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Sample records for saphenous nerve crush

  1. Traumatic lesions of internal saphenous nerve and branches.

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    Rodrigues, Flávio Freinkel; Skartz, Issac; Dozza, Diego Cassol; Moscovici, Maurício; Suchmacher, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    To show a rare lesion that sometimes simulates vascular disorder of the lower extremities. Three patients were operated and the follow-up period was eight months, the surgical technique was neurotomy of the infrapatellar and descendent branches. In two cases there were almost total pain resolution, and in other case improvement only. Surgical treatment yields good results in this type of internal saphenous nerve lesion, and could be useful as an alternative to conservative treatment.

  2. Subsartorial Entrapment of the Saphenous Nerve of a Competitive.

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    Dumitru, D; Windsor, R E

    1989-01-01

    In brief: A 40-year-old bodybuilder had a six- week history of progressively worsening pain of the medial part of her right knee that did not respond to rest and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Somatosensory evoked potential readings suggested that both branches of the right saphenous nerve were entrapped. Management consisting of two intramuscular injections of bupivacaine, administrations of two different NSAIDs, and application of knee wraps around the subsartorial region resolved the patient's symptoms within five weeks. She then resumed an intensive lower-extremity exercise regimen without discomfort, in preparation for a bodybuilding competition.

  3. Comparison of nerve graft integration after segmentar resection versus epineural burying in crushed rat sciatic nerves

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    Cunha Marco Túlio Rodrigues da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to compare and correlate the take of nerve segments in a severely crushed nerve. Forty adult Wistar rats had their right sciatic nerve by a "Péan-Murphy" forceps for 40 minutes. In Group 1 (n=20, a segmentar serection in the crushed sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment from the opposite hindpaw was placed in the gap. In Group 2 (n=20, a lontudinal insision in the epineurium of the lesioned sciatic nerve was made. A sural nerve segment was buried underneath the epineurium. The crushed sciatic nerves undergone Wallerian degeneration and endoneurial fibrosis. Sciatic nerves from Group 2 had significant better histological aspects than those from Group 1. Sural nerve grafts presented better degrees of regeneration than crushed sciatic nerves. Sural nerve grafts from Group 2 (burying method integrated as well as those from Group 1 (segmentar resection.

  4. Prevalence of saphenous nerve injury after adductor-canal-blockade in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty

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    Henningsen, Maja; Jæger, Pia; Hilsted, K L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-canal-blockade is a new technique for pain relief after knee surgery. This block could cause nerve injury and the aim of this follow-up study was to determine the prevalence of saphenous nerve injury in patients receiving adductor-canal-blockade for pain treatment after total...... knee arthroplasty. METHODS: All patients included in two former studies of adductor-canal-blockade following total knee arthroplasty were invited to participate in this follow-up study 3-6 months after surgery. We examined the cutaneous area on the medial aspect of the lower leg (medial crural branch......, 76 patients could not discriminate between blunt and sharp stimulation with a needle, 81 patients could not discriminate between cold and warmth, and 82 patients displayed an altered sensation to light brush. CONCLUSION: We found no indications of saphenous nerve injury caused by the adductor-canal...

  5. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

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    Rosana Macher Teodori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1, those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14, injured rats not submitted to swimming (C, and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S. After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P0.05. Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury.

  6. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

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    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

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    Li, X. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: xinchunli@163.com; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B. [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The SIR of the distal portion of crushed nerves was higher than that of the proximal nerve portion; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Whereas, the SIR at proximal nerve portions of crushed nerve was similar to control nerves (P > 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B

  8. The sural nerve: Sonographic anatomy, variability and relation to the small saphenous vein in the setting of endovenous thermal ablation.

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    Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Elstner, Kristen; Zea, Aaron; Diaz, Jenny; Martinic, Kui; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2017-02-01

    Background Neurological complications are well documented in association with both surgical stripping or disconnection and thermal ablation of the small saphenous vein. The sural nerve (medial sural cutaneous nerve) is most vulnerable due to its close relationship to the small saphenous vein. Objective This is a cross-sectional observational study of the sonographic anatomy of 115 Australian patients to determine the course of the sural nerve and its relationship to the small saphenous vein, and to identify its relevance in the thermal ablation of the small saphenous vein. Method Sonographic mapping of the right sural nerve was performed with a Philips L12.5 and Sonosite 10.5 MHz ultrasound machine on 115 patients. The sural nerve was traced proximally from the level of the lateral malleolus to the popliteal fossa in order to measure its distance from the small saphenous vein at four reference points in the lower leg. Results A total of 115 patients were studied (females 82, males 33). The sural nerve was identified in 100% of patients; 64 patients (55.7%) showed usual sural nerve anatomy, while 51 patients (44.3%) demonstrated a range of anatomical variations, including the sural nerve becoming epifascial at a higher point than usual. Conclusion The sural nerve was identifiable on duplex ultrasound in 100% of cases. Classic anatomical relations and the perceived protection of the sural nerve conferred by the deep fascia of the upper calf are unreliable. Preoperative strategies can help to approach and protect the sural nerve in the endovenous ablation setting.

  9. Effect of crush lesion on radiolabelling of ganglioside in rat peripheral nerve

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    Guzman-Harty, M.; Warner, J.K.; Mancini, M.E.; Pearl, D.K.; Yates, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Left sciatic nerves of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were crushed and allowed to recover for 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days. At each of these times both L-5 dorsal root ganglia were injected with 100 microCi of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine. Two days later, dorsal root ganglia, lumbosacral trunks, and sciatic nerves were removed bilaterally. The amounts of radiolabelled ganglioside in crushed lumbosacral trunks were consistently higher than in the controls, with the largest difference occurring within 2 days from simultaneous crush and injection to killing (specimens labelled day 0). The largest difference in the amount of radiolabelled ganglioside between crushed and control sciatic nerve (4-9 days from crush to killing) occurred later than that of lumbosacral trunk, but no significant difference occurred within the first 3 days following crush. There was only a slightly higher radioactivity in gangliosides totalled from all three anatomical specimens of crushed than in control nerves. The neutral nonganglioside lipid and acid-precipitable fraction followed patterns of synthesis and accumulation similar to those of the gangliosides. These findings indicate that after nerve crush gangliosides, glucosamine-labelled neutral nonganglioside lipids, and glycoproteins accumulate close to the proximal end of the regenerating axon. This accumulation could serve as a reservoir to increase the ganglioside concentration in the growth cone membrane.

  10. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rat model of nerve crush injury.

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    Ma, Junxiong; Li, Wenxian; Tian, Ruifeng; Lei, Wei

    2010-07-05

    Searching for effective drugs which are capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries has gained extensive attention. Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) is one of the bioactive compounds extracted from ginseng. GRg1 has been shown to be neuroprotective in many in vitro studies, which raises the possibility of using GRg1 as a neuroprotective agent after nerve injuries. However, such a possibility has never been tested in in vivo studies. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of GRg1 in promoting nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury in rats. All rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group) after crush injury and were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with 1mg/kg, or 5mg/kg GRg1 (low or high dose GRg1 groups), or 100mug/kg mecobalamin or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by retrograde labeling and morphometric analysis. The motor functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies, behavioral tests and histological appearance of the target muscles. Our data showed that high dose GRg1 achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those achieved by low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin. The final outcome of low dose GRg1 and mecobalamin was similar in both morphological and functional items, which was significantly better than that in saline group. These findings show that GRg1 is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after nerve injuries, suggesting the possibility of developing GRg1 a neuroprotective drug for peripheral nerve repair applications.

  11. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  12. Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury and Recovery Tracked by Plantar Test and Immunohistochemistry Analysis

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    Pavić, Roman; Pavić, Michele L.; Tvrdeić, Ante; Tot, Ozana K.; Heffer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    An experimental crush injury to the sciatic nerve, with a crush force of 49.2 N (pressure p=1.98x108 Pa), was inflicted in 30 male rats (Wistar). A control group (sham), with the same number of rats, was also operated upon exactly as the experimental group but without the crush injury. We tested the sensory and motor recovery of the sciatic nerve with Hargreaves method, using an apparatus from Ugo Basile, Italy. Testing was continued for both legs of each rat, injured and uninjured, starting ...

  13. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on the regeneration of experimental crush injuries of nerves

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    Tuma Jr. Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen has been successfully used on treatment of acute ischemic injuries involving soft tissues and chronic injuries. In nerve crush injuries, the mechanisms involved are very similar to those found in ischemic injuries. Consequently, it is logical to hypothesize that hyperbaric oxygen should improve nerve repair, which is a critical step on functional recovery. In the present study, we created standard nerve crush injuries on sciatic nerves of rats, which underwent treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Results were assessed by functional evaluation using walking-track analysis. The functional recovery indexes observed did not differ from control group. We concluded that hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in the schedule used, had no influence on functional recovery after nerve crush injuries.

  14. Glatiramer acetate immune system augmentation for peripheral nerve regeneration in rat crushed sciatic nerve model.

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    Luria, Shai; Waitayawinyu, Thanapong; Conniff, James; Morton, H Josette; Nemechek, Nicholas M; Sonnen, Joshua A; Katolik, Leonid I; Trumble, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Protective antiself response to nervous system injury has been reported to be mediated by a T-cell subpopulation that can recognize self-antigens. Immune cells have been shown to play a role in the regulation of motor neuron survival after a peripheral nerve injury. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of immune system augmentation with use of the antigen glatiramer acetate, which is known to affect T-cell immunity, on peripheral nerve regeneration. Wild-type and nude-type (T-cell-deficient) rats underwent crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Three and six weeks after the injury, the sciatic nerve was examined, both functionally (on the basis of footprint analysis and the tibialis anterior muscle response and weight) and histologically (on the basis of axon count). Significantly greater muscle responses were measured after three weeks in the group of wild-type rats that were treated with glatiramer acetate (control limb:injured limb ratio, 0.05 for the glatiramer acetate group [n = 9], compared with 0.51 for the saline solution group [n = 8]; p < 0.05). Higher axon counts were also found in this group (control limb:injured limb ratio, -0.07 for the glatiramer acetate group [n = 10], compared with 0.29 for the saline solution group [n = 8]; p < 0.05). The nude-type rats showed no response to the intervention after three weeks but showed a delayed response after six weeks. A second dose of glatiramer acetate, delivered forty-eight hours after the injury, did not result in an improved response as compared with the control groups. We found that a single treatment with glatiramer acetate resulted in accelerated functional and histological recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury. The role of T-cell immunity in the mechanism of glatiramer acetate was suggested by the partial and late response found in the T-cell-deficient rats.

  15. Entrapment of motor nerves in motor neuron disease: does double crush occur?

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    Chaudhry, V; Clawson, L L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether "diseased nerves" are more prone to entrapment neuropathy than normal nerves. Nerve conduction studies of human neuropathies have shown that electrophysiological abnormalities are often most prominent at potential sites of nerve entrapment, and entrapments are more common in patients with radiculopathies--a concept designated as "double crush". As entrapment neuropathies commonly occur in otherwise healthy subjects, it is unclear whether this relation is coin...

  16. Immune system augmentation by glatiramer acetate of peripheral nerve regeneration-crush versus transection models of rat sciatic nerve.

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    Luria, Shai; Cohen, Avraham; Safran, Ori; Firman, Shimon; Liebergall, Meir

    2013-10-01

    Immune system augmentation, using the antigen glatiramer acetate (GA), which is known to affect cellular immunity, has been shown to have a positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. We aimed to compare the effect of GA on the regeneration of crushed versus transected nerves. Wild-type rats underwent crush or transection and repair of the sciatic nerve. They were examined 3 weeks postinjury histologically (axon count) and functionally (tibialis anterior muscle weight and footprint analysis). GA was found to augment regeneration both histologically and functionally. In the transected nerve, a significant increase in axon count distal to the injury site was seen in the GA group versus control. A similar yet statistically insignificant trend was found in the crushed nerve. Improvement was found in the footprint analysis between the GA and control groups in both crush and transected nerve groups. We found improvement in the footprint analysis in the crush versus transection group. GA was found to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nerve. Histologically, this was more pronounced in the transection injury. The discrepancy between the different functional measures examined may be explained by the distance of the reinnervated muscles evaluated from the injury site. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Improves Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Sciatic Nerve Crush Rat Injury Model

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    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm2 and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm2. Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm2 had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm2. Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm2. Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm2 and 8 J/cm2) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  18. The Protective Role of Mecobalamin Following Optic Nerve Crush in Adult Rats

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    Xiangmei Kong; Xinghuai Sun; Jinjun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential for Mecobalamin as a neuroprotective agent in optic nerve crush injury.Methods: Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups.One group acted as normal controls, while in the other three groups the right eye was subjected to optic nerve crush injury. Of the three crush injury groups one group received no treatment, while the other two groups received intramuscular injections of VitaminB12 or Mecobalamin (10μg) immediately after crush injury and then every two days. All the rats were sacrificed one month post-treatment, and the eyes attached with optic nerves were removed for histology. The morphological changes of optic nerve axons and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were assessed under light microscope (LM) and transmission electromicroscope (TEM). The numbers of axons and RGCs were counted.Results: In this study we demonstrate the potential for Mecobalamin as a neuroprotective agent following optic nerve crush injury. We show here that the axons of optic nerves were loose in structure or destroyed. The mitochondria of the RGCs was swollen, and the Nissel body was less evident after the crush injury. Moreover, the number of axons and RGCs was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). However, these changes were less dramatic after the Mecobalamin-treatment. More axons and RGCs were remained in the group than those in the untreated injury group (P = 0.010 and 0.003 respectively), and those in the VitaminB12-treated group (P=0.037 and 0.035 respectively). More significantly, there were newly formed axons found in the Mecobalamin-treated group.Conclusions: Optic nerve crush injury in rats causes the loss of the axons and RGCs but this may be ameliorated by treatment with Mecobalamin.

  19. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

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    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats, o

  20. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves

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    Barghash, Ziad; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Al-Bishri, Awad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod...... in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than...... for 30 s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both...

  1. L-carnitine alleviates sciatic nerve crush injury in rats:functional and electron microscopy assessments

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    Ümmü Zeynep Avsar; Umit Avsar; Ali Aydin; Muhammed Yayla; Berna Ozturkkaragoz; Harun Un; Murat Saritemur; Tolga Mercantepe

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that L-carnitine exhibits neuro-protective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats. Rat sciatic nerve was crush injured by a forceps and exhibited degenerative changes. After intragastric administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine for 30 days, axon area, myelin sheath area, axon diameter, myelin sheath diameter, and numerical density of the myelinated axons of injured sciatic nerve were similar to normal, and the function of injured sciatic nerve also improved signiifcantly. These ifndings suggest that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

  2. The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats.

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    Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

    2012-07-01

    JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI.

  3. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

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    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  4. Persistence of PAD and presynaptic inhibition of muscle spindle afferents after peripheral nerve crush.

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    Enríquez-Denton, M; Manjarrez, E; Rudomin, P

    2004-11-19

    Two to twelve weeks after crushing a muscle nerve, still before the damaged afferents reinnervate the muscle receptors, conditioning stimulation of group I fibers from flexor muscles depolarizes the damaged afferents [M. Enriquez, I. Jimenez, P. Rudomin, Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush. Exp. Brain Res., 107 (1996), 405-420]. It is not known, however, if this primary afferent depolarization (PAD) is indeed related to presynaptic inhibition. We now show in the cat that 2-12 weeks after crushing the medial gastrocnemius nerve (MG), conditioning stimulation of group I fibers from flexors increases the excitability of the intraspinal terminals of both the intact lateral gastrocnemius plus soleus (LGS) and of the previously damaged MG fibers ending in the motor pool, because of PAD. The PAD is associated with the depression of the pre- and postsynaptic components of the extracellular field potentials (EFPs) evoked in the motor pool by stimulation of either the intact LGS or of the previously damaged MG nerves. These observations indicate, in contrast to what has been reported for crushed cutaneous afferents [K.W. Horch, J.W. Lisney, Changes in primary afferent depolarization of sensory neurones during peripheral nerve regeneration in the cat, J. Physiol., 313 (1981), 287-299], that shortly after damaging their peripheral axons, the synaptic efficacy of group I spindle afferents remains under central control. Presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms could be utilized to adjust the central actions of muscle afferents not fully recovered from peripheral lesions.

