villar core lacked microtubules, and at some points, the distal ends of the VP collectively formed conical tufts. Primary cyst wall had numerous 70-100 nm bubble-like undulations, and the ground substance was 0.25-0.5 μm in thickness. The ultrastructure of S. cruzi cyst wall typifies the Type 7 sarcocyst wall, and bears close similarities with the Philippine and the Vietnam strain of bubaline Sarcocystis levinei.

  4. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (pwater in a regression analysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  5. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  6. Estudio anatomopatológico, citogenético y molecular del síndrome freemartin en el bovino doméstico (Bos taurus) - (anatomopathologic, cytogenetic and molecular studies of the freemartin syndrome in cattle (bos taurus))

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-Valdovinos, Miguel Angel; Villagómez, Daniel; Galindo-García, Jorge; Sánchez-Chiprés, David; Avila-Figueroa,David; Taylor-Preciado, Juan de Jesús; Merlos-Barajas, Miguel; Guerrero-Quiroz Luis

    2007-01-01

    ResumenA través del análisis citogenético utilizando la presencia de los cromosomas sexuales como marcadores y mediante el análisis molecular (PCR-RFLP), utilizando oligonucleótidos iniciadores para los genes Zfx y Zfy del bovino, se diagnosticaron con la condición intersexual, síndrome freemartin, 19 individuos (Bos taurus) procedentes de partos múltiples heterosexuales; asimismo, se estudiaron anatomopatológicamente cuatro de estos animales, enfatizando en las características del tejido gon...

  7. Expression variants of the lipogenic AGPAT6 gene affect diverse milk composition phenotypes in Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew D Littlejohn

    Full Text Available Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting of a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbreed pedigree of 711 F2 cows, and a collection of 32,530 mixed ancestry Bos taurus cows. Bayesian genome-wide association mapping using markers imputed from the Illumina BovineHD chip revealed a large quantitative trait locus (QTL for milk fat percentage on chromosome 27, present in both populations. We also investigated a range of other milk composition phenotypes, and report additional associations at this locus for fat yield, protein percentage and yield, lactose percentage and yield, milk volume, and the proportions of numerous milk fatty acids. We then used mammary RNA sequence data from 212 lactating cows to assess the transcript abundance of genes located in the milk fat percentage QTL interval. This analysis revealed a strong eQTL for AGPAT6, demonstrating that high milk fat percentage genotype is also additively associated with increased expression of the AGPAT6 gene. Finally, we used whole genome sequence data from six F1 sires to target a panel of novel AGPAT6 locus variants for genotyping in the F2 crossbreed population. Association analysis of 58 of these variants revealed highly significant association for polymorphisms mapping to the 5'UTR exons and intron 1 of AGPAT6. Taken together, these data suggest that variants affecting the expression of AGPAT6 are causally involved in differential milk fat synthesis, with pleiotropic consequences for a diverse range of other milk components.

  8. Sequenciamento e análise dos genes das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de bovino (Bos taurus indicus Sequencing and analysis of subunits alpha and beta of the follicle stimulating hormone from bovine (Bos taurus indicus

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    Luci Sayori Murata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata uma clonagem e seqüenciamento das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de Bos taurus indicus. Também apresenta os resultados de comparação realizada das seqüências gênicas dessas cadeias com as seqüências das cadeias alfa e beta do FSH de suínos e da cadeia beta de bovinos Bos taurus taurus já presentes no GenBank. Na comparação das seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos predita da cadeia αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com as cadeias αFSH de outras espécies como suínos e búfalo (Bubalis bubalis, observou-se que as seqüências são bastante similares. A comparação da seqüência da subunidade αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com a de suíno demonstrou diferenças em três resíduos de aminoácidos. Na comparação com ßFSH, registrou-se modificação na primeira base do codon que levou à alteração no resíduo do aminóacido 83, que, em Bos taurus indicus, é uma glicina, ao invés da serina presente em Bos taurus taurus. Confirmaram-se essa modificação e todas as outras identificadas na seqüência dos cDNA das cadeias αFSH e βFSH em outra clonagem. A modificação Ser para Gly na posição 83 foi a única que alterou a identidade do resíduo de aminoácido na comparação entre as subunidades beta do FSH de Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus. Contudo, ela não deve alterar significativamente as propriedades fisiológicas do FSH, uma vez que o resíduo de glicina encontrado nessa posição também é encontrado na cadeia βFSH suína. Trata-se, portanto, de uma modificação particular que distingue as cadeias βFSH de B. taurus taurus e B. taurus indicus.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, clonagem, FSH, hormônio.

    The aim this work was to promove the cloning and analysis sequencing

  9. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  10. [History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from Neolithic to Early Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, J; Schlumbaum, A

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (approximately 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic until Iron Age. Only with Roman influence larger animals are found. However, after the withdrawal of Romans the average size of cattle decreased again. Archaeogenetic studies will have to show, whether this is due to novel breeding strategies or the import of breeding stock. First genetic results showed that a female genetic type, which is rare in European breeds, is present in Swiss Evolène cattle and in one animal of Roman time cattle from Augusta Raurica. Is this a sign for influence of Roman cattle on today's Swiss breeds?

  11. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning performance, but the particular cross that produces the calves also should be considered in making breeding decisions.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  13. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecifie...... differ between these two growth phases. This preliminary study provides estimated genetic parameters for IBK incidence, which could be used to design selection and breeding programs for tropical adaptation in beef cattle.......Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods: Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also...

  14. Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle

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    Liljavirta Jenni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assortment of cattle immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes has been extracted from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome sequence as a part of an international effort to sequence and annotate the bovine genome. Results 63 variable lambda chain and 22 variable kappa chain genes were identified and phylogenetically assigned to 8 and 4 subgroups, respectively. The specified phylogenetic relationships are compatible with the established ruminant light chain variable gene families or subgroups. Because of gaps and uncertainties in the assembled genome sequence, the number of genes might change in the future versions of the genome sequence. In addition, three bovine surrogate light chain genes were identified. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned and the expression of the surrogate light chain genes was demonstrated from fetal material. Conclusion The bovine kappa gene locus is compact and simple which may reflect the preferential use of the lambda chain in cattle. The relative orientation of variable and joining genes in both loci are consistent with a deletion mechanism in VJ joining. The orientation of some variable genes cannot be determined from the data available. The number of functional variable genes is moderate when compared to man or mouse. Thus, post-recombinatorial mechanisms might contribute to the generation of the bovine pre-immune antibody repertoire. The heavy chains probably contribute more to recombinational immunoglobulin repertoire diversity than the light chains but the heavy chain locus could not be annotated from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome.

  15. Clínica e hematologia de Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2,0 x 10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. As alterações clínicas surgidas a partir do 3º dia após inoculação (DAI foram: hipertermia, taquicardia, taquipnéia, anorexia, prostração, corrimento nasal e lacrimejamento. Estes sinais foram mais evidentes nos taurinos, espécie que apresentou, ainda, diarréia, fotofobia e conjuntivite. Foi possível isolar T. gondii da corrente sangüínea em todas as espécies. Nos taurinos, a partir do 5º DAI até o final do experimento, o parasito foi isolado de todas as amostras de sangue colhidas semanalmente, com exceção do 14º, 35º e 63º DAI. Os bubalinos apresentaram parasitemia no 7º, 14º, 35º e 70º DAI e os zebuínos apenas no 7º e 28º DAI, correspondendo aos picos de temperatura, em todas as espécies, sendo mais evidente em taurinos. Os parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais demonstraram que os taurinos foram mais sensíveis ao T. gondii do que os zebuínos e estes não diferiram significativamente dos bubalinos, que tiveram aparente normalidade clínico-laboratorial.

  16. Eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial prefixada em rebanhos Bos taurus e Bos indicus Efficacy of the Ovsynch treatment associated to fixed-time artificial insemination in Bos taurus and Bos indicus herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial em tempo prefixado em vacas Bos taurus e Bos indicus. Foram utilizados rebanhos das raças Holandesa, Caracu, Nelore e Mantiqueira. Também foi incluído um rebanho de vacas Gir, com problemas de fertilidade. Cada rebanho foi dividido em três grupos. O grupo 1 recebeu o tratamento Ovsynch e foi inseminado em tempo prefixado. O grupo 2 foi inseminado no cio induzido com cloprostenol. O grupo 3 foi inseminado no cio natural. As taxas de concepção e de prenhez foram determinadas por ultra-sonografia. Não existiu interação significativa das variáveis reprodutivas analisadas para rebanho, idade, período pós-parto, número de parição e presença do bezerro. A taxa de concepção não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos, ao passo que a taxa de prenhez foi superior (PThe present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Ovsynch treatment associated with prefixed-time artificial insemination on Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows. Herds of Holstein, Caracu, Nelore and Mantiqueira breeds were used. A herd of Gir cows with poor reproductive performance was also included. Each breed was divided in tree groups. Group 1 received Ovsynch treatment and was inseminated at prefixed time. Group 2 was induced to estrus with cloprostenol and inseminated thereafter. Group 3 was inseminated at natural heat. Conception and pregnancy rates were determined by ultra-sound. No significant interactions were detected among breeds, age, parity, postpartum period and lactating cows with or without their calves. Conception rates did not differ (P>0.05 among groups while pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05 for group 1 and 2 comparing to group 3. In the Gir herd Ovsynch treatment did not enhance conception nor pregnancy rates. Independently of breed, conception rate is similar after Ovsynch, cloprostenol and control treatments, and pregnancy rate can be improved with

  17. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  18. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  19. Estudio anatomopatológico, citogenético y molecular del síndrome freemartin en el bovino doméstico (Bos taurus - (anatomopathologic, cytogenetic and molecular studies of the freemartin syndrome in cattle (bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala-Valdovinos, Miguel Angel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA través del análisis citogenético utilizando la presencia de los cromosomas sexuales como marcadores y mediante el análisis molecular (PCR-RFLP, utilizando oligonucleótidos iniciadores para los genes Zfx y Zfy del bovino, se diagnosticaron con la condición intersexual, síndrome freemartin, 19 individuos (Bos taurus procedentes de partos múltiples heterosexuales; asimismo, se estudiaron anatomopatológicamente cuatro de estos animales, enfatizando en las características del tejido gonadal (ovárico y/o testicular presente, procediendo a la identificación molecular (PCR-RFLP de células masculinas en este tejido. El quimerismo cromosómico hematopoyético (60,XX/60,XY caracterizó a los animales estudiados, excepcionalmente un individuo mostró complemento cromosómico 60,XY. Mediante la técnica de PCR, se amplificó un fragmento de 447 pb, del cual después de ser digerido con la enzima de restricción Pst I, se obtuvieron los RFLP de los animales estudiados, hembras normales (447 pb así como machos normales y animales freemartins (447, 344 y 103 pb. Los hallazgos anatomopatológicos de dos de los cuatro freemartins estudiados hasta su sacrificio mostraron pseudohermafroditismo masculino, de estos dos intersexos además se obtuvo ADN de tejido gonadal, del cual se identificó a nivel molecular (PCR la presencia de un patrón de RFLP específicos de freemartin. Los dos freemartins restantes presentaron una marcada hipoplasia del tracto reproductor sin gónadas diferenciadas como tales. AbstractBy means of the cytogenetic analysis using the presence of the sexual chromosomes as markers and through the molecular analysis (pcr-rflp, using primers for the zfx and zfy genes of the bovine, 19 individuals (bos taurus coming from heterosexual multiple parturitions, were diagnosed as syndrome freemartin intersexes; likewise, there were studied anatomopathologically four of these animals, emphasizing the characteristics of the gonadal

  20. Hábitos de amamantamiento del ganado bovino Chinampo (Bos taurus de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinoza V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer los hábitos de amamantamiento de becerros Chinampos (Bos taurusen diferentes etapas de su lactancia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 20 vacas con su cría. A partir de los 30 hasta los 180 días de la lactancia los animales fueron observados durante 24 horas continuas cada mes registrando la frecuencia con la que los becerros mamaron y la duración de cada amamantamiento. Resultados. Los becerros mamaron con mayor frecuencia entre las 06:00 y las 07:00 hr, se observaron otros picos a las 10:00 y a las 19:00 hr. La frecuencia promedio de amamantamiento en 24 horas fue de 4.9±0.21utilizando un total de 66.9 ± 3.1 minutos. Los becerros de 180 días de edad mamaron menos veces comparados con los de edades inferiores a los 150 días; la duración del amamantamiento disminuyó a los 180 días de edad (p0.05. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de amamantamientos es mayor durante las primeras horas de la mañana y al final de la tarde. Hasta los 5 meses de edad la frecuencia y el tiempo de amamantamiento no variaron pero se redujeron a los180 días y las hembras mamaron con más periodicidad que los machos.

  1. Sperm DNA assays and their relationship to sperm motility and morphology in bulls (Bos Taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Rosanna; Romano, Juan E; Varner, Dickson D; Di Palo, Rossella; Love, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    The relationship among sperm DNA assays in bulls with different sperm motility and morphology measures has not been reported. The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe Comet assay measures and examine their repeatability (inter- and intra-assay); (2) compare sperm DNA quality assays (i.e., Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay-SCSA; alkaline and neutral Comet assays and Sperm Bos Halomax assay-SBH) in two groups of bulls selected on either greater and lesser sperm motility and morphology (greater compared with lesser); (3) determine the relationship among DNA assays and sperm motility and morphology values. Inter-assay repeatability was greater for the neutral Comet assay as compared to the alkaline Comet assay. Intra-assay repeatability was greater than inter-assay repeatability for both Comet assays. Comet assay dimension measures and percentage tail DNA were the most repeatable for both Comet assays. Among sperm DNA quality assays, only SCSA measures and neutral Comet assay Ghosts (% Ghosts), head diameter and area, and comet area were different between greater and lesser sperm quality groups (P<0.05). The SCSA measures were inversely correlated with neutral Comet head measures (diameter, area, and intensity) and positively with percentage Ghosts (P<0.05). The % Ghosts and COMP-αt were correlated with some measures of sperm morphology and sperm motility. The neutral Comet assay was more appropriate for sperm evaluation than the alkaline Comet assay for distinguishing among groups with different sperm quality.

  2. Respiratory Complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans Pumps Four Protons across the Membrane for Every NADH Oxidized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew J Y; Blaza, James N; Varghese, Febin; Hirst, Judy

    2017-03-24

    Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies.

  3. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Villa-Duque; Claudia Marcela Amaya-Torres; Darwin García-Rojas; Natalia Nieto-Omeara; Natalia Terán-Acuña

    2016-01-01

    En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander). El estudio consis...

  4. Ecología del lobo (Canis lupus), del poni salvaje (Equus ferus atlanticus) y del ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) en Galicia: interacciones depredador - presa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La población de lobo (Canis lupus) de Galicia constituye aproximadamente un tercio de la población española. En gran parte del oeste y centro de Galicia, los lobos coexisten con ponis salvajes (Equus ferus atlanticus) y el ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) es otro de los principales recursos tróficos disponibles. En estas zonas se presume un importante nivel de depredación de lobo sobre ponis salvajes y ganado vacuno semiextensivo, pero estas interacciones depredador-presa no habían si...

  5. Rendimiento de la canal en búfalos de río (Bubalus bubalis y Bovinos mestizos (Bos indicus x Bos taurus en el Municipio Bayazo - Canal performance in river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and mixed racial bovines (Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the Bayamo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Reyes, B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de determinar algunas características de rendimientoen canales bufalinas (Bubalus bubalis de animales procedentes delCentro de Ceba El Progreso y compararlas con canales vacunas (Bosindicus x Bos taurus comercializadas, se desarrolló esta investigación en el matadero Jucaibama. Se trabajaron 60 animales enteros de cada especie con edades entre 24 y 32 meses, a los cuales se les determinaron los siguientes parámetros: peso de embarque (Kg.(PE, peso vivo reposo (PV (Kg. peso de la canal en kg. (PC,rendimiento en carne en kg. (RC, rendimiento en carne de primera enKg. (RC1 y rendimiento en carne de segunda en Kg. (RC2. Losresultados fueron para (PE 543,43 y 489,92 arrojando el análisisdiferencias altamente significativas, al igual que para las (PV y (PC que fueron de 527,12 y 474,15; 271,52 y 244,83 para búfalos yvacunos respectivamente. Las variables (RC, (RC1 y (RC2 nomostraron diferencias significativas, sus valores fueron 167,37 y171,93; 88,7 y 91,12; 76,66 y 78,74 para canales bubalinas yvacunas. Se concluye que los búfalos presentaron pesos mayores alsacrificio y de canal que los vacunos evaluados. El búfalo presentómayores rendimientos en carne, parámetros que indican que tiene laposibilidad de desarrollar mayor masa muscular que sus competidoresvacunos.SummaryThis research was carried out in the drudgery Jucaibama of determining some quality characteristics in the buffaloes meat(Bubalus bubalis of animal that belong to the feeding place ElProgreso. These characteristics are compare with the ones of the beefcattle (Bos indicus x taurus that are commercialized. 60 whole maleanimals of each species were taken as sample. They were about 24and 32 months old and they were determine the following parameters:Shipment weight (Kg., weight after twelve hours, meat weight, meatservility and servility of the best showed highly significant differences, just as the ones for (PV and (PC whose results were 527,12 and 474

  6. Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large aseasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burthe, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Searle, Kate R; Hall, Stephen J G; Thackeray, Stephen J; Wanless, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    1. Studies examining changes in the scheduling of breeding in response to climate change have focused on species with well-defined breeding seasons. Species exhibiting year-round breeding have received little attention and the magnitudes of any responses are unknown. 2. We investigated phenological data for an enclosed feral population of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in northern England exhibiting year-round breeding. This population is relatively free of human interference. 3. We assessed whether the timing of births had changed over the last 60 years, in response to increasing winter and spring temperatures, changes in herd density, and a regime of lime fertilisation. 4. Median birth date became earlier by 1·0 days per year. Analyses of the seasonal distribution of calving dates showed that significantly fewer calves were born in summer (decline from 44% of total births to 20%) and significantly more in winter (increase from 12% to 30%) over the study period. The most pronounced changes occurred in winter, with significant increases in both the proportion and number of births. Winter births arise from conceptions in the previous spring, and we considered models that investigated climate and weather variables associated with the winter preceding and the spring of conceptions. 5. The proportion of winter births was higher when the onset of the plant growing season was earlier during the spring of conceptions. This relationship was much weaker during years when the site had been fertilised with lime, suggesting that increased forage biomass was over-riding the impacts of changing plant phenology. When the onset of the growing season was late, winter births increased with female density. 6. Recruitment estimates from a stage-structured state-space population model were significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of births in the preceding winter, suggesting that calves born in winter are less likely to survive than those born in other seasons. 7.

  7. Assessment of the genetic relationship between Dictyocaulus species from Bos taurus and Cervus elaphus using complete mitochondrial genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dictyocaulus species are strongylid nematodes of major veterinary significance in ruminants, such as cattle and cervids, and cause serious bronchitis or pneumonia (dictyocaulosis or “husk”. There has been ongoing controversy surrounding the validity of some Dictyocaulus species and their host specificity. Here, we sequenced and characterized the mitochondrial (mt genomes of Dictyocaulus viviparus (from Bos taurus with Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti from red deer (Cervus elaphus, used mt datasets to assess the genetic relationship between these and related parasites, and predicted markers for future population genetic or molecular epidemiological studies. Methods The mt genomes were amplified from single adult males of D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti (from red deer by long-PCR, sequenced using 454-technology and annotated using bioinformatic tools. Amino acid sequences inferred from individual genes of each of the two mt genomes were compared, concatenated and subjected to phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference (BI, also employing data for other strongylids for comparative purposes. Results The circular mt genomes were 13,310 bp (D. viviparus and 13,296 bp (Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti in size, and each contained 12 protein-encoding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, consistent with other strongylid nematodes sequenced to date. Sliding window analysis identified genes with high or low levels of nucleotide diversity between the mt genomes. At the predicted mt proteomic level, there was an overall sequence difference of 34.5% between D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti, and amino acid sequence variation within each species was usually much lower than differences between species. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 mt proteins showed that both D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti were closely related, and grouped to the exclusion of

  8. Efecto de la proporción de genes Bos indicus x Bos taurus sobre peso al destete y edad a primer parto en una población multirracial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo O. Toledo Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 1,289 registros de hembras de primer parto con diversas proporciones de genes Bos indicus y Bos taurus (Charolais, Suizo, Simmental, Holstein Friesian y Salers. Tanto animales puros y cruzados de un hato comercial, ubicado en el municipio de Hueytamalco, Puebla, nacidas entre 1966 a 2006, con el objetivo de estimar la combinación óptima de genes Cebú y la retención de heterosis (RVH sobre las características de peso al destete ajustado a 270 días (PD y edad a primer parto (EPP. A partir de modelos de regresión múltiple se identificó la proporción de Cebú con el mejor comportamiento para las dos características de acuerdo al coeficiente de determinación (R 2 y al estadístico de Mallow (CP. La mejor respuesta para PD se encontró en el rango de 42 a 70 % de genes Bos indicus ; mientras que las menores EPP se establecieron entre 27 al 40 % de proporción Cebú. La retención de heterosis que mostró mayor potencial para PD fue de 76 a 78 % y para EPP de 79 a 92 %. Estos resultados manifiestan la importancia de los efectos no aditivos en ambas características, así como la necesidad de realizar cruzamientos dirigidos.

  9. Reproducción y producción de leche de vacas con distinta proporción de genes Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los factores ambientales y la proporción óptima de genes Bos taurus (BT) y su influencia en la producción de leche (PL) y el comportamiento reproductivo de bovinos cruzados ¾ Holstein (H) x ¼ Cebú (C); 3H1C, ¾ Suizo (S) x ¼ C; 3S1C, 1/ 2H x 1/2C; HC y 1/2S x 1/2C; SC. La información analizada se obtuvo de 276 lactancias de 69 vacas de los grupos raciales de tres hatos en Veracruz, México. Las variables estudiadas incluyeron la PL por lactancia (PTL...

  10. Influência do pH final na bioquímica e qualidade do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos taurus indicus machos inteiros

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lucía Contreras Baron

    2016-01-01

    O pH final (pHf) no músculo post mortem é amplamente utilizado como um indicador potencial de maciez e é um fator importante associado à qualidade de carne. O Brasil é líder mundial nas exportações de carne bovina, porém não são conhecidos os valores de pHf do músculo pós-abate e seu impacto na qualidade da carne de animais machos inteiros Bos taurus indicus. Baseado no exposto, objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar o atual \\"status\\" dos valores de pHf 24 h post mortem apresentados no f...

  11. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p fear of heights in cows. Copyright 2007 APA.

  12. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination.

  13. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  14. In Vivo modulation of the innate response to pneumovirus by type-I and -III interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermine, Martin; Desmecht, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of the human species. This pneumovirus is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children and maintains an excessive hospitalization rate despite decades of research. As involvement of a genetic vulnerability is a possibility supported by recent data, we addressed the question of whether the Mx gene products, the typical target of which consists in single-stranded negative-polarity RNA viruses, could alter the course of pneumovirus-associated disease in vivo. Wild-type and Bos taurus Mx1-expressing transgenic FVB/J mice were inoculated with the mouse counterpart and closest phylogenetic relative of RSV, pneumonia virus of mice. Survival data and follow-up of body weight, histological scores, lung virus spread, and lung viral load unequivocally showed that the viral infection was severely repressed in Mx-transgenic mice, thus suggesting that pneumoviruses belong to the antiviral spectrum of mammalian Mx GTPases. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level could reveal critical information for the development of new anti-RSV molecules.

  15. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eGutiérrez-Gil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1,049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds and 6 dual-purpose breeds, and four different beef-vs-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57% of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs, 134 CSSs (33% were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-four-breed CSSs and 39 CSSs (9% were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs. For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5,183 BioMart-extracted genes linked to dairy and meat production, stature and coat colour traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behaviour, immune response and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as divergence signals, which may be useful in characterising and protecting livestock genetic diversity.

  16. Two dimensional SDS PAGE analysis of epididymal tissue proteins of normal and castrated bulls (Bos taurus) and identification of an androgen dependant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurunathgouda patil; V Girish Kumar; SG Ramachandra; AJ Rao; S Nandi

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of two dimensionalSDS-PAGE analysis of protein profile in tissues of all caput, corpus and cauda of epididymis in both castrated and normal bulls and identification of androgen dependent protein/s in the epididymal tissues of bull(Bos taurus). Two dimensionalSDS-PAGE analysis for protein spots of different molecular weight(MW) with pI3.5 to7.35 and pI >7.35 to9.3 between the three regions in the normal and castrated bull as well as between normal and castrated bull of a particular region revealed significant differences. Similarly, comparison between the three regions of the normal and castrated bull epididymis for the number of protein spots irrespective of theMW in pI range of3.5 to7.35 and pI range >7.35 to 9.3 revealed significant differences.The number of protein spots found to be significantly higher in caput, corpus and cauda epididymis of the normal bull when compared to similar region of the castrated bull epididymis.Most of the proteins, which are secreted, are havingMW between 20 and85 kDa.Six proteins, which are known to be highly dependent on androgens, are also of acidic in nature except for one protein havingbasic pH.A protein spot(pI:6.55-6.85, andMW: <20 kDa) which appeared at the same site in all the three regions of the epididymis in the normal bull but was absent at the same site in all the three regions of the castrated bull was subjected for identification of the protein byMALDI-MS.The results revealed that this protein is an interferon-stimulated protein and it could beISG15/UCRP.

  17. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  18. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the metabolic response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Carroll, J A; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-11-01

    The response of the immune and stress systems have been assessed in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, yet the role of metabolism in mediating energy requirements during the acute phase response has not been sufficiently studied. This study tested heat-tolerant (Romosinuano [RO]) and heat-sensitive (Angus [ANG]) Bos taurus breeds at different ambient temperatures (Ta) to determine differential metabolic responses to LPS challenge. Twenty-one heifers (ANG: n = 11, 306 ± 26 kg BW; RO: n = 10, 313 ± 32 kg BW) were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled chambers. Initially, Ta in all 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. Five ANG and 5 RO heifers were housed at TN, whereas 6 ANG and 5 RO heifers were housed at HS. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), and blood samples were collected from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS challenge. Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations. In addition, feed intake was measured 3 d before and on the day of the challenge. Feed intake decreased over time (P heat-sensitive ANG heifers in response to LPS challenge, thus providing physiological evidence that may explain differences observed in the acute phase response between heat-sensitive ANG and heat-tolerant RO cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.).

  1. Efeitos da injeção de cloreto de cálcio pós-morte e tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain

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    Aparecida Carla de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da injeção pós-morte de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e o tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso. Foram usados 64 machos inteiros (16 Caracu, 16 Guzerá, 16 Nelore Controle e 16 Nelore Seleção. Vinte quatro horas após o abate, foi retirada uma amostra do músculo Longissiumus dorsi (contra-filé entre a 6ª e 9ª vértebras lombares e dividida em nove subamostras. Em cada grupo de três subamostras escolhidas ao acaso, foi injetada, na quantia correspondente a 10% do seu peso, uma das seguintes soluções: a água (controle, b 200 mM de CaCl2 e c 300 mM de CaCl2. Cada subamostra foi, então, embalada a vácuo, congelada (- 2ºC e maturada por 1,7 ou 14 dias até a realização de testes de força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (evaporação, gotejamento e perdas totais. Foi usado delineamento experimental completamente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas, em que a parcela correspondia à raça e a sub-parcela, à combinação entre três níveis de CaCl2 e três tempos de maturação. A raça influenciou a força de cisalhamento, mas não influiu nas perdas por cozimento A maturação por um período de sete dias reduziu os valores de força de cisalhamento e as perdas por evaporação, gotejamento e totais. Maiores concentrações de CaCl2 resultaram em menor força de cisalhamento e maiores perdas por evaporação, embora não tenham influenciado as perdas por gotejamento e totais. A concentração de 200 mM CaCl2 apresentou a melhor redução para a força de cisalhamento. A injeção pós-morte de uma solução de CaCl2 aumentou o processo de amaciamento, sem influir nas perdas por cozimento.ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postmortem calcium chloride (CaCl2 injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus

  2. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

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    Reinsch Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The somatic cell score (SCS is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18. In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833 in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A. Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9 to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A with SCS. For this

  3. Respuesta estral y porcentaje de concepción en vacas Bos taurus-Bos indicus posparto, tratadas con la hormona bovina del crecimiento en un programa de inducción de la ovulación con progestágenos y eCG

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Esther Velázquez Rosas; Carlos Fregoso Aguayo; Reyes López Ordaz; Joel Hernández Cerón

    2011-01-01

    Se probó si la inyección de la somatotropina bovina (bST) al inicio de la inducción de la ovulación con progestágenos y eCG, y una segunda inyección en la inseminación, aumentan la respuesta estral y el porcentaje de concepción (PC) en vacas de carne posparto. Se utilizaron 174 vacas (Bos taurus-Bos indicus) de 60 a 100 días posparto, con cría y condición corporal de 2 a 2.5. Todas las hembras tuvieron un dispositivo intravaginal liberador de progesterona (CIDR) durante nueve días y al retira...

  4. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

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    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  5. Estudo sobre a migração transuterina e a razão sexual de conceptos em bovinos da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges,Gabriel Batista Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    A bovinocultura de corte é uma das atividades do agronegócio brasileiro que mais movimentam capitais, bens e serviços, sendo que, segundo dados das associações de criadores e exportadores, cerca de 80% dos bovinos criados no país são oriundos de raças zebuínas (Bos taurus indicus), e destes, a maioria é pertencente à raça Nelore ou seus cruzamentos. Os trabalhos conduzidos com a utilização de dados obtidos em frigoríficos podem ser considerados bastante fiéis e valorosos, já que representam u...

  6. Perfil de ácidos grasos en leche de vacas Chinampas (Bos taurus alimentadas con forraje fresco de matorral sarcocaulescente o heno de alfalfa Fatty acids profile in milk of Chinampo cows (Bos taurus fed fresh forage from sarcocaulescent shrubs or alfalfa hay

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    R Ortega-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la concentración de ácidos grasos (AG en la leche de vacas Chinampas, con énfasis en los ácidos grasos conjugados (CLA. Se colectó una muestra manual de leche (10 ml de 32 vacas entre los 60 y 120 días de lactación. Un grupo (FV; n = 25 se alimentó en pastoreo con forraje verde durante la estación de lluvias de septiembre a octubre de 2009 en una zona semiárida de matorral sarcocaulescente (Municipio La Paz, B.C.S.. Otro grupo (HA; n = 7 se mantuvo en corral y se alimentó con heno de alfalfa. El análisis cromatográfico revela que la concentración de AG saturados fue menor (P The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of fatty acids (FA in the milk of Chinampo cows (Bos taurus, with emphasis on conjugated fatty acids (CLA. A sample of 10 ml was collected from 32 cows that had been lactating at least 60 days, but not longer than 120 days. A group (FV, n = 25 was free-ranged grazed on green fresh pasture (sarcocaulescent shrub semiarid area, La Paz, B.C.S. during the wet season (September-October 2009. The second group (HA, n = 7 was penned and fed fodder of alfalfa hay. The FA analysis revealed that there were less saturated FA in the FV group (P < 0.05. This difference was basically explained by the lesser content of 14:0, 15:0, and 16:0. The concentration of total monounsaturated FA was higher in FV (P < 0.05, given by the higher concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:1 n-7 trans-11. The total concentration of polyunsaturated FA was similar for both groups, but there was a higher concentration of 18:2 n-6 and 18:2 n-7 cis-9 trans-11 in the FV group (P < 0.01. The proportion of omega-3 FA was similar for both groups, but the concentration of omega-6 FA was higher in FV (P < 0.01, resulting in an increased omega-6:omega-3 ratios in the FV group compared to HA. It is concluded that Chinampo cows left to free-range on fresh green pasture reduced the total saturated FA of

  7. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  8. The effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) and moose ( Alces alces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Tervoort, Theo A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Particle passage from the reticulorumen (RR) depends on particle density and size. Forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the RR. Particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). We investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in the RR of cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus) as a pilot study, and of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n 4) and moose (Alces alces; n 2) both fed two diets (browse and grass). Faeces were analysed for plastic residues for 13 d after dosing to calculate mean retention times (MRT). The results confirmed previous findings of differences in absolute MRT between species. Comparing muskoxen with moose, there was no difference in the effect of particle density on the MRT between species but particle size had a more pronounced effect on the MRT in muskoxen than in moose. This indicated a stronger 'filter-bed effect' in muskoxen, in accord with the reports of stratified RR contents in this species v. the absence of RR content stratification in moose. Low-density particles were retained longer in both species fed on grass diets, indicating a contribution of forage type to the 'filter-bed effect'. The results indicate that retention based on particle size may differ between ruminant species, depending on the presence of a fibre mat in the RR, whereas the density-dependent mechanism of sedimentation in the RR is rather constant across species.