  5. VGLUT1 synapses and P-boutons on regenerating motoneurons after nerve crush.

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    Schultz, Adam J; Rotterman, Travis M; Dwarakanath, Anirudh; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2017-09-01

    Stretch-sensitive Ia afferent monosynaptic connections with motoneurons form the stretch reflex circuit. After nerve transection, Ia afferent synapses and stretch reflexes are permanently lost, even after regeneration and reinnervation of muscle by motor and sensory afferents is completed in the periphery. This loss greatly affects full recovery of motor function. However, after nerve crush, reflex muscle forces during stretch do recover after muscle reinnervation and reportedly exceed 140% baseline values. This difference might be explained by structural preservation after crush of Ia afferent synapses on regenerating motoneurons and decreased presynaptic inhibitory control. We tested these possibilities in rats after crushing the tibial nerve (TN), and using Vesicular GLUtamate Transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid-decarboxylase (GAD65) as markers of, respectively, Ia afferent synapses and presynaptic inhibition (P-boutons) on retrogradely labeled motoneurons. We analyzed motoneurons during regeneration (21 days post crush) and after they reinnervate muscle (3 months). The results demonstrate a significant loss of VGLUT1 terminals on dendrites and cell bodies at both 21 days and 3 months post-crush. However, in both cellular compartments, the reductions were small compared to those observed after TN full transection. In addition, we found a significant decrease in the number of GAD65 P-boutons per VGLUT1 terminal and their coverage of VGLUT1 boutons. The results support the hypothesis that better preservation of Ia afferent synapses and a change in presynaptic inhibition could contribute to maintain or even increase the stretch reflex after nerve crush and by difference to nerve transection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modulation of action potential trains in rabbit saphenous nerve unmyelinated fibers.

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    Zhu, Zhi-Ru; Liu, Yi-Hui; Ji, Wei-Gang; Duan, Jian-Hong; Hu, San-Jue

    2013-01-01

    Usually, the main axon is assumed to faithfully conduct action potentials (APs). Recent data have indicated that neural processing can occur along the axonal path. However, the patterns and mechanisms of temporal coding are not clear. In the present study, single fiber recording was used to analyze activity-dependent modulation of AP trains in the main axons of C fibers in the rabbit saphenous nerve. Trains of 5 superthreshold electrical pulses at interstimulus intervals of 20 or 50 ms were applied to the nerve trunk for 200 s. The interspike intervals (ISIs) for these trains were compared to the input interstimulus intervals. Three basic types of C fibers were observed in response to repeated stimuli: first, the ISI between the first and second AP (ISI1-2) of type 1 was longer than the interstimulus interval; second, the ISI1-2 of type 2 showed wavelike fluctuations around the interstimulus interval, and third, the ISI1-2 of type 3 exhibited shorter intervals for a long period. Furthermore, both 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents were involved in the modulation of ISI1-2 of train pulses. These data provide new evidence that multiple modes of neural conduction can occur along the main axons of C fibers.

  7. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; GU, YANGLIN; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphologi...

  8. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function).

  9. Early myelin breakdown following sural nerve crush: a freeze-fracture study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.B. Martinez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the early changes of the myelin sheath following surgical nerve crush. We used the freeze-fracture technique to better evaluate myelin alterations during an early stage of Wallerian degeneration. Rat sural nerves were experimentally crushed and animals were sacrificed by transcardiac perfusion 30 h after surgery. Segments of the nerves were processed for routine transmission electron microscopy and freeze-fracture techniques. Our results show that 30 h after the lesion there was asynchrony in the pattern of Wallerian degeneration, with different nerve fibers exhibiting variable degrees of axon disruption. This was observed by both techniques. Careful examination of several replicas revealed early changes in myelin membranes represented by vacuolization and splitting of consecutive lamellae, rearrangement of intramembranous particles and disappearance of paranodal transverse bands associated or not with retraction of paranodal myelin terminal loops from the axolemma. These alterations are compatible with a direct injury to the myelin sheath following nerve crush. The results are discussed in terms of a similar mechanism underlying both axon and myelin breakdown.

  10. Early myelin breakdown following sural nerve crush: a freeze-fracture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A M; Canavarro, S

    2000-12-01

    In this study we describe the early changes of the myelin sheath following surgical nerve crush. We used the freeze-fracture technique to better evaluate myelin alterations during an early stage of Wallerian degeneration. Rat sural nerves were experimentally crushed and animals were sacrificed by transcardiac perfusion 30 h after surgery. Segments of the nerves were processed for routine transmission electron microscopy and freeze-fracture techniques. Our results show that 30 h after the lesion there was asynchrony in the pattern of Wallerian degeneration, with different nerve fibers exhibiting variable degrees of axon disruption. This was observed by both techniques. Careful examination of several replicas revealed early changes in myelin membranes represented by vacuolization and splitting of consecutive lamellae, rearrangement of intramembranous particles and disappearance of paranodal transverse bands associated or not with retraction of paranodal myelin terminal loops from the axolemma. These alterations are compatible with a direct injury to the myelin sheath following nerve crush. The results are discussed in terms of a similar mechanism underlying both axon and myelin breakdown.

  11. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  12. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  13. Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sun-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Lin, Kung-Hung; Sheu, Min-Muh; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl) on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20), intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20), intraperitoneal injection (IPI) of Cbl (n = 20), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20) every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm(2)) and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm(2)) were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm(2)). The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively) than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms). However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes). Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model.

  14. Neuropeptide expression and morphometric differences in crushed alveolar inferior nerve of rats: Effects of photobiomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daniel Oliveira; Dos Santos, Fabio Martinez; Ciena, Adriano Polican; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; de Britto, Luiz Roberto G; Lemos, José Benedito Dias; Chacur, Marucia

    2017-05-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries may occur during various dental routine procedures, especially in the removal of impacted lower third molars, and nerve recovery in these cases is a great challenge in dentistry. Here, the IAN crush injury model was used to assess the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the recovery of the IAN in rats following crushing injury (a partial lesion). Rats were divided into four experimental groups: without any procedure, IAN crush injury, and IAN crush injury with PBM and sham group with PBM. Treatment was started 2 days after surgery, above the site of injury, and was performed every other day, totaling 10 sessions. Rats were irradiated with GaAs Laser (Gallium Arsenide, Laserpulse, Ibramed Brazil) emitting a wavelength of 904 nm, an output power of 70 mWpk, beam spot size at target ∼0.1 cm(2), a frequency of 9500 Hz, a pulse time 60 ns, and an energy density of 6 J/cm(2). Nerve recovery was investigated by measuring the morphometric data of the IAN using TEM and by the expression of laminin, neurofilaments (NFs), and myelin protein zero (MPZ) using Western blot analysis. We found that IAN-injured rats which received PBM had a significant improvement of IAN morphometry when compared to IAN-injured rats without PBM. In parallel, all MPZ, laminin, and NFs exhibited a decrease after PBM. The results of this study indicate that the correlation between the peripheral nerve ultrastructure and the associated protein expression shows the beneficial effects of PBM.

  15. Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Lun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl on optic nerves (ON and retinal ganglion cells (RGC in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20, intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20, intraperitoneal injection (IPI of Cbl (n = 20, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20 every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm2 and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm2 were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm2. The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms. However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes. Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model.

  16. Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, M; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1996-01-01

    In the anesthetized cat we have analyzed the changes in primary afferent depolarization (PAD) evoked in single muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents at different times after their axons were crushed in the periphery and allowed to regenerate. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) afferents were depolarized by stimulation of group I fibers in the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt), as soon as 2 weeks after crushing their axons in the periphery, in some cases before they could be activated by physiological stimulation of muscle receptors. Two to twelve weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the PBSt produced PAD in all MG fibers reconnected with presumed muscle spindles and tendon organs. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindles was increased relative to values obtained from Ia fibers in intact (control) preparations, but remained essentially the same in fibers reconnected with tendon organs. Quite unexpectedly, we found that, between 2 and 12 weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation (RF) produced PAD in most afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindle afferents. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in these fibers was significantly increased relative to the PAD elicited in muscle spindle afferents from intact preparations (from 0.08 +/- 0.4 to 0.47 +/- 0.34 mV). A substantial recovery was observed between 6 months and 2.5 years after the peripheral nerve injury. Stimulation of the sural (SU) nerve produced practically no PAD in muscle spindles from intact preparations, and this remained so in those afferents reconnected with muscle spindles impaled 2-12 weeks after the nerve crush. The mean amplitude of the PAD produced in afferent fibers reconnected with tendon organs by stimulation of the PBSt nerve and of the bulbar RF remained essentially the same as the PAD elicited in intact afferents. However, SU nerve stimulation produced a larger PAD in afferents

  17. Rat sciatic nerve crush injury and recovery tracked by plantar test and immunohistochemistry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Roman; Pavić, Michele L; Tvrdeić, Ante; Tot, Ozana K; Heffer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    An experimental crush injury to the sciatic nerve, with a crush force of 49.2 N (pressure p=1.98x10(8) Pa), was inflicted in 30 male rats (Wistar). A control group (sham), with the same number of rats, was also operated upon exactly as the experimental group but without the crush injury. We tested the sensory and motor recovery of the sciatic nerve with Hargreaves method, using an apparatus from Ugo Basile, Italy. Testing was continued for both legs of each rat, injured and uninjured, starting preoperatively (0 day), and then 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postoperatively. The same experiment was run simultaneously with the sham group. The Plantar test showed recovery of the sensory and motor function of the sciatic nerve, though not complete recovery, by 28 days. An immunohistochemical experiment was run in parallel with the plantar test on L3-L6 segments of the spinal cord from where the sciatic nerve extends. We used antibodies for Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the aforesaid part of the spinal cord. The immunohistochemical methods showed changes in sensory and motor axons in the spinal cord segment L3-L6 which suggest correspondence with the results of the Plantar test, in terms of recovery of the sensory and motor function after injury of the sciatic nerve. The immunohistochemical results also show ipsilateral and contralateral changes following injury. Results of the plantar test are suggestive that the rat shows compensation for an injury in its contralateral leg.

  18. Effect of Zofenopril on regeneration of sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalender Ali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zofenopril is an antioxidant agent which has been shown to have beneficial effects in hypertension and heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of Zofenopril on nerve regeneration and scarring in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. Methods Twenty-one adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a surgical procedure involving right sciatic nerve crush injury. 15 mg/kg Zofenopril was administered orally to seven rats in group Z for seven days. Seven rats in group S received saline orally for seven days. Seven rats in the control group C received no drug after crush injury. Fourteenth and 42nd days after injury, functional and electromyography assessments of nerves were performed. Functional recovery was analyzed using a walking track assessment, and quantified using the sciatic functional index (SFI. After these evaluations, all rats were sacrificed and microscopic evaluations were performed. Results The Sciatic functional Index (SFI in group Z on 14th day is different significantly from group S and group C (p = 0.037. But on 42nd day there was no difference between groups (p = 0.278. The statistical analyses of electromyelographic (EMG studies showed that the latency in group Z is significantly different from group S (p = 0.006 and group C (p = 0.045. But on 42nd day there was no difference between groups like SFI (p = 0.147. The amplitude was evaluated better in group Z than others (p Conclusion Our results demonstrate that Zofenopril promotes the regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries in rat models.

  19. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Gan; Minquan Qian; Keqin Shi; Gang Chen; Yanglin Gu; Wei Du; Guoxing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administra-tion of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin signiifcantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve ifbers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Further-more, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4–6 dorsal root ganglia. Our ifndings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes.

  20. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yanglin; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-11-15

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin significantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve fibers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Furthermore, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4-6 dorsal root ganglia. Our findings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes.

  1. Expression of nerve growth factor in spinal dorsal horn following crushed spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF) in spinal dorsal horn following crushed spinal cord injury. METHODS: The adult Srague-Dawley rat model of crushed spinal cord injury was established by the method in our laboratory, and intact spinal cord was used as control. The rats were sacrificed respectively after 24 hours, 7 days, and 21 days of operation, and the L3 spinal segments were removed out and fixed in 4% polyformaldehyde. The segments were sectioned into sections of 20 μm in thickness. The sections were stained with anti-NGF antibody by ABC method of immunohistochemistry technique. The immunoreactive intensity of NGF and the number of positive neurons as well as glial cells in dorsal horn were observed and counted under light microscope. RESULTS: The number of positive cells and immunoreactive intensity of NGF increased gradually in the dorsal horn at 24 hours, 7 days and 21 days following crushed spinal cord injury compared with control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: These results indicated that NGF plays an important role in the postoperative reaction during the early period of the crushed spinal cord injury.

  2. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Double Crush Syndrome of the Ulnar Nerve by the Anconeus Epitrochlearis and a Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Double compression of the ulnar nerve, including Guyon's canal syndrome associated with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, is a very rare condition. We present a case of double crush syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and elbow in a 55-year-old man, as well as a brief review of the literature. Although electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with an ulnar nerve lesion only at the elbow, ultrasonography revealed a ganglion compressing the ulnar nerve...

  3. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  4. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  5. Beneficial Effect of Metformin on Nerve Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-05-01

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin have been increasingly recognized in both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Thus far, no information has been available on the potential beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes was established by a single injection of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg in rats. After sciatic nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with metformin (30, 200 and 500 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. It was found that metformin significantly enhanced axonal regeneration and functional recovery compared to saline after sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. In addition, metformin at 200 and 500 mg/kg showed better performance than that at 30 mg/kg. Taken together, metformin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injuries in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Expression of VEGF and neural repair after alprostadil treatment in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

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    Tang Jinrong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vasoactive drug alprostadil improves microcirculation and can be effective in treating disorders of peripheral nerves. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to have protective action in cerebral ischemia, disorders of spinal cord, and also peripheral nerves. However, the mechanism of action of VEGF in peripheral nerve injuries is uncertain. Objectives: To study the effect of application of alprostadil on the pathological and functional repair of crush nerve injuries and also the expression of VEGF. Materials and Methods: Rat sciatic nerves were crushed by pincers to establish the model of crush injury. All of the 400 sprague dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into: Control; saline; saline + VEGF-antibody; alprostadil; and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. The SPSS 11.5 software was used for statistical analysis. The expression of VEGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, following crush injury to sciatic nerves, was studied by reverse transcribed-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electromicroscope, and electrophysiology. The effects of alprostadil on expression of VEGF, repair of neural pathology, and recovery of neural function were also evaluated. Results: We found that VEGF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA was significantly increased in alprostadil and alprostadil + VEGF-antibody groups, compared to the saline and saline + VEGF antibody groups. The number of VEGF-positive neurons was significantly increased in the alprostadil group, compared to the saline, saline + VEGF antibody, and alprostadil + VEGF antibody groups. Besides, addition of this drug also caused less pathological changes in DRGs, better improvement of nerve conduction velocities of sciatic nerves, and more increase of toe spaces of right hind limbs of rats. Conclusions: The vasoactive agent alprostadil may reduce the pathological lesion of peripheral nerves and improve the rehabilitation of the neural function, which may

  7. Effect of Perineural Dexamethasone on the Duration of Single Injection Saphenous Nerve Block for Analgesia After Major Ankle Surgery. A Randomized, Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Siska; Linde, Frank; Nielsen, Kristian Kibak;

    2016-01-01

    prolongs the duration of analgesia and postpones as well as reduces opioid-requiring pain. METHODS: Forty patients were included in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. All patients received a continuous sciatic catheter and were randomized to receive a single-injection saphenous nerve block...

  8. Inhibition of noradrenaline release from the sympathetic nerves of the human saphenous vein by presynaptic histamine H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, G J; Weissenborn, G; Schlicker, E; Likungu, J; Göthert, M

    1992-07-01

    The human saphenous vein was used to examine whether presynaptic histamine receptors can modulate noradrenaline release and, if so, to determine their pharmacological characteristics. Strips of this blood vessel were incubated with [3H]noradrenaline and subsequently superfused with physiological salt solution containing desipramine and corticosterone. Electrically (2 Hz) evoked 3H overflow was inhibited by histamine and the H3 receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine. Histamine-induced inhibition of electrically evoked tritium overflow was not affected by alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade by rauwolscine. S-(+)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 10 mumol/l) as well as the histamine H1 and H2 receptor agonists 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine (up to 3 mumol/l) and dimaprit (up to 30 mumol/l), respectively, were ineffective. The selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide abolished the inhibitory effect of histamine. The histamine H2 and H1 receptor antagonists ranitidine and pheniramine, respectively, did not affect the histamine-induced inhibition of evoked tritium overflow. The present results are compatible with the suggestion that the sympathetic nerves of the human saphenous vein are endowed with inhibitory presynaptic histamine receptors of the H3 class.

  9. Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve

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    Eileen M. Foecking, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries lead to a variety of pathological conditions, including paresis or paralysis when the injury involves motor axons. We have been studying ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury. The current experiment tested whether ES administered immediately following the crush injury would further decrease the time for complete recovery from facial paralysis. Rats received a unilateral facial nerve crush injury and an electrode was positioned on the nerve proximal to the crush site. Animals received daily 30 min sessions of ES for 1 d (day of injury only, 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, or daily until complete functional recovery. Untreated animals received no ES. Animals were observed daily for the return of facial function. Our findings demonstrated that one session of ES was as effective as daily stimulation at enhancing the recovery of most functional parameters. Therefore, the use of a single 30 min session of ES as a possible treatment strategy should be studied in human patients with paralysis as a result of acute nerve injuries.

  10. Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emril, Dessy R; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas; Susilowati, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Methods Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function. Results The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, Pciticoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (Pciticoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18) and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume. Conclusion In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:27284264

  11. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  12. Urokinase plasminogen receptor and the fibrinolytic complex play a role in nerve repair after nerve crush in mice, and in human neuropathies.

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    Cristina Rivellini

    Full Text Available Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM is a critical step in peripheral nerve regeneration. In fact, in human neuropathies, endoneurial ECM enriched in fibrin and vitronectin associates with poor regeneration and worse clinical prognosis. Accordingly in animal models, modification of the fibrinolytic complex activity has profound effects on nerve regeneration: high fibrinolytic activity and low levels of fibrin correlate with better nerve regeneration. The urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR is a major component of the fibrinolytic complex, and binding to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA promotes fibrinolysis and cell movement. uPAR is expressed in peripheral nerves, however, little is known on its potential function on nerve development and regeneration. Thus, we investigated uPAR null mice and observed that uPAR is dispensable for nerve development, whereas, loss of uPAR affects nerve regeneration. uPAR null mice showed reduced nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. This was a consequence of reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased deposition of endoneurial fibrin and vitronectin. Exogenous fibrinolysis in uPAR null mice rescued nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. Finally, we measured the fibrinolytic activity in sural nerve biopsies from patients with peripheral neuropathies. We showed that neuropathies with defective regeneration had reduced fibrinolytic activity. On the contrary, neuropathies with signs of active regeneration displayed higher fibrinolytic activity. Overall, our results suggest that enforced fibrinolysis may facilitate regeneration and outcome of peripheral neuropathies.

  13. Urokinase Plasminogen Receptor and the Fibrinolytic Complex Play a Role in Nerve Repair after Nerve Crush in Mice, and in Human Neuropathies

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    Rivellini, Cristina; Dina, Giorgia; Porrello, Emanuela; Cerri, Federica; Scarlato, Marina; Domi, Teuta; Ungaro, Daniela; Carro, Ubaldo Del; Bolino, Alessandra; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Previtali, Stefano C.

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in peripheral nerve regeneration. In fact, in human neuropathies, endoneurial ECM enriched in fibrin and vitronectin associates with poor regeneration and worse clinical prognosis. Accordingly in animal models, modification of the fibrinolytic complex activity has profound effects on nerve regeneration: high fibrinolytic activity and low levels of fibrin correlate with better nerve regeneration. The urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) is a major component of the fibrinolytic complex, and binding to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) promotes fibrinolysis and cell movement. uPAR is expressed in peripheral nerves, however, little is known on its potential function on nerve development and regeneration. Thus, we investigated uPAR null mice and observed that uPAR is dispensable for nerve development, whereas, loss of uPAR affects nerve regeneration. uPAR null mice showed reduced nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. This was a consequence of reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased deposition of endoneurial fibrin and vitronectin. Exogenous fibrinolysis in uPAR null mice rescued nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. Finally, we measured the fibrinolytic activity in sural nerve biopsies from patients with peripheral neuropathies. We showed that neuropathies with defective regeneration had reduced fibrinolytic activity. On the contrary, neuropathies with signs of active regeneration displayed higher fibrinolytic activity. Overall, our results suggest that enforced fibrinolysis may facilitate regeneration and outcome of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:22363796

  14. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Double Crush Syndrome of the Ulnar Nerve by the Anconeus Epitrochlearis and a Ganglion.

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    Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Min-Wook; Kim, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    Double compression of the ulnar nerve, including Guyon's canal syndrome associated with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, is a very rare condition. We present a case of double crush syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and elbow in a 55-year-old man, as well as a brief review of the literature. Although electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with an ulnar nerve lesion only at the elbow, ultrasonography revealed a ganglion compressing the ulnar nerve at the hypothenar area and the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle lying in the cubital tunnel. Careful physical examination and ultrasound assessment of the elbow and wrist confirmed the clinical diagnosis prior to surgery.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of BDNF and GDNF in intravitreally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells after optic nerve crush in mice

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    Hu, Zong-Li; Li, Ni; Wei, Xin; Tang, Li; Wang, Ting-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the neuro-protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic nerve crush in mice. METHODS C56BL/6J mice were treated with intravitreal injection of PBS, BMSCs, BDNF-interference BMSCs (BIM), and GDNF-interference BMSCs (GIM) following optic nerve crush, respectively. The number of surviving RGCs was determined by whole-mount retinas and frozen sections, while certain mRNA or protein was detected by q-PCR or ELISA, respectively. RESULTS The density (cell number/mm2) of RGCs was 410.77±56.70 in the retina 21d after optic nerve crush without any treatment, compared to 1351.39±195.97 in the normal control (PBIM (354.07+39.77) and GIM (326.67+33.37) than that without treatment (P<0.05). BMSCs injection improved the internal BDNF expression in retinas. CONCLUSION Optic nerve crush caused rust loss of RGCs and intravitreally transplanted BMSCs at some extent protected RGCs from death. The effect of BMSCs and level of BDNF in retinas are both related to BDNF and GDNF expression in BMSCs. PMID:28149774

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Exendin-4, a Long-Acting Analogue of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Nerve Regeneration after the Crush Nerve Injury

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    Koji Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone secreted from enteroendocrine L cells. Its long-acting analogue, exendin-4, is equipotent to GLP-1 and is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, exendin-4 has effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study, we administered repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of exendin-4 to examine whether exendin-4 is able to facilitate the recovery after the crush nerve injury. Exendin-4 injection was started immediately after crush injury and was repeated every day for subsequent 14 days. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush exhibited marked functional loss, electrophysiological dysfunction, and atrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA. All these changes, except for the atrophy of TA, were improved significantly by the administration of exendin-4. Functional, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters indicated significant enhancement of nerve regeneration 4 weeks after nerve crush. These results suggest that exendin-4 is feasible for clinical application to treat peripheral nerve injury.

  17. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons,

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    Julio Cesar Gali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT, tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL using flexor tendons.Methods:Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line.Results:The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ±6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ±0.51 cm.Conclusion:The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°.

  18. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

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    Kah-Hui Wong; Murali Naidu; Pamela David; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Noorlidah Abdullah; Umah Rani Kuppusamy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administrati...

  19. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

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    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  20. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration of crush-injured rat sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-Ae Sung; Jong-Ho Lee; Hun Jong Jung; Jung-Woo Lee; Jin-Yong Lee; Kang-Mi Pang; Sang Bae Yoo; Mohammad S. Alrashdan; Soung-Min Kim; Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can promote neural regeneration following brain injury. However, the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in guiding peripheral nerve regeneration remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106) or a PBS control were injected into the crush-injured segment of the sciatic nerve. Four weeks after cell injection, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B mRNA expression at the lesion site was increased in comparison to control. Furthermore, sciatic function index, Fluoro Gold-labeled neuron counts and axon density were also significantly increased when compared with control. Our results indicate that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the functional recovery of crush-injured sciatic nerves.

  1. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of mesenchymal stem cells and effects on neuronal survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush and cell therapy.

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    Louise Alessandra Mesentier-Louro

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived cells have been used in different animal models of neurological diseases. We investigated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC injected into the vitreous body in a model of optic nerve injury. Adult (3-5 months old Lister Hooded rats underwent unilateral optic nerve crush followed by injection of MSC or the vehicle into the vitreous body. Before they were injected, MSC were labeled with a fluorescent dye or with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which allowed us to track the cells in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen and 28 days after injury, the survival of retinal ganglion cells was evaluated by assessing the number of Tuj1- or Brn3a-positive cells in flat-mounted retinas, and optic nerve regeneration was investigated after anterograde labeling of the optic axons with cholera toxin B conjugated to Alexa 488. Transplanted MSC remained in the vitreous body and were found in the eye for several weeks. Cell therapy significantly increased the number of Tuj1- and Brn3a-positive cells in the retina and the number of axons distal to the crush site at 16 and 28 days after optic nerve crush, although the RGC number decreased over time. MSC therapy was associated with an increase in the FGF-2 expression in the retinal ganglion cells layer, suggesting a beneficial outcome mediated by trophic factors. Interleukin-1β expression was also increased by MSC transplantation. In summary, MSC protected RGC and stimulated axon regeneration after optic nerve crush. The long period when the transplanted cells remained in the eye may account for the effect observed. However, further studies are needed to overcome eventually undesirable consequences of MSC transplantation and to potentiate the beneficial ones in order to sustain the neuroprotective effect overtime.

  3. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

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    Luisa Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage.

  4. Re-innervation of fast and slow twitch muscle following nerve crush at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, J J; Sansone, F M

    1977-10-01

    1. The frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) was significantly greater in the fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle (extensor) than in the slow twitch soleus, even though end-plate surface area was greater for fibres in the latter muscle. 2. Crush of the sciatic nerve at birth did not prevent the appearance of this difference in m.e.p.p. frequency. However, the frequency of the potentials in the re-innervated muscles was less than normal, even though the regenerated neuromuscular junction was qualitatively normal in morphology. 3. Though the re-innevated muscles were differentiated with respect to twitch time course, the extensor muscle was more responsive than normal to the contracture-inducing action of caffeine. 4. The Z line of the re-innervated extensor muscle was similar to that of the normal soleus in thickness. 5. Resting potential, passive electrical properties and action potential generating mechanism of the sarcolemma were normal. 6. Since the re-innervated muscles lacked muscle spindles, a role of sensory feed-back in the function of the neuromuscular junction as well as the neutrotrophic regulation of muscle is discussed.

  5. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC, even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  6. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A.; De Nicolò, Sara; Rosso, Pamela; De Vitis, Luigi A.; Castoldi, Valerio; Leocani, Letizia; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.; Tirassa, Paola; Rama, Paolo; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC), even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac) by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration. PMID:28067793

  7. The Survival Effects of Electeromagnetic Fields on Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons of the Crushed Sciatic Nerve in the Rat

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    M.R. Nikravesh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been shown that electromagnetic fields (EMF result in increasing the rate of nerve regeneration. Therefore it could be assumed following axotomy the signal induction of these fields may protect neural cells from death. For this study 24 male wistar rats (2 month age divided to 4 groups (experimental 1, 2, control and sham. For axotomy, the animals were anesthetized and their right Sciatic Nerve (SN were exposed and crushed in the mid portion of the thigh in experimental and control groups. In the sham group the SN just exposed (no compression. In the next phase experimental groups were exposed to the 50 HZ electeromagnetic field (EMF, 1.1mTl 2-4 hr/day (for 10 days. After 8 weeks, Dorsal Root Ganglions (DRGs in the lumbar segments (L4-L6 of spinal cord were sampled, processed sectioned serially and stained with toluidine blue (pH=4.5. By using stereological quantitative technique (physical disector, the neurons in the crushed side (DRGs were counted and compared in the all of groups. Statistical analyses of results have been shown a remarkable reduction in neuronal density in (DRGs of control. On the other hand we observed a cell death DRG significant among experimental groups (p<0/05. In addition we compared DRG volume in all groups but they didn’t show any significant difference. These findings indicate that the EMF may play a survival role against neuronal death during nerve injuries.

  8. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on retinal ganglion cell survival in an optic nerve crush model

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    Liu, Ruixing; Wang, Yanling; Pu, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether alpha lipoic acid (ALA) promotes the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury and to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of ALA in the retina in this ONC injury model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–220 g) were subjected to ONC injury surgery. ALA (63 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 1 day before or after the ONC injury. Animals were euthanized after 10 days, and the number of ganglion cells positive for RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms), which is an RGC marker, were counted on the whole mount retinas. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting were performed to examine the localization and levels of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) in the retinas in all experimental groups. To determine whether the EPO/EPOR signaling pathway was involved in the ALA antioxidant pathway, the rats were subjected to ruxolitinib (INCB018424, 0.25 mg/kg, bid, intraperitoneal, i.p.) treatment after the animals were injected intravenously with ALA 1 day before ONC injury. Results The average number of Rbpms-positive cells/mm2 in the control group (sham-operated group), the ONC group, the ALA-ONC group, and the ONC-ALA group retinas was 2219±28, 418±8, 848±22, and 613±18/mm2, respectively. The ALA-ONC and ONC-ALA groups showed a statistically significantly increased RGC survival rate compared to the ONC group. There were statistical differences in the RGC survival rates between the ALA-ONC (39%) and ONC-ALA groups (28%; p<0.05). Immunofluorescent labeling showed that EPOR and NT4/5 expression was significant in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). At the same time, western blot analysis revealed that ALA induced upregulation of EPOR protein and NT4/5 protein expression in the retina after ONC injury. However, INCB018424 reversed the protective effects of ALA on the ONC retinas. Conclusions ALA has

  9. Retinal Ganglion Cell Protection Via Topical and Systemic Alpha-Tocopherol Administration in Optic Nerve Crush Model of Rat

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    Zeynep Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: The aim of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of topical α-tocopherol in optic nerve crush model of rat and to compare its efficacy with that of systemic α -tocopherol. Ma te ri al and Met hod: 50 eyes of 25 Wistar albino rats were included. The eyes were divided into six groups. Optic nerve crush was performed in Groups 1, 3, 5. Additionally, systemic and topical α-tocopherol therapies were given to Groups 1 and 3, respectively. No treatment was applied in Group 5. Groups 2, 4, and 6 were the fellow eyes of the animals comprising Groups 1, 3, and 5. Eyes were enucleated at day 45 of the study. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were counted with light microscopy. Re sults: Mean RGC numbers were 14.5±3.7 (10.3-20 and 27.5±2.6 (24-30 in Groups 5 and 6, respectively (p: 0.001 They were measured to be 26.6±7.8 (19-45 and 24.6±3.9 (20-32 in Groups 1 and 2 and 21.1±7.1 (11-34 and 27±7.5 (18-42 in Groups 3 and 4 (p:0.659, p:0.094, respectively. There was no difference in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Group 6 (p:0.210, p:0.299, respectively. Dis cus si on: Topical α-tocopherol has a significant neuroprotective effects in optic nerve crush model of rat and may be used in the future for the treatment of optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 161-6

  10. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

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    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  11. Rgcs1, a dominant QTL that affects retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve crush in mice

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    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic apoptosis of neuronal somas is one aspect of neurodegenerative diseases that can be influenced by genetic background. Genes that affect this process may act as susceptibility alleles that contribute to the complex genetic nature of these diseases. Retinal ganglion cell death is a defining feature of the chronic and genetically complex neurodegenerative disease glaucoma. Previous studies using an optic nerve crush procedure in inbred mice, showed that ganglion cell resistance to crush was affected by the Mendelian-dominant inheritance of 1–2 predicted loci. To assess this further, we bred and phenotyped a large population of F2 mice derived from a resistant inbred strain (DBA/2J and a susceptible strain (BALB/cByJ. Results Genome wide mapping of the F2 mice using microsatellite markers, detected a single highly significant quantitative trait locus in a 25 cM (58 Mb interval on chromosome 5 (Chr5.loc34-59 cM. No interacting loci were detected at the resolution of this screen. We have designated this locus as Retinal ganglion cell susceptible 1, Rgcs1. In silico analysis of this region revealed the presence of 578 genes or expressed sequence tags, 4 of which are highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the mammalian retina, and 2 of which are suspected susceptibility alleles in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, 25 genes contain 36 known single nucleotide polymorphisms that create nonsynonymous amino acid changes between the two parental strains. Collectively, this analysis has identified 7 potential candidate genes that may affect ganglion cell death. Conclusion The process of ganglion cell death is likely one of the many facets of glaucoma susceptibility. A novel dominant locus has been identified that affects sensitivity of ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. The allele responsible for this sensitivity may also be a susceptibility allele for glaucoma.