  9. Differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Fritz, Julia; Günther, Detlef; Hattendorf, Bodo; Hummel, Jürgen; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. We investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) on different diets. The distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rumen fluids suggested that the rumen contents were more stratified in muskoxen than moose. Correspondingly, as in previous studies, the species differed in the ratio of mean retention times of small particles to fluids in the reticulorumen, which was highest in cattle (2.03) and muskoxen (1.97-1.98), intermediate in reindeer (1.70) and lowest in moose (0.98-1.29). However, the ratio of large to small particle retention did not differ between the species, indicating similarity in the efficiency of the particle sorting mechanism. Passage kinetics of the two largest particle classes did not differ, indicating that particle retention is not a continuous function of particle size but rather threshold-dependent. Overall, the results suggest that fluid flow through the forestomach differs between ruminant species. A lower relative fluid passage, such as in moose, might limit species to a browse-based dietary niche, whereas a higher relative fluid passage broadens the dietary niche options and facilitates the inclusion of, or specialization on, grass. The function of fluid flow in the ruminant forestomach should be further investigated.

  10. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  11. 杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)朊蛋白基因的分子克隆及其序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequences Characteristics Analysis of the Prion Protein Gene from the Hybrids between Gayal (Bos frontalis)and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘情; 席冬梅; 陈学礼; 李继中; 杨舒黎; 邓卫东

    2012-01-01

    朊蛋白(prion protein,PRNP)基因编码朊蛋白,是引起疯牛病的主效基因.本研究利用PCR方法首次从杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)基因组中扩增了PRNP基因,GenBank登录号为HQ875337.PCR产物直接双向测序表明,该序列包含杂交牛PRNP基因795 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码264个氨基酸前体蛋白.生物信息学分析结果发现,该蛋白包含1个信号肽、3个α螺旋、2个β折叠、6个八肽重复序列、1个疏水区域、1个二硫键和1个糖基磷脂酰肌醇锚定位点.与已报道的其他牛PRNP基因进行序列比对分析,核苷酸和氨基酸的同源性均在97%以上.%The priori protein was encoded by the prion protein (PRNP) gene which was the major gene for affecting mad cow disease or BSE. In the present study, the PCR method was used to amplify the PRNP gene from the hybrids between Gay-al (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number HQ875337. The PCR products were sequenced bi-directly. By sequence analysis,the length of open read frame (ORF) of the PRNP gene was 795 bp, which encodes a protein of 264 amino acids,including a signal region,a octapeptide repeat,three α-heli-ces.two β-sheets,a hydrophobic region,a disulfide bridge, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor site. The homology of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other cattle was more than 97%. All this will provide the molecular basal data for breakthrough of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among different animal species.

  12. Oestrous cycles in Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, N; Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2011-04-01

    The oestrous cycle in cattle lasts for 18-24 days. It consists of a luteal phase (14-18 days) and a follicular phase (4-6 days). During the cycle there are generally two (dairy cows) or three (heifers and beef cows) waves of ovarian follicle growth. Each wave of follicle growth consists of a period of emergence of a cohort of follicles, selection of a dominant follicle and either atresia or ovulation of the dominant follicle. These waves of follicle growth, initially established during the early pre-pubertal period of development occur throughout the entire cycle, with only the dominant follicle (DF) of the final wave coinciding with the follicular phase that undergoes final maturation and ovulation. Ovarian functions (follicle growth, ovulation, luteinisation and luteolysis) are regulated by the endocrine hormones of the hypothalamus (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone), anterior pituitary (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone), ovaries (progesterone, oestradiol and inhibins) and the uterus (prostaglandin F2α). In postpartum cows resumption of regular oestrous cycles (in addition to uterine involution) is fundamental for re-establishment of pregnancy.

  13. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  14. 猪羊牛蹄甲中氨基已糖定量分析%Content Determination of Aminohexose in Toenails of Susscrofa domestica, Bos taurus Capra hirus and domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文林; 武露凌; 李熔

    2000-01-01

    用 Elson-Morgan 法测定了蹄甲类药材猪科(Suid ae)动物猪 Susscrofa domestica、牛科(Boridae)动物山羊 Capra hirus 及黄牛 Bos taur us domesticus 中的酸性粘多糖含量.结果提示氨基已糖含量:牛蹄甲>羊蹄甲>猪蹄甲.

  15. Ovariectomy effect in heifers Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus on the weight gains /Efeito da ovariectomia em novilhas Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus sobre os ganhos de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the weight gain in cross breed heifers Nelore X Angus, spayed and nonspayed, kept on pasture and confinement. The animals were allotted in two groups as follows: group 1 consisted of 30 nonspayed heifers with 18 months old. Group 2 was composed of 30 spayed heifers with 18 months old. The animals were allotted in pasture of Brachiaria decumbens and weighted at 39and 75 days. Significant difference was observed between the average daily gain of the two groups – G1 and G2 (75th day, respectively (0.51 kg and 0.65 kg; PEsse estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso em novilhas mestiças Nelore x Angus, castradas e não castradas, mantidas em pastagem e confinamento. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos assim constituídos: grupo 1 formado por 30 novilhas não castradas com 18 meses de idade. Grupo 2 composto por 30 novilhas castradas com 18 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e pesados aos 39 e 75 dias. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (75ºdia, respectivamente (0,51 kg e 0,65 kg; P < 0,01. No dia seguinte (76ºdia, todos os animais foram transferidos e mantidos por 144 dias no confinamento. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (144ºdia, respectivamente (0,73 kg e 0,58 kg; P < 0,01. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que novilhas castradas apresentaram um maior ganho diário em pastagem.

  16. Ovariectomy effect in heifers Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus on the weight gains

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka; Eunice Oba; Maurício de Faria Marin; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur

    2007-01-01

    Esse estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso em novilhas mestiças Nelore x Angus, castradas e não castradas, mantidas em pastagem e confinamento. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos assim constituídos: grupo 1 formado por 30 novilhas não castradas com 18 meses de idade. Grupo 2 composto por 30 novilhas castradas com 18 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e pesados aos 39 e 75 dias. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho méd...

  17. SNPs Detection of Transmembrane Protein 18 Gene (TMEM18) and Its Asscoation with Growth Traits in Jiaxian Red Cattle(Bos taurus)%郏县红牛跨膜蛋白18基因(TMEM18)SNPs检测及其与生长性状的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟; 马云; 刘栋; 高远; 王居强; 陈宏

    2013-01-01

    跨膜蛋白18基因(Transmembrane protein 18,TMEM18)在神经系统表达.全基因组关联分析(GWAS)表明,该基因的突变会影响人类肥胖和Body Mass Index(BMI)值变化.本研究采用DNA池测序技术检测了郏县红牛(Bos taurus) TMEM18基因5个外显子和部分内含子区单核苷酸多态(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)位点,通过PCR-RFLP技术对所发现的SNP位点进行分型验证,然后分析不同基因型与郏县红牛生长性状的关联性.结果表明,在郏县红牛TMEM18基因上共发现了3处新的SNPs:NW_003099175.1∶g.2303G>A、g.3835 G>A和g.3865 A>G(aa.Gly>Ser).关联分析结果表明,郏县红牛TMEM18基因g.2303G>A位点AA型个体体高、体长、胸围和体重显著大于GG型(P<0.05),郏县红牛TMEM18基因g.3835 G>A位点AG型个体胸围和体重显著大于AA型(P<0.05).研究结果提示,这两个位点可作为郏县红牛品种体尺和体重生长性状选择的分子育种候选标记.%Transmembrane protein 18 gene(TAEM18) is expressed in the central nervous system that has recently been linked to human obesity and body mass index (BMI) in genome wide association studies (GWAS). In this study, direct DNA pool sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to genotype novel SNPs in TMEM18 gene, and then analyzed associations between different genotypes and growth traits in Jiaxian Red cattle (Bos taurus). Three novel SNPs were detected in Jiaxian Red cattle TMEM18 gene: NW_003099175.1: g. 2303G>A, g. 3835 G>A and g. 3865 A>G (aa. Gly>Ser). Significant association analysis revealed that the individuals with genotype AA had a larger body height, body length, heart girth and body weight than that of the individuals with genotypes GG at g.2303 A>G locus (P>0.05), The result also suggested that the individuals with genotype AG had a larger body weight and heart girth than that of the individuals with genotype AA at g

  18. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram colhidas nos dias -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 e, semanalmente, até o 84º dia pós-infecção (DPI. Os bovinos inoculados (GI e GII apresentaram hipertermia do 3º ao 16º DPI. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram detectados (IFI no 5º DPI (1:16, em ambos grupos inoculados (oocistos e taquizoítos, atingindo picos de 1:4096 no 7º DPI. Surtos parasitêmicos ocorreram em todos os bovinos infectados, principalmente do 7º ao 28º DPI, independente da cepa e inóculo utilizados. O bioensaio revelou a presença do parasito em amostras seminais dos bovinos infectados com oocistos (GI e taquizoítos (GII, em diversas datas experimentais, entre o 7º e 84º DPI. Parasitismo tissular por T. gondii foi diagnosticado por meio da bioprova e pela técnica da PCR, em vários fragmentos de tecidos e/ou órgãos. Os achados sugerem a possibilidade da ocorrência da transmissão sexual do T. gondii na espécie bovina.

  19. 腺病毒介导的秦川牛固醇调节元件结合蛋白2基因(SREBP2)过表达载体的构建与鉴定%Construction and Identification of Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Specific to Qinchuan Cattle(Bos taurus) Derived Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2 Gene (SREBP2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付常振; 刘扬; 昝林森; 王虹; 成功; 王嘉力

    2013-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2(SERBP2) is a basic-helix-loop-helix-luecine zipper factor which regulates the metabolization process of cholesterol.We cloned the SREBP2 gene from Qinchuan cattle (Bos taurus) and constructed the overexpression adenoviral vector,and packed and amplified the virus for a high titer,as a antecedent work for the further study of cellular level function of SERBP2 gene.Total RNA was extracted from the adipose tissue of Qinchuan cattle and then reversely transcripted to cDNA.A pair of exclusive primers were designed according to the GenBank sequence information of SREBP2 gene(Accession No.NM_001205600) to amplify the complete coding sequence(CDS) area of SREBP2 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The fragments containing CDS area of SREBP2 gene were inserted into the shuttle vector to construct the pAdTrack-CMV-SREBP2 plasmid.The recombinant plasmid and the blank control pAdTrack-CMV were linearized by digesting with restriction endonuclease Pine Ⅰ and subsequently transformed into Escherichia coli B J5183 containing pAdEasy-1 to homologous recombine and obtain the recombinant adenovirus plasmid pAd-SREBP2 and pAd-CMV.And then,the confirmed recombinant adenovirus plasmid pAd-SREBP2 was digested with Pac Ⅰ and transfected into 293A cell line to package and amplify the recombinant adenovirus Ad-SREBP2 and Ad-CMV,and to collect virus of high titer.The viral titer of AdSREBP2 and Ad-CMV was 7 × 108 and 1.3 × 109 GFU/mL respectively,measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled method.Qinchuan cattle derived preadipocyte was infected by Ad-SREBP2 and Ad-CMV to verify the availability of the virues.The expression of SREBP2 increased by 102.3 times after infected with the recombinant adenovirus for 48 h,determined by quantitative Real-time PCR.The cloning of SERBP2 gene of Qinchuan cattle obtaining of recombinant adenoviru and virus of high titer are set as foundation for the studies of the gene function on cellular

  20. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a byproduct of the dairy industry.

  1. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1807-1813. ISSN: 1596-5996 .... agriculture central to its economy, while mining on the rich gold fields' reef ..... Sentul Timur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol.

  2. 反义RNA干扰MSTN对牛肌肉卫星细胞脂肪生成相关基因的影响%Effect of MSTN Knockdown by Antisense RNA on Expression of Genes Associated with Fat Deposition in Bovine (Bos taurus) Muscle Satellite Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 胡思敏; 谷明娟; 王丽荣; 扈廷茂; 李光鹏

    2016-01-01

    肌肉生长抑制素(myostatin,MSTN)属于转化生长因子β(transforming growth factor β,TGF-β)超家族成员,在骨骼肌中高表达;敲除MSTN后,肌肉质量增加、脂肪含量变少,但抑制MSTN表达后,如何影响脂肪沉积,尚未研究清楚.为了探究抑制MSTN表达后对脂肪相关基因表达的影响,本研究利用反义RNA技术,成功构建了双向表达载体pMSTN-CMV-CAG-antiMSTN,并通过Western blot筛选出抑制效果最佳的MSTN的反义载体.利用最佳反义MSTN载体在牛(Bos taurus)肌肉卫星细胞中有效干扰MSTN表达后,检测了脂肪合成相关基因(脂肪酸合酶(fatty acid synthase,FASN),乙酰CoA羧化酶(acetyl-CoA carboxylase,ACC)和硬脂酰辅酶A去饱和酶1(stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1,SCD-1))、脂肪酸氧化分解相关基因(肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶ⅠB(carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b,CPT-ⅠB),乙酰辅酶A氧化酶(acyl-CoAoxidase,ACOX1)和烯酰辅酶A水合酶(enoyl-CoA hydratase 1,ECHDC1))以及脂肪转运蛋白(fatty acidtransport proteins,FATP)表达的变化.结果显示,在MSTN基因被干扰后,肌肉卫星细胞中脂肪酸合成相关基因表达量上调,脂肪氧化分解相关基因中ACOX1和CPT-1B表达量上调,而ECHDC1基因表达量下调,另外,FATP表达基本没有变化.MSTN功能缺失后,脂肪合成和脂肪氧化分解过程都得到了加强,所以MSTN敲除所导致的脂肪减少并不是由于抑制了脂肪合成,而是由于脂肪分解加强,为肌肉提供更多的能量.MSTN下调后,CPT-1B的表达上调最为显著,而CPT-1B是脂肪酸β氧化的关键基因,所以研究结果提示MSTN对于脂肪的影响主要是通过影响β氧化过程实现的.研究结果为MSTN下调所导致的脂肪含量下降提供了理论依据,为MSTN作用于脂肪沉积的机制做出了初步探讨.

  3. The Emergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, Boyce

    1980-01-01

    Describes chronologically the evolution of the human race on earth so as to refute Darwin's theory of descent from animals. Skull fragments from sites around the world suggest at least two possible routes toward the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens. (Author/SK)

  4. Profiling of sperm gene transcripts in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani

    2017-02-01

    Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (Pbulls with superior motility.

  5. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A comparison of tooth structure in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens sapiens: a radiographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Tooth components of 1st and 2nd erupted permanent molars were measured from standardised radiographs of Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Enamel height was greater in Homo sapiens sapiens but pulp height and width and the height of the enamel to floor of the pulp chamber were greater in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Dentine height, crown width and enamel width showed similar results in the two groups. Unerupted first molars were measured to analyse the influence of func...

  7. Juridica; Bos, bouw en gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Bouwen in het bos van de ecologische hoofdstructuur. Geen probleem als niemand bezwaar maakt.... Uiteindelijk is de gemeente vergunningverlener aan zichzelf, is wetgever in eigen zaak en maakt voor zichzelf een lucratief bestemmingsplan. Aldus de analyse van wetskenner Fred Kistenkas

  8. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  9. DNA-based authentication method for detection of yak (Bos grunniens) in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hairong; Han, Jiangxun; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A TaqMan probe real-time PCR method was developed for rapid detection of yak component in raw and cooked meat products. Specific primers and TaqMan probes of yak (Bos grunniens) were designed in the cytochrome b gene. The specificity of the method was evaluated using pure meat of eight yak breeds (Jiulong, Qinghai plateau, Maiwa, Gannan, Bazhou, Sibu, Zhongdian, and Jiali) samples and nine non-Bos grunniens animals (sheep, goat, pig, chicken, cattle, water buffalo, donkey, horse, and rabbit). DNA showed no cross-reaction with non-Bos grunniens animal DNA. This method proved to be sensitive in detecting the presence of low levels of target DNA obtained from 0.001% (w/w) component in a mixed meat sample. The method also successfully identified commercial yak meat products. The results showed that some yak meat might be involved in business fraud by using cattle meat (in this paper, cattle meat means meat of Bos taurus) instead of yak meat. In conclusion, real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for detection of yak DNA in fresh meat and cooked meat products.

  10. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle.

  11. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  12. Produtividade à Desmama de Novilhas Nelore e F1 Bos taurus x Nelore e Bos indicus x Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perotto Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência produtiva das vacas de corte está relacionada com o tamanho do animal, a fertilidade e a produção de leite. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência à desmama de 289 novilhas sendo 100 Nelore (N, 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN, 67 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN, 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN e 38 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN da Est. Exp. Paranavaí/IAPAR. Foram analisadas a idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPV, e a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso metabólico da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPM. As médias por quadrados mínimos para IPP em dias, PDPV [((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e PDPM [((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] foram: 1416, 1340, 1053, 1187 e 1117; 0,394, 0,414, 0,422, 0,379 e 0,418; e 0,169, 0,179, 0,187, 0,169 e 0,188, respectivamente para os grupos N, GN, RN, MN e SN. Para IPP, foram significativos os contrastes N- RN (362 dias, GN -- RN (287 dias e RN -- MN (-133 dias. Para PDPV, foi significativo o contraste RN - MN [-0,04287((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e para PDPM foram significativos os contrastes N -- RN [-0,01803((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100], RN -- MN [0,01841((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] e MN -- SN [-0,01915((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100]. Conclui-se que novilhas RN e SN foram mais eficientes à primeira desmama que novilhas MN, as quais não diferiram das zebuínas N e GN.

  13. Produtividade à Desmama de Novilhas Nelore e F1 Bos taurus x Nelore e Bos indicus x Nelore

    OpenAIRE

    Perotto Daniel; Abrahão José Jorge dos Santos; Kroetz Inácio Afonso

    2001-01-01

    A eficiência produtiva das vacas de corte está relacionada com o tamanho do animal, a fertilidade e a produção de leite. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência à desmama de 289 novilhas sendo 100 Nelore (N), 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN), 67 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN), 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN) e 38 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN) da Est. Exp. Paranavaí/IAPAR. Foram analisadas a idade ao primeiro parto (IPP), a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade d...

  14. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  15. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1. Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan dos dilemas éticos: la violencia y el incestoEste artigo reflete sobre os encontros e desencontros entre o ser humano e os demais animais, enquanto membros de sistemas em permanente interação(1. Seu principal objetivo é abordar a definição de Homo, traçar um panorama de sua evolução biológica e cultural e refletir sobre os resquícios da animalidade que permanecem no comportamento social do Homo sapiens-sapiens. Busca-se refletir sobre os dilemas morais que acompanham o homem enquanto ser cultural, o que para isso são considerados como dilemas éticos: a violência e o incestoThis paper reflects on the similarities and differences between human beings and animals as members of systems in permanent interaction. The main goal is to define Homo, reviewing his/her biological and cultural evolution and reflecting on the animal social behaviors that still remain in Homo sapiens-sapiens. The paper reflect on the moral dilemmas present in humans as cultural beings, taking as example the ethical dilemmas of violence and incest

  16. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  17. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers.

  18. Karyotype analysis of mithun (Bos frontalis) and mithun bull x Brahman cow hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, K-X; He, Z-X; Nie, W-H; Zhang, J-C; Jin, X-D; Yang, G-R; Yuan, X-P; Huang, B-Z; Zhang, Y-P; Zan, L-S

    2012-01-19

    We examined the cytogenetics of mithun (Bos frontalis), a domesticated version of the Asian gaur, and hybrids (F(1) generation) produced by artificial insemination of Brahman cows (Bos indicus) with mithun semen. Reproductive potential was also examined in the F(1) generation and a backcrossed heifer for utilization of heterosis. Metaphase chromosome spreads were examined by conventional staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization hybridized with the entire chromosome 1 of mithun as a specific probe. Chromosome 1 of mithun was found to be equivalent to Bos taurus chromosomes 2 and 28. The karyotype of the female mithun (N = 4) comprised 58 chromosomes, including 54 acrocentric and four large submetacentric chromosomes, without the four acrocentric chromosomes found in the domesticated species B. indicus. However, one of the four female mithuns with a normal mithun phenotype had an abnormal karyotype (2n = 59), indicating introgression from B. taurus or B. indicus. The F(1) karyotypes (N = 6, 3♂3♀) of the mithun bull × Brahman cow cross had 2n = 59, intermediate between their parents; they were consistent heterozygous carriers with a centric fusion involving rob(2;28), as expected. Two pronounced red signals were seen in the mithun karyotypes, three red signals in the mithun × Brahman hybrids, and four red signals in the Brahman cattle, in good agreement with centric fusion of bovine rob(2;28). The female backcross hybrid (N = 1) with 2n = 59 had a similar chromosome configuration to the F(1) karyotypes and had rob(2;28). Such female backcross hybrids normally reproduce; however, the F(1) bulls (N = 3) had not yet generated normal sperm at 24 months.

  19. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Mark

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs. A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P Conclusion We have identified 15,353 putative SNPs in or close to bovine genes and 2,868 of these SNPs were predicted to be non-synonymous. Approximately 29% of the non-synonymous SNPs were polymorphic and common with a minor allele frequency >10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  20. Natural autoantibodies in Bos taurus calves during the first twelve weeks of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have a role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and prevention of infections, and have been found in mammalian species tested so far. Albeit NAAb levels rise with age, little is known about the origin, function, regulation and initiation of NAAb in young animals

  1. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  2. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid changes in their environment.

  3. Quantification of interferon-tau during the maternal recognition of pregnancy in Bos taurus indicus cows

    OpenAIRE

    Giassetti, Mariana Ianello; Pontes, Eduardo Oliveira; NIEMEYER, Claudia; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Fedozzi, Filipe; de Lima, Marcelo Cardoso; Marques, Vanessa Belentani; Bertan, Claudia Maria [UNESP; Miglino,Maria Angélica; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Papa, Paula de Carvalho; Binelli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Durante o período crítico do reconhecimento materno, compreendido entre o 15° e 19° dias da gestação, o concepto deve sintetizar competentemente moléculas capazes de bloquear a síntese de prostaglandina F2a (pGF2a) e a luteólise. Em bovinos, a principal macromolécula protéica envolvida em tal bloqueio é o interferon-tau (IFN-r). Durante o período crítico, falhas neste reconhecimento determinam à mortalidade embrionária em até 40% das fêmeas inseminadas. Informações sobre o IFN-r em animais Bo...

  4. Accelerated expansion of group IID-like phospholipase A2 genes in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, Marina; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Loor, Juan J; Drackley, James K; Band, Mark R; Lewin, Harris A; Weller, Joel I; Ron, Micha; Seroussi, Eyal

    2006-04-01

    Low-molecular-weight, calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 genes (PLA2s) that belong to the secreted type of PLA2s are clustered within a syntenic group on human 1p35-p36 and mouse 4qD3. We reassembled trace files available from the Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Project, obtaining an 86-kb contig with three tandem PLA2G2D duplications in the Hereford strain. We used mate-pair data to monitor the assembly and to exclude chimeric clones, demonstrating that the current WGS data may be assembled even in a highly repetitive region with a coverage exceeding fivefold. The genomic structure indicated that most of the PLA2G2D transcripts are formed by four exons. Two alternative first exons were present in all duplications. In two duplications insertions of satellite DNA in the third intron created a novel exon that gave rise to a two-exon product. Linkage and comparative mapping placed the bovine PLA2G2 locus on BTA2, indicating that it evolved from an ancestral PLA2G2D locus common to human, cattle, and rodents. Bovine PLA2G2D variants were capable of encoding 147-amino-acid polypeptides that consisted of putative signal peptide and metal-binding domains. Cysteine residues were conserved in positions analogous to those forming the seven disulfide bonds characteristic of PLA2G2 genes. Quantitative PCR analysis of bovine PLA2G2D transcripts indicated that their expression levels varied between the dry period and lactation in the mammary gland samples and that their expression was polymorphic in liver tissue. The recent burst of duplication and divergence of the bovine PLA2G2D genes and their polymorphic nature are typical of innate immune response genes.

  5. Resistance of paramyxoviridae to type I interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1 dynamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Michael; Baise, Etienne; Pire, Grégory; Gérardin, Joel; Desmecht, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Typical targets of type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral Mx proteins known to date have been shown to share a common profile: single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. Among them, human MxA is known to interfere with the replication of measles, human, and bovine parainfluenza-3 viruses (BoPi3V), that is, three members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Recently, bovine Mx1 protein (BoMx1) was included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated antiviral potential, as it dramatically represses the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As replication in bovine cells of Pi3, respiratory syncytial (RS), and Sendai (Se) viruses, all members of the same family, is known to be reduced on IFN-alpha incorporation into the culture medium, it was hypothesized that the BoMx1 pathway possibly was involved, its antiviral spectrum thus probably extending to Paramyxoviridae. In this study, probing of BoMx1-inhibiting effects was carried out by infecting a transgenic Vero cell line that allows tightly regulated conditional expression of BoMx1 after doxycycline treatment with a wide array of Paramyxoviridae. Expressing and nonexpressing cells displayed similar viability, cytopathic effects (CPEs), and amounts of infectious virus yields, whatever the infecting virus or the multiplicity of infection (moi) imposed. It is, therefore, concluded that BoMx1 does not interfere with Paramyxoviridae.

  6. Genomic structure, organisation, and promoter analysis of the bovine (Bos taurus) Mx1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Joël A; Baise, Etienne A; Pire, Grégory A; Leroy, Michaël P-P; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2004-02-04

    Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5'-flanking region upstream from the putative transcription start site was sequenced. Unexpectedly, this DNA region did not contain TATA or CCAAT motifs. A computer scan of the region disclosed a series of putative binding sites for known cytokines and transcription factors. There was a GAAAN(1-2)GAAA(C/G) motif, typical of an interferon-sensitive responsive element, between -118 and -107 from the putative transcription start site. There were also a NF-kappaB, two interleukin-6 binding sites, two Sp1 sites and five GC-rich boxes. The region also contained 12 stretches of the GAAA type, as described in all IFN-inducible genes. Bovine Mx1 expression was assessed by Northern blotting and immunofluorescence in the Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) cell line treated with several stimuli. In conclusion, the bovine Mx1 gene and promoter region share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in the rainbow trout, chicken, mouse and man.

  7. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of hair. In the Carora x Holstein crossbred cows there was a positive effect of slick hair on milk yield under dry, tropical conditions.

  8. Refinement of Bos taurus sequence assembly based on BAC-FISH experiments

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    Partipilo Giulia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequencing of the cow genome was recently published (Btau_4.0 assembly. A second, alternate cow genome assembly (UMD2, based on the same raw sequence data, was also published. The two assemblies have been subsequently updated to Btau_4.2 and UMD3.1, respectively. Results We compared the Btau_4.2 and UMD3.1 alternate assemblies. Inconsistencies were grouped into three main categories: (i DNA segments showing almost coincidental chromosomal mapping but discordant orientation (inversions; (ii DNA segments showing a discordant map position along the same chromosome; and (iii sequences present in one chromosomal assembly but absent in the corresponding chromosome of the other assembly. The latter category mainly consisted of large amounts of scaffolds that were unassigned in Btau_4.2 but successfully mapped in UMD3.1. We sampled 70 inconsistencies and identified appropriate cow BACs for each of them. These clones were then utilized in FISH experiments on cow metaphase or interphase nuclei in order to disambiguate the discrepancies. In almost all instances the FISH results agreed with the UMD3.1 assembly. Occasionally, however, the mapping data of both assemblies were discordant with the FISH results. Conclusions Our work demonstrates how FISH, which is assembly independent, can be efficiently used to solve assembly problems frequently encountered using the shotgun approach.

  9. Expansion of the preimmune antibody repertoire by junctional diversity in Bos taurus.

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    Jenni Liljavirta

    Full Text Available Cattle have a limited range of immunoglobulin genes which are further diversified by antigen independent somatic hypermutation in fetuses. Junctional diversity generated during somatic recombination contributes to antibody diversity but its relative significance has not been comprehensively studied. We have investigated the importance of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT -mediated junctional diversity to the bovine immunoglobulin repertoire. We also searched for new bovine heavy chain diversity (IGHD genes as the information of the germline sequences is essential to define the junctional boundaries between gene segments. New heavy chain variable genes (IGHV were explored to address the gene usage in the fetal recombinations. Our bioinformatics search revealed five new IGHD genes, which included the longest IGHD reported so far, 154 bp. By genomic sequencing we found 26 new IGHV sequences that represent potentially new IGHV genes or allelic variants. Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain cDNA libraries of fetal bone marrow, ileum and spleen showed 0 to 36 nontemplated N-nucleotide additions between variable, diversity and joining genes. A maximum of 8 N nucleotides were also identified in the light chains. The junctional base profile was biased towards A and T nucleotide additions (64% in heavy chain VD, 52% in heavy chain DJ and 61% in light chain VJ junctions in contrast to the high G/C content which is usually observed in mice. Sequence analysis also revealed extensive exonuclease activity, providing additional diversity. B-lymphocyte specific TdT expression was detected in bovine fetal bone marrow by reverse transcription-qPCR and immunofluorescence. These results suggest that TdT-mediated junctional diversity and exonuclease activity contribute significantly to the size of the cattle preimmune antibody repertoire already in the fetal period.

  10. Occurrence and functional significance of the transcriptome in bovine (Bos taurus) spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Kolte, Atul P; Krishnan Binsila, B.; Arangasamy, Arunachalam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameshwaraiah

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa deliver various classes of RNAs to the oocyte during fertilization, and many of them may regulate fertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and abundance of spermatozoal transcripts in fresh bull semen. The entire transcriptome of the spermatozoa from bulls (n = 3) was sequenced using two different platforms (Ion Proton and Illumina) to identify the maximum number of genes present in the spermatozoa. The bovine spermatozoa contained transcripts for 13,833 genes (transcripts per million, TPM > 10). Both intact and fragmented transcripts were found. These spermatozoal transcripts were associated with various stages of spermatogenesis, spermatozoal function, fertilization, and embryo development. The presence of intact transcripts of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in the spermatozoa suggest a possible influence of sperm transcripts beyond early embryonic development. The specific regions (exon, intron, and exon-intron) of the particular spermatozoal transcripts might help regulate fertilization. This study demonstrates that the use of two different RNA-seq platforms provides a comprehensive profile of bovine spermatozoal RNA. Spermatozoal RNA profiling may be useful as a non-invasive method to delineate possible causes of male infertility and to predict fertility in a manner that is more effective than the conventional methods. PMID:28276431

  11. Global mapping of miRNA-target interactions in cattle (Bos taurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Moore, Michael J; Luna, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    RNA interactions in the cow. The interactome is the deepest reported to date. miRNA targeting principles are consistent with observations in other species, but with expanded pairing rules. Experimental mapping robustly predicted functional miR-17 regulatory sites. From miRNA-specific targeting for >5000 mRNAs we...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bos taurus coreanae (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yuan Qing; He, Dong Chang; Yang, Xiao Ming; Li, Bo; Wang, Dong Cai; Guang, Jin; Xu, Fang; Li, Jun Ya; Gao, Xue; Gao, Hui Jiang; Zhang, Lu Pei; Zhang, Xi Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Korean native cattle is one of the famous native breeds in Korean. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Korean native cattle for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,339 bp with the base composition of 33.4% for A, 27.2% for T, 26.0% for C, and 13.4% for G, and an A-T (60.6%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of cattle. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Korean native cattle would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  13. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted that extravascular routes of administration prolonged flunixin concentrations in milk, which could result in violative milk residues in treated cattle.

  14. Loss of miRNAs during processing and storage of cow's (Bos taurus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Katherine M; Jati Kusuma, Rio; Baier, Scott R; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, Janos

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from pasteurized, store-bought bovine milk have biological activity in humans. Here, we assessed the effects of milk processing, storage, somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (milk fat content had no effect on miRNA stability during storage and microwave heating. The concentrations of miRNAs in dairy products were considerably lower than in store-bought milk. We conclude that processing of milk by dairies and handling by consumers causes a significant loss of miRNAs.

  15. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber Mark; Morris Chris A; McCulloch Alan F; Dodds Ken G; Cullen Neil G; Manley Tim R; Glass Belinda C; Keane Orla M; Lee Michael A; Warren Jonathan; Zadissa Amonida; Wilson Theresa; McEwan John C

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence ta...