  12. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

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    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  13. Comparative effects of wavelengths of low-power laser in regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

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    Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    Peripheral nerves are structures that, when damaged, can result in significant motor and sensory disabilities. Several studies have used therapeutic resources with the aim of promoting early nerve regeneration, such as the use of low-power laser. However, this laser therapy does not represent a consensus regarding the methodology, thus yielding controversial conclusions. The objective of our study was to investigate, by functional evaluation, the comparative effects of low-power laser (660 nm and 830 nm) on sciatic nerve regeneration following crushing injuries. Twenty-seven Wistar rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury were divided into three groups: group sham, consisting of rats undergoing simulated irradiation; a group consisting of rats subjected to gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at 660 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.06 cm(2) beam), and another one consisting of rats subjected to GaAlAs laser at 830 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.116 cm(2)). Laser was applied to the lesion for 21 days. A sciatic functional index (SFI) was used for functional evaluation prior to surgery and on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. Differences in SFI were found between group 660 nm and the other ones at the 14th day. One can observe that laser application at 660 nm with the parameters and methods utilised was effective in promoting early functional recovery, as indicated by the SFI, over the period evaluated.

  14. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

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    Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  15. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

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    Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz, and High-TENS (100 Hz. The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity.

  16. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

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    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  17. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

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    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  18. Comparison of the sensory threshold in healthy human volunteers with the sensory nerve response of the rat in vitro hindlimb skin and saphenous nerve preparation on cutaneous electrical stimulation.

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    McAllister, R M; Urban, L A; Dray, A; Smith, P J

    1995-08-01

    We report a comparative study of stimulation thresholds of cutaneous fibres of the rat in vitro skin and saphenous nerve preparation with psychophysical measurements of sensibility to cutaneous electrical stimulation in human volunteers. The same clinical diagnostic stimulator and modified skin electrodes were used in both animal and human experiments. Axons were recruited by increasing the stimulus strength, and correlation was made between the stimulus intensity required for unit activation and their conduction velocities. The findings suggest that an initial "tingling" sensation is due to recruitment of A beta fibres and that later sharp "pricking" occurs with recruitment of A delta fibres.

  19. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

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    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  20. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

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    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  1. Erythropoietin promotes axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush in vivo by inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

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    Tan, Haibo; Zhong, Yisheng; Shen, Xi; Cheng, Yu; Jiao, Qin; Deng, Lianfu

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether the RhoA/ROCK pathway was involved in the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axonal regeneration in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. We demonstrated that both EPO and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 significantly enhanced RGCs survival and axon regeneration in vivo, and the effects of these agents were additive. Expression of active-RhoA was decreased after EPO or Y-27632 per pull down assay and affinity precipitation. Administration of EPO and Y-27632 cocktail resulted in even more RhoA inactivation, decreased expression of ROCK-1 and ROCK-2, and increased expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein per immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Down-regulation of active-RhoA, ROCK-1, and ROCK-2 expression by EPO coincided with the appearance of larger numbers of regenerating axons. In conclusion, the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway was involved in the EPO effect to promote RGCs axon regeneration after ONC.

  2. Early-onset severe neuromatous pain of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve after total knee arthroplasty

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    Kanto Nagai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA using a standard midline skin incision, the transection of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (ISN or its terminal branches is relatively common. This usually causes an area of numbness in the distribution of the ISN, but rarely results in painful neuroma. Usually, the progress of neuromatous pain is relatively slow and the degree of the pain is not so severe, but in our present case the progress of neuromatous pain was rapid and severe, and therefore, the patient could not be discharged from our hospital after TKA. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report demonstrating early-onset neuromatous knee pain after TKA in the English literature. We present a rare case in which early-onset severe neuromatous pain was encountered after TKA and partial denervation of the ISN was effective. Neuromatous knee pain can occur shortly after TKA, and, in these cases, surgeons should consider partial denervation for patients who have intractable neuromatous pain before functional loss occurs.

  3. Traumatic lesions of internal saphenous nerve and branches Lesões traumáticas do nervo safeno interno e seus ramos

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    Flávio Freinkel Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show a rare lesion that sometimes simulates vascular disorder of the lower extremities. METHOD: Three patients were operated and the follow-up period was eight months, the surgical technique was neurotomy of the infrapatellar and descendent branches. RESULTS: In two cases there were almost total pain resolution, and in other case improvement only. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment yields good results in this type of internal saphenous nerve lesion, and could be useful as an alternative to conservative treatment.OBJETIVO: Apresentar lesões raras do nervo safeno interno interno, que muitas vezes, simulam doenças vasculares dos membros inferiores. MÉTODO: Três pacientes foram operados e acompanhados por um período de oito meses. A técnica cirúrgica consistiu na neurotomia dos ramos infrapatelar e descendente do nervo safeno interno. RESULTADOS: Nos dois primeiros casos houve quase desaparecimento total da dor em pouco tempo e no terceiro apenas melhora. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico dá bons resultados neste tipo de lesão do nervo safeno interno e poderia ser útil como alternativa ao tratamento conservador.

  4. Functional and Molecular Changes of the Bladder in Rats with Crushing Injury of Nerve Bundles from Major Pelvic Ganglion to the Bladder: Role of RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway

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    Tae-Kon Hwang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common complication after radical pelvic surgery. To reduce this complication, nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery was introduced. However, several patients experienced voiding difficulty despite nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Thus, we investigated the functional and molecular changes of the bladder in rats, which demonstrated voiding dysfunction induced by nerve damage during nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Male rats were used and assigned to normal, sham-operated, and bilateral crushing nerve bundles from major pelvic ganglion (MPG to bladder group. After one, two, and four-week crushing injury, significantly decreased contractile response and increased connective tissue of the detrusor were observed and these results were reliable findings with voiding difficulty following nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. After crushing injury, significantly increased M2 muscarinic receptor expression was observed and this might be regarded as the compensatory response. However, M3 muscarinic receptor expression was not significantly changed. The expression of RhoA, ROCK-α, and ROCK-β was significantly increased after one, two, and four-week crushing injury. From these results, the down-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway might lead to the decreased bladder contractility after crushing injury of nerve bundles from MPG to the bladder despite of the compensated up-regulation of M2 muscarinic receptor.

  5. Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Associated to Matrixen on the Erectile Function in the Rat Model with Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crushing Injury

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    Su Jin Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and MSCs mixed with Matrixen as a cell carrier on the erectile dysfunction caused by bilateral cavernous nerve crushing injury. Materials and Methods White male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control group (n = 5, bilateral cavernous nerve crushing group (BCNC group, n = 10, BCNC administered with MSCs group (n = 10,1×106 in 20 µL, BCNC administered with Matrixen group (n = 10.1×106 in 20 µL, BCNC administered with MSCs/Matrixen group (n = 10.1×106 in 20 µL. After functional assessment at 4 weeks, major pelvic ganglion (MPG and penile tissue were collected. Immunofluorescent staining of MPG was performed with PKH26 and Tuj1. Western blot analysis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS were done in corpus cavernosum. Results ICP/MAP ratios of BCNC with MSCs and MSCs/Matrixen groups were significantly increased compared with BCNC and BCNC with Matrixen group. Moreover, ICP/MAP ratios of MSCs/Matrixen group were significantly increased compared with BCNC with MSCs group. In MPG, the more implantation of MSCs and increased expression of nerve cells were observed in MSCs/Matrixen group compared with BCNC with MSCs group. Significant increase expression of eNOS and nNOS was also noted in BCNC with MSCs/Matrixen group. Conclusion The erectile function was more preserved in MSCs/Matrixen group compared with the administration of MSCs alone in the rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crushing injury. Therefore, we consider that the use of transplant cell carrier such as Matrixen may help the implantation of MSCs and improve the therapeutic effect of MSCs.

  6. Relationship between different skin incisions and the injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    LUO Hao; YU Jia-Kuo; AO Ying-fang; YU Chang-long; PENG Li-bin; LIN Chun-yang; ZHANG Ji-ying; FU Xin

    2007-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, some patients suffered from sensory disturbance around the surgical incision of the leg, This research was aimed to investigate the relationship between the different skin incisions and the injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) post ACL reconstruction,Methods ACL reconstructions were performed with quadruple hamstring tendon for 60 patients, Sensory disturbance around the skin incision was followed up at an average of 14.5±4.7 months post operation. Among the 60 patients,vertical incision for 35 patients and oblique incision for 25 patients were used for graft taking during ACL reconstruction.The lengths of the incisions were measured. The patients were asked to mark the sensory disturbance zone at follow up time, and then the marked area was measured. The IPBSN of 15 cadaver knees were anatomized. The distance between the IPBSN and the upper edge of the pes anserinus tendon at the middle point of the incision was measured.Independent-samples t-test, chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analyses.Results The patients'age (P=0.329), the follow-up time (P=0.681), and the incision length (P=0.732) between the two groups had no significant difference. Twenty-three patients (65.7%) in the vertical incision group had IPBSN injury compared with 6 patients (24.0%) in oblique incision group (P=0.002). The average sensory disturbance area in vertical incision group ((48.0±75.3) cm2) was significantly larger (P=0.004) than that in the oblique group ((8.4±19.4) cm2). The anatomy measurement showed the average distance between IPBSN and the upper edge of the pes anserinus tendon was 0.6 cm at the incision.Conclusions Oblique incision with less risk of damage for IPBSN may be better for graft harvesting in ACL reconstruction. As the IPBSN is so near and parallel to the hamstring tendons, damage to the IPBSN is one of the potential complications for graft

  7. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study

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    Fernando José Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1% in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g were allocated into the 6 groups (n=10: CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery.

  8. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and effects of its agonist, pioglitazone, on a rat model of optic nerve crush: PPARγ in retinal neuroprotection.

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    Juming Zhu

    Full Text Available It has been shown that peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is beneficial for central nervous system injury. However its role on optic nerve injury remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the change of PPARγ expression in rat retina following optic nerve injury and investigated the effect of pioglitazone (Pio, a PPARγ agonist, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs neuroprotection using a rat optic nerve crush (ONC model. Our results showed that PPARγ mRNA and protein levels were increased after ONC, and most of PPARγ-immunoreactive cells colocalized with Müller cells. Pio treatment significantly enhanced the number of surviving RGCs and inhibited RGCs apoptosis induced by ONC. However, when PPARγ antagonist GW9662 was used, these neuroprotective effects were abolished. In addition, pio attenuated Müller cell activation after ONC. These results indicate that PPARγ appears to protect RGCs from ONC possibly via the reduction of Müller glial activation. It provides evidence that activation of PPARγ may be a potential alternative treatment for RGCs neuroprotection.

  9. CRMP1 Interacted with Spy1 During the Collapse of Growth Cones Induced by Sema3A and Acted on Regeneration After Sciatic Nerve Crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Liu, Yong-hua; Li, Xiaohong; Ji, Yu-hong; Yang, Xiao-jing; Hang, Xian-ting; Ding, Zong-mei; Liu, Fang; Wang, You-hua; Shen, Ai-guo

    2016-03-01

    CRMP1, a member of the collapsin response mediator protein family (CRMPs), was reported to regulate axon outgrowth in Sema3A signaling pathways via interactions with its co-receptor protein neuropilin-1 and plexin-As through the Fyn-cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) cascade and the sequential phosphorylation of CRMP1 by lycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Using yeast two-hybrid, we identified a new molecule, Speedy A1 (Spy1), a member of the Speedy/RINGO family, with an interaction with CRMP1. Besides, for the first time, we observed the association of CRMP1 with actin. Based on this, we wondered the association of them and their function in Sema3A-induced growth cones collapse and regeneration process after SNC. During our study, we constructed overexpression plasmid and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to question the relationship of CRMP1/Spy1 and CRMP1/actin. We observed the interactions of CRMP1/Spy1 and CRMP1/actin. Besides, we found that Spy1 could affect CRMP1 phosphorylation actived by CDK5 and that enhanced CRMP1 phosphorylation might disturb the combination of CRMP1 and actin, which would contribute to abnormal of Sema3A-induced growth cones collapse and finally lead to influent regeneration process after rat sciatic nerve crush. Through rat walk footprint test, we also observed the variance during regeneration progress, respectively. We speculated that CRMP1 interacted with Spy1 which would disturb the association of CRMP1 with actin and was involved in the collapse of growth cones induced by Sema3A and regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.

  10. Polyethylene glycol rapidly restores axonal integrity and improves the rate of motor behavior recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Joshua M; Kane, Jacqueline R; Spaeth, Christopher S; Zuzek, Aleksej; Robinson, Garrett L; Gbanaglo, Melengor Y; Estler, Cody J; Boydston, Elaine A; Schallert, Timothy; Bittner, George D

    2010-08-01

    The inability to rapidly (within minutes to hours) improve behavioral function after severance of peripheral nervous system axons is an ongoing clinical problem. We have previously reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can rapidly restore axonal integrity (PEG-fusion) between proximal and distal segments of cut- and crush-severed rat axons in vitro and in vivo. We now report that PEG-fusion not only reestablishes the integrity of crush-severed rat sciatic axons as measured by the restored conduction of compound action potentials (CAPs) and the intraaxonal diffusion of fluorescent dye across the lesion site, but also produces more rapid recovery of appropriate hindlimb motor behaviors. Improvement in recovery occurred during the first few postoperative weeks for the foot fault (FF) asymmetry test and between week 2 and week 3 for the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) based on analysis of footprints. That is, the FF test was the more sensitive indicator of early behavioral recovery, showing significant postoperative improvement of motor behavior in PEG-treated animals at 24-48 h. In contrast, the SFI more sensitively measured longer-term postoperative behavioral recovery and deficits at 4-8 wk, perhaps reflecting the development of fine (distal) motor control. These and other data show that PEG-fusion not only rapidly restores physiological and morphological axonal continuity, but also more quickly improves behavioral recovery.

  11. Crush syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lovallo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed cases of crush syndrome were described in 1941 in London after victims trapped beneath bombed buildings presented with swollen limbs, hypovolemic shock, dark urine, renal failure, and ultimately perished. The majority of the data and studies on this topic still draw from large databases of earthquake victims. However, in Africa, a continent with little seismic activity, the majority of crush syndrome cases are instead victims of severe beatings rather than earthquake casualties, and clinical suspicion by emergency personnel must be high in this patient group presenting with oliguria or pigmenturia. Damaged skeletal muscle fibres and cell membranes lead to an inflammatory cascade resulting in fluid sequestration in the injured extremity, hypotension, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia and their complications, and renal injury from multiple sources. Elevations in the serum creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, and potassium levels are frequent findings in these patients, and can help guide critical steps in management. Fluid resuscitation should begin prior to extrication of trapped victims or as early as possible, as this basic intervention has been shown to in large part prevent progression of renal injury to requiring haemodialysis. Alkalinization of the urine and use of mannitol for forced diuresis are recommended therapies under specific circumstances and are supported by studies done in animal models, but have not been shown to change clinical outcomes in human crush victims. In the past 70 years the crush syndrome and its management have been studied more thoroughly, however clinical practice guidelines continue to evolve.

  12. Real-time imaging of RGC death with a cell-impermeable nucleic acid dyeing compound after optic nerve crush in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Satoru; Tanaka, Yuji; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Yu; Yasuda, Masayuki; Ito, Azusa; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-05-01

    The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the main source of therapeutic targets for neuroprotective glaucoma treatment, and evaluating RGCs is key for effective glaucoma care. Thus, we developed a minimally invasive, quick, real-time method to evaluate RGC death in mice. In this article we describe the details of our method, report new results obtained from C57BL/6J mice, and report that our method was usable in wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice lacking an RGC-death-suppressing gene. It used a non-invasive confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) and a low molecular weight, photo-switching, cell-impermeant, fluorescent nucleic acid dyeing compound, SYTOX orange (SO). The RGCs were retrogradely labeled with Fluorogold (FG), the optic nerve was crushed (ONC), and SO was injected into the vitreous. After ten minutes, RGC death was visualized with cSLO in vivo. The retinas were then extracted and flat mounted for histological observation. SO-labeled RGCs were counted in vivo and FG-labeled RGCs were counted in retinal flat mounts. The time course of RGC death was examined in Calpastatin KO mice and wild type (WT) mice. Our in vivo imaging method revealed that SO-positive dead RGCs were mainly present from 4 to 6 days after ONC, and the peak of RGC death was after 5 days. Moreover, the number of SO-positive dead RGCs after 5 days differed significantly in the Calpastatin KO mice and the WT mice. Counting FG-labeled RGCs in isolated retinas confirmed these results. Thus, real-time imaging with SO was able to quickly quantify ONC-induced RGC death. This technique may aid research into RGC death and the development of new neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  14. 胰岛素面部注射对大鼠面神经挤压伤的效果%Effect of Local Insulin Injection on Crushed Injury of Facial Nerve in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉花; 王华明; 尹洁; 景玉宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of local insulin injection on neurological function after crushed injury of facial nerve in rats. Methods Facial nerve was crushing injured in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats, from which 20 selected rats were divided into treatment group (n=10) and control group (n=10). The treatment group was injected with insulin 250 ng/kg at innervated muscle, and the control group was injected with normal saline. They were assessed with neurologic deficit score everyday within 7 days after injection, and the regeneration of nerve fiber was observed with retrograde fluorogold labeling. Results Compared with that in the control group, the neurological deficit score was improved more 5~7 days after injection in the treatment group, and the count of fluorogold labeling cells increased more in the treatment group. Conclusion Local injection of insulin can promote the recovery of neurological function after crushed injury of facial nerve.%目的:探讨胰岛素面部注射对大鼠面神经挤压伤神经纤维的再生及神经损伤后功能恢复的效果。方法雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠30只建立面神经挤压损伤模型,20只纳入实验,随机分为治疗组和对照组各10只。治疗组局部给予胰岛素250 ng/kg注射,对照组局部给予等量生理盐水注射。于损伤后7 d内每天进行神经功能评分;术后7 d利用逆行荧光金标记技术观察神经纤维的再生。结果术后5~7 d,治疗组神经损伤评分均低于对照组(P<0.05)。治疗组损伤侧面神经核内逆行荧光金标记的细胞数量明显增加(P<0.01)。结论胰岛素局部注射治疗可促进面神经挤压伤中后期神经功能恢复及神经纤维再生。

  15. Stimulated regeneration of the crushed adult rat optic nerve correlates with attenuated expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatases RPTPalpha, STEP, and LAR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorber, B.; Berry, M.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Hertog, J.F. den; Pulido, R.; Logan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the spatial and temporal expression patterns of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), receptor PTPalpha (RPTPalpha), striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP), and leucocyte common antigen-related phosphatase (LAR), in the retina and optic nerve (ON) of adult rats in which the cru

  16. The anatomy and clinical application of reverse saphenous nerve neurocutaneous flaps for reparing skin defects of forefoot%逆行足内侧隐神经营养血管皮瓣修复足前部皮肤缺损的解剖与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海蛟; 史增元; 尹维刚; 徐达传; 刘振新

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨逆行足内侧隐神经营养血管皮瓣修复足前部皮肤缺损的疗效.方法 采用50侧经动脉灌注红色乳胶的成人足标本,解剖观测内踝前动脉、跗内侧动脉的前后分支、拇趾底内侧动脉浅支、足底内侧动脉浅支和隐神经营养血管及其与邻近动脉的吻合关系,并根据解剖结果设计逆行足内侧隐神经营养血管皮瓣修复足前部皮肤缺损.结果 解剖结果表明,足拇展肌表面的动脉网,足拇展肌上缘动脉弓在隐神经周围、足背和足底内侧形成血管网,构成逆行足内侧隐神经营养血管皮瓣的血供基础.2006年10月至2011年10月,临床应用该皮瓣11例,皮瓣切取范围2.5 cm×3.5 cm~7.5 cm×8.5 cm,供区以全厚皮片移植覆盖.术后所有皮瓣均成活,随访6~18个月,平均10个月,皮瓣色泽、质地、外形良好,患足行走正常,皮瓣及供区无溃疡发生.结论 应用逆行足内侧隐神经营养血管皮瓣修复足前部皮肤缺损,血供可靠,操作简单,创伤小,是修复足前部皮肤缺损的理想皮瓣供区.%Objective To investigate the effect of reverse saphenous nerve neurocutaneous flaps for skin defects of forefoot.Methods In the anatomic study,50 cadaveric feet were injected with red latex and the anastomosis,distribution and external diameters of medialtarsal artery,medial anterior malleolus artery,medial plantar artery,the superficial branch of the medial basal hallucal artery and saphenousnerve nutritional vessels were observed.Based on anatomic research results,we designed the reverse saphenous nerve neurocutaneous flaps for repairing skin defects of forefoot.Results The blood supply of reverse saphenous nerve neurocutaneous flaps were based on the vasoganglion,which consist of arterial arch at the superior border of abductor hallucis and arterial network on the surface of abductor hallucis around the saphenous nerve and medial pedis flap.From Oct.2006 to Oct.2011,the reverse

  17. [Double compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow and at the wrist (double-crush syndrome). Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacelli, G; Spagnoli, A M; Pardi, M; Valesini, L; Rizzo, M I; Irace, S

    2006-03-01

    Double compression of a peripheral nerve is not rare in medical practice. This article describes an ulnar neuropathy along the elbow and the wrist segments with electro-diagnostic examination (EDX). The proximal compression was an ulnar entrapment at the olecranon-epitrochlear semi-canal; the distal one was after the canal of Guyon, due to an arthro-synovial cyst arising from the pisohamatum joint. There aren't analogous clinical reports in the literature.

  18. Microdissection of distal artery perforator of the medial leg and design of skin flap pedicled with nutrient vessels of the saphenous nerve%小腿内侧远端动脉穿支显微解剖与隐神经营养血管皮瓣设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发惠; 郑和平; 张国栋

    2007-01-01

    以胫后动脉肌间隙支、内踝前动脉穿支和以踝管区动脉穿支血管蒂的3种隐神经-大隐静脉营养血管远端蒂皮瓣或复合瓣,旋转轴点在内踝平面,适宜小腿远段、踝足部及其远侧的组织缺损修复.%BACKGROUND: The distally based skin flap pedicled with nutrient vessels of saphenous nerve has provided a method with higher achievement ratio to repair the tissue defect of ankle and foot, due to its high rotation point, lacking of distributive characteristics of distally pedicled vessels description for the specific operations, so it is still difficult in clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distal artery perforators of medial leg, so as to suggest an anatomical theory for the reasonable design of the distally based compound flap pedicled with nutrient vessels of saphenous nerve-great saphenous vein.DESIGN: A single sample experiment.SETTING: Researching Center of Clinical Anatomy, Military Institute of Orthopaedics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Researching Center of Clinical Anatomy, Military Institute of Orthopaedics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from May to October, 2004.Thirty-four adult specimens perfused with red emulsion at lateral arteries of upper lower limbs were provided by the Researching Center of Clinical Anatomy, Military Institute of Orthopaedics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Specimens of the distal medial legs were dissected with microscope taking the most prominent point of medial malleolus as the pivot point.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Distal artery perforators of medial leg; ② Distal nutrient vessels of saphenous nerve-great saphenous vein; ③ Blood supply correlation of nutrient vessel with neighboring muscle, bone and skin.RESULTS: ① The distal artery perforators of medial leg derived from 9 main

  19. Excessive retinal ganglion cell loss after optic nerve crushed with forceps in rats%钳夹法造成大鼠视网膜神经节细胞过量丢失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖良; 徐铭谦; 韦企平; 周剑; 孔莹莹; 孙艳红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the injury degree of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve crushed with forceps. Methods A total of 38 male Wistar rats were divided into forceps groups, which was subdivided into group A to group E, with crushing time of 12 seconds,9 seconds,6 seconds,3 seconds and 1 second, the group F was the forceps group at reverse direction,5 rats in each group. The optic nerve at temple side of rat eyeball was exposed. Optic nerves at 2 mm behind the eyeball were crushed with 90 g micro forceps and then with the 40 g forceps at reverse direction. Left eye of each rat was taken operation, and right eye was treated as normal control. Left eyes of rats in shame operation group were taken treatment to expose optic nerve behind the eyeball,but not with crush. Amount and survival rate of RGCs were calculated with fluorogold regressive labeling RGCs and retinal stretched preparation. Results Cell densities of left and right eyes of rats in shame operation group were (2 679 ± 67) mm-2 and(2 689 ±53)mm-2,there was no significant difference(P = 0. 8%) ,and were (220±167)mm-2,(265 ±232)mm-2, (298 ±239)mm-2, (478 ±682)mm -2, (769 ±615) mm-2 and (974 ±476) mm-2 in forceps groups, which were obviously decreased. There was negative correlation between impulse of forceps(force of forceps multiply time) and survival rate of RGCs. Conclusions Crush with forceps can make definite and quantitative optic injury,but the injury is serious and stability is poor. There is still a marked gap between our experiment and the actual pathogenesis of traumatic optic neuropathy.%目的 评估钳夹视神经对视网膜神经节细胞(retinal ganglion cells,RGCs)的损伤程度.方法 取38只雄性Wistar大鼠,夹持组(n=30)按夹持时间12 s、9 s、6 s,3 s、1 s分为A-E组,F为反身夹持组,每组各5只大鼠.沿大鼠眼球颞侧暴露视神经,于球后2 mm处用90 g微型视神经夹夹持视神经,另有40 g反向镊在球后2 mm处夹持视神经,每

  20. Neuroprotective effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides after cavernous nerve crush injury in a rat model%枸杞多糖对大鼠海绵体神经钳夹损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 丁协刚; 赵颀涵; 罗琼; 李世文; 王行环

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨使用枸杞多糖(LBP)修复钳夹损伤的海绵体神经(CN),恢复自主勃起功能的可行性.方法 21只雄性SD大鼠随机分成3组,即假手术组、LBP组、损伤对照组,于术后3个月电刺激CN测定海绵体内压(ICP)及平均动脉压(MAP),取CN进行甲苯胺蓝染色检测有髓轴突数目,取阴茎组织进行烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)染色检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)阳性神经纤维数目.结果 LBP组ICP/MAP比值(0.44 ±0.05)明显高于损伤对照组(0.26 ±0.03,P<0.05),但低于假手术组(0.68 ±0.08,P<0.05).LBP组CN有髓轴突数目(106.8 ±17.9),与假手术组(180.9 ±15.3)和损伤对照组(64.9±l3.9)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).阴茎背神经NOS阳性神经纤维数目(164.2±12.2),与假手术组(263.3 ±15.0)和损伤对照组(85.6±14.7)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP可促进CN钳夹损伤后的神经再生及勃起功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of erectile function recovery by repairing crushed cavernous nerves (CN) with lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP).Methods Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:sham group,LBP group,and control group.Erectile function was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 3rd month after operation and nerve regeneration was assessed by toluidine blue staining of CN and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase staining of penile tissue.Results The peak ICP/MAP ratio in LBP group (0.44 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than in control group (0.26 ± 0.03,P < 0.05),but lower than in sham group (0.68-± 0.08,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more myelinated axons of CNs (106.8 ± 17.9) than the control group (64.9 ± 13.9,P < 0.05),but fewer than the sham group (180.9 ± 15.3,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more NOS diaphorase positive nerve (164.2 ± 12.2) than the control group (85.6 ±14.7,P<0.05),but fewer than the sham group

  1. 重组人促红细胞生成素对大鼠视神经挫伤后GAP-43mRNA影响%Recombinant human erythropoietin on GAP-43mRNA of optic nerve after optic nerves crushed in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓坤; 罗钢; 赵平

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠视神经夹挫伤后视神经生长相关蛋白-43mRNA(growth associated protein-43mRNA,GAP-43mRNA)的变化,观察玻璃体腔内注射重组人促红细胞生成素(recombinant human erythropoietin,rhEPO)对大鼠视神经不完全损伤后GAP-43mRNA的影响.方法 动物实验研究.于2011年5~10月在河北医科大学第三医院实验中心应用建立的外伤性视神经损伤动物模型,进行实验观察.此动物模型分为正常对照组、损伤组(视神经钳夹+生理盐水组)及rhEPO组(视神经钳夹+rhEPO组),于损伤后1、4、7、14和28 d应用反转录-聚合酶链反应(reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR) 技术观察视神经GAP-43mRNA的变化.结果 RT-PCR结果显示伤后1d损伤组和rhEPO组均无表达;4d损伤组和rhEPO组GAP-43mRNA均表达阳性,组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);7、14、28 d rhEPO组GAP-43mRNA表达呈强阳性,损伤组表达呈弱阳性,rhEPO组GAP-43mRNA表达强于损伤组,半定量分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 视神经夹挫伤能上调视神经GAP-43mRNA表达,玻璃体腔内注射rhEPO能增强视神经GAP-43 mRNA表达.%Objective To observe the growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43)mRNA expression in optic nerve after optic nerves crushed in rats,and to observe the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the GAP-43mRNA expression.Methods The model of traumatic optic nerve was established,and experiments were conducted to observe during May to October of 2011 at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University experiment centre.Sixty-three healthy adult SD rats rule out eye diseases were divided into three groups randomly:control group,crush group and rhEPO group.GAP-43mRNA expressions were detected with reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) including 1,4,7,14 and 28th days after crush.Results RT-PCR results showed that there was no GAP-43mRNA expression at the 1st day.At the 4th days,there were no

  2. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  3. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  4. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  5. The distally based lateral sural neuro-lesser saphenous veno-fasciocutaneous flap: anatomical basis and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Xiong, Zhuyou; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Huang, He; Li, Guangzao

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue management around the lower third of the leg and foot presents a considerable challenge to the plastic surgeon. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical relationships of artery, nerve, vein and other adjacent structures in the posterolateral region of the calf, and our experience with using a distally based island flap pedicled with the lateral sural nerve and the lesser saphenous vein for soft tissue reconstruction of lower third of leg, foot, and ankle defects in 15 patients. Five fresh cadavers (ten lower limbs) were infused with colored red latex. The origin of the nutrient vessel of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve was identified. Based on the anatomical studies, an island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve was designed for clinical reparative applications in 15 cases. The nutrient vessel of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve originates from the superficial sural artery, musculocutaneous perforators of the posterior tibial artery, and septocutaneous perforators of the peroneal artery in different segment of the calf. Meanwhile, these vessels have many sub-branches nourishing subcutaneous tissue and skin, form a favorable vascular chain around the nerve and the vein, and also communicate with vascular plexus of superficial and deep fascia. Among 15 flaps, 13 showed complete survival (86.66 %), while marginal flap necrosis occurred in one patient (6.67 %) and distal wound dehiscence in another (6.67 %). Their appearance and function were satisfactory, with feeling maintained in the heel and lateral side of the foot. The distally based flap pedicled with the lateral sural nerve and lesser saphenous vein was a reliable source for repairing soft tissue defects in the lower leg and foot due to its advantages of infection control, high survival rate, and sufficient blood supply without the need to sacrifice a major blood vessel.