  16. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  17. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned. Thus, it is likely that the African fossil record will document early members of the sapiens lineage showing only some of the derived features of late members of the lineage. On that basis, I argue that human fossils such as those from Jebel Irhoud, Florisbad, Eliye Springs and Omo Kibish 2 do represent early members of the species, but variation across the African later middle Pleistocene/early Middle Stone Age fossils shows that there was not a simple linear progression towards later sapiens morphology, and there was chronological overlap between different 'archaic' and 'modern' morphs. Even in the late Pleistocene within and outside Africa, we find H. sapiens specimens which are clearly outside the range of Holocene members of the species, showing the complexity of recent human evolution. The impact on species recognition of late Pleistocene gene flow between the lineages of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans is also discussed, and finally, I reconsider the nature of the middle Pleistocene ancestor of these lineages, based on recent morphological and genetic data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.

  18. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  19. Stravovacích návyky z hlediska fylogeneze Homo sapiens sapiens.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis on the synthesis of literature, is attempting to create an overview of our human ancestor's dietary habits. The time frame is from the oldest representative of the hominoid family, genus Ardipithecus ramidus, to neolithic Homo sapiens.This will show the connection between the changing food spectrum and the phylogeny of our species.

  20. Sapiens a brief history of humankind

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Yuval Noah

    2015-01-01

    From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also comp...

  1. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  2. Pilot meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, G.M.; Daamen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Alterra en Bosdata voerden in opdracht van het Expertisecentrum LNV een proef uit voor het meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap. Het meetnet schat periodiek met een geografische steekproef de oppervlakte land met een zekere kwaliteit voor recreatie, natuur, milieu en economie. De steek

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06144-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pid:none) Homo sapiens infertility-related s... 54 9e-06 AK057482_1( AK057482 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA F... 7e-06 BC149464_1( BC149464 |pid:none) Bos taurus FK506 binding protein l... 54 7e-06 AF311312_1( AF311312 |

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSF507 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C; AltName: Full=Co-beta-glucosid... 77 8e-13 BC105409_1( BC105409 |pid:none) Bos taurus prosaposin, mRNA (c... |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin v... 70 5e-11 AK223290_1( AK223290 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosa

  5. The Taurus Spitzer Survey: New Candidate Taurus Members Selected Using Sensitive Mid-Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; McCabe, C -E; Hillenbrand, L A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Audard, M; Monin, J -L; Fukagawa, M; Guedel, M; Knapp, G R; Menard, F; Allen, L E; Angione, J R; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Bouvier, J; Briggs, K; Dougados, C; Evans, N J; Flagey, N; Guieu, S; Grosso, N; Glauser, A M; Harvey, P; Hines, D; Latter, W B; Skinner, S L; Strom, S; Tromp, J; Wolf, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in 7 mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously-identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ~44 square degree map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ~20% of the bonafide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 candidate new members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, 3 probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, 7 are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candida...

  6. What constitutes Homo sapiens? Morphology versus received wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2016-06-20

    Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H. sapiens? When in 1950 Mayr collapsed all human fossils into Homo, he not only denied humans a diverse evolutionary past, he also shifted the key to identifying its species from morphology to geological age - a practice most paleoanthropologists still follow. Thus, for example, H. erectus is the species that preceded H. sapiens, and H. sapiens is the species into which H. erectus morphed. In order to deal with a growing morass of morphologically dissimilar specimens, the non-taxonomic terms "archaic" (AS) and "anatomically modern" (AMS) were introduced to distinguish between the earlier and later versions of H. sapiens, thereby making the species impossible to define. In attempting to disentangle fact from scenario, I begin from the beginning, trying to delineate features that may be distinctive of extant humans (ES), and then turning to the fossils that have been included in the species. With the exception of Upper Paleolithic humans - e.g. from Cro-Magnon, Dolni Vestonice, Mladeč - I argue that many specimens regarded as AMS, and all those deemed AS, are not H. sapiens. The features these AMS do share with ES suggest the existence of a sapiens clade. Further, restudy of near-recent fossils, especially from southwestern China (∼11-14.5 ka), reinforces what discoveries such as H. floresiensis indicate: "If it's recent, it's not necessarily H. sapiens".

  7. Yawn contagion and empathy in Homo sapiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    Full Text Available The ability to share others' emotions, or empathy, is crucial for complex social interactions. Clinical, psychological, and neurobiological clues suggest a link between yawn contagion and empathy in humans (Homo sapiens. However, no behavioral evidence has been provided so far. We tested the effect of different variables (e.g., country of origin, sex, yawn characteristics on yawn contagion by running mixed models applied to observational data collected over 1 year on adult (>16 years old human subjects. Only social bonding predicted the occurrence, frequency, and latency of yawn contagion. As with other measures of empathy, the rate of contagion was greatest in response to kin, then friends, then acquaintances, and lastly strangers. Related individuals (r≥0.25 showed the greatest contagion, in terms of both occurrence of yawning and frequency of yawns. Strangers and acquaintances showed a longer delay in the yawn response (latency compared to friends and kin. This outcome suggests that the neuronal activation magnitude related to yawn contagion can differ as a function of subject familiarity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that yawn contagion is primarily driven by the emotional closeness between individuals and not by other variables, such as gender and nationality.

  8. Evaluación de los polimorfismos de nucleotido simple asociados a cambios en el color de la carne en ganados bos indicus y cruces con bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Molina, Susan Lorena

    2013-01-01

    La palatabilidad de la carne comprende muchos factores como el aspecto, el color, el sabor, la jugosidad y la dureza, los cuales se asocian a la calidad sensorial. Actualmente existe una tendencia hacia el bajo consumo de carne, dado por los elevados precios y en muchas ocasiones por la inadecuada calidad. El color de la carne constituye el primer atributo sensorial que recibe el consumidor en el momento de tomar la decisión para la compra, un óptimo color le otorga a la carne propiedades de ...

  9. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  10. Effect of different levels and sources of zinc supplementation on quantitative and qualitative semen attributes and serum testosterone level in crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Ramesh Prashad; Singh, Lallan Prasad; Varshney, Vijay Prakash; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on 16 crossbred bulls (about 2 years of age, 316.2+/-0.77 kg average body weight), divided into groups I, II, III and IV to study the effect of different levels of Zn supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on semen quality. The animals in the first 3 groups were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm Zn from Zn sulfate, respectively and the animals in-group IV were supplemented with 35 ppm Zn as Zn propionate. Semen collection and evaluation was done in the first month (to assess semen quality at the start of the experiment) and 7th, 8th and 9th month of experimental feeding to evaluate the effect of supplemental Zn on semen attributes. We gave 6 months for Zn feeding, so that 3 sperm cycles of spermatogenesis had passed and the collected semen reflected the complete effect of Zn supplementation. Six ejaculates from each bull were collected and evaluated for semen quantitative (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm number per ejaculate) and qualitative characteristics (semen pH, mass motility, individual motility, sperm livability percent and abnormal sperm percent, percent intact acrosome, bovine cervical mucus penetration test, hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test) and activity of seminal plasma enzymes i.e., alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GOT and GPT. Testosterone level in the blood serum of crossbred bulls was also estimated. Mean values of semen quantitative and qualitative characteristics at the start of the experiment were statistically non significant (P > 0.05) in all the crossbred cattle bulls, however, there were statistically significant differences among the bulls of different groups after 6 months of zinc supplementation. Mean ejaculate volume (mL) was 2.37, 4.70, 5.86 and 6.38, respectively in groups I to IV, indicating a statistically significant (P bulls. Similarly, sperm concentration (million.mL(-1)), live sperm (%) and motility (%) were significantly (P bulls improved the qualitative and quantitative attributes of semen; however, the number of sperm per ejaculate, mass motility and semen fertility test like bovine cervical mucus penetration was significantly higher in bulls given Zn in an organic form (Zn propionate) as compared to an inorganic form (Zn sulfate).

  11. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey-Slinker, E D; Ridpath, J F; Sawyer, J E; Skow, L C; Herring, A D

    2016-09-30

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs. The goal of this study was to determine if levels of serum neutralizing antibody titers were predictive of levels of vaccine protection in a commercial setting. During this four-year study, Angus-Nellore steers housed in a production feedlot setting were assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine treatments: killed vaccine (kV), modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, or no vaccine (control), and were challenged with a noncytopathic 1b field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Rectal temperature and levels of circulating lymphocytes and platelets were monitored following challenge. While no animals were diagnosed as clinically ill with respiratory disease, indicators of disease (pyrexia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia) were observed. The MLV treatment elicited higher antibody titers to the vaccination than the kV, and calves in the MLV treatment had higher mean titers at challenge. The year that elicited the highest antibody response to the vaccination and the year with the lowest frequency of phenotypic responses to the challenge were not concurrent. The MLV treatment had the highest proportion, 34.68%, of animals that were protected against the challenge regardless of the pre-challenge antibody titer and had the fewest number of lymphopenia cases in response to the challenge. Both vaccine treatments mitigated thrombocytopenia when compared to the control treatment, and the MLV treatment reduced lymphopenia; however, these symptoms were not completely eliminated in vaccinated animals. Pyrexia was present in 40.11% of the animals, but no difference in the frequency of cases between treatments was observed. Pre-challenge vaccination response was not indicative of the level of protection nor was anamnestic antibody response correlated with health status.

  12. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  13. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds.

  14. Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

    2013-12-01

    The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein.

  15. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  16. Spatial construction skills of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young human children (Homo sapiens sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potì, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-07-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children belonging to five age groups (24, 30, 36, 42, 48 months). Subjects were given three model constructions to reproduce: Line, Cross-Stack and Arch, which differed in type and number of spatial relations and dimensions, but required comparable configurational understanding. Subjects' constructions were rated for accuracy. Our results show that: (1) chimpanzees are relatively advanced in constructing in the vertical dimension; (2) Among chimpanzees only adults make accurate copies of constructions; (3) Chimpanzees do not develop in the direction of constructing in two dimensions as human children do starting from age 30 months. The pattern of development of construction skills in chimpanzees partially diverges from that of human children and indicates that spatial analysis and spatial representation are partially different in the two species.

  17. Gestation length, birth weight and offspring gender ratio of in vitro-produced Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Freitas, Celio; de Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; de Moraes Ferreira, Ademir; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Viana, João Henrique Moreira

    2010-07-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO(2) at 38.5 degrees C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight.

  18. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10032-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osome 3 clone RP11-30F1, *** SE... 46 0.40 1 ( AC025780 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-431F7, WORKI...... 46 0.40 1 ( AC013645 ) Homo sapiens clone RP11-17H6, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 46 0.40 1 ( AC180872 ) Strong...us BAC clone CH261-191K24 from chromos... 44 1.6 1 ( AC230099 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-521P6, WORKING DRAFT ...l Park Canc... 42 6.3 1 ( AC160783 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-95G7, WORKING DRAFT SEQUEN... 42 6.3 1 ( AC07318...0 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 2 clone RP13-486M11, WORK... 42 6.3 1 ( AC223349 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-421E4, WORK

  20. Morphological adaptations of yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to the foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, B; Long, R; Ding, Y; Wang, J; Ding, L; Wang, H

    2010-08-01

    Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphological adaptations of the yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to its foraging environment in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were studied. The tongue of the yak was compared with that of cattle (Bos taurus). Compared with cattle, yak tongues are on average 4 cm shorter (P tongue into the harsh environment. The lingual prominence of yak is greater (P tongue and the upper palate. Filiform, conical, lenticular, fungiform, and vallate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongues studied; no foliate papillae were observed. The papillae were covered by keratinized epithelium, which was thicker (P epithelium, whereas they are multilayered (2 to 4) in those papillae in cattle. The number of taste buds in each vallate papillae was less (P < 0.001) in the yak than in cattle. Therefore, the gustatory function of the yak was weaker than in cattle. Yaks graze throughout the year on diverse natural grasslands and have evolved morphological characteristics enabling them to consume a wide variety of plant species, thereby better adapting them to the typically harsh characteristics of their pastures.

  1. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2017-04-01

    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P vitro embryo production system.

  3. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  4. Ranking U-Sapiens 2010-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son

  5. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  6. Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D; Bailey, Geoff; Scerri, Eleanor M L; Parton, Ash; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Jennings, Richard P; Lewis, Laura; Blinkhorn, James; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul S; Inglis, Robyn H; Devès, Maud H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew; Boivin, Nicole; Thomas, Mark G; Scally, Aylwyn

    2015-01-01

    Current fossil, genetic, and archeological data indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa in the late Middle Pleistocene. By the end of the Late Pleistocene, our species was distributed across every continent except Antarctica, setting the foundations for the subsequent demographic and cultural changes of the Holocene. The intervening processes remain intensely debated and a key theme in hominin evolutionary studies. We review archeological, fossil, environmental, and genetic data to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa. The emerging picture of the dispersal process suggests dynamic behavioral variability, complex interactions between populations, and an intricate genetic and cultural legacy. This evolutionary and historical complexity challenges simple narratives and suggests that hybrid models and the testing of explicit hypotheses are required to understand the expansion of Homo sapiens into Eurasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reuse of norgestomet implants in an eCG-based superovulation protocol administered to Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Mateus Jose [UNESP; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz [UNESP; Sartori, Roberto; Machado, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the reuse of norgestomet implants in Nelore cows that were superstimulated with eCG. In a crossover design trial, eight cows were randomly divided into two experimental groups and twice superstimulated: Group 1 - half of the cows received a new norgestomet implant and 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) on Day 0; Group 2 - remaining cows received two once-used norgestomet implants and 2 mg EB also on Day 0. on Day 4 all cows received a single dose of 2000 IU eCG, and on Day 6 cow...

  8. TERMOGRAFIA DIGITAL POR INFRAVERMELHO DO ESCROTO E QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN EM TOUROS NELORE (BOS TAURUS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to study the relationship between scrotal temperature on semen quality by use of infrared thermography in Nelore bulls bred extensively. There were scrotal thermography and semen collection. Climatic data were collected by means of globe thermometer. The thermograms of the scrotum were obtained by digital infrared thermography. We carried out ejaculates through electroejaculation for analysis of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. For the data, we used analysis of variance and subsequently applied the Tukey test at 5%. (p <0.05 between animals for sperm vigor, sperm motility between animals and between crops, sperm concentration, total sperm and total viable sperm between groups, between harvests for the scrotum temperatures and climate data. It was concluded that the surface temperatures of the scrotum and climatic factors influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a complementary test in the evaluation of reproductive bulls.

  9. The Agersoe cattle: the last remnants of the Danish island cattle (Bos taurus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  10. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  11. The polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts and their associations with cattle (Bos taurus) growth traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun Lei Zhang; Hong Chen; Yan Hong Wang; Xian Yong Lan; Chu Zhao Lei; Xing Tang Fang

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART). The coding and regulating regions of CART were screened in 7 cattle breeds by the single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The four loci (C1, C2, C3 and C4) studied were all polymorphic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing different SSCP variants were sequenced and a total of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. The associations between polymorphic loci and the growth traits of Nanyang cattle were analysed. The results indicated that genotype A1A1 of the C1 locus was associated with a higher body weight ( < 0.05) than heterozygous A1B1. Genotype A2A2 of the C2 locus was associated with lower body weight and average daily weight gain ( ≤ 0.001) than heterozygous A2B2. C3 and C4 loci had no significant effect on Nanyang cattle growth traits (P > 0.05).

  12. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  13. Follicles and gonadotropins during waves 2 and 3 in three-wave interovulatory intervals in Bos taurus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Araujo, E R; Dangudubiyyam, S V

    2017-08-30

    Observations were made on follicle dynamics and gonadotropin concentrations in anovulatory wave 2 and ovulatory wave 3 in three-wave interovulatory intervals (n = 15). Hypotheses were not used owing to inadequate availability of rationale. The future dominant follicles for waves 2 and 3 were designated DF2 and DF3 and the largest future subordinate follicles as SF2 and SF3, respectively. The day of expected diameter deviation (day 0) was defined as the day that DF2 or DF3 was closest to 8.5 mm. The first day that DF2 became smaller (P waves 2 and 3 were similar at peak concentration, but the postsurge nadir of surge 2 occurred 1 day earlier than for surge 3. An LH increase was not temporally associated with deviation in wave 2, but an increase (P wave 3 began on day -1. Diameter of SF2 (6.5 ± 0.2 mm) on day 0 was less (P wave 2 did not differ among days. Diameter of subordinate follicles that attained ≥6 mm in wave 3 was greater (interaction, P wave 2 (1 of 15 waves) than for wave 3 (8 of 15 waves). Novel observations involving DF2 and DF3 were (1) before deviation, diameter of DF2 vs DF3 and an incline in FSH surge 2 vs surge 3 were similar and (2) after deviation, smaller diameter of DF2 vs DF3 by day 2 was associated with an earlier cessation (nadir) in FSH surge 2 vs surge 3 and an absence of an LH increase during deviation. Novel observations involving subordinate follicles ≥6 mm were (1) before deviation, diameters were similar between waves 2 and 3 in association with the similar incline in FSH surges 2 vs 3 and (2) after deviation, a greater diameter increase of subordinates occurred in RO than in LO for wave 3, but an increase did not occur for either ovary in wave 2. The characteristics of diameter deviation were profoundly different between waves 2 and 3 owing to a smaller SF2 than SF3 at deviation but similar diameter of DF2 and DF3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abundant sequence divergence in the native Japanese cattle Mishima-Ushi (Bos taurus) detected using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kaoru; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Sano, Satoshi; Imai, Misaki; Noguchi, Tatsuo; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Kono, Tomohiro

    2013-10-01

    The native Japanese cattle Mishima-Ushi, a designated national natural treasure, are bred on a remote island, which has resulted in the conservation of their genealogy. We examined the genetic characteristics of 8 Mishima-Ushi individuals by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions obtained by whole-genome sequencing. Mapping analysis with various criteria showed that predicted heterozygous SNPs were more prevalent than predicted homozygous SNPs in the exonic region, especially non-synonymous SNPs. From the identified 6.54 million polymorphisms, we found 400 non-synonymous SNPs in 313 genes specific to each of the 8 Mishima-Ushi individuals. Additionally, 3,170,833 polymorphisms were found between the 8 Mishima-Ushi individuals. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Mishima-Ushi population diverged from another strain of Japanese cattle. This study provides a framework for further genetic studies of Mishima-Ushi and research on the function of SNP-containing genes as well as understanding the genetic relationship between the domestic and native Japanese cattle breeds.

  15. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  16. Genomic characterisation of the feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus and proposed classification as Bos taurus papillomavirus type 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, John S; Thomson, Neroli; Dunowska, Magda; Knight, Cameron G; Laurie, Rebecca E; Hills, Simon

    2015-06-12

    Feline sarcoids are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of domestic and exotic cats. Previous studies have consistently detected short DNA sequences from a papillomavirus (PV), designated feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus (FeSarPV), in these neoplasms. The FeSarPV sequence has never been detected in any non-sarcoid sample from cats but has been amplified from the skin of cattle suggesting that feline sarcoids are caused by cross-species infection by a bovine papillomavirus (BPV). The aim of the present study was to determine the genome of the PV that contains the FeSarPV sequence. Using the circular nature of PV DNA, four specifically designed 'outward facing' primers were used to amplify two approximately 4,000 bp DNA segments from a feline sarcoid. The two PCR products were sequenced using next generation sequencing and the full genome of the PV, consisting 7,966 bp, was assembled and analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the PV was closely related to the species 4 delta BPVs-1, -2, and -13, but distantly related to any carnivoran PV genus. These results are consistent with feline sarcoids being caused by a BPV type and we propose a classification of BPV-14 for this novel PV. Initial analysis suggests that, like other delta BPVs, the BPV-14 E5 protein could cause mesenchymal proliferation by binding to the platelet derived growth factor beta receptor. Interestingly BPV-14 has not been detected in any equine sarcoid suggesting that BPV-14 has a host range that is limited to bovids and felids.

  17. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  18. Individual recognition in domestic cattle (Bos taurus: evidence from 2D-images of heads from different breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Coulon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, (3/4 views from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1+/-0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2+/-1.2 sessions; Z = 1.99, N = 8, P = 0.046. In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was the most difficult task. These results call for studies exploring the mechanisms involved in face recognition allowing interspecies comparisons, including humans.

  19. Quality assessment of bovine milk (Bos taurus in the Community of Mazo Cruz La Paz-Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Callisaya Pedro Angel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The milk quality depend of a good feeding, good health and adequate management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sanitary characteristics of bovine milk from ASOPROLEA M.C. it was determinated 17.44±2.06 and 16.22±4.22 of oDornic, 1.025±0.002 and 1.030 to 1.034 g/cm3 of density, 6.55±0.55 and 6.71±0.36 of pH, 10.25±0.3 and 9.80±0.54 % of total solids, 3.65±0.56 and 3.55±0.60 % of fat, 2.82±0.11 and 2.66±0.21 % of protein, 4.05±0.4 and 3.90±0.35% of lactose, 0.75±0.05 and 0.73±0.15% of minerals for milkcan and milktank respectively. About TRAM 48.2 % of samples are reducted in less than 2 h and 51.8 % of milk samples are reducted in more than 3 h. The high problem seems to be the microbial contamination in milkcans and in the milktank of this community, it could be necessary to review the milktank.

  20. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our results suggest similar cognitive capacities of kin and non kin discrimination in AI and cloned animals. Kinship may be a common factor in determining the social grouping within a herd. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  3. Immunization of Bos taurus steers with Babesia bovis recombinant antigens MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio Alvarez, J; Lopez, U; Rojas, C; Borgonio, V M; Sanchez, V; Castañeda, R; Vargas, P; Figueroa, J V

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the recombinant proteins MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3 as a combined immunogen for cattle. Fifteen steers were randomly assigned into three groups of five animals each (I, II and III). On day 0, cattle in group I were injected with 50 microg each of rMSA-1, rMSA-2c and r12D3 with the adjuvant Montanide 75; cattle in Group II received adjuvant-PBS, and Group III were untreated controls. On day 14, cattle in Group I received a second injection of the three recombinant proteins in adjuvant and cattle in Group II again received adjuvant alone. On day 28, all groups of cattle were challenged with a field strain of Babesia bovis. After challenge, the experimental cattle were clinically and serologically monitored. Three of the five steers immunized with the combined recombinant B. bovis proteins seroconverted on day 14 post-immunization (P.I.) and the maximum titre was 1 : 1600. All five immunized steers presented strong seropositivity to B. bovis antigens at day 21 P.I. The prepatent periods of vaccinated cattle were delayed until day 10 post-challenge exposure versus 8 and 7 days in Groups II and III, respectively. Cattle in all groups had fever above 41 degrees C; the reduction in packed cell volume was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in vaccinated group I compared with Groups II and III (29% versus 26% and 31%, respectively). Treatment was required for one steer in the control group. During the period of the study, the weight of cattle in Groups I and II increased an average of 9 and 7 kg, whereas the weight of the control cattle was reduced on average 4 kg. Immunization with rMSA-1-rMSA-2c-r12D3 proteins was not sufficient to prevent clinical symptoms against challenge, but the immunologic response was sufficient to protect steers against a mild virulent strain of B. bovis.

  4. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  5. Fossil evidence for the origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Our species Homo sapiens has never received a satisfactory morphological definition. Deriving partly from Linnaeus's exhortation simply to "know thyself," and partly from the insistence by advocates of the Evolutionary Synthesis in the mid-20th Century that species are constantly transforming ephemera that by definition cannot be pinned down by morphology, this unfortunate situation has led to huge uncertainty over which hominid fossils ought to be included in H. sapiens, and even over which of them should be qualified as "archaic" or as "anatomically modern," a debate that is an oddity in the broader context of paleontology. Here, we propose a suite of features that seems to characterize all H. sapiens alive today, and we review the fossil evidence in light of those features, paying particular attention to the bipartite brow and the "chin" as examples of how, given the continuum from developmentally regulated genes to adult morphology, we might consider features preserved in fossil specimens in a comparative analysis that includes extant taxa. We also suggest that this perspective on the origination of novelty, which has gained a substantial foothold in the general field of evolutionary developmental biology, has an intellectual place in paleoanthropology and hominid systematics, including in defining our species, H. sapiens. Beginning solely with the distinctive living species reveals a startling variety in morphologies among late middle and late Pleistocene hominids, none of which can be plausibly attributed to H. sapiens/H. neanderthalensis admixture. Allowing for a slightly greater envelope of variation than exists today, basic "modern" morphology seems to have appeared significantly earlier in time than the first stirrings of the modern symbolic cognitive system.

  6. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  7. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  8. Expression of genes related to quality of Longissimus dorsi muscle meat in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus × 3/8 Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Juliana; Castan, Eduardo; Dal Pai, Maeli; Arrigoni, Mário De Beni; Rodrigues Baldin, Samira; De Oliveira, Henrique Nunes

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, TG, DGAT1 and LEP gene expressions and correlate them with meat quality traits in two genetic groups (Nellore and Canchim) in order to assess their expression profile and use their expression profile as genetic markers. We analyzed 30 young bulls (1year old), 15 of each genetic group. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected for analysis of: total lipids (TL) and meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) and myofibrillar fragmentation (MFI) at day of slaughter and 7days of aging. Gene expression profiles were obtained via RT-qPCR. TL and MFI showed differences between breeds, higher MFI in Canchim and higher TL in Nellore. Calpains showed no differential expression between groups, as did DGAT1, TG, and LEP. CAST was expressed more in the Nellore cattle. The only significant within-breed correlation (0.79) between gene expression and meat traits was found for DGAT1 and MFI in Canchim breed. Although the number of animals used in this study was small, the results indicate that the increased expression of CAST in Nellore may reflect tougher meat, but the lack of correlations with the meat traits indicates it is not a promising genetic marker.

  9. 13CO Cores in Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Lei; Goldsmith, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Young stars form in molecular cores, which are dense condensations within molecular clouds. We have searched for $^{13}$CO $J=1\\to 0$ cores in the Taurus molecular cloud and studied their properties. Our data set has a spatial dynamic range (the ratio of linear map size to the pixel size) of about 1000 and spectrally resolved velocity information. We use empirical fit to the CO and CO$_2$ ice to correct the depletion. The core mass function (CMF) can be fitted better with a log-normal function than with a power law function. We also extract cores and calculate the CMF based on the integrated intensity of $^{13}$CO and the extinction from 2MASS. We demonstrate that there exists core blending, i.e. combined structures that are incoherent in velocity but continuous in column density. The resulting core samples based on 2D and 3D data thus differ significantly from each other. In particular, the cores derived from 2MASS extinction can be fitted with a power-law function, but not a log-normal function. The core ve...

  10. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2010-02-08

    LOC79017 (MW 21.0 kDa, residues 1-188) was annotated as a hypothetical protein encoded by Homo sapiens chromosome 7 open reading frame 24. It was selected as a target by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG) because it did not share more than 30% sequence identity with any protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known. The biological function of the protein has not been established yet. Parts of LOC79017 were identified as members of uncharacterized Pfam families (residues 1-95 as PB006073 and residues 104-180 as PB031696). BLAST searches revealed homologues of LOC79017 in many eukaryotes, but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the crystal structure of H. sapiens protein LOC79017 (UniGene code Hs.530024, UniProt code O75223, CESG target number go.35223).

  11. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Human taxonomic diversity and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The term race is a traditional synonym for subspecies, however it is frequently asserted that Homo sapiens is monotypic and that what are termed races are nothing more than biological illusions. In this manuscript a case is made for the hypothesis that H. sapiens is polytypic, and in this way is no different from other species exhibiting similar levels of genetic and morphological diversity. First it is demonstrated that the four major definitions of race/subspecies can be shown to be synonymous within the context of the framework of race as a correlation structure of traits. Next the issue of taxonomic classification is considered where it is demonstrated that H. sapiens possesses high levels morphological diversity, genetic heterozygosity and differentiation (F(ST)) compared to many species that are acknowledged to be polytypic with respect to subspecies. Racial variation is then evaluated in light of the phylogenetic species concept, where it is suggested that the least inclusive monophyletic units exist below the level of species within H. sapiens indicating the existence of a number of potential human phylogenetic species; and the biological species concept, where it is determined that racial variation is too small to represent differentiation at the level of biological species. Finally the implications of this are discussed in the context of anthropology where an accurate picture of the sequence and timing of events during the evolution of human taxa are required for a complete picture of human evolution, and medicine, where a greater appreciation of the role played by human taxonomic differences in disease susceptibility and treatment responsiveness will save lives in the future.

  12. GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM WESTERN TAURUS, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENZO VERNA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available  Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey. Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups. 

  13. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  14. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A; Hertenberger, R; Mameghani, R; Merkl, D; Rauscher, F; Schaile, A D; Ströhmer, R

    2009-01-01

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  15. Distribution of BoLA-DRB3 allelic frequencies and identification of a new allele in the iranian cattle breed sistani (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Nassiry, M R; Mosafer, J; Mohammadabadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution of the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles in the Iranian cattle breed Sistani was studied by the PCR-RFLP ("hemi-nested") assay using restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI. In the examined cattle breed (65 animals) 32 alleles have been identified one of which being described for the first time (6.15% frequency). The nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic region of exon 2 of this allele has been determined and submitted in the GeneBank database under accession number DQ486519. The submitted sequence has maximum homology (92%) with the previously described sequence DRB3-mRNA from Bos indicus (AccN X79346) and differs from it by 24 nucleotide substitutions which result in 16 amino acid substitutions. The peptide (on the basis of the reconstructed amino acid sequence) has 89% identity to the sequence encoded by the BIDRBF 188 locus (Bos indicus). The results obtained permit the sequence described by us to be considered as a new allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (DRB3.2**X). The total frequency of the main six alleles (DRB3.2*X, *10, *11, *20, *34 and *X) occurring with a frequency of over 5% is about 60% in Iranian Sistani cattle. Fifteen alleles have DRB3.2*8 allele (21.54%) like in other previously described breeds of Bos indicus (up to 23.07%). The Iranian breed Sistani has a high level of similarity by the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and their frequencies to other Bos indicus breeds and significantly differs by these criteria from the Bos taurus breeds. The Iranian Sistani herd under study includes alleles associated with to resistance to leukemia (DRB3.2*ll and *23) and to different forms of mastitis (DRB3.2*2, *7, *11, *23 and *24) although their frequencies are low (from 0.77 to 5.37%). On the whole, a high level of diversity of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles and the availability of alleles associated with resistance to different diseases makes this breed of interest for breeding practice.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHB703 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 |BI347313.1 fbn-ek036 Cattle pUC18 mammary gland library Bos taurus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 1.3 1 AC111313...3.1 Homo sapiens clone SCb-24C13 from 7q31.3, complete sequence. 42 1.1 2 BI34731

  17. AcEST: DK949824 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T17|MTG1_HUMAN Mitochondrial GTPase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=M... 65 3e-10 sp|Q4PS77|MTG1_BOVIN Mitochondrial GT...NKMDLADLTEQQKIMQHLEGEGLKNVIFTN 112 >sp|Q4PS77|MTG1_BOVIN Mitochondrial GTPase 1 OS=Bos taurus GN=MTG1 PE=2 S

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFK655 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Homo sapiens intracisternal A part... 67 1e-09 BC120053_1( BC120053 |pid:none) Bos taurus kelch-like...ll=Actin-binding protein IPP; AltName: Full=... 67 1e-09 BC032544_1( BC032544 |pi

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15018-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-09 (Q9Y573) RecName: Full=Actin-binding protein IPP; AltName: Full=... 67 2e-09 BC032544_1( BC032544 |pid:none) Homo sapiens intrac...isternal A part... 67 2e-09 BC126494_1( BC126494 |pid:none) Bos taurus ectodermal-n

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12633-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Bos taurus Notchless gene homolog ... 60 6e-08 AY159316_1( AY159316 |pid:none) Homo sapiens lung c...ancer oncogene ... 60 8e-08 DQ151642_1( DQ151642 |pid:none) Chlamydomonas reinhardt

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSA821 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gnificant alignments: (bits) Value BC105409_1( BC105409 |pid:none) Bos taurus prosa...83_1( BC091483 |pid:none) Homo sapiens prosaposin, mRNA (cDN... 50 2e-05 CR456746_1( CR456746 |pid:none) Hom

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01944-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 6.7 1 ( AL445188 ) Human DNA sequence from clone RP11-260E14 on chro... 44 6.7 1 ( AE014305 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 13q34 schizo...phrenia regio... 44 6.7 1 ( AC148141 ) Bos taurus clone

  3. Decision support system for individualized nursing procedures: SAPIEN-Tx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M; Ramos, M P; Chern, M S; Espósito, S R; Carmagnani, M I; Cunha, I C; Piveta, V M; Nespoulos, E; Iwasa, A T; Anção, M S

    1995-01-01

    The present work proposes a Decision Support System for nursing procedures: SAPIEN-Tx. The discussion includes the acquisition, modeling , and implementation of nursing expertise professionals in Renal Transplant. It was developed to obtain better quality healthcare services, as well as an effective contribution to the nursing professional in the global assistance of their clientele. We used the KADS methodology to develop the system knowledge base. This methodology permitted us to perform the knowledge modeling with quality and organization. In opposition to the old method, errors were detected before the implementation, avoiding possible modification on the whole project structure.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10627-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :none) Bos taurus carboxylesterase 2 (int... 43 0.007 DQ278875_1( DQ278875 |pid:none) Danio rerio thyroglobulin...|pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for Thyroglobuli... 38 0.23 AF080484_1( AF080484 |pid:none) Homo sapiens thyroglobulin... X02318_1( X02318 |pid:none) Rat mRNA fragment for thyroglobulin. 35 1.9 AF221622_1( AF221622 |pid:none) Rat

  5. In Memoriam Dr Lute Bos (1928-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday July 6, 2010 we were shocked by the news that that day our former colleague Lute Bos had died unexpectedly at the age of 82. Lute was a world-famous plant virologist. From the start of his career in 1957 until his retirement from the Institute for Plant Protection (IPO-DLO) in Wageningen in

  6. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  7. Age and sex determination of gaur Bos gaurus (Bovidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrestani, F.S.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    One reason why the gaur Bos gaurus is a poorly understood species is because there are no reliable data to age and sex individuals. We studied captive gaur for two years in Mysore Zoo, India and Omaha Zoo, USA, and determined age-specific differences in morphological features and physical growth, by

  8. De 10 meest gestelde vragen over koolstofvastlegging in bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Verkaik, E.