  6. A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN THE TERMINATION OF SHORT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhini Arulsevli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The liability of the superficial venous system of the lower limbs to varicosity has naturally attracted the attention of Clinicians and Surgeons. Variations in the superficial veins of the lower limb are very common. The extent of such variations, their connections are usually described. Out of all the veins of the lower limb, the long saphenous and the small saphenous veins mark the major attraction clinically. Both the veins belong to superficial set of the veins, lie in the superficial fascia and possess valves. The long (great saphenous vein, being the longest vein in the body, begins as a continuation of the medial marginal vein of the foot and ends in the femoral vein distal to the inguinal ligament. It ascends in front of the medial malleolus followed by passing obliquely across the medial surface of the tibia. In the upper part of the leg, it is accompanied by saphenous nerve and finally opens into the femoral vein after passing through the saphenous opening. The short saphenous vein can be the natural choice for coronary arterial bypass surgery, and also can be used in arterial reconstruction. The look for the variation in the termination of short saphenous vein should be taken into account before performing any varicose surgeries. This paper puts in a sincere effort to check the variations of termination of short saphenous vein and thus help the surgeons in betterment of the techniques used for various surgeries. METHODS One hundred specimens were studied in the Department of Anatomy, Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal. The skin, superficial fascia and the deep fascia was carefully reflected and the formation of the small saphenous vein was identified. The course was followed and finally the termination was identified and noted. The variations in the termination were identified and a note was made. RESULT In the present study, 68% of the cases had type 2 and 38% of the cases had type 1. The other

  7. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  8. Preconditioning crush increases the survival rate of motor neurons after spinal root avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Yizhi Zuo; Jianwen He

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, heat shock protein 27 was persistently upregulated in ventral motor neurons following nerve root avulsion or crush. Here, we examined whether the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 would increase the survival rate of motor neurons. Rats were divided into two groups:an avulsion-only group (avulsion of the L4 lumbar nerve root only) and a crush-avulsion group (the L4 lumbar nerve root was crushed 1 week prior to the avulsion). Immunofluores-cent staining revealed that the survival rate of motor neurons was significantly greater in the crush-avulsion group than in the avulsion-only group, and this difference remained for at least 5 weeks after avulsion. The higher neuronal survival rate may be explained by the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression in motor neurons in the crush-avulsion group. Further-more, preconditioning crush greatly attenuated the expression of nitric oxide synthase in the motor neurons. Our ifndings indicate that the neuroprotective action of preconditioning crush is mediated through the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression and the attenuation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase upregulation following avulsion.

  9. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  10. Os efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico nas lesões por esmagamento do nervo ciático de ratos: análise funcional da marcha Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on injuries due to crushing of the sciatic nerve in rats: functional evaluation of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Monte-Raso

    2006-01-01

    primeira medida e a última. As diferenças entre os grupos foram significativas no 14º e no 21º dia (p=0,02 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Conclusão: O ultra-som terapêutico de baixa intensidade acelerou a regeneração do nervo ciático do rato, demonstrável com maior significância no 21º dia pós-operatório.Background: The effects of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation on peripheral nerve regeneration are not well known, particularly regarding functional recovery. However, in rats, footprint evaluation is a well-systematized method for measuring the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI, showing close correlation with morphological regeneration of damaged sciatic nerves. Objective: To analyze the influence of therapeutic ultrasound on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to controlled crushing. Method: 20 Wistar rats (mean body weight: 300 g were divided into two experimental groups: 1 crushing only (n=10; 2 crushing followed by ultrasound irradiation (n=10. Under general anesthesia, a 5-mm segment of sciatic nerve proximal to its bifurcation in the right thigh was exposed and crushed with constant loading of 15 kg for 10 minutes, using a specially-built device. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound irradiation (1:5, 0.4 W/cm², 1 MHz, 2 minutes was started on the first postoperative day and administered for ten consecutive days. Footprints were obtained weekly (postoperative weeks 13 using a specially-designed walkway, and evaluated using specifically-developed software, according to a previously-tested method, with automatic SFI calculation. Results: The SFI progressively increased in both groups: Group 2, from 101 in the first week to 59.21 (second and 26.68 (third, i.e. 73% improvement overall; Group 1, from 98.2 (first to 79.5 (second and 44 (third, i.e. 55% improvement overall. The differences between the groups were significant for the second and third weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound accelerates the

  11. Pressure-diameter relationship in the human greater saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stooker, W; Gok, M; Sipkema, P; Niessen, HWM; Baidoshvili, A; Westerhof, N; Jansen, EK; Wildevuur, CRH; Eijsman, L

    2003-01-01

    Background. Compliance of artificial and autologous vascular grafts is related to future patency. We investigated whether differences in compliance exist between saphenous vein grafts derived from the upper or lower leg, which might indicate upper or lower leg saphenous vein preference in coronary a

  12. CNQX对伤害性电刺激隐神经引起大鼠扣带回前部多巴胺含量变化的影响%Effect of CNQX on the Change of Dopamine Content in Anterior Cingulate Gyrus of Rats Induced by Noxious Electrical Stimulation of Saphenous Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏范; 刘忠; 杨宇; 商丽宏; 陈魁敏; 张坤松

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究谷氨酸A MPA/Kainate受体拮抗剂CNQX对伤害性电刺激隐神经引起大鼠扣带回前部(ACG)多巴胺含量变化的影响.方法 用高效液相色谱-电化学检测技术研究伤害性电刺激隐神经后不同时间,ACG多巴胺含量的变化,以及静脉注射CNQX对多巴胺含量变化的影响.结果 伤害性电刺激隐神经后15 min,ACG多巴胺含量显著增高,30 min后增高最明显,1h后开始恢复,2h后逐渐恢复接近对照水平;静脉注射CNQX拮抗了伤害性电刺激隐神经引起的ACG多巴胺含量的显著增高.结论 伤害性电刺激隐神经能够引起ACG多巴胺含量呈时间依赖性增高,提示ACG接受隐神经伤害性信息的传入,引起ACG多巴胺能神经元功能活动增强.CNQX能拮抗伤害性电刺激隐神经引起的ACG多巴胺含量的增高,提示AMPA/Kainate受体参与隐神经伤害性信息传入引起的ACG多巴胺含量增高的过程.%Objective To study the effect of glutamic acid receptor antagonist,CNQX on the change of dopamine content in anterior cingu-late gyrus (ACG) of rats induced by nociceptive electrical stimulation of saphenous nerve (SN). Methods High performance liquid chro-matography-electrochemical detection was used to study effect of different time after electrical stimulation of SN on dopamine content in ACG of rats, and the influence of CNQX intravenous injection to the change of dopamine content in ACG of rats induced by electrical stimulation of SN. Results Dopamine content in ACG significantly increased at 15min after electrical stimulation of SN.andit reached its peak at 30min after the stimulation of SN,and started to decrease at lh after the stimulation of SN ,and recovered gradually 2h after the stimulation of SN. In addition, intravenous injection of CNQX antagonized significant increase in dopamine content in ACG caused by nociceptive electrical stimulation of SN. Conclusion Significant time dependent increase in dopamine content in ACG

  13. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  14. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  15. Simvastatin对大鼠坐骨神经crush损伤修复作用研究%THE EFFECT OF SIMVASTATIN ON THE REGENERATION OF SCIATIC NERVE WITH CRUSH INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱萍; 赵慧; 赵智; 刘洪安; 郭沁华; 李波; 郭昆峰; 郭淼; 孙长凯

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨他汀类(statins)药物Simvastatin在大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复中的作用及可能的作用机制.方法:制作SD大鼠标准坐骨神经钳夹损伤(crush)模型后,分别予Simvastatin和溶媒对照干预2周.手术前后不同时间点进行趾展功能指数测定、神经电生理学、血脂水平、血清IL-6检测和组织学评价.结果:Simvastatin干预组与对照组比较,趾展功能指数在术后5 d和8 d显著增大(P<0.05),足趾展开速度快;2周肌肉复合动作电位幅度高,4周神经传导速度快;组织学显示有髓神经纤维数量多,髓鞘厚,排列相对整齐.各组手术前血脂水平无差异,手术后2周均有不同程度的降低,但Simvastatin干预组总胆固醇降低程度最轻,与对照组比较有显著差异(P<0.05);Simvastatin干预组手术后5d,血清IL-6水平明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:本研究发现,Simvastatin可能通过抑制免疫炎症反应,维持神经损伤后胆固醇的平衡,促进大鼠坐骨神经损伤的修复和再生.

  16. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor

    2014-12-01

    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management.

  17. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  18. 骨髓间充质干细胞移植修复大鼠坐骨神经挤压伤%Repairing sciatic nerve crush injury by transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 尹维田; 薛金伟; 李春雨; 范东艳

    2008-01-01

    nerve function index in the transplantation group superiorly recovered to that in the control group 3-6 weeks after surgery. Furthermore, 6 weeks after surgery, nerve conduction velocity, amount and diameter of medullated nerve fibers, wet weight and cross section area of gastrocnemius muscle in the transplantation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05-0.01). CONCLUSION: BMSCs can be transplantated into injuried nerve tissue, and promote the recovery of nerve function in the micro-enviroment, improve NGF expression in an early phase may be one of its mechanisms.

  19. An Experimental Research of Biomass Crushing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue

    2017-05-01

    Biomass crushing is precondition for utilization and transformation of biomass energy. Compressive strength of biomass raw materials is generally small with long fiber, and multiple crushing methods like shocking, shearing and grinding should be used to realize high-efficiency crushing. Based on this, this paper researched and developed a set of biomass fine crushing system, and conducted an optimized study of main parameters influencing crushing process—revolving speed, between blade and cutter head and material moisture content. Results indicated that this set of crushing system could complete fine crushing of biomass, particle size of crushed products was controlled below 250µm, crushing energy consumption was between 70—120kwh/t, both of which were mainly decided by material moisture content and operating parameters of crusher. Revolving speed of crusher was elevated, proportion of particles (d<106µm) with fine particle size in crushed products increased, and unit energy consumption of crushing increased; narrowing space between blade and cutter head could improve crushing effect of biomass, but unit energy consumption increased; the higher the moisture content was, the less the content of fine particles in crushed products would be, and the greater unit energy consumption would be. By comprehensive comparison, the optimal operating conditions for crushing were: revolving speed was 3600r/min, space between impulse blade and cutter head was 8mm, moisture content was 10.6%, energy consumption was 98kwh/t, product particle size distribution was: those with particle size below 106µm occupied 71.5% and those between 106µm—250µm occupied 28.5%.

  20. Ultrasound assisted great saphenous vein ligation and division: an office procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ricci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this proof of concept study is to describe an ultrasound (US assisted simplified surgical procedure for pre-terminal great saphenous vein (GSV high ligation/division avoiding groin dissection and tributary interruption, in an office setting, in association to varices phlebectomy and saphenous vein foam occlusion treatment. Inclusion criteria: primary GSV reflux due to terminal valve, vein diameter >6 mm. By ultrasonography in standing position, the point GSV passing over the adductor longus muscle (about 3 cm from the junction is identified. This E (easy point, relatively superficial, free from tributaries and other structures, allows an easy grasping and extraction of the GSV vein through a 3 mm stab incision provided an ultrasonography assistance. The vein is divided/ligated about 2 cm distal from the ostium, the distal stump is cannulated and foam is injected on the distal segment from the E-point incision in a retrograde fashion, varices are avulsed by phlebectomy. Twenty procedures in 18 patients (venous clinical severity score: mean 3.15 - GSV diameter: mean 7.34 were performed, all the cases without inconveniences, with a duration not exceeding 10 min in addition to the phlebectomy procedure time. No complications as hemorrhage, infection, nerve lesion, lymphatic leak or thrombosis have been registered. At one month the residual saphenous stump length was in average 2.16 cm with complete closure of GSV in all. Three patients have been controlled at 6 months showing GSV complete closure. The procedure described is a simple office US assisted method for GSV ligationdivision, leaving the 2 last cm of the saphenofemoral junction. It could be associated to most of the procedures in use with limited additional time and resources required.

  1. Safety and Effectiveness of Endovenous Laser Ablation Combined With Ligation for Severe Saphenous Varicose Veins in Japanese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Shin, Masahiro; Abo, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), which is a relatively new therapeutic option for saphenous varicose veins of the legs, is less invasive than conventional stripping surgery with ligation. In this study, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of EVLA combined with ligation for severe saphenous varicose veins that were graded as ≥ C4 by the CEAP classification. We treated 119 Japanese patients (141 limbs) between July 2005 and December 2007 utilizing a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. The obliteration rate of the treated veins was found to be 100% over the entire follow-up period (2.5 years). Consistent with this finding, all of the patients exhibited improved skin lesions (ie, skin pigmentation and ulceration). No major complications, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and nerve injury, were observed. A questionnaire survey with a reasonable response rate (66.4%) demonstrated that subjective symptoms and minor complications that were initially observed after EVLA, such as mild pain, numbness, indurations, and localized hot flashes, were remarkably improved by the end of the follow-up period. Furthermore, high levels of patient satisfaction were noted. Thus, EVLA combined with ligation constituted a safe and effective strategy for treating severe saphenous varicose veins in Japanese patients.

  2. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial...

  3. Small saphenous vein: where does reflux go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gustavo Rossi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomy of small saphenous vein (SSV is very variable because of its complex embryological origin. SSV incompetence often causes reflux that goes to the perforating veins, sometimes not respecting the anatomical course. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in reflux direction and reentry in the SSV. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 60 lower limbs with SSV incompetence of 43 patients were assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound protocol. RESULTS: Reentry variations were grouped into four types and subtypes. Percentage results were: Type A, perforating veins on the medial side = 25/60 cases (41.66%; subtypes: Cockett, Sherman, paratibial and vertex; Type B, lateral malleolus and perforating veins on the lateral side (fibular 17-26 cm = 15/60 cases (25%; subtypes: fibular and malleolus; Type C, two branches = 19/60 cases (31.66%; subtypes: gastrocnemius and Cockett, gastrocnemius and malleolus, and/or fibular, Cockett and malleolus, Cockett-vertex and fibular; Type D, reflux in the superficial system = 1/60 cases (1.66%. CONCLUSION: On most of the lower limbs assessed, reflux did not follow the classical anatomic course. Our findings demonstrated a high degree of variation in reflux/reentry, but no SSV anatomical variations. Reflux seems to, either look for the most accessible anatomical connection for reentry or be originated in the distal area and then reach the SSV.

  4. Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in Dynamic Crush Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Vesta I.; Swanson, Lloyd H.

    1999-07-01

    Fifteen aluminum honeycomb cubes (3 in.) have been crushed in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory's drop table testing machines. This report summarizes shock experiments with honeycomb densities of 22.1 pcf and 38.0 pcf and with crush weights of 45 lb, 168 lb, and 268 lb. The honeycomb samples were crushed in all three orientations, W, L, and T. Most of the experiments were conducted at an impact velocity of {approx}40 fps, but higher velocities of up to 90 fps were used for selected experiments. Where possible, multiple experiments were conducted for a specific orientation and density of the honeycomb samples. All results are for Hexcel honeycomb except for one experiment with Alcore honeycomb and have been evaluated for validity. This report contains the raw acceleration data measured on the top of the drop table carriage, pictures of the crushed samples, and normalized force-displacement curves for all fifteen experiments. These data are not strictly valid for material characteristics in L and T orientations because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb changed (split) during the crush. However, these are the best data available at this time. These dynamic crush data do suggest a significant increase in crush strength to 8000 psi ({approximately} 25-30% increase) over quasi-static values of {approximately}6000 psi for the 38.0 pcf Hexcel Honeycomb in the T-orientation. An uncertainty analysis is included and estimates the error in these data.

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  7. On the progressive nature of grain crushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciantia Matteo O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work acoustic emission (AE is used as experimental evidence of the progressive nature of grain crushing. Stress controlled high pressure oedometric compression test are carried out on 1.2 mm monodisperse samples of glass beads. It was observed that the granular assembly starts to experience particle breakage at a vertical stress of about 25MPa. When this yield pressure is exceeded the glass beads start to break emitting loud impulsive sound and the vertical displacement increases rapidly. The load was increased beyond the yield stress and at each increment while the vertical stress remained constant the sample continued to emit sound. The emission of sound at a constant vertical stress indicates that crushing is a progressive failure mechanism; once the first crushing event occurs, the structure starts to rearrange causing other crushing events to occur and additional settlement. In particular, two signal processing algorithms are used on the samples of the acoustic signal to obtain two additional metrics of the crushing evolution. The first is the cumulative energy versus time. The second is the number of crushing events versus time, which is based on the automatic detection of the peaks of the sound signal envelope. There is a clear correlation between the cumulative acoustic energy emitted and the observed sample displacement. Using laser scanning, the evolution of the particle size distribution and particle shape are measured in detail so that a link between the acoustic data and the crushing intensity is established. The crushing intensity was controlled using materials with different strengths.

  8. An experimental study of nerve bypass graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; LI Xue-shi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the use of a nerve "bypass" graft as a possible alternative to neurolysis or segmental resection with interposition grafting in the treatment of neuroma-in-continuity. Methods: A sciatic nerve crush injury model was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat by compression with a straight hemostatic forceps. Epineurial windows were created proximal and distal to the injury site. An 8-mm segment of radial nerve was harvested and coaptated to the sciatic nerve at the epineurial window sites proximal and distal to the compressed segment (bypass group). A sciatic nerve crush injury without bypass served as a control. Nerve conduction studies were performed over an 8-week period. Sciatic nerves were then harvested and studied under transmission electron microscopy. Myelinated axon counts were obtained. Results: Nerve conduction velocity was significantly faster in the bypass group than in the control group at 8 weeks (63.57 m/s±5.83 m/s vs. 54.88 m/s±4.79m/s, P<0.01). Myelinated axon counts in distal segments were found more in the experimental sciatic nerve than in the control sciatic nerve. Significant axonal growth was noted in the bypass nerve segment itself. Conclusion: Nerve bypass may serve to augment peripheral axonal growth while avoiding further loss of the native nerve.

  9. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McMurtry, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.

  10. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  11. Visualizing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Whole Mount Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Parkinson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis), in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis) repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries. PMID:25738874

  12. Effect of acrylamide on the degeneration and regeneration of rat myelinated fiber after sciatic nerve crush injury%丙烯酰胺对小鼠坐骨神经捻挫损伤后有髓纤维变性和再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫秋月; 韩漫夫; 饶明俐

    2005-01-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acrylamide on the degeneration and regeneration of sciatic nerve medullated fibers following crush injury of C57BL/Ola (Ola) rat and C57BL/6J (6J) rat.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology,Second People's hospital of Shenzhen; Department of Neurology of First hospital of Jilin University MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the neurological department in the University of Occupational and Environmental, Japan from January to June 1996. Twelve adult Ola rats and 6J rats were adopted and evenly randomly divided into experimental group and comparison group.METHODS: Rats were subjected to general anaesthesia, and then the proximal section of sciatic nerve was exposed and frustrated with hemostatic forceps for 10 s before suture. Rats in the experimental group were given intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide in a total dosage of 350 mg, which replaced by the same volume of physiological saline in comparison group.At 14 days after sciatic nerve torsion injury, all rats were anaesthetized again and the distal section of sciatic nerve was obtained and cut into slices, meanwhile the cross sectional area, the density and size frequency distribution of medullated fibers, as well as the number of medullated fibers in each nerve were determined.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The density and size frequency distribution of sciatic nerve medullated fibers, as well as the number, the maximum diameter and the mean diameter of medullated fibers in two group of 0la rats and 6J rats.RESULTS: Totally 12 Ola rats and 6J rats entered the result analysis.① No Ola rat displayed Wallerian degeneration; But medullated fiber degeneration and following neonatal small diameter medullated fibers could be observed in 6J rats. ②In the experimental group, the total density of sciatic nerve medullated fibers in 6J rats was lower than that of Ola rat (P < 0.05) ;with the total number of medullated fibers in 6J rats also less than that

  13. Response of peripheral nerve to He-Ne laser: experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochkind, S; Nissan, M; Barr-Nea, L; Razon, N; Schwartz, M; Bartal, A

    1987-01-01

    Low-energy He-Ne laser irradiation (LELI) was found to affect the electric activity and morphology in both intact and severely injured peripheral nerves in rats. Action potential (AP) in the healthy nerve increased by 33% following a single transcutaneous irradiation. Similar irradiation in crushed nerves caused AP to increase significantly over the AP of nonirradiated crushed nerve. Morphological observations revealed that a laser-irradiated injured nerve had diminished scar tissue as compared to an injured but not an irradiated nerve.

  14. A new zebrafish bone crush injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sousa

    2012-07-01

    While mammals have a limited capacity to repair bone fractures, zebrafish can completely regenerate amputated bony fin rays. Fin regeneration in teleosts has been studied after partial amputation of the caudal fin, which is not ideal to model human bone fractures because it involves substantial tissue removal, rather than local tissue injury. In this work, we have established a bone crush injury model in zebrafish adult caudal fin, which consists of the precise crush of bony rays with no tissue amputation. Comparing these two injury models, we show that the initial stages of injury response are the same regarding the activation of wound healing molecular markers. However, in the crush assay the expression of the blastema marker msxb appears later than during regeneration after amputation. Following the same trend, bone cells deposition and expression of genes involved in skeletogenesis are also delayed. We further show that bone and blood vessel patterning is also affected. Moreover, analysis of osteopontin and Tenascin-C reveals that they are expressed at later stages in crushed tissue, suggesting that in this case bone repair is prolonged for longer than in the case of regeneration after amputation. Due to the nature of the trauma inflicted, the crush injury model seems more similar to fracture bone repair in mammals than bony ray amputation. Therefore, the new model that we present here may help to identify the key processes that regulate bone fracture and contribute to improve bone repair in humans.

  15. Crushing or splitting medications: unrecognized hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Donna; Spain, Margaret; Edlund, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Given the high use and the cost of medications in the current economy, one way older adults may save money on prescription costs is to split some of their medications in half. However, not all oral medications can be split. Splitting inappropriate medications such as extended-release tablets can be harmful and in some instances very dangerous. In addition to splitting medications, older adults who have difficulty swallowing pills may resort to crushing the medication for ease of administration. This option is also problematic and potentially harmful if the medication is not intended to be crushed. Clinicians managing the care of older adults need to discuss medication administration, clarify the dosing schedule, and clearly indicate the route of administration. Patients should be cautioned not to split or crush a medication without checking with the health care provider or pharmacist.

  16. An early warning method for crush

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Peter J; Amos, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organisers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that the prediction and mitigation of such conditions offers a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally "cheap" but subjective and time-consuming. In this paper we propose an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of crush.

  17. 5-Hydroxytryptamine(1F) receptors do not participate in vasoconstriction: lack of vasoconstriction to LY344864, a selective serotonin(1F) receptor agonist in rabbit saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M L; Schenck, K

    1999-09-01

    Recently, several novel approaches to the treatment of migraine have been advanced, including selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (or serotonin) 1B/1D (5-HT(1B/1D)) receptor agonists such as sumatriptan and 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists such as LY344864. Many 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists have been identified based on their ability to produce cerebral vascular contraction, whereas LY344864 was identified as an inhibitor of trigeminal nerve-mediated dural extravasation. In our study, several triptan derivatives were compared with LY344864 for their ability to contract the rabbit saphenous vein, a tissue used in the preclinical identification of sumatriptan-related agonists. Sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and naratriptan all contracted the rabbit saphenous vein from baseline tone, whereas LY344864 in concentrations up to 10(-4) M did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein. Furthermore, vascular contractions to sumatriptan were markedly augmented in the presence of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). However, even in the presence of PGF(2alpha) (3 x 10(-7) M), LY344864 did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein in concentrations well in excess of its 5-HT(1F) receptor affinity (pK(i) = 8.2). Only when concentrations exceeded those likely to activate 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors (>10(-5) M) did modest contractile responses occur in the presence of PGF(2alpha). Use of these serotonergic agonists revealed a significant correlation between the contractile potency in the rabbit saphenous vein and the affinities of these agonists at 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, although contractile agonist potencies were not quantitatively similar to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1D) receptor affinities. In contrast, no significant correlation existed between the contractile potencies of these serotonergic agonists in the rabbit saphenous vein and their affinity at 5-HT(1F) receptors. These data support the contention that activation of 5-HT(1F) receptors will not result in vascular

  18. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    . Crushing experiments conducted on full-scale aluminum plate intersections reveal that the crushing behaviour is highly affected by material fracture during the deformation. Several fracture criteria from the literature have been reviewed and three fracture models have been compared with material...... criteria for first-ply failure of unidirectional composites (UD), from the literature, are compared with experiments conducted on composite specimens. It is found that a failure criterion by Chang and Chang (1987) agrees well with the experiments on UD. A progressive failure procedure by Chang and Chang...

  19. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    as a material constant. However, the estimation of this parameter is laborious and subject to estimation problems. It is shown that the Weibull modulus is inherently connected to the coefficient of variation and that the information obtained from the modulus is unclear. The distribution of crushing strength...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated. Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V....

  20. Axonal elongation through long acellular nerve segments depends on recruitment of phagocytic cells from the near-nerve environment. Electrophysiological and morphological studies in the cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J; Fugleholm, K; Moldovan, M

    2001-01-01

    nerve segment. The regeneration was monitored electrophysiologically by implanted electrodes and after 2 months the nerves were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The results indicate that soluble substances in the near-nerve environment, such as nutrients, oxygen or tropic substances did......The distal nerve stump plays a central role in the regeneration of peripheral nerve but the relative importance of cellular and humoral factors is not clear. We have studied this question by freezing the tibial nerve distal to a crush lesion in cat. The importance of constituents from the near......-nerve environment was assessed by modification of the contact between the tibial nerve and the environment. Silicone cuffs, containing electrodes for electrophysiological assessment of nerve regeneration, were placed around the tibial nerve distal to the crush site. The interaction between long acellular frozen...

  1. Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, D; Lago, N; Verdú, E;

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration was examined in Mt1+ 2 and Mt3 knockout (KO) mice. To this end, the right sciatic nerve was crushed, and the regeneration distance was evaluated by the pinch test 2-7 days...

  2. Spinal cord response to laser treatment of injured peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochkind, S.; Vogler, I.; Barr-Nea, L. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the changes occurring in the spinal cord of rats subjected to crush injury of the sciatic nerve followed by low-power laser irradiation of the injured nerve. Such laser treatment of the crushed peripheral nerve has been found to mitigate the degenerative changes in the corresponding neurons of the spinal cord and induce proliferation of neuroglia both in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggests a higher metabolism in neurons and a better ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment.

  3. Update of endovenous treatment modalities for insufficient saphenous veins-A review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Lower-limb venous insufficiency resulting from saphenous vein incompetence is a common disorder, increasing with age. For decades, surgical stripping of the great saphenous vein has been the gold standard in varicose vein treatment. The desire to optimize outcomes of treatment and reduce surgical tr

  4. Update of endovenous treatment modalities for insufficient saphenous veins-A review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    Lower-limb venous insufficiency resulting from saphenous vein incompetence is a common disorder, increasing with age. For decades, surgical stripping of the great saphenous vein has been the gold standard in varicose vein treatment. The desire to optimize outcomes of treatment and reduce surgical

  5. Imaging of the nerves of the knee region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damarey, B., E-mail: benjdam@hotmail.com [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie musculosquelettique, CCIAL, Hôpital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Rue Emile Laine, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Laboratoire d’anatomie, Faculté de médecine, CHRU de Lille, 1 Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Demondion, X. [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie musculosquelettique, CCIAL, Hôpital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Rue Emile Laine, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Laboratoire d’anatomie, Faculté de médecine, CHRU de Lille, 1 Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Wavreille, G. [Laboratoire d’anatomie, Faculté de médecine, CHRU de Lille, 1 Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Service d’orthopédie, Hôpital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Rue Emile Laine, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Pansini, V.; Balbi, V.; Cotten, A. [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie musculosquelettique, CCIAL, Hôpital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Rue Emile Laine, 59037 Lille Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Peripheral neuropathies are a frequent, but often underdiagnosed, cause of pain and functional impairment. The clinical symptoms can be subtle, and other neurologic or non neurologic clinical entities are often evoked. MRI and ultrasonography are the imaging modalities of choice for depicting nerves and assessing neuropathies. Common neuropathies in the knee area involve the saphenous, the tibial, the common peroneal and the sural nerves. The most frequent mechanisms of nerve injury in this area are nerve entrapment and nerve stretching. A perfect knowledge of the normal imaging anatomy is essential for accurate assessment of neuropathies. In this article, we will review the anatomy of the nerves around the knee, and their normal and pathological appearance.

  6. Phenazines and natural products; Novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1-phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization un...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of H-1 NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  7. Phenazines and natural products; novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud J.; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1- phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization u...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of 1H NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  8. Modelling the crush behaviour of thermoplastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei; Falzon, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoplastic composites are likely to emerge as the preferred solution for meeting the high-volume production demands of passenger road vehicles. Substantial effort is currently being directed towards the development of new modelling techniques to reduce the extent of costly and time consuming physical testing. Developing a high-fidelity numerical model to predict the crush behaviour of composite laminates is dependent on the accurate measurement of material properties as well as a thorough ...

  9. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial plac...... successful and 42/43 secondary placements successful by ultrasound, confirmed in 10/10 cases by magnetic resonance imaging....