    1999-01-01

    Uitleg en cijfers over de koolstofvoorraden en koolstofvastlegging in het Nederlandse bos, de mogelijkheden om de CO2 uitstoot te compenseren via bosaanplant, de kosteneffectiviteit van dergelijke maatregelen, en het gewenste bostype en bosbeheer om CO2 vast te leggen en de CO2 emissie te reduceren

  9. Bayesian fitting of Taurus brown dwarf spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, N J; Rowe, John; Acreman, David M

    2012-01-01

    We present derived stellar and disc parameters for a sample of Taurus brown dwarfs both with and without evidence of an associated disc. These parameters have been derived using an online fitting tool (http://bd-server.astro.ex.ac.uk/), which includes a statistically robust derivation of uncertainties, an indication of pa- rameter degeneracies, and a complete treatment of the input photometric and spectroscopic observations. The observations of the Taurus members with indications of disc presence have been fitted using a grid of theoretical models including detailed treatments of physical processes accepted for higher mass stars, such as dust sublimation, and a simple treatment of the accretion flux. This grid of models has been designed to test the validity of the adopted physical mechanisms, but we have also constructed models using parameterisation, for example semi-empirical dust sublimation radii, for users solely interested in parameter derivation and the quality of the fit. The parameters derived for t...

  10. Effects of Anomalous Tensor Couplings in BOs -(B-)Os Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Qin; HAN Lin; YANG Ya-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed anomalous large dimuon charge asymmetry in neutral B decays,we study the effects of the anomalous tensor couplings to pursue a possible solution.With the constraints from the observables φJ/(φ)(φ,f0)s,aSsl and ΔMs,the new physics parameter spaces are severely restricted.We find that the contributions induced by the color-singlet or the color-octet tensor operators are helpful to moderate the anomaly in BOs - (B-)Osmixing.Numerically,the observable aSsl could be enhanced by about two orders of magnitude by the contributionsof color-singlet or color-octet tensor operators with their respective nontrivial new weak phase φT1 =41° ± 35° orφs =-47° ± 33° and relevant strength parameters |gT1| =(2.89 ± 1.40) × 10-2 or |gT8| =(0.79 ± 0.34) × 10-2.However,due to the fact that the NP contributions are severely suppressed by the recent LHCb measurement for φJ/φ(φ,f0)s,our theoretical result of aSsl is still much smaller than the central value of the experimental data.

  11. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  12. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  13. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  14. Implementasi Manajemen Bantuan Biaya Operasional Sekolah (BOS) Di SD Negeri 060820 Kecamatan Medan Kota

    OpenAIRE

    Mayasari, Poppy

    2013-01-01

    This study, entitled Implementation Management Assistance Operational costs (BOS) in the Elementary School District 060820 Medan City. The problem in this study is how the implementation of cost management Operational Management Assistance (BOS) in the Elementary School District 060820 Medan City. Achievable goal of this study was to describe the planning, organizing, directing, supervision, accountability of the program in elementary school BOS 060820 District of Medan City. The research ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14103-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 069207 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-809O24, WORK... 48 0.22 1 ( AC19118...2 ) Cavia porcellus clone CH234-323E13, WORKING DRAFT... 48 0.22 1 ( AC022805 ) Homo sapiens clone RP11-444A4, WORK...ens chromosome 6 clone RP11-575G14, WORK... 38 0.42 5 ( AC165755 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-163C23, WORK...) Paracentrotus lividus EST, clone MPMGp1171C17195Q... 36 0.94 2 ( AC170546 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-228L15, WORK...020664 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 11 clone RP11-83E23, WORK... 34 2.3 5 ( CG140798 ) PUFUN28TB ZM_0.6_1.0_KB

  16. 牦牛HSP27基因的克隆及其在雌性生殖器官中的表达%Cloning of Bos Grunniens HSP27 Gene and Its Expression in the Female Yak Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翃闳; 崔燕; 潘阳阳; 樊江峰; 胡威; 张译夫; 刘鹏刚; 李秦; 余四九

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this study was carried out to study differences of the expression of Heat Shock Protein 27(HSP27) gene in the main reproductive organs of the female yak under normal physiological conditions by cloning the HSP27 gene and analyzing its biological characteristics.[Method] Samples from the tissues of ipsilateral Ovary, oviduct and uterus during follicular anaphase, luteal anaphase and early pregnancy phase were collected and cDNA were isolated from each of the collected tissues. RT-PCR was used to clone the HSP27 gene, and purified PCR products were cloned on pMDTM18-T Vector to detect the sequence. The genetic characteristics of HSP27 gene were then analyzed utilizing bioinformation software to predict its product protein structure and potential functions. Next, RT-qPCR was employed to reveal the relative expression of HSP27 gene in the main reproductive organ during the reproductive cycle of the yak. Statistical analysis was performed using the software program SPSS (version 19.0, SPSS).[Result]HSP27 gene sequence containing a complete coding sequence, with the coding region length of 450bp (GenBank accession No: KP716832), This length could encode 149 amino acids of which Leucine (10.7%) was the most, and Tryptophan (0.7%) the least abundant. We determined that the atom number, molecular formula, calculated molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of the encoded protein were 2366, C747H1189N205O220S5, 16.722 kD, and 5.33 respectively. The HSP27 encoded protein of HSP27 was predicted to be a type of soluble and non-transmembrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the HSP27 gene nucleotide sequence of yak was similar to those ofBos taurus(99.8%),Bubalus bubalis(98.4%),Ovis aries(97.8%),Pantholops hodgsonii(97.6%),Orcinus orca(90.3%),Camelus ferus(89.7%),Sus scrofa(89.7%),Equus caballus (86.7%),Canis lupus(86.7%),Homo sapiens(85.5%) andGorilla gorilla(85.3%). The similarity of resulting amino acid sequence of HSP27

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHC435 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2401 |AC012401.4 Homo sapiens chromosome 3 clone RP11-209H21 map 3, WORKING DRAFT...N PROGRESS ***, 45 unordered pieces. 46 0.53 1 AC156237 |AC156237.2 Bos taurus clone CH240-40A2, WORKING DRA...FT SEQUENCE, 16 unordered pieces. 46 0.53 1 AC152689 |AC152689.3 Bos taurus clone CH240-8B21, WORK...ING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 27 unordered pieces. 46 0.53 1 AC166516 |AC166516.3 Bos taurus clone CH240-172A2, WORK...ne TKIDN2001672, 5' end, mRNA sequence. 44 2.1 1 AC125297 |AC125297.3 Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-10D11, WORK

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 9e-85 39% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 0.0 78% ...

  20. Staphylococcus via an interaction with the ELR+ CXC chemokine ENA-78 is associated with BOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, A L; Wang, X; Injean, P; Weigt, S S; Shino, M; Sayah, D; DerHovanessian, A; Lynch, J P; Ross, D J; Saggar, R; Ardehali, A; Li, G; Elashoff, R; Belperio, J A

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated gram-positive bacterium after lung transplantation (LT) and has been associated with poor posttransplant outcomes, but its effect on bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and death in the context of the allograft inflammatory environment has not been studied. A three-state Cox semi-Markovian model was used to determine the influence of allograft S. aureus and the ELR+ CXC chemokines on the survival rates and cause-specific hazards for movement from lung transplant (State 1) to BOS (State 2), from transplant (State 1) to death (State 3), and from BOS (State 2) to death (State 3). Acute rejection, pseudomonas pneumonia, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CXCL5 and its interaction with S. aureus all increased the likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS. Transition to death from transplant was facilitated by pseudomonas infection and single lung transplant. Movement from BOS to death was affected by the interaction between aspergillus, pseudomonas and CXCL5, but not S. aureus. S. aureus isolation had state specific effects after LT and only in concert with elevated BALF CXCL5 concentrations did it augment the risk of BOS. Pseudomonas and elevated BALF concentrations of CXCL5 continued as significant risk factors for BOS and death after BOS in lung transplantation.

  1. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Exposure of missile 56 in EMP simulator sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikvall, T.

    1985-06-01

    The effects on the electric field caused by the object (missile) in the SAPIENS electromagnetic pulse simulator were studied. A noticeable effect on the field strength is noted close to the object, due to the characteristics of the field. This effect also appears in real electromagnetic pulse environments. During these tests 200 pulses were distributed with good accuracy of reproduction. The SAPIENS is an outdoor device and tests carried out in winter show that weather has very little influence on results.

  2. First results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, J M; Palmeirim, P; Andre, Ph; Griffin, M J; Hargrave, P J; Konyves, V; Bernard, J P; Nutter, D J; Sibthorpe, B; Di Francesco, J; Abergel, A; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Bontemps, S; Elia, D; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Men'shchikov, A; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Peretto, N; Pezzuto, S; Rygl, K L J; Sadavoy, S I; Schisano, E; Schneider, N; Testi, L; White, G

    2013-01-01

    The whole of the Taurus region (a total area of 52 sq. deg.) has been observed by the Herschel SPIRE and PACS instruments at wavelengths of 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. In this paper we present the first results from the part of the Taurus region that includes the Barnard 18 and L1536 clouds. A new source-finding routine, the Cardiff Source-finding AlgoRithm (CSAR), is introduced, which is loosely based on CLUMPFIND, but that also generates a structure tree, or dendrogram, which can be used to interpret hierarchical clump structure in a complex region. Sources were extracted from the data using the hierarchical version of CSAR and plotted on a mass-size diagram. We found a hierarchy of objects with sizes in the range 0.024-2.7 pc. Previous studies showed that gravitationally bound prestellar cores and unbound starless clumps appeared in different places on the mass-size diagram. However, it was unclear whether this was due to a lack of instrumental dynamic range ...

  3. Change of land use in the Turkish Taurus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Güneş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land use changes on forests and agricultural areas in the central Taurus Mountains of Turkey have been studied. In this region a progressive conversion of extensive grazing was observed towards more intensively farmed arable land in recent decades. The loss of forest land is obvious, and the remaining forests are currently severely degraded and fragmented. Based on a model area it was shown that forests accounted for more than 80% of the land cover in the 1960s. In the following decades the forest area decreased by more than 20%. To the same extent, the share of agricultural land increased, predominantly of the pastures, too. The use of pastures in turn was replaced in the 1990s by arable use, so that now for almost 30% of land use accont for production crop. Accordingly, the way of life of the rural population changed in the last 50 years. By the middle of the 20th century, people had mostly been living as nomads. Thereafter, they become increasingly stationary. While the population density decreased at the some time agriculture was intensified and livestock reduced. This change led to today to profound changes in the landscape of the Taurus Mountains and its unique habitats. Restrictive measures as a way to curb forest degradation and to intensify the use of arable land are discussed.

  4. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0189 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTED: hypothetical protein [Bos taurus] 1e-06 28% MQIDLMTMSFVAKFGVIWFSGFVVYSIGIILSTNKTQSGYVSIISIIISMIYTPLILSTNKTQSGYVSIISII...ISMIYTPLILSTNKTQSVYVSIISIIISIIYTPLILSTNKTQSVYVSIISIIISMIYTPLILSTNKTQSVYVSITSIIISIIYTPLILSTNKTQSVYVSITSIIISIIYTPLILSTNKTQSGYVSIISIIYTPLILSTNKTQRSYVSINSISMYYYIAA ...

  5. GENERAL ASPECTS OF BODY MEASURES, WEIGHT AND SCORE CONDITION FEMALE NELORE BREED (Bos taurus indicus ON THE PERIOD OF 12 MONTHS ESTUDIO DE MEDIDAS CORPORALES, PESO VIVO Y CONDICIÓN CORPORAL DE BOVINOS HEMBRAS DE LA RAZA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus POR 12 MESES ESTUDO DE MEDIDAS CORPORAIS, PESO VIVO E CONDIÇÃO CORPORAL DE FÊMEAS DA RAÇA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus AO LONGO DE 12 MESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcádio de Los Reys Borjas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and eighty cattle were used to verify alterations and correlations among corporal measures in Nelore zebu herd with cows and heifers. Body weight and length, corporal condition, heart girth, withers height and hip measures were evaluated. Eight collections were accomplished along the months of October of 2002 and October of 2003. In heifers there was increase of the averages of corporal measures with significant difference (p <0,05 among collections only the heart girth was different (p <0,05 in cows. The relationship between the body weight and body condition with the time were quadratic parallel curves (p <0,001. There were correlations among lineal measures body with hip measures (p<0,001 except for heart girth with hip length. The correlations of body weight and body condition among body measures were significant (p<0,001 except body condition with hip length in cows. It could be concluded that there was a growing variation of the body measures in heifers in the experimental period. The body weight, the body condition and heart girth were related with different periods of the year that the evaluation was accomplished. In cows the variations along the year were of 14,79%, 31,53% and 6,74%, respectively. The isquiun – iliun external measures, as height and width were correlated with size measures and weight. The body weight and body condition in heifers behave in way similar to cows. Further researches in relationship among body measures, body weight and body condition with productive and reproductive aspect are necessary. Con el objetivo de verificar alteraciones y correlaciones entre medidas corporales en un rebaño bovino de vaquillonas y vacas de la raza Nelore. Evaluaron-se 487 hembras en peso vivo, condición corporal, perímetro toráxico, largura corporal, altura de la cruz y medidas da anca. Fueron realizadas ocho coletas a lo largo de los meses de octubre de 2002 y octubre de 2003. En las vaquillonas hubo un aumento de las medidas corporales (p<0,05 entre colectas. Para las vacas el perímetro toráxico presentó diferencia significativa (p<0,05. La relación entre peso vivo condición corporal con el tiempo mostró ecuación cuadrática y fueron parecidas y paralelas para a condición corporal. En el peso vivo, la parte cóncava de la curva para las vacas fue mas abierta comparada a las de vaquillonas. Los coeficientes de correlación entre medidas corporales lineares con las medidas de la anca fueron elevadas (p<0,001, excepto para el perímetro toráxico con largura de la anca. Las correlaciones del peso vivo y condición corporal con medidas corporales fueron significativas (p<0,001, excepto para la condición corporal con la largura de la anca en las categorías; condición corporal versus altura de la anca y peso vivo con largura de la anca para las vacas. Como conclusiones de este trabajo: hubo una variación creciente de las medidas corporales en las vaquillonas en el período de las colecta. El peso vivo, la condición corporal y perímetro toráxico estuvieron relacionados con diferentes períodos del ano que fue realizada el experimento. En vacas las variações a lo largo de año fueron de 14,79%, 31,53% e 6,74%, respectivamente. Las medidas externas ísquio-iliacas, como altura e largura, estuvieron correlacionadas con medidas de tamaño y peso. Vaquillonas en fase de crecimiento tuvieron un comportamiento de forma análoga a las vacas con respecto al peso vivo y condición corporal. Mas investigaciones serian necesarias de las relaciones de las medidas corporales, peso vivo y condición corporal con los aspectos productivos e reproductivos. RESUMO – Objetivou-se verificar alterações e correlações entre medidas corporais em rebanho bovino de novilhas e vacas da raça Nelore. Avaliaram-se 487 fêmeas, quanto ao peso vivo, condição corporal, perímetro torácico, comprimento corporal, altura de cernelha e medidas da garupa. Foram realizadas oito coletas ao longo dos meses de outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Nas novilhas houve aumento das médias de medidas corporais com diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre coletas. Para vacas o perímetro torácico apresentou diferença significativa (p<0,05. Na análise quadrática do peso vivo e condição corporal, as curvas se assemelharam, de maneira paralela para a condição corporal. Quanto ao peso vivo, a parte côncava da curva para vacas foi mais aberta comparada às novilhas. Coeficientes de correlação entre medidas lineares com medidas de garupa apresentaram significância (p<0,001, exceto para perímetro torácico com comprimento de garupa. Nas correlações do peso vivo e condição corporal com medidas corporais foram significativas (p<0,001, exceto para condição corporal versus comprimento de garupa nas categorias; condição corporal versus altura de garupa e peso vivo versus comprimento de garupa para vacas. Pode-se concluir que houve uma variação crescente das medidas corporais nas novilhas no período de coleta. O peso vivo, a condição corporal e perímetro torácico estiveram relacionados com diferentes períodos do ano que foi realizada a avaliação. Em vacas as variações ao longo do ano foram de 14,79%, 31,53% e 6,74%, respectivamente. As medidas externas ísquio-iliacas, como altura e largura, estão correlacionadas com medidas de tamanho e peso. Fêmeas em fase de crescimento comportam-se de maneira análoga às fêmeas adultas quanto ao peso vivo e condição corporal. Pesquisas da relação das medidas corporais, peso vivo e condição corporal com o aspecto produtivo e reprodutivo são necessários.

  6. Genetic diversity and population genetic analysis of bovine MHC class II DRB3.2 locus in three Bos indicus cattle breeds of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D N; Sri Hari, V G; Hatkar, D N; Rengarajan, K; Saravanan, R; Suryanarayana, V V S; Murthy, L K

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Malnad Gidda, Hallikar and Ongole South Indian Bos indicus cattle breeds, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. In Malnad Gidda population, 37 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were detected, including one novel allele DRB3*2503 (GenBank: HM031389) that was observed in the frequency of 1.87%. In Hallikar and Ongole populations, 29 and 21 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were identified, respectively. The frequencies of the most common BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles (with allele frequency > 5%), in Malnad Gidda population, were DRB3.2*15 (10.30%), DRB3*5702 (9.35%), DRB3.2*16 (8.41%), DRB3.2*23 (7.01%) and DRB3.2*09 (5.61%). In Hallikar population, the most common alleles were DRB3.2*11 (13.00%), DRB3.2*44 (11.60%), DRB3.2*31 (10.30%), DRB3.2*28 (5.48%) and DRB3.2*51 (5.48%). The most common alleles in Ongole population were DRB3.2*15 (22.50%), DRB3.2*06 (20.00%), DRB3.2*13 (13.30%), DRB3.2*12 (9.17%) and DRB3.2*23 (7.50%). A high degree of heterozygosity observed in Malnad Gidda (H(O) = 0.934, H(E) = 0.955), Hallikar (H(O) = 0.931, H(E) = 0.943) and Ongole (H(O) = 0.800, H(E) = 0.878) populations, along with F(IS) values close to F(IS) zero (Malnad Gidda: F(IS) = 0.0221, Hallikar: F(IS) = 0.0127 and Ongole: F(IS) = 0.0903), yielded nonsignificant P-values with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium probabilities revealing, no perceptible inbreeding, greater genetic diversity and characteristic population structure being preserved in the three studied cattle populations. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles observed in 10 Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle breeds revealed distinct clustering of specific Bos indicus cattle breeds, along with unique genetic differentiation observed among them. The results of this study demonstrated that the BoLA-DRB3.2 is a highly polymorphic locus, with significant breed-specific genetic diversities being present amongst the three studied

  7. Influência da raça do touro (Bos indicus x Bos taurus na tolerância ao estresse térmico calórico de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Nabhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Para melhor compreender as diferenças entre zebuínos e taurinos em relação à resistência ao ETC, objetivou-se verificar se a resistência ao ETC é resultado da contribuição genética do oócito, do espermatozoide ou de ambos. Oócitos de vacas das raças Nelore e mestiças com fenótipo predominante da raça Holandesa preto e branco (mHPB foram coletados, maturados e fertilizados com espermatozoide de touros das raças Nelore (N, Angus (An, Brahman (Bra e Gir (Gir. Noventa e seis horas pós-inseminação (hpi, embriões > 16 células foram separados ao acaso em dois grupos: controle e ETC. Embriões do grupo controle foram cultivados a 39 ºC continuamente e do grupo ETC expostos a 41 ºC por 12 horas, retornando a seguir para 39 ºC. Não foi observado efeito do ETC nas raças estudadas, sem redução nas taxas de blastocisto e blastocisto eclodido. As taxas de clivagem e mórula dos embriões mHPB x Gir foram inferiores (p < 0,05 às das demais raças. As raças mHPB x N apresentaram taxas de blastocisto superiores as raças mHPB x An e mHPB x Gir (p < 0,05. Concluiu-se que a contribuição genética do oócito é mais importante do que a do espermatozoide, uma vez que a raça do touro não influenciou a resistência embrionária ao ETC.

  8. Producción in vivo de embriones bovinos F1 (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) durante la época de lluvias y nortes en un agroecosistema tropical.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo Paez, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la temperatura ambiental y la humedad relativa sobre la producción in vivo de embriones bovinos F1, durante la época de lluvias y nortes, en un agroecosistema tropical cálido subhúmedo en Veracruz, México. A 22 vacas Cebú se les indujo ovulación múltiple, y siete días después de la inseminación artificial se recolectaron los embriones. Durante el estudio se monitoreó la humedad relativa y temperatura ambiental, y se asociaron con la producción de embrio...

  9. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

    2014-09-01

    Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research.

  10. Estudo histopatológico comparativo em fígados de bovinos (Bos taurus L. e Bos indicus L.), bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis L.) e ovinos (Ovis aries L.) infectados por Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Bostelmann, Silvia Cristina Werle

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de melhor identificar e estudar comparativamente as lesões histológicas do fígado decorrente da fasciolose hepática em três espécies de animais domésticos. Foram examinados fígados infectados por Fasciola hepatica de bovinos e bubalinos provenientes de matadouros e frigoríficos oficialmente inspecionados no Estado do Paraná e fígados de ovinos de propriedades particulares, onde o abate era realizado no local. O material foi processado pela técnica de...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  12. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens.

  13. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

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    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  14. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  15. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  16. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  17. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  18. Frecuencia relativa de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae en bovinos (Bos taurus y B. indicus en ocho zonas ecológicas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre la abundancia relativa de Boophilus microplus se realizó en diez fincas, distribuidas en ocho zonas ecológicas (ZE y dos regímenes pluviales de Costa Rica. Se efectuaron visitas mensuales para recolectar garrapatas mayores de 4.5 mm del lado derecho de los animales. El número total de garrapatas se multiplicaba por dos y se dividía entre el total de animales muestreados durante la visita para determinar el promedio de garrapatas por finca. Se trató de adecuar la visita a la finca al baño de los animales para permitir la recuperación de la población de garrapatas. Se detectó B. microplus en todas las fincas muestreadas, a lo largo del año. Se hicieron análisis estadísticos de comparación de medias y no se encontraron diferencias entre ZE, fincas o épocas del año. Por el contrario, si hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los regímenes pluviales. El régimen pluvial 1, con estacionalidad de lluvias presentó mayores infestaciones de garrapatas (p = 0.03. Se nota una situación de isotermia y de poca variabilidad en cuanto a la humedad relativa en algunas de las zonas en estudio. La intensidad de los baños fue bastante inferior a otros estudios realizados en el pasado. Pese a que no se encontraron diferencias entre sistemas de producción, se hace énfasis en que las intensidades de baño fueron mayores en una finca de ganado europeo, en comparación con otra de la misma ZE, pero de ganado cruzado. Se recomienda el sistema de eliminación manual de garrapatas en las fincas de doble propósito y lechería especializada con cargas no mayores de 30-35 animales, como un sistema alternativo viable para reducir, de manera considerable, la aplicación de ixodicidas y con ello se logran una serie de ventajas importantes.The research on the relative abundancy of Boophilus microplus took place in ten farms, distributed in eight ecological zones (EZ and two rainfall systems of Costa Rica. Monthly visits were made to pick up ticks larger than 4mm from the right side of the animals. The total number of ticks was increased by two and divided between the total of sampled bovines per farm. Farm visits were adjusted to animals bath to allow the recovery of the tick population. B. microplus was detected in all sampled farms throughout the year. Media comparison statistic analyses were made and no differences were found among EZ, farms and seasons. On the contrary, there were important statistical differences between rainfall systems. The rainfall system 1, that included rain seasonality, showed larger tick infestations (p = 0.03. An isothermal and low variability regarding relative humidity situations were present in some of the areas included in this research. Bath intensity was lower to other past studies. Eventhough no differences were found between production systems, it is important to emphasize that bath intensity was higher in european cattle farms, in comparison to others of the same EZ, but of crossbred. A tick manual removable system was recommended in dual-purpose and specialized dairy farms with no more than 30-35 animals, as an alternative feasible system that significantly reduced acaricide use.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-07-27

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.

  20. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  1. Comparison of the diurnal pattern and magnitude of velocities of goats (Capra Hircus), sheep (Ovis Aries), horses (Equus Caballus) and cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic ungulates were bred over the last four thousand years to provide man with food, fiber and motive power. Cattle, horses, sheep and goats arose from different animal ancestors and serve different purposes based upon their unique characteristics. We hypothesized that each species would have ...

  2. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I...

  3. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  4. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in two protected areas of Goa

    OpenAIRE

    S.D. Gad; S.K. Shyama

    2009-01-01

    Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%). In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) and teak (Tectona grandis) trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square...

  5. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus gestantes e não gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o trimestre gestacional: primeiro - gestação de até 90 dias; segundo - de 91 a 180 dias; e terceiro - de 181 a 270 dias. Os corpos lúteos, processados para inclusão em paraplast, foram avaliados em microscópio de luz. Na proporção volumétrica do corpo lúteo, os constituintes avaliados foram citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas, tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos, células endoteliais e pericitos e vasos sanguíneos. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma de células lúteas reduziu de 46,1±2,8% para 37,9±3,5% e a de núcleo de células lúteas reduziu de 9,2±1,0% para 6,2±1,0%, do primeiro para o segundo trimestre. A proporção de tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos aumentou de 20,9±5,4%, no primeiro trimestre, para 34,0±4,2%, no segundo trimestre. Grânulos citoplasmáticos foram evidenciados pelas técnicas histoquímicas xylidine ponceau e azul de bromofenol, que indicam sua provável composição proteica. A quantidade de células maiores com grânulos aumentou significativamente de 2,3±1,9%, no primeiro trimestre, para 25,5±20,3%, no segundo. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas diminuiu ao longo da gestação, e a de tecido conjuntivo aumentou. A quantidade de células lúteas maiores contendo grânulos também aumentou ao longo da gestação.

  6. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic analyses placed with high support the cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta into two monophyletic sister groups, and the same was true for the cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi. Hence, the study established that S. buffalonis and S. levinei are distinct species different from S. hirsuta and S. cruzi, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of S. buffalonis could be distinguished from those of S. hirsuta also at the 28S rRNA gene (clearly different) and the ITS1 region (small and uncertain difference) but not at the 18S rRNA gene. Sequences of S. levinei could be distinguished from those of S. cruzi both at the 18S and 28S rRNA genes (ITS1 region not examined). However, the cox1 gene was superior to the 18S and 28S rRNA genes as regards the ability to unambiguously delimit the species within each species pair, since at the latter markers, the number of consistent nucleotide differences between the species was low and there was a slight overlap between the intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence. Comparison of the newly generated 18S rRNA gene sequences of S. levinei from water buffaloes with similar sequences deposited in GenBank suggested that S. levinei and S. cruzi are not strictly intermediate host specific but might occasionally infect cattle and water buffaloes, respectively.

  7. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benign trypanosomes of cattle and wild ungulates in the United States are designated Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma cervi, respectively. Historically these parasites have been identified based on morphology, host, and vector, if known. No molecular characterization has been reported for T....

  8. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observe

  9. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  10. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    . In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31....... The enzymes LDH, NAGase, and alkaline phosphatase showed similar responses, with a significantly increased activity and higher peak values for the HH than the HL cows. Significant differences between HH and HL cows were detected at different time points for these 3 enzymes, but not after adjusting P...... infection but with differences in the size and profile of the activity of the 4 enzymes. The enzyme GLU was an equally good indicator of E. coli mastitis compared with the other studied enzymes, although it showed a slower response compared with LDH and NAGase....

  11. Bayesian fitting of Taurus brown dwarf spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, N. J.; Harries, Tim J.; Rowe, John; Acreman, David M.

    2012-06-01

    We present derived stellar and disc parameters for a sample of Taurus brown dwarfs both with and without evidence of an associated disc. These parameters have been derived using an online fitting tool (), which includes a statistically robust derivation of uncertainties, an indication of parameter degeneracies and a complete treatment of the input photometric and spectroscopic observations. The observations of the Taurus members with indications of disc presence have been fitted using a grid of theoretical models including detailed treatments of physical processes accepted for higher mass stars, such as dust sublimation, and a simple treatment of the accretion flux. This grid of models has been designed to test the validity of the adopted physical mechanisms, but we have also constructed models using parametrization, for example semi-empirical dust sublimation radii, for users solely interested in parameter derivation and the quality of the fit. The parameters derived for the naked and disc brown dwarf systems are largely consistent with literature observations. However, our inner disc edge locations are consistently closer to the star than previous results and we also derive elevated accretion rates over non-spectral energy distribution based accretion rate derivations. For inner edge locations, we attribute these differences to the detailed modelling we have performed of the disc structure, particularly at the crucial inner edge where departures in geometry from the often adopted vertical wall due to dust sublimation (and therefore accretion flux) can compensate for temperature (and therefore distance) changes to the inner edge of the dust disc. In the case of the elevated derived accretion rates, in some cases, this may be caused by the intrinsic stellar luminosities of the targets exceeding that predicted by the isochrones we have adopted.

  12. Development of the palatal size in Pan troglodytes, Hominids and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W H; Zoellner, A; Sebastian, T

    2004-12-01

    As the hard palate plays an important role in speech production it was the aim of this study whether similarities or dissimilarities in palatal size may allow conclusions about the ability to produce speech in the extant investigated species. The palatal size of Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis and Cro-Magnon has been investigated using euclidian distance matrix analysis (EDMA) and thin-plate-spline analysis. The results show that the palatal size of all australopithecine specimens and H. erectus is very similar to that of P toglodytes, whereas the palatal size of H. neanderthalensis more closely resembles that of H. sapiens. Postnatal development of palatal size in P troglodytes is different from that of H. sapiens. In P troglodytes not only the size of the palate changes but also the form. In H. sapiens there is little change in form, but a continuos uniform growth from infantile to adult specimens. From the results we conclude that in all australopithecine samples which have been investigated, the palatal size is similar to that of P troglodytes. Therefore, it is unlikely that austraopithecine individuals were capable of producing vowels and consonants. The palatal size of H. neandethalensis and Cro-Magnon is similar to that of H. sapiens which may indicate the possibility that they were capable of speech production.

  13. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Josephine C; Alorabi, Jamal A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci. We used RNA-Seq and comparative transcriptomics to identify the sapienic acid survival responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Consistent with the membrane depolarization mode of action of sapienic acid, both species shared a common transcriptional response to counteract disruption of metabolism and transport. The species differed in their regulation of SaeRS and VraRS regulons. While S. aureus upregulated urease operon transcription, S. epidermidis upregulated arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci.

  15. Genetic, physiologic and ecogeographic factors contributing to variation in Homo sapiens: Homo floresiensis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    A new species, Homo floresiensis, was recently named for Pleistocene hominid remains on Flores, Indonesia. Significant controversy has arisen regarding this species. To address controversial issues and refocus investigations, I examine the affinities of these remains with Homo sapiens. Clarification of problematic issues is sought through an integration of genetic and physiological data on brain ontogeny and evolution. Clarification of the taxonomic value of various 'primitive' traits is possible given these data. Based on this evidence and using a H. sapiens morphological template, models are developed to account for the combination of features displayed in the Flores fossils. Given this overview, I find substantial support for the hypothesis that the remains represent a variant of H. sapiens possessing a combined growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis modification and mutation of the MCPH gene family. Further work will be required to determine the extent to which this variant characterized the population.

  16. Direction for Artificial Intelligence to Achieve Sapiency Inspired by Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Arif Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology has developed significantly in the past decades. Although many computational programs are able to approximate many cognitive abilities of Homo sapiens, the intelligence and sapience level of these programs are not even close to Homo sapiens. Rather than developing a computational system with the intelligent or sapient attribute, I propose to develop a system capable of performing functions that could deem as intelligent or sapient by Homo sapiens or others. I advocate converting current computational systems to educable systems that have built-in capabilities to learn and be taught with a universal programming language. The idea is that this attempt would help to attain computational actions in artificial means, which could be viewed as similar to human intelligent and sapient acts. Although this paper is seemingly speculative, some feasible elements are proposed to advance the field of Artificial Intelligence.

  17. Homo sapiens as physician and patient: a view from Darwinian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Franco, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere. That human microecosystem is composed of constituents derived from the archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryan domains via endosymbiotic, commensalistic and mutualistic interactions. This amalgamation of 100 trillion cells and viral elements is regulated by a composite genome aggregated over the 3.8 billion years of evolutionary history of organic life. No component of H. sapiens or its genome can be identified as irreducibly and exclusively human. H. sapiens' humanity is an emergent property of the microecosystem. Ironically as H. sapiens is viewed by evolutionary science in a highly integrated manner medicine approaches it as a balkanized, deaggregated entity through the eye of 150 different specialties. To effectively address the needs of H sapiens in its role as patient by the same species in its role as physician the disparate views must be harmonized. Here I review some conceptual elements that would assist a physician in addressing the needs of the patient in integrum, as a microecosystem, by the former address the latter as a historical gestalt being. The optimal way to recover the harmony between patient and physician is through a revitalization of the clinical encounter via an ecological and Darwinian epistemology.

  18. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology.

  19. Bone strength and athletic ability in hominids: Ardipithecus ramidus to Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of the femur to resist bending stresses is determined by its midlength cross-sectional geometry, its length and the elastic properties of the mineral part of the bone. The animal's athletic ability, determined by a ``bone strength index,'' is limited by this femoral bending strength in relation to the loads on the femur. This analysis is applied to the fossil record for Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus afarensis and Ardipithecus ramidus. Evidence that the femoral bone strength index of modern Homo sapiens has weakened over the last 50,000 years is found.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Josephine C.; Alorabi, Jamal A.; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci. PMID:28179897

  1. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected From WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Padgett, D L; Terebey, S; McGehee, P M; Hillenbrand, L A; Knapp, G; Leizawitz, D; Liu, W; Noriega-Crespo, A; Ressler, M; Stapelfeldt, K R; Fajardo-Acosta, S; Mainzer, A

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 square degrees. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ~260 square degree region designed to encompass previously-identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present: a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  2. AcEST: BP913425 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |Q9HCL0|PCD18_HUMAN Protocadherin-18 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PCDH18... 31 3.4 sp|A7MB46|PCD18_BOVIN Protocadherin-18 OS=Bos taurus GN=PCDH... sp|Q8VHR0|PCD18_MOUSE Protocadherin 18 OS=Mus musculus GN=Pcdh18... 30 7.7 >sp|Q9HCL0|PCD18_HUMAN Protocadh...erin-18 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PCDH18 PE=2 SV=3 Length = 1135 Score = 31.2 bits (69), Expect = 3.4 Identities = ...101 NLNCSIEFDVITLPTEHLQLFHIEVEVLDINDNSPQFSRSLIPIEISESAAVGTRIPL 158 >sp|A7MB46|PCD18_BOVIN Protocadherin-18 OS=Bos taurus GN=PCDH1...tocadherin 18 OS=Mus musculus GN=Pcdh18 PE=1 SV=2 Length = 1134 Score = 30.0 bits

  3. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  4. Star Formation in Space and Time Taurus-Auriga

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Fabrizio; Palla, Francesco; Stahler, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    To understand the formation of stellar groups, one must first document carefully the birth pattern within real clusters and associations. In this study of Taurus-Auriga, we combine pre-main-sequence ages from our own evolutionary tracks with stellar positions from observational surveys. Aided by the extensive, millimeter data on the molecular clouds, we develop a picture of the region's history. Star formation began, at a relatively low level and in a spatially diffuse manner, at least 10 Myr in the past. Within the last few million years, new stars have been produced at an accelerating rate, almost exclusively within a confined group of striated cloud filaments. The gas both inside and around the filaments appears to be in force balance. Thus, the appearance of the filaments is due to global, quasi-static contraction of the parent cloud material. Gravity drives this contraction and shock dissipation mediates it, but the internal motion of the gas does not appear to be turbulent. The accelerating nature of re...

  5. [OI] disk emission in the Taurus star forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M; Vicente, S; Podio, L; Woitke, P; Menard, F; Thi, W -F; Gudel, M; Liebhart, A

    2014-01-01

    The structure of protoplanetary disks is thought to be linked to the temperature and chemistry of their dust and gas. Whether the disk is flat or flaring depends on the amount of radiation that it absorbs at a given radius, and on the efficiency with which this is converted into thermal energy. The understanding of these heating and cooling processes is crucial to provide a reliable disk structure for the interpretation of dust continuum emission and gas line fluxes. Especially in the upper layers of the disk, where gas and dust are thermally decoupled, the infrared line emission is strictly related to the gas heating/cooling processes. We aim to study the thermal properties of the disk in the oxygen line emission region, and to investigate the relative importance of X-ray (1-120 Angstrom) and far-UV radiation (FUV, 912-2070 Angstrom) for the heating balance there. We use [OI] 63 micron line fluxes observed in a sample of protoplanetary disks of the Taurus/Auriga star forming region and compare it to the mode...

  6. The Circumstellar Disk of the Butterfly Star in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S; Stapelfeldt, K R; Wolf, Sebastian; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of the circumstellar environment of the so-called ``Butterfly Star'' in Taurus (IRAS 04302+2247). The appearance of this young stellar object is dominated by a large circumstellar disk seen edge-on and the light scattering lobes above the disk. The model is based on multi-wavelength continuum observations: Millimeter maps and high-resolution near-infrared images obtained with HST/NICMOS. It was found that the disk and envelope parameters are comparable with those of the circumstellar environment of other young stellar objects. A main result is that the dust properties must be different in the circumstellar disk and in the envelope: While a grain size distribution with grain radii up to 100 micron is required to reproduce the millimeter observations of the disk, the envelope is dominated by smaller grains similar to those of the interstellar medium. Preprint with high figure quality available at: http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/swolf/homepage/public/preprints/i04302.ps

  7. $\\rm^{13}CO$ Filaments in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Panopoulou, G V; Goldsmith, P F; Heyer, M H

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a search for filamentary structures in the Taurus molecular cloud using $\\rm^{13}CO$ line emission data from the FCRAO survey of $\\rm \\sim100 \\, deg^2$. We have used the topological analysis tool, DisPerSe, and post-processed its results to include a more strict definition of filaments that requires an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 and cross section intensity profiles peaked on the spine of the filament. In the velocity-integrated intensity map only 10 of the hundreds of filamentary structures identified by DisPerSe comply with our criteria. Unlike Herschel analyses, which find a characteristic width for filaments of $\\rm \\sim0.1 \\, pc$, we find a much broader distribution of profile widths in our structures, with a peak at 0.4 pc. Furthermore, even if the identified filaments are cylindrical objects, their complicated velocity structure and velocity dispersions imply that they are probably gravitationally unbound. Analysis of velocity channel maps reveals the existence of hundreds of `velo...

  8. Demographics of Transition Discs in Ophiuchus and Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

    2015-01-01

    Transition disc systems are young stars that appear to be on the verge of dispersing their protoplanetary discs. We explore the nature of these systems by comparing the stellar accretion rates and disc masses of transition discs and normal T Tauri stars in Taurus and Ophiuchus. After controlling for the known dependencies of stellar accretion rate and disc mass and on age, stellar accretion rate on stellar mass, and disc mass on the presence of stellar or sub-stellar companions, we find that the normal T Tauri stars show a trend of stellar accretion rate increasing with disc mass. The transition discs tend to have higher average disc masses than normal T Tauri stars as well as lower accretion rates than normal T Tauri stars of the same disc mass. These results are most consistent with the interpretation that the transition discs have formed objects massive enough to alter the accretion flow, i.e., single or multiple giant planets. Several Ophiuchus T Tauri stars that are not known transition disc systems also...

  9. An Extinction Study of the Taurus Dark Cloud Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, H G; Arce, Hector G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the detailed distribution of extinction in a region of the Taurus dark cloud complex. Our study uses new BVR images of the region, spectral classification data for 95 stars, and IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) 60 and 100 micron images. We study the extinction of the region in four different ways, and we present the first inter-comparison of all these methods, which are: 1) using the color excess of background stars for which spectral types are known; 2) using the ISSA 60 and 100 micron images; 3) using star counts; and 4) using an optical (V and R) version of the average color excess method used by Lada et al. (1994). We find that all four methods give generally similar results, with important exceptions. To study the structure in the dust distribution, we compare the ISSA extinction and the extinction measured for individual stars. From the comparison, we conclude that in the relatively low extinction regions studied, with 0.9 < A_V < 3.0 mag (away from filamentary dark clouds and IR...

  10. SAPIENS: Spreading Activation Processor for Information Encoded in Network Structures. Technical Report No. 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortony, Andrew; Radin, Dean I.

    The product of researchers' efforts to develop a computer processor which distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant information in the database, Spreading Activation Processor for Information Encoded in Network Structures (SAPIENS) exhibits (1) context sensitivity, (2) efficiency, (3) decreasing activation over time, (4) summation of…

  11. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  12. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    transduction components between organelle such as the nucleus and mitochondria as the cell strives to maintain homeostasis. Many of these communication... Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities . Specifically, we preform k-shell decomposition analysis on

  13. The evolution of the anatomically modern or advanced Homo sapiens: time, place, process, affinities and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, P; Pathmanathan, G; Talwar, I

    2009-06-01

    This paper surveys the opinions expressed in the recent literature on the origins of the anatomically- modern Homo sapiens, and reviews the evidence from cranial and dental morphology argued by proponents of opposing views to support their case. It also critically analyses problems facing the interpretation of the evidence in arriving at a definitive conclusion to the debate.

  14. The Homo sapiens 'hemibun': its developmental pattern and the problem of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, W; Kuźmiński, L

    2009-01-01

    The occipital bun is widely considered a Neanderthal feature. Its homology to the 'hemibun' observed in some European Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans is a current problem. This study quantitatively evaluates the degree of occipital plane convexity in African and Australian modern human crania to analyse a relationship between this feature and some neurocranial variables. Neanderthal and European Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens crania were included in the analysis as well. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the degree of occipital plane convexity and the following two features in the examined crania of modern humans: the ratio of the maximum neurocranial height to the maximum width of the vault and the ratio of bregma-lambda chord to bregma-lambda arc. The results also revealed that some H. sapiens crania (modern and fossil) show the Neanderthal shape of the occipital plane and that the neurocranial height and shape of parietal midsagittal profile has an influence on occipital plane convexity in the hominins included in this study. This study suggests that the occurrence of the great convexity of the occipital plane in the Neanderthals and H. sapiens is a "by-product" of the relationship between the same neurocranial features and there is no convincing evidence that the Neanderthal occipital bun and the similar structure in H. sapiens develop during ontogeny in the same way.

  15. A prospective "oversizing'' strategy of the Edwards SAPIEN bioprosthesis : Results and impact on aortic regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samim, Mariam; Stella, Pieter R.; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Kluin, Jolanda; Ramjankhan, Faiz; Sieswerda, Gertjan; Budde, Ricardo; van der Linden, Marijke; Juthier, Francis; Banfi, Carlo; Hurt, Christopher; Samim, Morsal; Hillaert, Marieke; van Herwerden, Lex; Bertrand, Michel E.; Doevendans, Pieter A. M.; Van Belle, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Moderate to severe aortic regurgitation is occurring in 20% to 30% of cases after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods: The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a prospective policy of "oversizing'' the Edwards SAPIEN bioprosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences LLC, I

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03497-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 |pid:none) Rattus norvegicus alveolar soft pa... 81 7e-14 (Q8VBT9) RecName: Fu...ll=Tether containing UBX domain for GLUT4; A... 79 2e-13 BC142388_1( BC142388 |pid:none) Bos taurus alveolar...2_1( BC006152 |pid:none) Homo sapiens alveolar soft part sa... 38 0.71 AL663030_30( AL663030 |pid:none) Mous

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHK823 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |BI347313.1 fbn-ek036 Cattle pUC18 mammary gland library Bos taurus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.94 1 AC092422...0.24 1 AC097518 |AC097518.2 Homo sapiens BAC clone RP11-487E13 from 4, complete sequence. 48 0.24 1 BI347313

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12193-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens chromosome 8, clone RP11-513H8, comp... 44 4.9 1 ( AC162737 ) Loxodonta africana clone VMRC15-256O14..., WORKING D... 44 4.9 1 ( AC162145 ) Loxodonta africana clone VMRC15-577O22, WORK...NCING CANCELLED *... 44 4.9 1 ( AC223963 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-453J21, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 44 4.9 1 ( AC182356 ) Loxodonta

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13964-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pi... 320 5e-86 BC163218_1( BC163218 |pid:none) Danio rerio DMC1 dosage suppressor... 320 9e-86 D70898_1( D7...n DNA sequence from clone RP1-... 137 9e-31 BC109598_1( BC109598 |pid:none) Bos taurus DMC1 dosage... suppressor ... 129 3e-28 BC035658_1( BC035658 |pid:none) Homo sapiens DMC1 dosage suppress

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13943-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3( A45973 ) trichohyalin - human &CS673550_1(CS673550|pid:no... 39 0.24 S32763( S32763 ;I37947) kinectin 1 -...3 AF411932_1( AF411932 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum strain Malay... 38 0.53 BC151335_1( BC151335 |pid:none) Bos taurus kinect...BC112337_1( BC112337 |pid:none) Homo sapiens kinectin 1 (kinesin r... 38 0.69 BA0

  1. PENGELOLAAN DANA BOS PADA SD NEGERI DI UPT PELAYANAN PENDIDIKAN KECAMATAN MOYUDAN KABUPATEN SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1 perencanaan, (2 pelaksanaan, (3 pengawasan dan evaluasi pengelolaan, serta (4 pelaporan dana Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS pada Sekolah Dasar Negeri dengan jumlah siswa sedikit dan jumlah siswa banyak di wilayah UPT Pelayanan Pendidikan Kecamatan Moyudan. Jenis penelitian ini adalah studi kasus. Responden penelitian ini yaitu kepala sekolah, bendahara, guru, komite sekolah, dan orang tua siswa. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara, observasi dan studi dokumen. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 perencanaan pengelolaan dana BOS diprioritaskan untuk peningkatan mutu, namun partisipasi warga sekolah kurang optimal. (2 Pada pelaksanaan: (a penyaluran dana dilaksanakan di awal triwulan, (b proses pembukuan dilaksanakan secara rutin, dan (c prinsip akuntabilitas dan keterbukaan telah dilaksanakan dengan baik. (3 pengawasan dilakukankan oleh kepala sekolah dan pengawas sekolah dengan memeriksa SPJ BOS; evaluasi dilakukan dengan mengisi angket pelaksanaan sekali dalam setahun oleh TIM Manajemen BOS Kabupaten. (4 Pelaporan penggunaan dana BOS dalam bentuk SPJ dilaksanakan setiap triwulan kepada Tim Manajemen BOS Kabupaten melalui UPT Pelayanan Pendidikan. Kata kunci: Pengelolaan, Dana Bantuan Operasional Sekolah. BOS FUNDS MANAGEMENT ON STATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE DISTRICT MOYUDAN EDUCATION SERVICES UNIT SLEMAN REGENCY Abstract This study aims to reveal: (1 the planning, (2 implementation, (3 monitoring and evaluation, and (4 reporting of the management of School Operational Fund (BOS on public elementary schools whcihhas small and a big number of students in the District Moyudan Education. Respondents were the principals, treasurers, teachers, school committees, and parents of students. Data collection techniques were interviews, observation and document study The results of this study indicate that: (1 the fund was prioritized for student activities to improve the quality of education but

  2. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  3. Preservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen at refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, M; Dhali, A; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Mishra, D P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of preserving mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature using tris-egg yolk diluent. Semen samples were collected from four adult mithun bulls through rectal massage method. Good quality semen samples (n=30) were preserved at 4 degrees C using tris-egg yolk diluent for 72 h. Progressive motility, live spermatozoa count and morphological abnormalities were evaluated every 12 h until 72 h of preservation. The colour, consistency and mass activity of fresh semen samples were found to be creamy white, medium and 3+ to 4+ (5+ scale), respectively. The average (mean+/-S.E.) volume (ml), pH and spermatozoa concentration (10(6) ml(-1)) of fresh semen samples were found to be 0.6+/-0.01, 6.8+/-0.03 and 425+/-48, respectively. Progressive motility and live spermatozoa count were found to be less than 30% (Prefrigeration temperature in tris-egg yolk diluent, which can be further used for artificial insemination within 36 h of storage.

  4. New Brown Dwarfs and an Updated Initial Mass Function in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2004-01-01

    I have performed a search for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs) in 2 regions encompassing a total area of 4 deg^2 in the Taurus star-forming region, discovering 15 new members of Taurus. In addition, I present 7 new members outside of these areas from the initial stage of a survey of all of Taurus. These 22 objects exhibit spectral types of M4.5-M9.25 and masses of 0.3-0.015 M_sun according to the theoretical evolutionary models of Baraffe and Chabrier, 7 of which are likely to be BDs. Emission in H(alpha), He I, Ca II, [O I], and [S II] and excess emission in optical and near-IR bands among some of these objects suggest the presence of accretion, outflows, and circumstellar disks. The results from the 4 deg^2 survey have been combined with previous studies of Taurus to arrive at an IMF for a total area of 12.4 deg^2. As in the previous IMFs for Taurus, the updated IMF peaks at a higher mass (0.8 M_sun) than the mass functions in IC 348 and Orion (0.1-0.2 M_sun). Meanwhile, the deficit of BDs in Tau...

  5. WOOD-WATER RELATIONSHIPS AND BIOLOGICAL DURABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED TAURUS FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica wood was treated with hot air at temperatures of 160, 190 and 220°C for 2h durations. After heat treatment, some physical properties and wood-water relationships were evaluated, such as mass loss, density, tangential swelling, radial swelling, volumetric swelling, swelling anisotropy, and fiber saturation point. In addition, the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood was tested in the laboratory with the soil contact test, and determined weight loss. The relationships between mass loss and some of the tested properties were determined using regression analysis. The results showed that heat treatment at 220°C had significant effects on the physical properties and the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood. Further, it was determined that there was a linear-negative correlation between weight loss and mass loss.

  6. Molecular outflows identified in the FCRAO CO survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Gopal; Snell, Ronald; Bemis, Ashley

    2012-10-01

    Jets and outflows are an integral part of the star formation process. While there are many detailed studies of molecular outflows towards individual star-forming sites, few studies have surveyed an entire star-forming molecular cloud for this phenomenon. The 100-deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory CO survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud provides an excellent opportunity to undertake an unbiased survey of a large, nearby, molecular cloud complex for molecular outflow activity. Our study provides information on the extent, energetics and frequency of outflows in this region, which are then used to assess the impact of outflows on the parent molecular cloud. The search identified 20 outflows in the Taurus region, eight of which were previously unknown. Both 12CO and 13CO data cubes from the Taurus molecular map were used, and dynamical properties of the outflows are derived. Even for previously known outflows, our large-scale maps indicate that many of the outflows are much larger than previously suspected, with eight of the outflows (40 per cent) being more than a parsec long. The mass, momentum and kinetic energy from the 20 outflows are compared to the repository of turbulent energy in Taurus. Comparing the energy deposition rate from outflows to the dissipation rate of turbulence, we conclude that outflows by themselves cannot sustain the observed turbulence seen in the entire cloud. However, when the impact of outflows is studied in selected regions of Taurus, it is seen that locally outflows can provide a significant source of turbulence and feedback. The L1551 dark cloud which is just south of the main Taurus complex was not covered by this survey, but the outflows in L1551 have much higher energies compared to the outflows in the main Taurus cloud. In the L1551 cloud, outflows can not only account for the turbulent energy present, but are probably also disrupting their parent cloud. We conclude that for a molecular cloud like Taurus, an L1551-like

  7. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  8. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  9. Earliest evidence for the structure of Homo sapiens populations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Drake, Nick A.; Jennings, Richard; Groucutt, Huw S.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the structure and variation of Homo sapiens populations in Africa is critical for interpreting multiproxy evidence of their subsequent dispersals into Eurasia. However, there is no consensus on early H. sapiens demographic structure, or its effects on intra-African dispersals. Here, we show how a patchwork of ecological corridors and bottlenecks triggered a successive budding of populations across the Sahara. Using a temporally and spatially explicit palaeoenvironmental model, we found that the Sahara was not uniformly ameliorated between ∼130 and 75 thousand years ago (ka), as has been stated. Model integration with multivariate analyses of corresponding stone tools then revealed several spatially defined technological clusters which correlated with distinct palaeobiomes. Similarities between technological clusters were such that they decreased with distance except where connected by palaeohydrological networks. These results indicate that populations at the Eurasian gateway were strongly structured, which has implications for refining the demographic parameters of dispersals out of Africa.

  10. Another Look at Taurus Littrow: An Interactive Geographic Information System DataBase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Meisburger, J. L.; Nettles, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of data has been amassed for the Apollo 17 landing site, including topography, sample locations, and imagery. These data were compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze their interrelationships more easily. The database will allow the evaluation of the resource potential of the Taurus Littrow region pyroclastic deposits. The database also serves as a catalog for the returned lunar samples. This catalog includes rock type, size, and location. While this project specifically targets the Taurus Littrow region, it is applicable to other regions as well.

  11. An experimental study of aero-optical aberration and dithering of supersonic mixing layer via BOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The optical performance of supersonic mixing layer is heavily deteriorated by the aero-optical aberration and dithering of coherent structures, but current measuring methods limit the spatiotemporal resolution in relevant studies. A high resolution whole-field aero-optical aberration and dithering measuring method based on the Background Orient Schlieren (BOS) technique was studied. The systematic structure, sensitivity and resolution of BOS are analyzed in this paper. The aero-optical aberration and dithering of streamwise structures in supersonic mixing layers were quantificationally studied with BOS. The aberration field of spanwise structures revealed the ribbon-like aberration structures, which heavily restrict the optical performance of a mixing layer. The quantifications of aero-optical aberration and dithering are very important in studying aero-optical performance of supersonic mixing layer.

  12. Study on the Interspecies Crossbreeding Between Mithun (Bos frontalis) and Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle%大额牛(Bos frontalis)与瘤牛(Bos indicus)的种间杂交研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和占星; 涂先云; 袁希平; 黄必志; 张继才; 亐开兴; 金显栋; 王喆; 王安奎; 黄梅芬; 赵刚; 杨国荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The potential of interspecies crossbreeding utilization and its foreground between Mithun (Bos frontalis) and Zebu (Bos indicus) cattle were studied. [Method] Firstly, after treated by CUE-MATE? (progesterone-releasing intravaginal device) and PG for synchronization estrous, Brahman cows were inseminated artificially with Mithun's frozen semen. And gestation length and calving time of cows and calf sex ratio were investigated. Besides, the body weight of Mithun and Brahman crossbreed at birth, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months of age were measured and karyotype and reproductive performance of hybrids F) (MithunxBrahman) and so on were analyzed and investigated. [Result] The rates of synchronization estrous, pregnancy and calving of Brahman cow were 83.87%, 60.56% and 45.07%, respectively. The average gestation length was (290.83±5.26) d (n=24). The percentage of female calf in crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) was 71.88%, higher than those of Mithun and Brahman (P0.05), 13.12% (P0.05) of Brahman. The chromosome numbers of Mithun, Brahman and their crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) were 2n=58,2n=60 and 2n=59, respectively. The average age and body weight of crossbred F1 (MithunxBrahman) at first pregnancy and their primiparous age were (16.00±2.83) months, (342.50±30.41) kg and (26.00±2.83) months, respectively, which gave one calf per year. The semen collection of 5 crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) at 15-24 months of age was failed by electro-ejaculation treatment. [Conclusion]Interspecies crossbreeding of Mithun×Zebu performed better in rapid growth, wide adaptation and significant heterosis. And the crossbred female F1 was of better reproductive capacity, precocity and high reproductive efficiency. However, the fertility of male crossbred F1 will remain to be studied in future.%[目的]探讨大额牛(Bos frontalis)与瘤牛(Bos indicus)杂交利用潜能及杂交育种前景.[方法]选用婆罗门( Brahman)母牛,以CUE-MATETM(孕酮阴道栓)+ PG(氯

  13. A global survey of banteng (Bos javanicus) housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, Lewis J; Rose, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management. Completed surveys from 16 zoos enabled analysis of contemporary practice between institutions. Results indicate differences in enclosure size between zoos, and that herd size is unlikely to predict enclosure size. Herd sizes are smaller than wild examples, and enclosure space (per animal) is significantly smaller than a potential wild range. Banteng are frequently maintained successfully in mixed species exhibits alongside a wide range of other taxa. Nutrient analysis focused on fiber and protein, and although provision of these nutrients appears comparable between zoos, more work is needed on browse and forage intake to determine overall diet suitability. Behavior management shows variation between zoos, with numerous collections providing browse but only a minority undertaking training, and not all providing enrichment. The overall diversity in findings between zoos suggest future research areas that should focus on key aspects of behavioral ecology, such as wild foraging behavior, food plant selection and day/night activity patterns, which may help underpin husbandry guidelines and excellent animal welfare. Zoo Biol. 35:546-555, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Gilbert, Sandra L; Evans, Patrick D; Vallender, Eric J; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Hudson, Richard R; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Lahn, Bruce T

    2005-09-09

    The gene ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) is a specific regulator of brain size, and its evolution in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens was driven by strong positive selection. Here, we show that one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose merely about 5800 years ago and has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection. These findings, especially the remarkably young age of the positively selected variant, suggest that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution.

  15. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  16. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-07-14

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.

  17. The Emergence of Homo sapiens in South Asia: The Central Narmada Valley as Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anek R. Sankhyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available :The emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia is hotly debated due to a great gap in fossil record. A solitary partial cranium from Hathnora dated around 250 Kya is debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic" Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis or even Homo indet. Cranial fossils of Pre-Toba or post- Toba anatomically modern Homo sapiens are unknown barring the very late 30 Kya modern human remains from Sri Lanka. The present paper reviews the scenario of human evolution in South Asia with special reference to the cranial and recent postcranial fossil findings by the author in association with the archaeological evidences from Central Narmada valley. It is concluded that the Narmada fossils and archaeological findings support the presence of three hominins- two 'archaic' and one 'early modern'. The Mode 2 Acheulian hominin represented by the calvarium and the femur was a 'large-bodied' species akin to Homo heidelbergensis. It appeared first in the Central Narmada valley and was followed by a 'small-bodied' Mode 3 archaic type represented by two clavicles and the 9th rib, provisionally named here as Homo narmadensis. It likely continued and attained anatomical and behavioural modernity in South Asia as attested by the humerus and bone artifacts, and diversified to various short-bodied indigenous populations of South Asia supported by the genomic evidences.

  18. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 ref|NP_003851.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_892033.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Bos taurus] ref|XP_854776.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegratio...n factor 1 [Canis familiaris] ref|XP_001111817.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegration...: similar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111884.1| PREDICTED: s...imilar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111924.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autoint

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oideum SapA (sapA) m... 183 7e-45 BC105409_1( BC105409 |pid:none) Bos taurus prosa...posin, mRNA (cDNA ... 102 2e-20 AF108656_1( AF108656 |pid:none) Gallus gallus prosaposin mRNA, com... 99 3e...one) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin v... 97 8e-19 AK223290_1( AK223290 |pid:non...e) Homo sapiens mRNA for prosaposin (... 97 8e-19 CR861454_1( CR861454 |pid:none) Pongo abelii mRNA; cDNA DK

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15647-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 0.55 BC064601_1( BC064601 |pid:none) Homo sapiens pleckstrin homology d... 39 0.55 AF232934_1( AF232934 |pid:none) Mus musculus Goo..._1( AF232933 |pid:none) Bos taurus Goodpasture antigen-bin... 39 0.72 AF123047_1( AF123047 |pid:none) Rattus.... 39 0.72 AF232930_1( AF232930 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Goodpasture antigen-b... 39 0.72 CQ855864_1( CQ855864

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11377-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. PCC 8801, comple... 55 8e-06 BC151335_1( BC151335 |pid:none) Bos taurus kinectin 1 (kinesin rec... 54 1e-... |pid:none) Homo sapiens KIAA0004 mRNA, partial cds. 50 1e-04 S32763( S32763 ;I37947) kinectin 1 - human &Z2... s... 45 0.006 BC112337_1( BC112337 |pid:none) Homo sapiens kinectin 1 (kinesin r... 45 0.006 CP001186_465(

  3. Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shara E; Benazzi, Stefano; Souday, Caroline; Astorino, Claudia; Paul, Kathleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    A significant number of Middle to Late Pleistocene sites contain primarily (and sometimes only) deciduous teeth (e.g., Grotta del Cavallo, Mezmaiskaya, Blombos). Not surprisingly, there has been a recent renewed interest in deciduous dental variation, especially in the context of distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Most studies of the deciduous dentition of fossil hominins have focused on standard metrical variation but morphological (non-metric and morphometric) variation also promises to shed light on long standing taxonomic questions. This study examines the taxonomic significance of the crown outline of the deciduous upper second molar through principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We examine whether or not the crown shape of the upper deciduous second molar separates H. neanderthalensis from H. sapiens and explore whether it can be used to correctly assign individuals to taxa. It builds on previous studies by focusing on crown rather than cervical outline and by including a large sample of geographically diverse recent human populations. Our samples include 17 H. neanderthalensis, five early H. sapiens, and 12 Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens. In addition, we include two Homo erectus specimens in order to evaluate the polarity of crown shape differences observed between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Our results show that crown outline shape discriminates H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis quite well, but does not do well at distinguishing H. erectus from H. sapiens. We conclude that the crown outline shape observed in H. sapiens is a primitive retention and that the skewed shape observed in H. neanderthalensis is a derived condition. Finally, we explore the phylogenetic implications of the results for the H. erectus molars.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 88% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  7. Outflows and Bubbles in Taurus: Star-formation Feedback Sufficient to Maintain Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huixian; Qian, Lei; Xu, Duo; Goldsmith, Paul F; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Wu, Yuefang; Song, Yuzhe; Nan, Rendong

    2015-01-01

    We have identified outflows and bubbles in the Taurus molecular cloud based on the $\\sim 100$ deg$^2$ Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) maps and the Spitzer young stellar object catalogs. In the main 44 deg$^2$ area of Taurus we found 55 outflows, of which 31 were previously unknown. We also found 37 bubbles in the entire 100 deg$^2$ area of Taurus, all of which had not been found before. The total kinetic energy of the identified outflows is estimated to be $\\bf \\sim 3.9 \\times 10^{45}$ erg, which is \\textbf{1\\%} of the cloud turbulent energy. The total kinetic energy of the detected bubbles is estimated to be $\\sim 9.2 \\times 10^{46}$ erg, which is 29\\% of the turbulent energy of Taurus. The energy injection rate from outflows is $\\bf \\sim 1.3 \\times 10^{33}~\\rm erg\\ s^{-1}$, \\textbf{0.4 - 2 times} the dissipation rate of the cloud turbulence. The energy injection rate from bubbles is $\\sim 6.4 \\times 10^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$, \\textbf{2 - 10 times} the turbulent dissipa...

  8. An Infrared/X-ray Survey for New Members of the Taurus Star-Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; Allen, P R; Cruz, K L

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M=4-7 M_Jup). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy d...

  9. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Mooley, Kunal P; Rebull, Luisa M; Padgett, Deborah L; Knapp, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (i) literature listings in SIMBAD; (ii) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud; (iii) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the 2MASS; and (iv) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the SDSS coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emiss...