  10. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  11. An economic system that crushes the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake J. Masango

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on economic structures that crush the poor, especially global economic structures that trap and keep people in poverty. The concept of poverty occupies centre stage in South Africa and many other developing countries. There is no longer a middle class. One is either rich or poor. Globalisation has created a system or program that continues to crush the poor, while also breeding greed and selfishness. The rich always accumulate resources while the poor struggle to make ends meet. These problems are created by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and Structural Adjustment Programs, to name a few. These structures have introduced a system of inequality that widens the gap between the rich and the poor because of self-interest, which continues to crush the latter. The end result is that the concept of Ubuntu or Botho among African communities is destroyed. Injustice becomes the order of the day.

  12. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  13. Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence. PMID:21953679

  14. The in situ saphenous vein bypass graft: radiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, W; Nozick, J; Richmand, D; Rodgers, B; Simpson, A; Argila, C; Honickman, S

    1986-03-01

    The use of the in situ saphenous vein for bypassing arterial occlusions in the lower extremities appears to have a higher patency rate than other bypass procedures but presents unique technical problems, such as lysing valves and occluding venous tributaries. Forty-four patients undergoing in situ bypasses had preoperative arteriograms. Special attention was paid to the small runoff vessels around the ankle, which are not suitable for reversed bypass procedures but may be adequate for in situ bypasses. Eight patients also had preoperative saphenous venograms, which revealed surgically important abnormalities in six cases. Postoperative arteriograms obtained within 2 weeks in 10 patients and within 2-12 months in 15 patients revealed persistent arteriovenous fistulas in four patients, stenoses in nine, occlusions in five, and progressive disease in the nonbypassed arteries in five patients. Early recognition of these problems led to 11 surgical repairs; nine repairs used the interventional radiologic procedures of balloon angioplasty, transcatheter embolization, and catheter thrombolysis. In this group of 44 patients, five patients died with patent bypasses and three patients required amputation despite functioning bypasses. Only four amputations were attributed to bypass failure. This low figure may be due to the close cooperation of the vascular surgeons and the vascular radiologists in dealing with these complicated cases.

  15. Crush testing, characterizing, and modeling the crashworthiness of composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, David Michael, Jr.

    Research in the field of crashworthiness of composite materials is presented. A new crush test method was produced to characterize the crush behavior of composite laminates. In addition, a model of the crush behavior and a method for rank ordering the energy absorption capability of various laminates were developed. The new crush test method was used for evaluating the crush behavior of flat carbon/epoxy composite specimens at quasi-static and dynamic rates. The University of Utah crush test fixture was designed to support the flat specimen against catastrophic buckling. A gap, where the specimen is unsupported, allowed unhindered crushing of the specimen. In addition, the specimen's failure modes could be clearly observed during crush testing. Extensive crush testing was conducted wherein the crush force and displacement data were collected to calculate the energy absorption, and high speed video was captured during dynamic testing. Crush tests were also performed over a range of fixture gap heights. The basic failure modes were buckling, crack growth, and fracture. Gap height variations resulted in poorly, properly, and overly constrained specimens. In addition, guidelines for designing a composite laminate for crashworthiness were developed. Modeling of the crush behavior consisted of the delamination and fracture of a single ply or group of like plies during crushing. Delamination crack extension was modeled using the mode I energy release rate, G lc, where an elastica approach was used to obtain the strain energy. Variations in Glc were briefly explored with double cantilever beam tests wherein crack extension occurred along a multidirectional ply interface. The model correctly predicted the failure modes for most of the test cases, and offered insight into how the input parameters affect the model. The ranking method related coefficients of the laminate and sublaminate stiffness matrices, the ply locations within the laminate, and the laminate thickness. The

  16. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  17. Recent Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Guided Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kayla; Dinis, Tony M; Taourirt, Sami; Vidal, Guillaume; Kaplan, David L; Egles, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The repair of large crushed or sectioned segments of peripheral nerves remains a challenge in regenerative medicine due to the complexity of the biological environment and the lack of proper biomaterials and architecture to foster reconstruction. Traditionally such reconstruction is only achieved by using fresh human tissue as a surrogate for the absence of the nerve. However, recent focus in the field has been on new polymer structures and specific biofunctionalization to achieve the goal of peripheral nerve regeneration by developing artificial nerve prostheses. This review presents various tested approaches as well their effectiveness for nerve regrowth and functional recovery.

  18. Use Of Crushed Bricks As Coarse Aggregate In Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia S. Kalak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation reported in this paper is carried out to study the feasibility of using crushed bricks to substitute the coarse aggregate (gravel in concrete. Two types of concrete mixing are prepared. The first one is a mixture of  1:2:4 without crushed bricks and is used as a reference mixture .The second one is made of different weight of crushed bricks (as a percentage from the weight of the coarse aggregate. A total of 30 numbers of concrete specimens are casted with and without crushed bricks and  tested under compression and split tension as per relevant to British standard specifications.Test results indicated that using crushed bricks reduces the strength of concrete. Also, the percentage of water to cement ratio increases for constant slump when the percentage of crushed bricks increased.

  19. Numerical modelling of steel tubes under oblique crushing forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. E.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Nezere, N.; Jamian, S.; Kamarudin, K. A.; Awang, M. K.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. N.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Arifin, A. M. T.; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the numerical assessment of crushing responses of elliptical tubes under crushing forces. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of works on the axial crushing behaviour can be found. However, the studies on the oblique crushing responses are rarely found. Therefore, this work investigates numerically the elliptical tubes under compressions. The numerical model of the tubes are developed using ANSYS finite element program. Two important parameters are used such as elliptical ratios and oblique angles. The tubes are compressed quasi-statically and the force-displacement curves are extracted. Then, the area under the curves are calculated and it is represented the performances of energy absorptions. It is found numerically that the introductions of oblique angles during the crushing processes decrease the crushing performances. However, the elliptical-shaped tubes capable to enhance the energy absorption capabilities. On the other hand, the elliptical-shaped tubes produced the enhancement on the energy absorption capabilities.

  20. Effect of Fracture on Crushing of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Abramowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with loads and energy absorption during crushing of ship structures. Particular focus is on the effect of fracture of welds or parent material on the energy absorption of typical structural subassemblies of ships during deep collapse. The paper presents experiments...... absorption in axial crushing of typical ship structural components. This effect of fracture has been neglected in previously published studies of bow crushing mechanics....

  1. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2016-08-11

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  2. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes; Nastri, Rogério; Ferez, Marcus Antônio; Costa, Mauro José Brandão da; Laguna, Claudio Benedini; Valentin, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG). Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential.

  3. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  4. Day surgery is effective and safe for patients with great saphenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... surgery (IS) were collected from hospital main clinical database. Baseline characteristics ... and safe for patients with great saphenous vein varices who meet American ..... Financial support and sponsorship. Nil. Conflicts of ...

  5. Room for improvement in reoperation for varicosities of the small saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Bækgaard, Niels

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative effects of surgery for recurrent varicosities of the small saphenous vein (SSV). To our knowledge, English-language original articles on this subject have not previously been published....

  6. The effect of arteriovenous fistulas on in situ saphenous vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T;

    1991-01-01

    Intraoperative identification and later development of arteriovenous fistulas were investigated prospectively in 70 in situ saphenous vein bypass procedures. Surveillance was performed by completion arteriography and intra- and postoperative continuous wave Doppler examination. The intraoperative...

  7. Nerve biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - nerve ... A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle, forearm, or along a rib. The health care ... feel a prick and a mild sting. The biopsy site may be sore for a few days ...

  8. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  9. Effects of tetraethylammonium chloride on sympathetic neuromuscular transmission in saphenous artery of young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, M E; Surprenant, A

    1980-08-01

    1. Excitatory junction potentials and electrotonic potentials were recorded from the smooth muscle of the rabbit saphenous artery using intracellular electrodes. 2. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) in concentrations greater than 3.5 mM caused depolarization. Concentrations greater than 5 mM caused spontaneous electrical activity in the form of excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) and all-or-nothing action potentials which were associated with spontaneous mechanical activity. 3. Concentrations of TEA less than 2.5 mM did not alter the resting potential nor the passive membrane properties of the smooth muscle over a range of +/- 15 mV. 4. The following effects were observed in 2.0 mM-TEA. (a) The minimum stimulus strength required for the initiation of an e.j.p. fell by three to fivefold. (b) Single stimuli that elicited only a small e.j.p. in normal solution evoked an all-or-nothing action potential of up to 70 mV amplitude. (c) Whereas in normal solution e.j.p.s could only be recorded up to 7 mm away from the perivascular stimulating electrode e.j.p.s could be recorded at distances of up to 13 mm. (d) The duration of the e.j.p. was prolonged. 5. Based on these results and the effects of TEA reported for other synapses it is proposed that TEA may act to increase the amount of transmitter released per axon, to increase the duration of release and to cause an increased invasion throughout the autonomic ground plexus by nerve impulses. This would imply that in normal solution, in vitro, the action potential may not propagate throughout the whole length of the terminal axon and its many branches due to failure of conduction at one or more points along the terminal portion of the axon.

  10. Impaired Prosaposin Secretion During Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats and Protection of Nerve Regeneration by a Prosaposin-Derived Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Vu, Yvonne; Mizisin, Leah M.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2009-01-01

    Prosaposin is both a precursor of sphingolipid activator proteins and a secreted neurotrophic and myelinotrophic factor. Because peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired in diabetes mellitus, we measured prosaposin protein levels from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats by collecting endoneurial fluid secreted into a bridging tube connecting the ends of transected sciatic nerve. Prosaposin protein levels were significantly reduced in endoneurial fluid from diabetic rats and increased in the proximal nerve stump compared to controls. To investigate whether a prosaposin-derived peptide could improve nerve regeneration, rats were treated with prosaptide TX14(A) following sciatic nerve crush. In control rats, TX14(A) was without effect in the uninjured nerve but shortened toe spread recovery time after nerve crush. In diabetic rats, efficacy of prosaptide TX14(A) was confirmed by correction of thermal hypoalgesia, formalin-evoked hyperalgesia and conduction slowing in the uninjured nerve. The peptide also prevented diabetes-induced abnormalities in nerve regeneration distance and mean axonal diameter of regenerated axons, whereas delayed recovery of toe spread was not improved. Muscle denervation atrophy was attenuated by TX14(A) in both control and diabetic rats. These results suggest that reduced prosaposin secretion after nerve injury may contribute to impaired regeneration rates in diabetic rats and that prosaptide TX14(A) can improve aspects of nerve regeneration. PMID:18596543

  11. Impaired prosaposin secretion during nerve regeneration in diabetic rats and protection of nerve regeneration by a prosaposin-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Vu, Yvonne; Mizisin, Leah M; Mizisin, Andrew P; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2008-07-01

    Prosaposin is both a precursor of sphingolipid activator proteins and a secreted neurotrophic and myelinotrophic factor. Because peripheral nerve regeneration is impaired in diabetes mellitus, we measured prosaposin protein levels from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats by collecting endoneurial fluid secreted into a bridging tube connecting the ends of transected sciatic nerve. Prosaposin protein levels were significantly reduced in endoneurial fluid from diabetic rats and increased in the proximal nerve stump compared to controls. To investigate whether a prosaposin-derived peptide could improve nerve regeneration, rats were treated with prosaptide TX14(A) after sciatic nerve crush. In control rats, TX14(A) was without effect in the uninjured nerve but shortened toe spread recovery time after nerve crush. In diabetic rats, efficacy of prosaptide TX14(A) was confirmed by correction of thermal hypoalgesia, formalin-evoked hyperalgesia, and conduction slowing in the uninjured nerve. The peptide also prevented diabetes-induced abnormalities in nerve regeneration distance and mean axonal diameter of regenerated axons, whereas delayed recovery of toe spread was not improved. Muscle denervation atrophy was attenuated by TX14(A) in both control and diabetic rats. These results suggest that reduced prosaposin secretion after nerve injury may contribute to impaired regeneration rates in diabetic rats, and that prosaptide TX14(A) can improve aspects of nerve regeneration.

  12. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  13. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  14. [The prevention of crush syndrome related medical problems after earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Qiang; Li, Gui-Sen

    2008-09-01

    Crush syndrome in patients rescued from earthquake is a complex clinical syndrome with many medical conditions. The most common complications are hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury, shock, infection, ARDS, malnutrition and multiorgan dysfunction. Managing these critical issues appropriately is essential for effective treatment of the crush syndrome.

  15. IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF PLAYGROUND SURFACE BY WASTE CRUSHED SHELL MIXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Oda, Kenichi; Higuchi, Emiko; Takano, Morihiro; Tasaki, Hiroshi

    If sandy soil with appropriate gradation is compacted, hard and dense ground will be generated. Even if the soil material is hard enough against shock load, the permeability of the soil decreases significantly. This paper examines the improvement effect of playground surface by waste crushed shell mixing technique. The following conclusions are obtained from the present study: 1. The maximum dry density of the sandy soil increases gradually by mixing the crushed shell. However, if the crushed shell is put into the soil too much, the density decreases conversely. 2. Although the density of the soil sample becomes high by mixing the crushed shell, the coefficient of permeability increases. 3. The soil particles once attached to the shell is not washed away easily. 4. The crushed shell doesn't change the quality of groundwater so much. 5. This repair method is applicable to improvement of playground surface.

  16. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  17. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idiris Altun; Ergl Belge Kuruta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury;n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was per-formed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were signiifcantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were signiifcantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was signiifcantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  18. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...

  19. Quality control chart for crushed granite concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa E. DESMOND

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chart for assessing in-situ grade (strength of concrete, has been developed in this study. Four grades of concrete after the Nigerian General Specification for Roads and bridges (NGSRB-C20, C25, C30 and C35, is studied at different water-cement ratios for medium and high slump range. The concrete mixes are made from crushed granite rock as coarse aggregate with river sand as fine aggregate. Compression test on specimens are conducted at curing age of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days. Results on concrete workability from slump values, and water-cement ratios revealed that specimens with lower water-cement ratio were less workable but had higher strength, compared to mixes with higher water cement ratio. A simple algorithm using nonlinear regression analysis performed on each experimental data set produced Strength-Age (S-A curves which were used to establish a quality control chart. The accuracy of these curves were evaluated by computing average absolute error (AAS, the error of estimate (EoE and the average absolute error of estimate (Abs EoE for each concrete mix. These were done based on the actual average experimental strengths to measure how close the predicted values are to the experimental data set. The absolute average error of estimate (Abs. EoE recorded was less than ±10% tolerance zone for concrete works.

  20. The rat saphenous flap: a fasciocutaneous free flap model without panniculus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, M; Tasaki, Y; Tanaka, K; Fujii, T

    1995-10-01

    The rat saphenous flap is described as a new experimental model for free flap studies. This is a fasciocutaneous free flap based on the saphenofemoral vascular pedicle. The flap may include the entire medial aspect of the lower leg between the knee and ankle. Thirty flaps were harvested from 15 inbred rats. Each flap was transferred to the anterior neck of a recipient rat of the same inbred strain so that 15 flaps were vascularized free flaps using the standard end-to-end microvascular technique and the other 15 flaps were nonvascularized free grafts. All but two (technical failure) of the vascularized flaps showed complete survival, whereas all nonvascularized flaps completely necrosed 2 weeks after transfer. It was concluded that the rat saphenous flap has several advantages such as a long and consistent vascular pedicle, ease of harvest, and an all-or-none survival pattern. Furthermore, as a unique feature of this flap, histological analysis revealed that the rat saphenous flap is composed of the skin and underlying fascia without panniculus carnosus. We therefore suggest that the rat saphenous flap is the first true fasciocutaneous free flap model in the rat. In this paper, in addition to illustrating the anatomy of the saphenous vessels and describing a new fasciocutaneous free flap model based on these vessels, we have documented some anatomical details of the rat leg that have never been described in the literature related to the rat anatomy.

  1. Variable spatial magnetic field influences peripheral nerves regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszyński, Krzysztof; Marcol, Wiesław; Szajkowski