  10. Molecular Outflows Identified in the FCRAO CO Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Gopal; Bemis, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The 100 square degree FCRAO CO survey of the Taurus molecular cloud provides an excellent opportunity to undertake an unbiased survey of a large, nearby, molecular cloud complex for molecular outflow activity. Our study provides information on the extent, energetics and frequency of outflows in this region, which are then used to assess the impact of outflows on the parent molecular cloud. The search identified 20 outflows in the Taurus region, 8 of which were previously unknown. Both $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO data cubes from the Taurus molecular map were used, and dynamical properties of the outflows are derived. Even for previously known outflows, our large-scale maps indicate that many of the outflows are much larger than previously suspected, with eight of the flows (40%) being more than a parsec long. The mass, momentum and kinetic energy from the 20 outflows are compared to the repository of turbulent energy in Taurus. Comparing the energy deposition rate from outflows to the dissipation rate of turbulenc...

  11. Multiplicity and clustering in Taurus star-forming region. I. Unexpected ultra-wide pairs of high-order multiplicity in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchêne, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This work analyses the spatial distribution of stars in Taurus with a specific focus on multiple stars and wide pairs in order to derive new constraints on star formation and early dynamical evolution scenarios. Methods: We collected the multiplicity data of stars in Taurus to build an up-to-date stellar/multiplicity catalog. We first present a general study of nearest-neighbor statistics on spatial random distribution, comparing its analytical distribution and moments to those obtained from Monte Carlo samplings. We introduce the one-point correlation Ψ function to complement the pair correlation function and define the spatial regimes departing from randomness in Taurus. We then perform a set of statistical studies to characterize the binary regime that prevails in Taurus. Results: The Ψ function in Taurus has a scale-free trend with a similar exponent as the correlation function at small scale. It extends almost 3 decades up to 60 kAU showing a potential extended wide binary regime. This was hidden in the correlation function due to the clustering pattern blending. Distinguishing two stellar populations, single stars versus multiple systems (separation ≤1 kAU), within Class II/III stars observed at high angular resolution, we highlight a major spatial neighborhood difference between the two populations using nearest-neighbor statistics. The multiple systems are three times more likely to have a distant companion within 10 kAU when compared to single stars. We show that this is due to the presence of most probable physical ultra-wide pairs (UWPs, defined as such from their mutual nearest neighbor property), that are themselves generally composed of multiple systems containing up to five stars altogether. More generally, our work highlights; 1) a new large population of candidate UWPs in Taurus within the range 1-60 kAU in Taurus and 2) the major local structural role they play up to 60 kAU. There are three different types of UWPs; either composed of two

  12. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M.R.; Chen, W.; Lenstra, J.A.; Goderie, C.R.J.; MacHugh, D.E.; Park, S.D.E.; Magee, D.A.; Matassino, D.; Ciani, F.; Megens, H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  13. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371747228; Lenstra, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412585650; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  14. ‘Lute Bos draagt nog altijd bij aan de virologie’ : fonds laat ecologische virologie herrijzen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Branderhorst, A.

    2014-01-01

    Met ecologische kennis van plantenvirussen in de tuin- en akkerbouw zijn opbrengstverliezen te voorkomen. René van der Vlugt gaat het onderzoek en onderwijs in dit vakgebied nieuw leven inblazen. Dat is mogelijk dankzij een legaat van de Wageningse plantenviroloog Lute Bos.

  15. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc

  16. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which

  17. Measurement of the fluctuating temperature field in a heated swirling jet with BOS tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Henning M.; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Sieber, Moritz

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the potential of background-oriented schlieren tomography (3D-BOS) for the temperature field reconstruction in a non-isothermal swirling jet undergoing vortex breakdown. The evaluation includes a quantitative comparison of the mean and phase-averaged temperature field with thermocouple and fast-response resistance thermometer as well as a qualitative comparison between the temperature field and the flow field obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV). Compared to other temperature-measuring techniques, 3D-BOS enables non-invasive capturing of the entire three-dimensional temperature field. In contrast to previous 3D-BOS applications, the present investigation makes use of the special character of the flow, which provides a global instability that leads to a rotational symmetry of the jet. Additionally, the rotational motion of the jet is used to obtain a tomographic reconstruction from a single camera. The quality of 3D-BOS results with respect to the physical setup as well as the numerical procedure is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, a new approach for the treatment of thin occluding objects in the field of view is presented.

  18. Ideologie ontmoet economie; Private investeringen in Nederlands bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, M.; Hoogstra, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Meer investeringen van burgers en bedrijven in bos, natuur en landschap. Dat is wat de overheid graag wil. Private investeringen komen echter nauwelijks van de grond, ondanks de vele verschillende initiatieven om deze te stimuleren. De vraag die we ons daarom moeten stellen, is of private financieri

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, whic

  1. 3D reconstruction of a compressible flow by synchronized multi-camera BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F.; Donjat, D.; Léon, O.; Le Besnerais, G.; Champagnat, F.; Micheli, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the application of a 3D density reconstruction from a limited number of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) images as recently proposed in Nicolas et al. (Exp Fluids 57(1):1-21, 2016), to the case of compressible flows, such as underexpanded jets. First, an optimization of a 2D BOS setup is conducted to mitigate the intense local blurs observed in raw BOS images and caused by strong density gradients present in the jets. It is demonstrated that a careful choice of experimental conditions enables one to obtain sharp deviation fields from 2D BOS images. Second, a 3DBOS experimental bench involving 12 synchronized cameras is specifically designed for the present study. It is shown that the 3DBOS method can provide physically consistent 3D reconstructions of instantaneous and mean density fields for various underexpanded jet flows issued into quiescent air. Finally, an analysis of the density structure of a moderately underexpanded jet is conducted through phase-averaging, highlighting the development of a large-scale coherent structure associated with a jet shear layer instability.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  3. Homo Sapiens to Robo Sapiens

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M

    1997-01-01

    Is it possible for engineers to build robots that will be more intelligent than humans?Could such robots become conscious?Could Artificial Life be engineered?If so,how long will it be before this is achieved?

  4. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  5. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09660-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( BC045711 |pid:none) Homo sapiens bruno-like 4, RNA bin... 145 6e-33 AF248650_1( AF248650 |pid:none) Homo... sapiens RNA-binding protein B... 145 6e-33 BC163416_1( BC163416 |pid:none) Danio rerio bruno-like 5, RNA bi...iana At1g03460 mRN... 143 2e-32 BC146142_1( BC146142 |pid:none) Bos taurus bruno-like 4, RNA bindi... 142 4e...9_1( AK295009 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ54925 complet... 142 4e-32 AF515450_1( AF515450 |pid:none) Mus musculus bruno...1 AB209774_1( AB209774 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for bruno-like 4... 138 6e-31

  7. Comparison of SAPIEN 3 and SAPIEN XT transcatheter heart valve stent-frame expansion: evaluation using multi-slice computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuno, Yoshio; Maeno, Yoshio; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Abramowitz, Yigal; Babak, Hariri; Kashif, Mohammad; Chakravarty, Tarun; Nakamura, Mamoo; Cheng, Wen; Friedman, John; Berman, Daniel; Makkar, Raj R.; Jilaihawi, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Aims Stent-frame morphology of the newer-generation, balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve (THV), the SAPIEN 3 (S3), after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. We evaluated the THV stent-frame morphology post TAVI of the S3 using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) compared with the prior-generation THV, SAPIEN XT (S-XT). Methods and results A total of 94 consecutive participants of RESOLVE registry (NCT02318342) had MSCT after balloon-expandable TAVI (S3 = 39 and S-XT = 55). The morphology of the THV stent-frame was evaluated for expansion area and eccentricity at the THV-inflow, native annulus, mid-THV and THV-outflow levels. Mean %-expansion area for the S3 and the S-XT was 100.9 ± 5.7 and 96.1 ± 5.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). In the S3 group, the THV-inflow level had the largest value of %-expansion area, which decreased from THV-inflow to mid-THV level (105.2 ± 6.4 to 96.5 ± 5.9%, P < 0.001). However, in the S-XT group, %-expansion area increased from THV-inflow level to mid-THV level (93.2 ± 6.2 to 95.1 ± 6.1%, P = 0.0058). On nominal delivery balloon volume, the S3 in 88.5% of cases had overexpansion at the THV-inflow level. The observed degree of THV oversizing of the S3 was significantly lower than the S-XT (6.3 ± 8.6 vs. 11.8 ± 8.5%, P = 0.0027). Nonetheless, the incidence of post-procedural paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PVR) ≥ mild following the S3 TAVI was also significantly lower than the S-XT TAVI (17.9 vs. 43.6%, P = 0.014). Conclusion The newer-generation, balloon-expandable device, the S3, has a flared inflow morphology, whereas the prior-generation device, the S-XT, has relatively constrained inflow morphology post TAVI. This may contribute to a lesser degree of PVR with the S3. PMID:27002141

  8. Did the loss of endogenous ascorbate propel the evolution of Anthropoidea and Homo sapiens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challem, J J

    1997-05-01

    It has been previously theorized that free-radical reactions led to the first life on Earth, and their ability to randomly cause mutations may have subsequently led to the evolution of life. One of the most efficient free-radical quenchers is ascorbate, which most animals manufacture endogenously. It is generally believed that, approximately 25 million years ago, an ancestor of the Anthropoidea primate suborder, which includes Homo sapiens, lost the ability to produce its own ascorbate, and all descending species inherited this genetic defect. The first of three hypotheses presented here proposes that a genetic defect, caused by either free radicals or a virus, deleted the gene needed by Anthropoidea to manufacture endogenous ascorbate. The second hypothesis proposes that this evolutionary accident permitted large numbers of free radicals to remain metabolically unquenched. The third hypothesis proposes that the presence of these excessive free radicals increased the likelihood of free-radical-induced genetic mutations, and these mutations propelled the evolution of Anthropoidea, leading to Homo sapiens.

  9. Relationship between cusp size and occlusal wear pattern in Neanderthal and Homo sapiens first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Viola, Bence; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2011-03-01

    Tooth wear studies in mammals have highlighted the relationship between wear facets (attritional areas produced during occlusion by the contact between opposing teeth) and physical properties of the ingested food. However, little is known about the influence of tooth morphology on the formation of occlusal wear facets. We analyzed the occlusal wear patterns of first maxillary molars (M(1) s) in Neanderthals, early Homo sapiens, and contemporary modern humans. We applied a virtual method to analyze wear facets on the crown surface of three-dimensional digital models. Absolute and relative wear facet areas are compared with cusp area and cusp height. Although the development of wear facets partially follows the cusp pattern, the results obtained from the between-group comparisons do not reflect the cusp size differences characterizing these groups. In particular, the wear facets developed along the slopes of the most discriminate cusp between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens (hypocone) do not display any significant difference. Moreover, no correlations have been found between cusp size and wear facet areas (with the exception of the modern sample) and between cusp height and wear facet areas. Our results suggest that cusp size is only weakly related to the formation of the occlusal wear facets. Other factors, such as, diet, food processing, environmental abrasiveness, and nondietary habits are probably more important for the development and enlargement of wear facets, corroborating the hypotheses suggested from previous dental wear studies.

  10. Evolutionary genetic analyses of MEF2C gene: implications for learning and memory in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Arasappa, Rashmi; Rao, Naren P

    2013-02-01

    MEF2C facilitates context-dependent fear conditioning (CFC) which is a salient aspect of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. CFC might have played a crucial role in human evolution because of its advantageous influence on survival of species. In this study, we analyzed 23 orthologous mammalian gene sequences of MEF2C gene to examine the evidence for positive selection on this gene in Homo sapiens using Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) and HyPhy software. Both PAML Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) and HyPhy Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL) analyses supported significant positive selection on 4 codon sites in H. sapiens. Also, haplotter analysis revealed significant ongoing positive selection on this gene in Central European population. The study findings suggest that adaptive selective pressure on this gene might have influenced human evolution. Further research on this gene might unravel the potential role of this gene in learning and memory as well as its pathogenetic effect in certain hippocampal disorders with evolutionary basis like schizophrenia.

  11. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos tauru...

  12. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. ta...

  13. The Gould Belt Very Large Array Survey IV: The Taurus-Auriga complex

    CERN Document Server

    Dzib, Sergio A; Rodríguez, Luis F; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Ortiz-León, Gisela N; Kounkel, Marina A; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L; Torres, Rosa M; Boden, Andrew F; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56\\% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved young stellar objects tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that young stellar objects in Taurus-Auriga follow a G\\"{u}del-Benz relation with $\\kappa$=0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, young stellar objects in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of $\\sim1$ dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining ...

  14. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-06-22

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. taurus. Assignment tests, analysis of relatedness and Fst values all indicate that the Australian populations are isolated from South Africa, with negligible migration between the east and west Australian coasts. There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. Australian C. taurus, particularly the eastern population, has significantly less AFLP variation than the other sampling localities. Further, the eastern Australian sharks possess only a single mitochondrial haplotype, also suggesting a small number of founding individuals. Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. These findings have implications for the viability of the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks.

  15. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  16. Large-Scale Distribution of Herbig-Haro Objects in Taurus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Feng Sun; Ji Yang; Shao-Guang Luo; Min Wang; Li-Cai Deng; Xu Zhou; Jian-Sheng Chen

    2003-01-01

    We report our new results on Herbig-Haro (HH) objects in the star forming region of Taurus from a wide-field survey with the 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. This survey using CCD imaging with a narrow band [SⅡ] filter and an intermediate band [BATC10] filter covered approximately 30 square degrees in Taurus. Besides confirming the known HH Objects in the region, we discovered seven new HH candidates, and groups. Six of these are HH 701A-B, HH 702A-D, HH 703, HH 704A-D, HH 705, HH 706 and the seventh is a group, a new component of HH 319, labeled HH 319B-D. Based on the large-scale distribution of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in Taurus, we analyze statistically the most probable distance from the HH objects to each PMS star,from which we estimate the typical timescale of these HH objects to be between(1.3 - 2.0) × 104 yrs; and we also obtain the birth rates of HH objects: 0.447±0.198 for Class Ⅰ PMS stars, 0.360±0.222 for Class Ⅱ PMS stars, and -0.148±0.234 for Class Ⅲ PMS stars.

  17. Comparison of the Edwards SAPIEN S3 Versus Medtronic Evolut-R Devices for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Konigstein, Maayan; Zahler, David; Margolis, Gilad; Chorin, Ehud; Steinvil, Arie; Arbel, Yaron; Aviram, Galit; Granot, Yoav; Barkagan, Michael; Keren, Gad; Halkin, Amir; Banai, Shmuel; Finkelstein, Ariel

    2017-01-15

    New generation of the most widely used devices for transcatheter aortic valve implantation have been recently introduced into practice. We compare the short-term outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Edwards SAPIEN S3 and the Medtronic Evolut-R. We performed a retrospective analysis from a single high-volume tertiary center. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria were used to define composite end points of device success and safety at 30 days. Study population included 232 patients implanted with the SAPIEN S3 (n = 124) and Evolut-R (n = 108). Device success reached 91.9% and 95.4% in the SAPIEN S3 and Evolut-R groups, respectively (p = 0.289). Postprocedural echocardiography showed greater aortic valve gradients (22.8 ± 7 vs 16 ± 9 mm Hg, p <0.001) among SAPIEN S3 group. Paravalvular leak of ≥ moderate severity was observed in 2.4% and 0% in the SAPIEN S3 and Evolut-R groups, respectively (p = 0.251). Similar rates of in-hospital complications, including major bleedings, vascular complications, and pacemaker implantations were recorded in both groups. At 30-day follow-up, the combined safety end point was reached in 5.6% and in 6.5% of patients in the SAPIEN S3 and Evolut-R groups, respectively (p = 0.790). During follow-up of 237 ± 138 days, all-cause mortality was higher in patients implanted with Evolut-R compared with SAPIEN S3 (7 vs 1 cases, respectively, p = 0.006), however, cardiovascular mortality was not significantly different between groups. In conclusions, in a single-center comparative analysis, comparable rate of device success as well as safety profile and long-term cardiovascular mortality were observed with the SAPIEN S3 and Evolut-R valves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  19. Length and Straightness of the Tubes for the BOS Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured length and straightness of 50 tubes of 3.8~m length, after cleaning, wiring and testing from a batch that was used in the construction of the BOS prototype chamber. The specifi ed length (aluminum tube only, without endplug) was 3800~mm with a tolerance of $\\pm$1~mm. We found a mean value of (3805$\\pm$2)~mm with a standard deviation of (0.3$\\pm$0.1)~mm. The measureme nts of the straightness of the 50 BOS MDT tubes gave a mean of the maximum deviation of 150~$\\mu$m for 10 measured points along the tubes at 0$^{\\circ}$, 90$^{\\circ}$, 180$^{\\circ}$ and 270$^{\\circ }$ around the tube diameter and a mean value of all deviations of 20~$\\mu$m with a measuring accuracy of 10~$\\mu$m.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06985-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Full=Putative RING-H2 finger protein ATL4B; Fl... 55 1e-06 (Q80U04) RecName: Full=E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Praja... Full=E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Praja2; ... 55 2e-06 (Q9SN28) RecName: Full=RIN...8 |pid:none) Bos taurus praja ring finger 2, mR... 53 5e-06 FN357418_27( FN357418 |pid:none) Schistosoma man... gen... 53 5e-06 BT026528_1( BT026528 |pid:none) Bos taurus praja 1 (PJA1), mRNA, c... 53 5e-06 FN357321_37(...s cDNA, RIKEN full-leng... 53 5e-06 BC030826_1( BC030826 |pid:none) Homo sapiens praja ring finger 2, ... 53

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0585 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0585 ref|NP_001071387.1| hypothetical protein LOC514131 [Bos taurus] r...ef|XP_001254537.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein LOC514131 [Bos taurus] dbj|BAF36506.1| p97Bucentaur-2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|AAI49203.1| P97Bucentaur-2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071387.1 4e-12 32% ...

  2. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  3. The mystery of the seven spheres how homo sapiens will conquer space

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2015-01-01

    In this book, Giovanni Bignami, the outstanding Italian scientist and astronomer, takes the reader on a journey through the “seven spheres”, from our own planet to neighboring stars. The author offers a gripping account of the evolution of Homo Sapiens to the stage where our species is developing capabilities, in the form of new energy propulsion systems, that will enable us to conquer space. The reader will learn how we first expanded our activities to reach beyond our planet, to the Moon, and how nuclear energy, nuclear fusion, and matter–antimatter annihilation will enable us to extend our exploration. After Mars and Jupiter we shall finally reach the nearest stars, which we now know are surrounded by numerous planets, some of which are bound to be habitable. The book includes enticing descriptions of such newly discovered planets and also brings alive key historical characters in our story, such as Jules Verne and Werner von Braun.

  4. Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanippayoor, Rachelle L; Alpern, Joshua H M; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-04-01

    The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

  5. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  6. Unravelling the (arte)fact of increased pacemaker rate with the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Giuseppe; Mojoli, Marco; Purita, Paola; Napodano, Massimo; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Frigo, Annachiara; Covolo, Elisa; Facchin, Michela; Isabella, Giambattista; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Early data on the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve (S3-THV) have shown low rates of paravalvular leaks and vascular complications but relatively high 30-day permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) rates. No direct comparisons on clinical outcomes including PPMI rates are available for the S3-THV and the Edwards SAPIEN XT (XT-THV). We aimed to compare the 30-day PPMI rates in patients treated with the two prostheses and to assess the interplay among valve type, depth of implantation and PPMI rate. Two hundred and nine patients treated by TAVI were considered. The S3-THV was associated with higher PPMI rates compared to the XT-THV, both overall and in subgroups matched for several predictors of PPMI. However, in the S3-THV group, 30-day PPMI was strictly associated with deep valve implantation, and PPMI risk of high-implanted S3-THVs was similar to that of the overall XT-THV matched group. No cases of significant paravalvular leak were observed in the S3-THV group. The S3-THV was associated with a higher incidence of PPMI compared to the XT-THV. In the S3-THV group, pacemaker implantation was strictly associated with deep valve implantation. An implantation technique involving higher initial placement of the central marker (from 0 to 3 mm above the base of the aortic cusps) and, as a consequence, higher final valve depth might help in preventing post-TAVI PPMI with the S3-THV, without affecting the risk of paravalvular leak.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0521 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0521 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 2e-66 56% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-04-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-04-0037 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-109 71% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2252 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2252 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 4e-70 71% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1436 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1436 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-117 58% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0080 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-148 71% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0852 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0852 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 4e-76 75% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0052 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-113 62% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0860 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0860 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-141 75% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2178 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2178 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-61 57% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-01-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-01-0014 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-116 77% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-09-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-09-0075 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-147 70% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0053 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 6e-33 72% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0063 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 2e-49 86% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-03-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0018 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 1e-169 79% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1909 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1909 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-135 80% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0727 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0727 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-157 76% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-01-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-01-0025 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-145 71% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1030 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 1e-170 79% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0122 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0122 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 4e-30 79% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1016 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 1e-155 80% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1880 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1880 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 5e-61 71% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1334 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-134 79% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0338 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0338 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-124 68% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0253 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0253 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 1e-50 73% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1072 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 3e-29 51% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0430 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0430 ref|NP_001071415.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb...|AAI23494.1| G protein-coupled receptor 77 [Bos taurus] gb|ABI98946.1| C5L2 [Bos taurus] NP_001071415.1 4e-66 68% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-37-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-37-0004 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-173 82% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0637 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0637 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-85 78% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0732 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0732 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-113 59% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0012 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 3e-81 47% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-16-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-16-0031 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 7e-75 42% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1472 ref|NP_001094755.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-121 76% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0816 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0816 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-125 79% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1390 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1390 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 6e-88 76% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2498 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2498 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-117 73% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1467 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1467 ref|NP_001069804.1| solute carrier family 16, member 7 [Bos tauru...s] gb|ABD39318.1| monocarboxylate transporter 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI40525.1| SLC16A7 protein [Bos taurus] NP_001069804.1 1e-117 81% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0697 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0697 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 0.0 86% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1949 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1949 ref|NP_001094755.1| interleukin 8 receptor beta [Bos taurus] gb|ABC59060.1| CXCR2 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABR88132.1| chemokine receptor CXCR2 [Bos taurus] NP_001094755.1 1e-106 81% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-04-0050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-04-0050 ref|NP_001015581.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|A...AX46341.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAX46675.1| chemokine binding protein 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001015581.1 1e-169 78% ...

  6. Reidentification of Ebola Virus E718 and ME as Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H; Lofts, Loreen L; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Smither, Sophie J; Lever, Mark S; van der Groen, Guido; Johnson, Karl M; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-11-20

    Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered in 1976 around Yambuku, Zaire. A lack of nomenclature standards resulted in a variety of designations for each isolate, leading to confusion in the literature and databases. We sequenced the genome of isolate E718/ME/Ecran and unified the various designations under Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

  7. The Homo sapiens Cave hominin site of Mulan Mountain,Jiangzhou District,Chongzuo,Guangxi with emphasis on its age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN ChangZhu; PAN WenShi; ZHANG YingQi; CAI YanJun; XU QinQi; TANG ZhiLu; WANG Wei; WANG Yuan; LIU JinYi; QIN DaGong; R.Lawrence Edwards; CHENG Hai

    2009-01-01

    One of the most hotly debated and frontal issues in paleoanthropology focuses on the origins of modern humans.Recently,an incomplete hominin mandible with a distinctly weaker mental protuberance than modern human and a great variety of coexisting fossil mammals were unearthed from the Homo sapiens Cave of Mulan Mountain,Chongzuo,Guangxi.The mammalian fauna from the Homo sapiens Cave characterized by the combination of Elephas kiangnanensis,first occurring Elephas maixmus,and Megatapirus augustus,and strikingly different from the Early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus fauna and the Middle Pleistocene Ailuropoda-Stogodon fauna of South China could be regarded as an early representive of the typical Asian elephant fauna.Faunal analysis,biostratigraphic correlation,and,most importantly,U-series dating all consistently support an estimate of ca.110 ka for the age of the fossil Homo sapiens and coexisting mammalian fauna,that is,the early Late Pleistocene.The fauna is mainly made up of tropical-subtropical elements,but grassland elements have a much greater variety than forest elements,which probably indicates a drier climate at that time.This discovery of early Homo sapiens at the Mulan Mountain will play a significant role in the study of the origin and its environmental background of modern humans.

  8. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  9. Midterm clinical outcome following Edwards SAPIEN or Medtronic Corevalve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): Results of the Belgian TAVI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, Valérie M; Dubois, Christophe; Legrand, Victor; Kefer, Joëlle; De Bruyne, Bernard; Dens, Jo; Rodrigus, Inez E; Herijgers, Paul; Bosmans, Johan M

    2015-09-01

    To assess midterm (3 years) clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Belgium using the Edwards SAPIEN valve or the Medtronic CoreValve transcatheter heart valve (THV). Medium and long term follow-up data of both THVs are still relatively scarce, although of great clinical relevance for a relatively new but rapidly expanding treatment modality. Therefore, reporting mid- and long term clinical outcome data, coming from large "real world" national registries, remains contributive. Between December 2007 and March 2012, 861 "real world" patients who were not candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement as decided by the local heart teams, underwent TAVI at 23 sites. Eleven sites exclusively used SAPIEN THV (n = 460), while 12 exclusively used CoreValve THV (n = 401). Differences in clinical outcomes by valve system were assessed, according to access route and baseline EuroSCORE risk profile (20%: high risk). Overall cumulative survival at 3 years was 51% for SAPIEN vs. 60% for CoreValve (P = 0.021). In transfemorally treated patients, SAPIEN and CoreValve had similar survival at 3 years for each of the baseline EuroSCORE cohorts (low risk: 72% vs. 76%, P = 0.45; intermediate risk: 62% vs. 59%, P = 0.94; high risk: 48% vs. 53%, P = 0.65). Cumulative midterm 3 year survival after transfemoral TAVI in "real world" patients refused for surgery with similar baseline EuroSCORE risk profile is not different between SAPIEN or CoreValve. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Two confirmed class I very low-mass objects in Taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Dang-Duc, C.; Phan-Bao, N.; Dao-Van, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    [GKH94] 41 and IRAS 04191+1523B were previously identified to be proto-brown dwarf candidates in Taurus. [GKH94] 41 was classified to be a class I object. The dereddened spectral energy distribution of the source was later found to be suggestive of a class II object. IRAS 04191+1523B is a class I object that is the secondary component of a binary. We determine the evolutionary stage of [GKH94] 41 and estimate the final masses of the two proto-brown dwarf candidates. We used archive millimeter...

  11. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The classification of young stellar objects (YSOs) is typically done using the infrared spectral slope or bolometric temperature, but either can result in contamination of samples. More accurate methods to determine the evolutionary stage of YSOs will improve the reliability of statistics...... in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+J = 4-3 and 850 μm dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I sources in Perseus and Taurus are not Stage I, but are likely to be more evolved Stage II pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with disks...

  12. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  13. A Survey for New Members of the Taurus Star-forming Region with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Shukla, S. J.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg2) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types. Based on observations performed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hobby-Eberly Telescope, NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini Observatory, and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope.

  14. Dental size reduction in Indonesian Homo erectus: Implications for the PU-198 premolar and the appearance of Homo sapiens on Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Joshua M; Marsh, Hannah E; Maddux, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The recent recovery of a hominin maxillary third premolar, PU-198, within the faunal collections from Punung Cave (East Java) has led to assertions that Homo sapiens appeared on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. The taxonomic assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens was based predominantly on the small size of the specimen, following an analysis which found little to no overlap in premolar size between Homo erectus and terminal Pleistocene/Holocene H. sapiens. Here, we re-evaluate the use of size in the taxonomic assignment of PU-198 in light of 1) new buccolingual and mesiodistal measurements taken on the fossil, 2) comparisons to a larger sample of H. erectus and H. sapiens maxillary third premolars, and 3) evidence of a diachronic trend in post-canine dental size reduction among Javan H. erectus. Our results demonstrate PU-198 to be slightly larger than previously suggested, reveal substantial overlap in premolar size between H. erectus and H. sapiens, and indicate a statistically significant reduction in premolar size between early and late Javan H. erectus. Our findings cast doubt on the assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens, and accordingly, question the appearance of H. sapiens on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago.

  15. Stringent homology-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Gao, Shangzhi; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Fan, Mengyuan; Jin, Jingjing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Geng; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-04-08

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, some limitations are not properly resolved in several published works that predict eukaryote-prokaryote inter-species PPIs using intra-species template PPIs. We develop a stringent homology-based prediction approach by taking into account (i) differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins and (ii) differences between inter-species and intra-species PPI interfaces. We compare our stringent homology-based approach to a conventional homology-based approach for predicting host-pathogen PPIs, based on cellular compartment distribution analysis, disease gene list enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment analysis and functional category enrichment analysis. These analyses support the validity of our prediction result, and clearly show that our approach has better performance in predicting H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs. Using our stringent homology-based approach, we have predicted a set of highly plausible H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which might be useful for many of related studies. Based on our analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent homology-based approach, we have discovered several interesting properties which are reported here for the first time. We find that both host proteins and pathogen proteins involved in the host-pathogen PPIs tend to be hubs in their own intra-species PPI network. Also, both host and pathogen proteins involved in host-pathogen PPIs tend to have longer primary sequence, tend to have more domains, tend to be more hydrophilic, etc. And the protein domains from both

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  17. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  18. Algunos factores relacionados con la dinámica folicular en bos indicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos tauru...

  19. Normalization of Complete Genome Characteristics: Application to Evolution from Primitive Organisms to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Okayasu, Teiji; Ohhira, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Normalized nucleotide and amino acid contents of complete genome sequences can be visualized as radar charts. The shapes of these charts depict the characteristics of an organism's genome. The normalized values calculated from the genome sequence theoretically exclude experimental errors. Further, because normalization is independent of both target size and kind, this procedure is applicable not only to single genes but also to whole genomes, which consist of a huge number of different genes. In this review, we discuss the applications of the normalization of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid contents of complete genomes to the investigation of genome structure and to evolutionary research from primitive organisms to Homo sapiens. Some of the results could never have been obtained from the analysis of individual nucleotide or amino acid sequences but were revealed only after the normalization of nucleotide and amino acid contents was applied to genome research. The discovery that genome structure was homogeneous was obtained only after normalization methods were applied to the nucleotide or predicted amino acid contents of genome sequences. Normalization procedures are also applicable to evolutionary research. Thus, normalization of the contents of whole genomes is a useful procedure that can help to characterize organisms.

  20. Apoptotic lymphocytes of H. sapiens lose nucleosomes in GC-rich promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosid, Sergey; Ioshikhes, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    We analyzed two sets of human CD4+ nucleosomal DNA directly sequenced by Illumina (Solexa) high throughput sequencing method. The first set has ∼40 M sequences and was produced from the normal CD4+ T lymphocytes by micrococcal nuclease. The second set has ∼44 M sequences and was obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes by apoptotic nucleases. The different nucleosome sets showed similar dinucleotide positioning AA/TT, GG/CC, and RR/YY (R is purine, Y--pyrimidine) patterns with periods of 10-10.4 bp. Peaks of GG/CC and AA/TT patterns were shifted by 5 bp from each other. Two types of promoters in H. sapiens: AT and GC-rich were identified. AT-rich promoters in apoptotic cell had +1 nucleosome shifts 50-60 bp downstream from those in normal lymphocytes. GC-rich promoters in apoptotic cells lost 80% of nucleosomes around transcription start sites as well as in total DNA. Nucleosome positioning was predicted by combination of {AA, TT}, {GG, CC}, {WW, SS} and {RR, YY} patterns. In our study we found that the combinations of {AA, TT} and {GG, CC} provide the best results and successfully mapped 33% of nucleosomes 147 bp long with precision ±15 bp (only 31/147 or 21% is expected).

  1. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen years marked the time between the discovery of the double helix in 1953 and the elucidation of the genetic code in 1966. A similar interval has now passed since the development by Cohen and Boyer of a simple procedure for the cloning of selective DNA fragments. The scientific advances made possible by the subsequent modification and elaboration of these original cloning procedures now amaze, stimulate, and increasingly often overwhelm us. Facts that until recently were virtually unobtainable now flow forth almost effortlessly. Most excitingly, the frenetic pace of these new discoveries, instead of marking the impending end of a glorious moment of learning, give every indication of opening up scientific frontiers that will take hundreds if not thousands of years to explore thoroughly. This new era of enlightenment is nowhere more apparent than in our newfound ability to study ourselves at the molecular level. This volume is the first of two collections of papers submitted by the contributors to the Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology for 1986 - molecular biology of Homo sapiens. Contained in this collection are 80 papers grouped into sessions entitled Human Gene Map, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, and Drugs Made Off Human Genes.

  2. Reconstruction of Protein-Protein Interaction Network of Insulin Signaling in Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Durmuş Tekir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the failure of synthesizing and secreting of insulin because of destroyed pancreatic β-cells. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is described by the decreased synthesis and secretion of insulin because of the defect in pancreatic β-cells as well as by the failure of responding to insulin because of malfunctioning of insulin signaling. In order to understand the signaling mechanisms of responding to insulin, it is necessary to identify all components in the insulin signaling network. Here, an interaction network consisting of proteins that have statistically high probability of being biologically related to insulin signaling in Homo sapiens was reconstructed by integrating Gene Ontology (GO annotations and interactome data. Furthermore, within this reconstructed network, interacting proteins which mediate the signal from insulin hormone to glucose transportation were identified using linear paths. The identification of key components functioning in insulin action on glucose metabolism is crucial for the efforts of preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens.

  4. Greater Emphasis on Female Attractiveness in Homo Sapiens: A Revised Solution to an Old Evolutionary Riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gottschall

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence from psychology and cross-cultural anthropology supports a general rule of greater emphasis on female physical attractiveness in Homo sapiens. As sensed by Darwin (1871 and clarified by Trivers (1972, generally higher female parental investment is a key determinant of a common pattern of sexual selection in which male animals are more competitive, more eager sexually and more conspicuous in courtship display, ornamentation, and coloration. Therefore, given the larger minimal and average parental investment of human females, keener physical attractiveness pressure among women has long been considered an evolutionary riddle. This paper briefly surveys previous thinking on the question, before offering a revised explanation for why we should expect humans to sharply depart from general zoological pattern of greater emphasis on male attractiveness. This contribution hinges on the argument that humans have been seen as anomalies mainly because we have been held up to the wrong zoological comparison groups. I argue that humans are a partially sex-role reversed species, and more emphasis on female physical attractiveness is relatively common in such species. This solution to the riddle, like those of other evolutionists, is based on peculiarities in human mating behavior, so this paper is also presented as a refinement of current thinking about the evolution of human mating preferences.

  5. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L

    2015-08-21

    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome.

  6. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not.

  7. Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N

    2015-01-13

    The postcranial skeleton of modern Homo sapiens is relatively gracile compared with other hominoids and earlier hominins. This gracility predisposes contemporary humans to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Explanations for this gracility include reduced levels of physical activity, the dissipation of load through enlarged joint surfaces, and selection for systemic physiological characteristics that differentiate modern humans from other primates. This study considered the skeletal remains of four behaviorally diverse recent human populations and a large sample of extant primates to assess variation in trabecular bone structure in the human hip joint. Proximal femur trabecular bone structure was quantified from microCT data for 229 individuals from 31 extant primate taxa and 59 individuals from four distinct archaeological human populations representing sedentary agriculturalists and mobile foragers. Analyses of mass-corrected trabecular bone variables reveal that the forager populations had significantly higher bone volume fraction, thicker trabeculae, and consequently lower relative bone surface area compared with the two agriculturalist groups. There were no significant differences between the agriculturalist and forager populations for trabecular spacing, number, or degree of anisotropy. These results reveal a correspondence between human behavior and bone structure in the proximal femur, indicating that more highly mobile human populations have trabecular bone structure similar to what would be expected for wild nonhuman primates of the same body mass. These results strongly emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise for bone health and the attenuation of age-related bone loss.

  8. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gustavo G.; Gutiérrez, María A.; Blasi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America. PMID:27683248

  10. Applying a one-dimensional PDR model to the Taurus molecular cloud and its atomic envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Heiner, J S

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we test our previously published one-dimensional PDR model for deriving total hydrogen volume densities from HI column density measurements in extragalactic regions by applying it to the Taurus molecular cloud, where its predictions can be compared to available data. Also, we make the first direct detailed comparison of our model to CO(1-0) and far-infrared emission. Using an incident UV flux G0 of 4.25 ({\\chi} = 5) throughout the main body of the cloud, we derive total hydrogen volume densities of \\approx 430 cm-3, consistent with the extensive literature available on Taurus. The distribution of the volume densities shows a log-normal shape with a hint of a power-law shape on the high density end. We convert our volume densities to H2 column densities assuming a cloud depth of 5 parsec and compare these column densities to observed CO emission. We find a slope equivalent to a CO conversion factor relation that is on the low end of reported values for this factor in the literature (0.9 x...

  11. A survey of T Tauri stars with AKARI toward the Taurus-Auriga region

    CERN Document Server

    Takita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We search new T Tauri star (TTS) candidates with the mid-infrared (MIR) part of the AKARI All-Sky Survey at 9 and 18 um wavelengths. Methods: We used the point source catalogue (PSC), obtained by the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board AKARI. We combined the 2MASS PSC and the 3rd version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC) with the AKARI IRC-PSC, and surveyed 517 known TTSs over a 1800-square-degree part of the Taurus-Auriga region to find criteria to extract TTSs. We considered asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, Planetary Nebulae (PNe), and galaxies, which have similar MIR colours, to separate TTSs from these sources. Results: Of the 517 known TTSs, we detected 133 sources with AKARI. Based on the colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams made from the AKARI, 2MASS, and UCAC surveys, we propose the criteria to extract TTS candidates from the AKARI All-Sky data. On the basis of our criteria, we selected 176/14725 AKARI sources as TTS candidates which are located around the Taurus-...

  12. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES/PROTEINS FROM DUNG BEETLE, ONTHOPHAGUS TAURUS IMMUNE HEMOLYMPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Patil H.B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes & not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application.

  13. Near-infrared polarimetry of a normal spiral galaxy viewed through the Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, Dan P; Cashman, L R

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6um) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (~75 deg) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction Av of 2.00+/-0.10 mag and reddening E(H-K) of 0.125 +/- 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of 2MASS, UKIDSS, Spitzer, and WISE photometry using the NICE, NICER, and RJCE methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range fr...

  14. Striations in the Taurus molecular cloud: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or MHD waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Heyer, M; Yildiz, U A; Snell, R L; Falgarone, E; Pineda, J

    2016-01-01

    The origin of striations aligned along the local magnetic field direction in the translucent envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud is examined with new observations of 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 emission obtained with the 10~m submillimeter telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These data identify a periodic pattern of excess blue and redshifted emission that is responsible for the striations. For both 12CO and 13CO, spatial variations of the J=2-1 to J=1-0 line ratio are small and are not spatially correlated with the striation locations. A medium comprised of unresolved CO emitting substructures (cells) with a beam area filling factor less than unity at any velocity is required to explain the average line ratios and brightness temperatures. We propose that the striations result from the modulation of velocities and the beam filling factor of the cells as a result of either the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or magnetosonic waves propagating through the envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud. Both processes ar...

  15. Striations in the Taurus molecular cloud: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or MHD waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Snell, R. L.; Falgarone, E.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    The origin of striations aligned along the local magnetic field direction in the translucent envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud is examined with new observations of 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 emission obtained with the 10-m Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These data identify a periodic pattern of excess blue and redshifted emission that is responsible for the striations. For both 12CO and 13CO, spatial variations of the J = 2-1 to J = 1-0 line ratio are small and are not spatially correlated with the striation locations. A medium comprised of unresolved CO emitting substructures (cells) with a beam area filling factor less than unity at any velocity is required to explain the average line ratios and brightness temperatures. We propose that the striations are generated from the modulation of velocities and beam filling factor of the cells as a result of either the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or magnetosonic waves propagating through the envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud. Both processes are likely common features in molecular clouds that are sub-Alfvénic and may explain low column density, cirrus-like features similarly aligned with the magnetic field observed throughout the interstellar medium in far-infrared surveys of dust emission.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11862-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RNA binding ... 159 4e-37 BC163416_1( BC163416 |pid:none) Danio rerio bruno-like... for Etr-1, comple... 140 2e-31 BC045711_1( BC045711 |pid:none) Homo sapiens bruno-like 4, RNA bin... 140 2e..._2273( AE014134 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster chromos... 137 1e-30 AB209067_1( AB209067 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for bruno...e-30 BC146142_1( BC146142 |pid:none) Bos taurus bruno-like 4, RNA bindi... 136 2e-30 (Q4R535) RecName: Full=...mo sapiens cDNA FLJ54925 complet... 136 2e-30 AF515450_1( AF515450 |pid:none) Mus musculus bruno-like 4 prot

  17. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: new insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  18. Out of Africa: new hypotheses and evidence for the dispersal of Homo sapiens along the Indian Ocean rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Michael D; Haslam, Michael; Fuller, Dorian Q; Boivin, Nicole; Clarkson, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa is a significant topic in human evolutionary studies. Most investigators agree that our species arose in Africa and subsequently spread out to occupy much of Eurasia. Researchers have argued that populations expanded along the Indian Ocean rim at ca 60,000 years ago during a single rapid dispersal event, probably employing a coastal route towards Australasia. Archaeologists have been relatively silent about the movement and expansion of human populations in terrestrial environments along the Indian Ocean rim, although it is clear that Homo sapiens reached Australia by ca 45,000 years ago. Here, we synthesize and document current genetic and archaeological evidence from two major landmasses, the Arabian peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, regions that have been underplayed in the story of out of Africa dispersals. We suggest that modern humans were present in Arabia and South Asia earlier than currently believed, and probably coincident with the presence of Homo sapiens in the Levant between ca 130 and 70,000 years ago. We show that climatic and environmental fluctuations during the Late Pleistocene would have had significant demographic effects on Arabian and South Asian populations, though indigenous populations would have responded in different ways. Based on a review of the current genetic, archaeological and environmental data, we indicate that demographic patterns in Arabia and South Asia are more interesting and complex than surmised to date.

  19. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: New insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Viscardi, Lucas Henrique; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-12-01

    After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  20. Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific gene family and chromosome 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, Xander; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Duyzend, Michael H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Sudmant, Peter H; Penn, Osnat; Chiatante, Giorgia; Malig, Maika; Huddleston, John; Benner, Chris; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Stessman, Holly A F; Marchetto, Maria C N; Denman, Laura; Harshman, Lana; Baker, Carl; Raja, Archana; Penewit, Kelsi; Janke, Nicolette; Tang, W Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Banci, Lucia; Antonacci, Francesca; Akey, Joshua M; Amemiya, Chris T; Gage, Fred H; Reymond, Alexandre; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-08-11

    Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 (BOLA2) as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens. We estimate that a 95-kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately 282 thousand years ago (ka), one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. All humans examined carried one or more copies of the duplication, which nearly fixed early in the human lineage--a pattern unlikely to have arisen so rapidly in the absence of selection (P sapiens-specific duplication. In summary, the duplicative transposition of BOLA2 at the root of the H. sapiens lineage about 282 ka simultaneously increased copy number of a gene associated with iron homeostasis and predisposed our species to recurrent rearrangements associated with disease.

  1. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hervella, M; Svensson, E M; Alberdi, A; Günther, T; Izagirre, N; Munters, A R; Alonso, S; Ioana, M; Ridiche, F; Soficaru, A; Jakobsson, M; Netea, M G; de-la-Rua, C

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage...

  2. A Survey for New Members of the Taurus Star-Forming Region with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; Shukla, S J; Loutrel, N P

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ~1 deg2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC~348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the IMF, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (~40 deg2) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields towards the stellar aggregates that were sur...

  3. Large-Scale Structure of the Molecular Gas in Taurus Revealed by High Spatial Dynamic Range Spectral Line Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Viewgraph topics include: optical image of Taurus; dust extinction in IR has provided a new tool for probing cloud morphology; observations of the gas can contribute critical information on gas temperature, gas column density and distribution, mass, and kinematics; the Taurus molecular cloud complex; average spectra in each mask region; mas 2 data; dealing with mask 1 data; behavior of mask 1 pixels; distribution of CO column densities; conversion to H2 column density; variable CO/H2 ratio with values much less than 10(exp -4) at low N indicated by UV results; histogram of N(H2) distribution; H2 column density distribution in Taurus; cumulative distribution of mass and area; lower CO fractional abundance in mask 0 and 1 regions greatly increases mass determined in the analysis; masses determined with variable X(CO) and including diffuse regions agrees well with the found from L(CO); distribution of young stars as a function of molecular column density; star formation efficiency; star formation rate and gas depletion; and enlarged images of some of the regions with numerous young stars. Additional slides examine the origin of the Taurus molecular cloud, evolution from HI gas, kinematics as a clue to its origin, and its relationship to star formation.

  4. Large-Scale Structure of the Molecular Gas in Taurus Revealed by High Spatial Dynamic Range Spectral Line Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Viewgraph topics include: optical image of Taurus; dust extinction in IR has provided a new tool for probing cloud morphology; observations of the gas can contribute critical information on gas temperature, gas column density and distribution, mass, and kinematics; the Taurus molecular cloud complex; average spectra in each mask region; mas 2 data; dealing with mask 1 data; behavior of mask 1 pixels; distribution of CO column densities; conversion to H2 column density; variable CO/H2 ratio with values much less than 10(exp -4) at low N indicated by UV results; histogram of N(H2) distribution; H2 column density distribution in Taurus; cumulative distribution of mass and area; lower CO fractional abundance in mask 0 and 1 regions greatly increases mass determined in the analysis; masses determined with variable X(CO) and including diffuse regions agrees well with the found from L(CO); distribution of young stars as a function of molecular column density; star formation efficiency; star formation rate and gas depletion; and enlarged images of some of the regions with numerous young stars. Additional slides examine the origin of the Taurus molecular cloud, evolution from HI gas, kinematics as a clue to its origin, and its relationship to star formation.

  5. Single-center comparative outcomes of the Edwards SAPIEN and Medtronic Melody transcatheter heart valves in the pulmonary position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Nadeen; Kenny, Damien; Kavinsky, Clifford; Amin, Zahid; Heitschmidt, Mary; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2013-10-01

    Two transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) systems (Edwards SAPIEN and Medtronic Melody) are available; however, comparative studies evaluating outcome data are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare short- with medium-term outcome data of these valves in the pulmonary position from a single institution. Retrospective data analysis of all patients undergoing tPVR from April 2008 until April 2012. Pre-procedural investigations, patient demographics, procedural hemodynamics, and clinical and echocardiographic follow-up data were included. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Thirty-three patients underwent successful tPVR (SAPIEN (S) n = 20, Melody (M) n = 13). Patient age and weight were similar between the two groups. Primary indication included regurgitation (S (n = 2), M (n = 3)), stenosis (S (n = 13), M (n = 7)), or mixed (S (n = 5), M (n = 3)). There was no difference in pre-procedural peak Doppler gradients across the pulmonary outflow (S = 47.73 ± 21.14 mm Hg, M = 42.62 ± 15.59 mm Hg, P = 0.46). All but one patient underwent pre-stenting prior to valve implantation. Immediately following valve deployment, the transvalvar gradient was not statistically different between the two groups (S = 11.5 ± 8.07 mm Hg, M = 8.15 ± 4.56 mm Hg, P = 0.18). There were no procedural deaths. Follow-up mean pulmonary Doppler gradients were higher with the SAPIEN cohort (18.43 ± 9.06 mm Hg (S) and 11.17 ± 5.24 mm Hg (M), P = 0.016); however, no differences were seen when similar procedural epochs were assessed. All but one patient remained with PR grade = 2. In a single-center series, the SAPIEN and Melody valves demonstrated comparable medium-term valve function. Greater residual gradients with the SAPIEN valve may represent a more conservative early pre-stenting approach with this valve. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Arzner, K.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Feigelson, E. D.; Franciosini, E.; Glauser, A.; Grosso, N.; Micela, G.; Monin, J.-L.; Montmerle, T.; Padgett, D. L.; Palla, F.; Pillitteri, I.; Rebull, L.; Scelsi, L.; Silva, B.; Skinner, S. L.; Stelzer, B.; Telleschi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) is the nearest large star-forming region, prototypical for the distributed mode of low-mass star formation. Pre-main sequence stars are luminous X-ray sources, probably mostly owing to magnetic energy release. Aims. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (EST) presented in this paper surveys the most populated =5 square degrees of the TMC, using the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory to study the thermal structure, variability, and long-term evolution of hot plasma, to investigate the magnetic dynamo, and to search for new potential members of the association. Many targets are also studied in the optical, and high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy has been obtained for selected bright sources. Methods. The X-ray spectra have been coherently analyzed with two different thermal models (2-component thermal model, and a continuous emission measure distribution model). We present overall correlations with fundamental stellar parameters that were derived from the previous literature. A few detections from Chandra observations have been added. Results. The present overview paper introduces the project and provides the basic results from the X-ray analysis of all sources detected in the XEST survey. Comprehensive tables summarize the stellar properties of all targets surveyed. The survey goes deeper than previous X-ray surveys of Taurus by about an order of magnitude and for the first time systematically accesses very faint and strongly absorbed TMC objects. We find a detection rate of 85% and 98% for classical and weak-line T Tau stars (CTTS resp. WTTS), and identify about half of the surveyed protostars and brown dwarfs. Overall, 136 out of 169 surveyed stellar systems are detected. We describe an X-ray luminosity vs. mass correlation, discuss the distribution of X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratios, and show evidence for lower X-ray luminosities in CTTS compared to WTTS. Detailed analysis (e.g., variability, rotation

  7. The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Roth-Walter

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive.

  8. Molecular modeling and electrostatic potential calculations on chemically modified Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases from Bos taurus and shark Prionace glauca: role of Lys134 in electrostatically steering the substrate to the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polticelli, F; Falconi, M; O'Neill, P; Petruzelli, R; Galtieri, A; Lania, A; Calabrese, L; Rotilio, G; Desideri, A

    1994-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the shark Prionace glauca was homology modeled on the structure of the bovine enzyme used as a template. Shark SOD displays the conservative substitution of one of the residues involved in the electrostatic guidance of superoxide toward the active site of the enzyme, i.e., Lys134, which is replaced by arginine. The association rate, calculated by brownian dynamics simulations incorporating electrostatic terms, and the enzyme reaction rate, measured by the pulse radiolysis method, were found to be identical for both bovine and shark SODs. In order to quantify the role of Lys134 in electrostatically steering the superoxide to the active site, chemical modification of the lysine residues by carbamoylation was carried out on both bovine and shark SODs. Experimental determination of the enzymatic reaction rate indicated that the charge located on the residue 134 gives 19% contribution to the guidance of superoxide anion at low ionic strength. This value matches the association rates predicted by brownian dynamics.

  9. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede

    2013-01-01

    motility; and the paraclinical parameters: bacterial counts, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk amyloid A levels in milk; and white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) count, and serum amyloid A levels in blood were recorded at different time points post-E. coli inoculation...... with a low E. coli dose (20 to 40 cfu) in one front quarter at time 0 h. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24, and 192 h; udder biopsies were collected at 24 h and 192 h post-E. coli inoculation. The clinical parameters: feed intake, milk yield, body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, rumen...

  10. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of fortified and concentrated hay supplementation on the production of bovine milk (Bos taurus L. during the dry season in the Achaca-Tiahuanacu community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty-Quispe Magda Hortencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the Achaca Community of the Municipality of Tiahuanacu, with the objective of evaluating the effect of supplementation with fortified and concentrated hay on milk production, feed conversion, total solids and production costs in three periods (Control, adaptation and supplementation during the dry season (October and November. 12 Holstein mestizo cows were used between 4 and 6 months of lactation. The design used was completely randomized blocks with factorial arrangement of 2Ax3Bx (3 with three replicates. The average milk yield of 4.69 kg of cows supplemented with fortified hay and 6.24 kg with concentrate were higher than the production of 3.94 and 5.11 kg respectively in the adaptation period and finally the production of 3.58 and 3.42 kg in the control period. The feed conversion with fortified hay supplementation of 2.60 kg was greater than 2.12 and 1.90 kg respectively. While feed conversion between supplements was 1.61 and 1.78 kg with concentrate in the adaptation period and finally with 2.12 and 2.60 kg with fortified hay in the supplementation period. The total solids content of 10.52 ºBrix was superior to the adaptation period of 10.30 ºBrix and control with 10.05 ºBrix. Meanwhile, total solids between supplements were 10.19 ºBrix with fortified hay and 10.39 ºBrix with concentrate.

  12. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus durante o anestro pós-parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12. Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica. Altas contagens relativas e alta intensidade de marcação para receptor de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma foram observadas nos dois grupos. No entanto, a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular foi mais alta no grupo 2 comparado ao grupo 1. Quando o epitélio glandular e o estroma foram comparados, o número relativo de receptor de estrógeno no grupo 1 foi mais alto no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma, e a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no grupo 2 foi mais alta no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma. Os resultados sugerem que os mecanismos que controlam a expressão de receptores no anestro são semelhantes aos observados durante o ciclo estral.

  13. Tipos de fibras en el músculo esquelético del toro bravo (bos taurus ibericus) : su relación con la caída durante la lídia / 2001.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. T.M.-2275. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Departamentos. E002B TESIS 95. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Sala de estudio. Tesis-V 153.

  14. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitroen los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  15. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitro en los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  16. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm, índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 hubo diferencia (p<0,05 entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto al peso corpóreo (627,70±11,37 e 611,58±8,66Kg; la altura (1,44±0,01e 1,47±0,01m; el volumen del eyaculado (5,82±0,48 e 5,17±0,29 mL, la motilidad espermática progresiva (73,50±2,81% e75,62±0,97%, el vigor espermático (4,30±0,19 e4,27±0,11 y motilidad en masa (4,27±0,11 e3,33±0,23 no se presentó diferencia (p>0,05. En morfología espermática, tampoco hubo desigualdad entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente con 5,06 ± 8,20% e 5,32 ± 6,40% de defectos mayores; 9,91±6,74% e 8,36±6,06% para los defectos menores; e 14,76±13,20% e 13,82±12,61% para los defectos totales. La electroforesis del plasma seminal reveló bandas proteicas con pesos entre 5 a 105 KDa. En el 100% de toros aptos para la reproducción, la proteína con pesos de 13 Kda estuvo presente. De la misma forma ocurrió con las bandas de 20 KDa. El resto de las bandas proteicas mostraron presencia con diferentes porcentajes de incidencia en toros aptos o parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Las dos variedades estudiadas hicieron evidente la adaptación reproductiva eficaz en condiciones de clima semejantes.

  17. A Survey and Analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Spectra of T Tauri Stars in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, E; Calvet, N; D'Alessio, P; Franco-Hernandez, R; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; Uchida, K I; Sargent, B; Green, J D; Keller, L D; Herter, T L

    2006-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra of T Tauri stars in the Taurus star-forming region obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). For the first time, the 5-36 micron spectra of a large sample of T Tauri stars belonging to the same star-forming region is studied, revealing details of the mid-infrared excess due to dust in circumstellar disks. We analyze common features and differences in the mid-IR spectra based on disk structure, dust grain properties, and the presence of companions. Our analysis encompasses spectral energy distributions from the optical to the far-infrared, a morphological sequence based on the IRS spectra, and spectral indices in IRS wave bands representative of continuum emission. By comparing the observed spectra to a grid of accretion disk models, we infer some basic disk properties for our sample of T Tauri stars, and find additional evidence for dust settling.

  18. Spitzer IRS Spectra and Envelope Models of Class I Protostars in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, E; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; D'Alessio, P; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; Uchida, K I; Sargent, B; Green, J D; Herter, T L

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 28 Class I protostars in the Taurus star-forming region. The 5 to 36 micron spectra reveal excess emission from the inner regions of the envelope and accretion disk surrounding these predecessors of low-mass stars, as well as absorption features due to silicates and ices. Together with shorter- and longer-wavelength data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions and fit envelope models to 22 protostars of our sample, most of which are well-constrained due to the availability of the IRS spectra. We infer that the envelopes of the Class I objects in our sample cover a wide range in parameter space, particularly in density and centrifugal radius, implying different initial conditions for the collapse of protostellar cores.

  19. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaarslan Emel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was made. All tested plants are considered mycorrhizal plants. We determined three spore species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus hoi and Scutellospora calospora from the surveyed soils. The spore distribution rates were as follows: G. Mossea 61.54 %, G. Hoi 23.07 % and Scutellospora calospora 15.38 %. Results suggest that VAM fungal spores and root colonization display variation in rhizosphere under bulbous plants in different ecological conditions.

  20. The Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory CO Mapping Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Gopal; Brunt, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul F; Snell, Ronald; Li, Di

    2008-01-01

    The FCRAO Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud observed the 12CO and 13CO J=1-0 emission from 98 square degrees of this important, nearby star forming region. This set of data with 45" resolution comprises the highest spatial dynamic range image of an individual molecular cloud constructed to date, and provides valuable insights to the molecular gas distribution, kinematics, and the star formation process. In this contribution, we describe the observations, calibration, data processing, and characteristics of the noise and line emission of the survey. The angular distribution of 12CO and 13CO emission over 1 km/s velocity intervals and the full velocity extent of the cloud are presented. These reveal a complex, dynamic medium of cold, molecular gas.

  1. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  2. Separating, Antagonistic Activity and Identifying of Actinomycetes(BOS-009)%放线菌BOS-009的分离、拮抗活性及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 纪明山; 张文革; 何璐; 张丽; 梁娇

    2009-01-01

    对从长白山不同海拔环境中分离筛选出可以产生抗菌活性物质的BOS-009放线菌菌株进行了研究,测定了该菌的抗菌谱,发现该菌株对多种植物病原性真菌及细菌有拮抗作用.通过形态特征、培养特征观察,生理生化特性及抑菌谱等系列比较.发现该菌株与链霉菌属的除虫链霉菌(Streptomyces avermitilis)的特征基本相符;通过16s rDAN序列比对,发现该菌株16s rDAN与除虫链霉菌的16s rDAN同源性达99%.根据多项分类原则和系统进化树的构建分析,将该菌株暂归入除虫链霉菌类.

  3. Association of HLA class II alleles with sensitization to cow dander Bos d 2, an important occupational allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Anu; Peräsaari, Juha; Taivainen, Antti; Kinnunen, Tuure; Saarelainen, Soili; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Jeal, Hayley; Jones, Meinir; Virtanen, Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    Allergic sensitization results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Earlier studies have shown that highly polymorphic HLA genes are associated with a variety of allergies. Several important respiratory allergens belong to the family of lipocalin proteins. These include occupational sensitizers, such as cow Bos d 2 or rat Rat n 1, and prevalent indoor sensitizers, such as dog Can f 1 or cockroach Bla g 4. HLA associations with sensitization to lipocalin allergens are incompletely known. In the present study we have investigated an association between HLA alleles and sensitization to the major cow allergen Bos d 2. The HLA-DR/DQ genotypes of 40 Bos d 2-sensitized subjects having occupational asthma were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the results were compared with the genotypes of 151 unrelated Finnish subjects. The frequencies of HLA class II alleles DRB1*0101, DRB1*0404, DQB1*0302, and DQB1*0501 were significantly higher among Bos d 2-sensitized than among control subjects. In addition, the allergic subjects expressed significantly lower frequencies of HLA-DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 alleles than did the control subjects. These data suggest that the HLA class II alleles DRB1*0101, DRB1*0404, DQB1*0302, and DQB1*0501, and the haplotypes that include them, are associated with sensitization to the major cow allergen Bos d 2, whereas HLA-DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 are dissociated with it. Amino acid analysis provides a biologically plausible explanation for the HLA associations.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D., E-mail: clemens@bu.edu, E-mail: pavelmi@utexas.edu, E-mail: lcashman@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 {mu}m) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined ({approx}75 Degree-Sign ) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A{sub V} of 2.00 {+-} 0.10 mag and reddening E(H - K) of 0.125 {+-} 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  5. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12124-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein 3; EC=3... 82 5e-14 BC100977_1( BC100977 |pid:none) Homo sapiens rhomboid, veinlet...treptococcus agalactiae A909, c... 77 1e-12 BC048048_1( BC048048 |pid:none) Danio rerio rhomboid, veinlet-li...( CP000885 |pid:none) Clostridium phytofermentans ISDg,... 75 6e-12 BC093439_1( BC093439 |pid:none) Danio rerio rhomboid, veinlet...|pid:none) Bos taurus rhomboid, veinlet-like ... 73 2e-11 AM236080_2955( AM236080

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12656-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :none) Bos taurus myosin IA, mRNA (cDNA c... 130 2e-48 ( O88329 ) RecName: Full=Myosin-Ia; AltName: Full=Brush...1_1( AK300381 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ50215 complet... 126 1e-45 ( Q62774 ) RecName: Full=Myosin-Ia; AltName: Full=Brush...onvent... 104 6e-43 ( P47807 ) RecName: Full=Myosin-Ia; AltName: Full=Brush borde

  8. AcEST: BP915023 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available og OS=Mus mu... 32 3.3 sp|Q8ND04|CQ071_HUMAN UPF0487 protein C17orf71 OS=Homo sapiens G... 32 3.3 sp|P29473|NOS3... Q +P P P VF+P T PP+ Sbjct: 903 HYAQLMRLFVVVPDAPLQIILMPQVQPGPPPCP-VFYPEKQEITLPPD 949 >sp|P29473|NOS3..._BOVIN Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial OS=Bos taurus GN=NOS3 PE=1 SV=3 Length = 1205 S

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12168-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 37 4.5 (Q17BU3) RecName: Full=Kinesin-like protein unc-104; 37 4.5 AF232934_1( AF232934 |pid:none) Mus musculus Good...09_1(BC034809|pi... 36 5.9 AF232933_1( AF232933 |pid:none) Bos taurus Goodpasture...ull=Collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein;... 36 5.9 AF232930_1( AF232930 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Goodpas

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10892-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Sequence 25 from Patent WO20040700... 41 0.092 AF232933_1( AF232933 |pid:none) Bos taurus Goodpa...ype IV alpha-3-binding protein;... 41 0.092 AF232930_1( AF232930 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Goodpasture antigen...K076768_1( AK076768 |pid:none) Mus musculus adult male testis cDN... 41 0.092 AF232934_1( AF232934 |pid:none) Mus musculus Good

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared photometry of all known members in Taurus (Esplin+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2016-08-01

    To construct a census of the circumstellar disks in Taurus, we begin by compiling a list of all known members of the region. We adopt the 352 members from Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111), 4 additional stars that have good evidence of membership from previous studies (Section 5.4), 32 members found in a subsequent survey by K. Luhman (in preparation; 33 if GZ Tau A and B are counted separately), and 25 new members (26 if BS Tau A and B are counted separately) that we have confirmed with spectroscopy (Section 5.3). We also adopt as a member HD 285957, which has a proper motion consistent with that of the Taurus subgroup L1551 (Zacharias et al. 2013, cat. I/322; Luhman et al. 2009ApJ...703..399L) and exhibits evidence of youth in the form of Li absorption (Wichmann et al. 2000A&A...359..181W; Sestito et al. 2008, cat. J/A+A/488/943). We make use of mid-infrared photometry for members of Taurus measured with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We consider the four bands of IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0μm) and the 24μm band of MIPS, which are denoted as [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0], and [24], respectively. IRAC produced images with a field of view of 5.2'*5.2' and FWHM of 1.6''-1.9'' for [3.6] to [8.0]. MIPS had a field of view of 5.4'*5.4' and a FWHM of 5.9'' for [24]. Photometry from most Spitzer images for most members of Taurus has been measured by Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) (see also Hartmann et al. 2005ApJ...629..881H; Luhman et al. 2006, cat. J/ApJ/647/1180; Guieu et al. 2007, cat. 2007A&A...465..855G; Rebull et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/186/259). We have measured photometry of the members that were not considered in Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) and all known members appearing in Spitzer images that have become publicly available since that study (Astronomical Observation Requests 26470912, 26471168 26477056, 26475264, 26472704, 26473216, and 23272448). These data were

  12. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélder Silva e Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica clássica. Os folículos primordiais expostos à concentração de 40% apresentaram redução do diâmetro folicular e ovocitário quando comparados ao grupo controle (sem exposição, 10% e 20% (P0,05. Esses resultados sugerem que folículos primários são mais resistentes aos efeitos do etileno glicol quando comparados aos primordiais.The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different concentrations of ethylene glycol on the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of the preantral ovarian follicles. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%. Tissue analysis was done using classical histology techniques. The primordial follicles expose at a concentration of 40% showed reduction of the follicular diameter and oocyte when compared to the control (non exposing, 10 and 20% groups (P0.05. These results suggest that primary follicles are more resistant to the effect of ethylene glycol when compared to primordial ones.

  13. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  14. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  15. IMPLIKASI BANTUAN OPERASIONAL SEKOLAH (BOS) BUKU TERHADAP KREATIVITAS GURU MENULIS BUKU MODUL

    OpenAIRE

    Isharijadi, Isharijadi

    2016-01-01

    This  research  serves  an analysis  as to empirically   explain  the implementation    of School Operational Grant  (BOS)  for books from government and  its relevance   towards  the teachers' creativeness in writing   books  and  modules.   School  Operational   Grant  for books  is intended    to  ease   students’ parents   in  providing    books   for  their children.Teachers, as the front-liners for the students' learning development, are attempted to creatively provide the  sufficient l...

  16. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  17. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  18. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  19. Sapien XT Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement Under Direct Vision in the Setting of Significant Mitral Annular Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Takashi; Suri, Rakesh M; Daly, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve replacement carries a high risk in patients with extensive mitral annular calcification. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with severely calcified mitral valve stenosis and extensive annular calcification. We approached the mitral valve through a left atriotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest. We successfully deployed a 29-mm Sapien XT valve under direct visualization with satisfactory positioning. We further balloon-expanded the device to diminish the likelihood of periprosthetic regurgitation. Open mitral valve replacement with a transcatheter valve can be performed without the need for decalcification of the mitral annulus and is a good alternative to conventional mitral valve replacement.

  20. Robotic Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement Using the Sapien XT in the Setting of Severe Mitral Annular Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeckert, Michael S; Loulmet, Didier F; Williams, Mathew R; Neuburger, Peter J; Grossi, Eugene A

    2016-05-01

    We describe the use of the Sapien XT, placed in the mitral position using a totally endoscopic robotic approach in a 76-year-old man with extensive circumferential mitral calcifications and severe stenosis. The patient was at high risk for traditional open surgery and a large mitral valve annulus prevented safe transcatheter deployment due to size mismatch. Our novel approach offered a minimally invasive technique for native mitral valve replacement in a high-risk patient with anatomical constraints prohibitive to conventional approaches. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12737 (J Card Surg 2016;31:303-305).

  1. Height-diameter model for black locust, Anatolian black pine and Taurus cedar tree species in Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAL, Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...

  2. Reflexões sobre a articulação entre o homo faber e o homo sapiens na enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nogueira Valenca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo com o objetivo de analisar a articulação entre o enfermeiro-docente (Homo sapiens e o enfermeiro-assistencial (Homo faber no ambiente hospitalar, à luz do pensamento gramsciano. Na Enfermagem, coexistem duas dimensões: a teórica, exemplificada na figura do enfermeiro docente com seus projetos de pesquisa e publicações científicas; e a dimensão prática, com a atuação técnico-assistencial. Evidencia-se o distanciamento do enfermeiro docente em relação aos cenários de prática da graduação, assim como do enfermeiro assistencial, da pesquisa e da prática baseada em evidências científicas. Face ao dilema entre Homo faber e Homo sapiens na Enfermagem, emerge a importância de refletir sobre a dimensão ética subjacente às ações de ambos, centradas no ser humano. Este diálogo não pode ser ignorado, pois dele depende o desbravamento de novos horizontes e o crescimento da Enfermagem enquanto ciência e prática social.

  3. HS3D, A Dataset of Homo Sapiens Splice Regions, and its Extraction Procedure from a Major Public Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Pasquale; Rampone, Salvatore

    The aim of this work is to describe a cleaning procedure of GenBank data, producing material to train and to assess the prediction accuracy of computational approaches for gene characterization. A procedure (GenBank2HS3D) has been defined, producing a dataset (HS3D - Homo Sapiens Splice Sites Dataset) of Homo Sapiens Splice regions extracted from GenBank (Rel.123 at this time). It selects, from the complete GenBank Primate Division, entries of Human Nuclear DNA according with several assessed criteria; then it extracts exons and introns from these entries (actually 4523 + 3802). Donor and acceptor sites are then extracted as windows of 140 nucleotides around each splice site (3799 + 3799). After discarding windows not including canonical GT-AG junctions (65 + 74), including insufficient data (not enough material for a 140 nucleotide window) (686 + 589), including not AGCT bases (29 + 30), and redundant (218 + 226), the remaining windows (2796 + 2880) are reported in the dataset. Finally, windows of false splice sites are selected by searching canonical GT-AG pairs in not splicing positions (271 937 + 332 296). The false sites in a range +/- 60 from a true splice site are marked as proximal. HS3D, release 1.2 at this time, is available at the Web server of the University of Sannio: http://www.sci.unisannio.it/docenti/rampone/.

  4. Transaortic aortic valve replacement using the Edwards Sapien-XT Valve and the Medtronic CoreValve: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargias, Konstantinos; Bouboulis, Nikolaos; Halapas, Antonios; Chrissoheris, Michael; Skardoutsos, Spyridon; Nikolaou, Joulia; Tsolakis, Apostolos; Mourmouris, Christos; Pattakos, Stratis

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now an established treatment for certain patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). However, as the number of patients screened for TAVR increases, many are found to have absolutely no option for peripheral artery access. Transaortic valve replacement (TAoVR) has been proposed as a new alternative route in patients deemed unsuitable for conventional approaches. We present our first series of TAoVR cases using the Edwards Sapien-XT and the Medtronic CoreValve prostheses. Twenty-five (25) symptomatic patients (mean age 78 ± 8 years, mean logistic EuroSCORE I 25 ± 11%) with severe AS underwent TAoVR using the Sapien-XT valve (10 patients) or the CoreValve (15 patients). The mean fluoroscopy time was 15.6 ± 4.2 minutes, the mean time in the intensive care unit was 1.9 ± 1.0 days, and the mean hospital stay was 6.4 ± 1.6 days. The mean effective aortic valve area increased (from 0.68 ± 0.15 cm(2) to 1.82 ± 0.34 cm(2), pMedtronic CoreValve prosthesis demonstrated that it could be performed safely, resulting in substantial acute echocardiographic and early clinical improvement.

  5. Organic facies characteristics of the Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, western Taurus, Antalya Nappes, Kemer (Antalya/Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertan Gulludag, Cevdet; Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the western part of the Taurus Belt (SW Turkey). This region exhibits a complex structure involving two autochthonous units surrounded and imbricated with three allochthonous complexes. Antalya Nappes is a complex tectonic imbricate structure including sedimantary and ultrabasic rocks. In this study, organic facies characteristics of Carboniferous coaly units in the Pamucakyayla region (Kemer, Antalya-Turkey) were examined. The Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, which is characterized by sandstone, claystone, marl and coaly units. This units includes different levels of coal seams in different thicknesses. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody and amorphous material, with a minor contribution of planty and coaly material. Kerogen in the deposits is type II/III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.01 and 1.44 %, but reach 5.81 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 446 and 451 °C and indicate mature zone (Based on the value of 0.25 % TOC). Organic facies type BC, C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies BC is related sandstoneand marl lithofacies. This facis is deposited under an anoxic water column in a fine grained clastics, where rapid deposition creates anoxia in the sediments after deposition. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 317 (equivalent to type II kerogene), TOC around 0.02 %, and an average of S2 of 0.04 mg HC/g of rock. Organic facies C is related to sandstone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 176 (equivalent to type III kerogene), TOC around 0.19 %, and an average of S2 of 0.03 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized, and terrestrial. Organic facies C is the "gas-prone" facies. Organic facies CD is related to limestone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values

  6. The large-scale disk fraction of brown dwarfs in the Taurus cloud as measured with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Monin, J -L; Pinte, C; Rebull, L; Goldsmith, P; Fukagawa, M; Ménard, F; Padgett, D; Stappelfeld, K; McCabe, C; Carey, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Hillenbrand, L; Guedel, M

    2010-01-01

    Aims. The brown dwarf (BD) formation process has not yet been completely understood. To shed more light on the differences and similarities between star and BD formation processes, we study and compare the disk fraction among both kinds of objects over a large angular region in the Taurus cloud. In addition, we examine the spatial distribution of stars and BD relative to the underlying molecular gas Methods. In this paper, we present new and updated photometry data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope on 43 BDs in the Taurus cloud, and recalculate of the BD disk fraction in this region. We also useed recently available CO mm data to study the spatial distribution of stars and BDs relative to the cloud's molecular gas. Results. We find that the disk fraction among BDs in the Taurus cloud is 41 \\pm 12%, a value statistically consistent with the one among TTS (58 \\pm 9%). We find that BDs in transition from a state where they have a disk to a diskless state are rare, and we st...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-507F20 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232941 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-255J15 (Children...'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232940 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-62I11 (Children's... 48 0.79 1 ( A...C232929 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-291F15 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232768 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-460C15 (Childre...n'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232755 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-409J7 (Children...'s... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232753 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-45P20 (Children's... 48 0.7

  8. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  9. Managing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in children: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Gregory I; Paraskeva, Miranda; Westall, Glen P

    2013-08-01

    The success of pediatric lung transplantation continues to be limited by long-term graft dysfunction. Historically this has been characterized as an obstructive spirometric defect in the form of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It is recognized, however, that this does not reflect many of the other acknowledged etiologies of chronic lung dysfunction-noting it is the sum of the parts that contribute to respiratory morbidity and mortality after transplant. The term chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) has been coined to reflect these other entities and, in particular, a group of relatively recently described lung disorders called the restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). RAS is characterized by a restrictive spirometric defect. Although these entities have not yet been studied in a pediatric setting their association with poor compliance, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and post-infectious lung damage (particularly viral) warrants attention by pediatric lung transplant teams. Current therapy for the BOS subset of CLAD is otherwise limited to changing immunosuppressants and avoiding excessive infectious risk by avoiding over-immunosuppression. Long-term macrolide therapy in lung transplantation is not of proven efficacy. Reviewing previous BOS studies to explore restrictive spirometric cases and joint projects via groups like the International Pediatric Lung Transplant Collaborative will be the way forward to solve this pressing problem.

  10. Properties of Starless and Prestellar Cores in Taurus Revealed by Herschel SPIRE/PACS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, K A; Palmeirim, P; André, Ph; Kirk, J; Stamatellos, D; Ward-Thompson, D; Roy, A; Bontemps, S; Di Francesco, J; Elia, D; Hill, T; Konyves, V; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Peretto, N; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Schneider, N; Spinoglio, L; White, G

    2014-01-01

    The density and temperature structures of dense cores in the L1495 cloud of the Taurus star-forming region are investigated using Herschel SPIRE and PACS images in the 70 $\\mu$m, 160 $\\mu$m, 250 $\\mu$m, 350 $\\mu$m and 500 $\\mu$m continuum bands. A sample consisting of 20 cores, selected using spectral and spatial criteria, is analysed using a new maximum likelihood technique, COREFIT, which takes full account of the instrumental point spread functions. We obtain central dust temperatures, $T_0$, in the range 6-12 K and find that, in the majority of cases, the radial density falloff at large radial distances is consistent with the $r^{-2}$ variation expected for Bonnor-Ebert spheres. Two of our cores exhibit a significantly steeper falloff, however, and since both appear to be gravitationally unstable, such behaviour may have implications for collapse models. We find a strong negative correlation between $T_0$ and peak column density, as expected if the dust is heated predominantly by the interstellar radiatio...

  11. X-ray deficiency on strong accreting T Tauri stars - Comparing Orion with Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Manara, Carlo; Ribas, Álvaro; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster, we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. We provide a catalog with X-ray lumin...

  12. Evidence for dust evolution within the Taurus Complex from Spitzer images

    CERN Document Server

    Flagey, N; Boulanger, F; Carey, S J; Brooke, T Y; Falgarone, E; Huard, T L; McCabe, C E; Miville-Deschênes, M A; Padgett, D L; Paladini, R; Rebull, L M

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer images of the Taurus Complex (TC) and take advantage of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the observations to characterize the diffuse IR emission across the cloud. This work highlights evidence of dust evolution within the translucent sections of the archetype reference for studies of quiescent molecular clouds. We combine Spitzer 160 um and IRAS 100 um observations to produce a dust temperature map and a far-IR dust opacity map at 5' resolution. The average dust temperature is about 14.5K with a dispersion of +/-1K across the cloud. The far-IR dust opacity is a factor 2 larger than the average value for the diffuse ISM. This opacity increase and the attenuation of the radiation field (RF) both contribute to account for the lower emission temperature of the large grains. The structure of the TC significantly changes in the mid-IR images that trace emission from PAHs and VSGs. We focus our analysis of the mid-IR emission to a range of ecliptic latitudes where the zodiacal light resi...

  13. FIRST ISOLATION OF TENACIBACULUM MARITIMUM IN A CAPTIVE SAND TIGER SHARK (CARCHARIAS TAURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Daniela; Gridelli, Stefano; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a case of the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from a captive-bred adult female sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) housed at the Cattolica Aquarium (Italy). The animal showed, between the second dorsal fin and the precaudal pit, skin lesions characterized by the presence of abundant whitish necrotic tissue. Through routine bacteriological examination, a bacterium was isolated from a skin lesion and subsequently identified as T. maritimum by phenotypic characters and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated strain was evaluated for 11 antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic therapy was conducted with enrofloxacin at 10 mg kg(-1) i.m. on alternate days for 10 days. One month after the end of treatment skin lesions showed complete resolution and the shark recovered completely. The case presented here represents the first report of infection by T. maritimum in a sand tiger shark and highlights the potential pathogenic role of this microorganism in elasmobranchs kept in an aquarium.

  14. A GMRT survey of regions towards the Taurus Molecular Cloud at 323 and 608 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, Rachael E; Green, David A; Scaife, Anna M M; Ray, Tom P

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of three active sites of star formation in the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex taken at 323 and 608 MHz (90 and 50 cm, respectively) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Three pointings were observed as part of a pathfinder project, targeted at the young stellar objects (YSOs) L1551 IRS 5, T Tau and DG Tau (the results for these target sources were presented in a previous paper). In this paper, we search for other YSOs and present a survey comprising of all three fields; a by-product of the large instantaneous field of view of the GMRT. The resolution of the survey is of order 10 arcsec and the best rms noise at the centre of each pointing is of order $100\\,\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 323 MHz and $50\\,\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 608 MHz. We present a catalogue of 1815 and 687 field sources detected above $5\\,\\sigma_{\\rm rms}$ at 323 and 608 MHz, respectively. A total of 440 sources were detected at both frequencies, corresponding to a total unique source count of 2062 sources. We compar...

  15. Variation in dust properties in a dense filament of the Taurus molecular complex (L1506)

    CERN Document Server

    Ysard, Nathalie; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Pagani, Laurent; Konyves, Vera; Spencer, Locke; White, Glenn; Zavagno, Annie

    2013-01-01

    We observed the L1506 filament, which is located in the Taurus molecular complex, with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. Our aim is to prove the variation in grain properties along the entire length of the filament. In particular, we want to determine above which gas density this variation arises and what changes in the grain optical properties/size distribution are required. We use the 3D radiative transfer code CRT, coupled to the dust emission and extinction code DustEM, to model the emission and extinction of the dense filament. We test a range of optical properties and size distributions for the grains: dust of the diffuse interstellar medium (interstellar PAHs and amorphous carbons and silicates) and both compact and fluffy aggregates. We find that the grain opacity has to increase across the filament to fit simultaneously the near-IR extinction and Herschel emission profiles of L1506. We interpret this change to be a consequence of the coagulation of dust grains to form fluffy aggregates. Grains...

  16. Two confirmed class I very low-mass objects in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Dang-Duc, C; Dao-Van, D T

    2016-01-01

    [GKH94] 41 and IRAS 04191+1523B were previously identified to be proto-brown dwarf candidates in Taurus. [GKH94] 41 was classified to be a class I object. The dereddened spectral energy distribution of the source was later found to be suggestive of a class II object. IRAS 04191+1523B is a class I object that is the secondary component of a binary. We determine the evolutionary stage of [GKH94] 41 and estimate the final masses of the two proto-brown dwarf candidates. We used archive millimeter observations to produce continuum maps and collected data from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of the targets. Our continuum maps revealed that both [GKH94] 41 and IRAS 04191+1523B are surrounded by envelopes. This provides direct evidence that [GKH94] 41 is a class I object, not class II, as previously classified. For IRAS 04191+1523B, our continuum map spatially resolved the binary. Our estimated final masses are below 49$^{+56}_{-27}$ $M_{\\rm J}$ and 75$^{+40}_{-26}$ $M_{\\rm J}$ for [GKH94...

  17. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus & the LOMASS database

    CERN Document Server

    Carney, M T; Mottram, J C; van Dishoeck, E F; Ramchandani, J; Jørgensen, J K

    2016-01-01

    Context. The classification of young stellar objects (YSOs) is typically done using the infrared spectral slope or bolometric temperature, but either can result in contamination of samples. More accurate methods to determine the evolutionary stage of YSOs will improve the reliability of statistics for the embedded YSO population and provide more robust stage lifetimes. Aims. We aim to separate the truly embedded YSOs from more evolved sources. Methods. Maps of HCO+ J=4-3 and C18O J=3-2 were observed with HARP on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) for a sample of 56 candidate YSOs in Perseus and Taurus in order to characterize emission from high (column) density gas. These are supplemented with archival dust continuum maps observed with SCUBA on the JCMT and Herschel PACS to compare the morphology of the gas and dust in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+ J=4-3 and 850 micron dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I ...

  18. Chemistry in Disks X: The Molecular Content of Proto-planetary Disks in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Guilloteau, S; Dutrey, A; Chapillon, E; Wakelam, V; Piétu, V; Di Folco, E; Semenov, D; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We used the IRAM 30-m to perform a sensitive wideband survey of 30 protoplanetary disks in the Taurus Auriga region. We simultaneously observed HCO$^+$(3-2), HCN(3-2), C$_2$H(3-2), CS(5-4), and two transitions of SO. We combine the results with a previous survey which observed $^{13}$CO (2-1), CN(2-1), two o-H$_2$CO lines and one of SO. We use available interferometric data to derive excitation temperatures of CN and C$_2$H in several sources. We determine characteristic sizes of the gas disks and column densities of all molecules using a parametric power-law disk model. Our study is mostly sensitive to molecules at 200-400 au from the stars. We compare the derived column densities to the predictions of an extensive gas-grain chemical disk model, under conditions representative of T Tauri disks. This survey provides 20 new detections of HCO$^+$ in disks, 18 in HCN, 11 in C$_2$H, 8 in CS and 4 in SO. HCO$^+$ is detected in almost all sources, and its J=3-2 line is essentially optically thick, provid...

  19. AGE ESTIMATION AND MASS FUNCTIONS OF TTAURI STARS IN THE TAURUS AURIGA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Küçük

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se han calculado las funciones de masas en la actualidad (PDMF de las estrellas T-Tauri (TTS que est n en la fase evolutiva de presecuencia principal (PMS en el complejo de nubes moleculares de Taurus-Auriga. Con este n, mediante la aplicaci n de nuestro c digo modi cado de evoluci n estelar se utilizan modelos estelares en el intervalo de masa de 0:1 - 2:5 M para determinar la masa y la masa de edad de las TTS. La funci n de la masa obtenida se compara con la funci n de masa de Miller & Scalo (1979. La edad encontrada para las TTS es de alrededor de 1-3x10 6 a os y la funci n de masa es de aproximadamente 0.644-+0.348. De estos resultados, hemos calculado la tasa de formaci n estelar como de alrededor de 1.3 x 10-7 M a o-1 en esta regi n.

  20. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Demian D; Wintner, Sabine P; Abercrombie, Debra L; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2013-06-23

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size ('hatchlings') consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation ('embryonic cannibalism' or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males ('behavioural polyandry') then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system ('genetic monogamy'). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species.

  1. SMA and CARMA observations of young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular outflows provide vital information about the earliest stages in the birth of stars, studying the molecular outflow properties is therefore crucial for understanding how stars form. Brown dwarfs with masses between that of stars and planets are not massive enough to maintain stable hydrogen-burning fusion reactions during most of their lifetime. Their origins are subject to much debate in recent literature because their masses are far below the typical mass where core collapse is expected to occur. Based on Submillimeter Array (SMA and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA observations, we present the first detections of bipolar molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus. Our results demonstrate that the bipolar molecular outflow operates down to brown dwarf masses, occurring in brown dwarfs as a scaled-down version of the universal process seen in young low-mass stars. This demonstrates that brown dwarfs and low-mass stars likely share the same formation mechanism.

  2. Molecular line study of the very young protostar IRAM 04191 in Taurus Infall, rotation, and outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Despois, D; Blinder, S M

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed millimeter line study of the circumstellar environment of the low-luminosity Class 0 protostar IRAM 04191+1522 in the Taurus molecular cloud. New line observations demonstrate that the ~14000 AU radius protostellar envelope is undergoing both extended infall and fast, differential rotation. Radiative transfer modeling of multitransition CS and C34S maps indicate an infall velocity v_inf ~ 0.15 km/s at r ~ 1500 AU and v_inf ~ 0.1 km/s up to r ~ 11000 AU, as well as a rotational angular velocity Omega ~ 3.9 x 10^{-13} rad/s, strongly decreasing with radius beyond 3500 AU down to a value Omega ~ 1.5-3 x 10^{-14} rad/s at ~ 11000 AU. Two distinct regions, which differ in both their infall and their rotation properties, therefore seem to stand out: the inner part of the envelope (r ~< 2000-4000 AU) is rapidly collapsing and rotating, while the outer part undergoes only moderate infall/contraction and slower rotation. These contrasted features suggest that angular momentum is conserved in t...

  3. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  4. Accretion discs as regulators of stellar angular momentum evolution in the ONC and Taurus-Auriga

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Claire L; Greaves, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent substantial updates to spectral type estimations and newly established intrinsic colours, effective temperatures, and bolometric corrections for pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, we re-address the theory of accretion-disc regulated stellar angular momentum (AM) evolution. We report on the compilation of a consistent sample of fully convective stars within two of the most well-studied and youngest, nearby regions of star formation: the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and Taurus-Auriga. We calculate the average specific stellar AM ($j_{\\star}$) assuming solid body rotation, using surface rotation periods gathered from the literature and new estimates of stellar radii and ages. We use published Spitzer IRAC fluxes to classify our stars as Class II or Class III and compare their $j_{\\star}$ evolution. Our results suggest that disc dispersal is a rapid process that occurs at a variety of ages. We find a consistent $j_{\\star}$ reduction rate between the Class II and Class III PMS stars which we interpret...

  5. Rotationally-supported disks around Class I sources in Taurus: disk formation constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Bruderer, Simon; Persson, Magnus V; Mottram, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) Disks are observed around pre-main sequence stars, but how and when they form is still heavily debated. While disks around young stellar objects have been identified through thermal dust emission, spatially and spectrally resolved molecular line observations are needed to determine their nature. We present subarcsecond observations of dust and gas toward four Class I low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The 13CO and C18O J=2-1 transitions at 220 GHz were observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at a spatial resolution of ~0.8'' and analyzed using uv-space position velocity diagrams to determine the nature of their observed velocity radient. Rotationally supported disks (RSDs) are detected around 3 of the 4 Class I sources studied. The derived masses identify them as Stage I objects; i.e., their stellar mass is higher than their envelope and disk masses. The outer radii of the Keplerian disks toward our sample of Class I sources are 100 AU around these sources are dominated by infallin...

  6. Lunar Field Geological Interpretations Assisted by LROC, Mini-RF and M3: Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Wells, R.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Moon Mineralogical Mapper data, and Mini-RF images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus Littrow. Samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills appear to represent a stratigraphic sequence of ejecta from the Cranium and Serenitatis basin-forming events. Published analyses of these samples provide the approximate ages for those events that appear consistent with this sequence; however, within current 2 sigma error limits, these ages overlap. Strong evidence exists that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta made up of a layered, Mg-suite pluton. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute wall rocks of the crater rather than ejecta and provide a potential opportunity for investigations of remnant magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. A second and older light mantle avalanche deposit has been identified, and the origin, potential fluidized flow mechanisms, and geology of the two avalanches from the South Massif have been clarified, including the probability of significant agitation heating during flow. The structure, potential effects, and timing of the Lee-Lincoln thrust fault, and of an ancillary fault revealed by radar, have been defined and raise doubts about the association of the light mantle avalanche with secondary impacts related to the Tycho event.

  7. Intralocus tactical conflict: genetic correlations between fighters and sneakers of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, B A; Kotiaho, J S; Tomkins, J L; Simmons, L W

    2015-03-01

    Males and females differ in their phenotypic optima for many traits, and as the majority of genes are expressed in both sexes, some alleles can be beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other (intralocus sexual conflict; ISC). ISC theory has recently been extended to intrasexual dimorphisms, where certain alleles may have opposite effects on the fitness of males of different morphs that employ alternative reproductive tactics (intralocus tactical conflict; ITC). Here, we use a half-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic basis for ISC and ITC in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found positive heritabilities and intersexual genetic correlations for almost all traits investigated. Next, we calculated the intrasexual genetic correlation between males of different morphs for horn length, a sexually selected trait, and compared it to intrasexual correlations for naturally selected traits in both sexes. Intrasexual genetic correlations did not differ significantly between the sexes or between naturally and sexually selected traits, failing to support the hypothesis that horns present a reduction of intrasexual genetic correlations due to ITC. We discuss the implications for the idea of developmental reprogramming between male morphs and emphasize the importance of genetic correlations as constraints for the evolution of dimorphisms.

  8. A New Method for Constraining Molecular Cloud Thickness: A study of Taurus, Perseus and Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Lei; Offner, Stella; Pan, Zhichen

    2015-01-01

    The core velocity dispersion (CVD) is a potentially useful tool for studying the turbulent velocity field of molecular clouds. CVD is based on centroid velocities of dense gas clumps, thus is less prone to density fluctuation and reflects more directly the cloud velocity field. Prior work demonstrated that the Taurus molecular cloud CVD resembles the well-known Larson's linewidth-size relation of molecular clouds. In this work, we studied the dependence of the CVD on the line-of-sight thickness of molecular clouds, a quantity which cannot be measured by direct means. We produced a simple statistical model of cores within clouds and analyzed the CVD of a variety of hydrodynamical simulations. We show that the relation between the CVD and the 2D projected separation of cores ($L_{2D}$) is sensitive to the cloud thickness. When the cloud is thin, the index of CVD-$L_{2D}$ relation ($\\gamma$ in the relation CVD$\\sim L_{2D}^{\\gamma}$) reflects the underlying energy spectrum ($E(k)\\sim k^{-\\beta}$) in that $\\gamma\\...

  9. The relation between gas and dust in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, Jorge L; Chapman, Nicholas; Snell, Ronald L; Li, Di; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100deg^2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12CO and 13CO J= 1-0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200", corresponding to 0.14pc at a distance of 140pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction Av and N(CO) is linear between Av~3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213--L1495 filament. In other regions the linear relation is flattened for Av > 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ~30--70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO2 ices and Av, we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon mon...

  10. Crystalline silicates and dust processing in the protoplanetary disks of the Taurus young cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dan M; Furlan, Elise; Bohac, J; Sargent, B; Forrest, W J; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Nordhaus, Jason T; Green, Joel D; Kim, K H; Sloan, G C; Chen, C H; Keller, L D; dAlessio, Paola; Najita, J; Uchida, Keven I; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We characterize the crystalline silicate content and spatial distribution of small dust grains in a large sample of protoplanetary disks in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster, using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectra. In turn we use the results to analyze the evolution of structure and composition of these 1-2 Myr-old disks around Solar- and later-type young stars, and test the standard models of dust processing which result in the conversion of originally amorphous dust into minerals. We find strong evidence of evolution of the dust crystalline mass fraction in parallel with that of the structure of the disks, in the sense that increasing crystalline mass fraction is strongly linked to dust settling to the disk midplane. We also confirm that the crystalline silicates are confined to small radii, r < 10 AU. However, we see no significant correlation of crystalline mass fraction with stellar mass or luminosity, stellar accretion rate, disk mass, or disk/star mass ratio, as would be expected in the st...

  11. Herschel view of the Taurus B211/3 filament and striations: Evidence of filamentary growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Palmeirim, P; Kirk, J; Ward-Thompson, D; Arzoumanian, D; Könyves, V; Didelon, P; Schneider, N; Benedettini, M; Bontemps, S; Di Francesco, J; Elia, D; Griffin, M; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Martin, P G; Men'shchikov, A; Molinari, S; Motte, F; Nutter, D; Peretto, N; Pezzuto, S; Roy, A; Rygl, K L J; Spinoglio, L; White, G

    2012-01-01

    We present first results from the Herschel Gould Belt survey for the B211/L1495 region in the Taurus molecular cloud. Thanks to their high sensitivity and dynamic range, the Herschel images reveal the structure of the dense, star-forming filament B211 with unprecedented detail, along with the presence of striations perpendicular to the filament and generally oriented along the magnetic field direction as traced by optical polarization vectors. Based on the column density and dust temperature maps derived from the Herschel data, we find that the radial density profile of the B211 filament approaches a power-law behavior {\\rho} {\\propto} r^(-2.0{\\pm}0.4) at large radii and that the temperature profile exhibits a marked drop at small radii. The observed density and temperature profiles of the B211 filament are in good agreement with a theoretical model of a cylindrical filament undergoing gravitational contraction with a polytropic equation of state: P {\\propto} {\\rho}^{\\gamma} and T {\\propto} {\\rho}^({\\gamma}-1...

  12. Far-ultraviolet Observations of the Taurus-Perseus-Auriga Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Tae-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a far-ultraviolet (FUV) continuum map of the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus complex, one of the largest local associations of dark clouds, by merging the two data sets of GALEX and FIMS, which made observations at similar wavelengths. The FUV intensity varies significantly across the whole region, but the diffuse FUV continuum is dominated by dust scattering of stellar photons. A diffuse FUV background of $\\sim$1000 CU is observed, part of which may be attributable to the scattered photons of foreground FUV light, located in front of the thick clouds. The fluorescent emission of molecular hydrogen constitutes $\\sim$10% of the total FUV intensity throughout the region, generally proportional to the local continuum level. We have developed a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code and applied it to the present clouds complex to obtain the optical properties of dust grains and the geometrical structures of the clouds. The albedo and the phase function asymmetry factor were estimated to be $0.42^{+0.05}_{-...

  13. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Demian D.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Feldheim, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size (‘hatchlings’) consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation (‘embryonic cannibalism’ or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males (‘behavioural polyandry’) then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system (‘genetic monogamy’). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species. PMID:23637391

  14. AcEST: DK950795 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A OS=Bos t... 53 1e-06 sp|Q7TNB4|MSTRO_MOUSE Protein maestro OS=Mus musculus GN=Mro PE=... 50 9e-06 sp|Q9BYG7|MSTRO_HUMAN Protein mae...stro OS=Homo sapiens GN=MRO PE=... 42 0.002 sp|Q8WNV3|MSTRO_MACFA Protein maestro O...S=Macaca fascicularis GN=... 40 0.009 sp|Q58DE2|MSTRO_BOVIN Protein maestro OS=Bos taurus GN=MRO PE=2 ... 39...ACRFALRMCGPNLECEELAAV 1544 >sp|Q7TNB4|MSTRO_MOUSE Protein maestro OS=Mus musculus GN=Mro PE=2 SV=1 Length = ...+ V + CK T++ + YL Sbjct: 163 AGWRWKKFFTQQVNQTQDSLLGHLQDESPKVAKACKMTVRACVPYL 208 >sp|Q9BYG7|MSTRO_HUMAN Protein maestro

  15. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  16. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.

  17. Assessment of Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Yak (Bos grunniens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Fang, Lei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Chai, Shatuo; Liu, Shujie; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbial community composition in the rumen of yaks under different feeding regimes. Microbial communities were assessed by sequencing bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments obtained from yaks (Bos grunniens) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Samples were obtained from 14 animals allocated to either pasture grazing (Graze), a grazing and supplementary feeding regime (GSF), or an indoor feeding regime (Feed). The predominant bacterial phyla across feeding regimes were Bacteroidetes (51.06%) and Firmicutes (32.73%). At genus level, 25 genera were shared across all samples. The relative abundance of Prevotella in the graze and GSF regime group were significantly higher than that in the feed regime group. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus was lower in the graze group than the feed and GSF regime groups. The most abundant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota, which accounted for 99.67% of the sequences. Ten genera were detected across feeding regimes, seven genera were shared by all samples, and the most abundant was genus Methanobrevibacter (91.60%). The relative abundance of the most detected genera were similar across feeding regime groups. Our results suggest that the ruminal bacterial community structure differs across yak feeding regimes while the archaeal community structures are largely similar. PMID:28223980

  18. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  19. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  20. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Gang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV. No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus. One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584, with 24.26% (148/610 black yaks and 19.10% (186/974 white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.73, P<0.05, the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks.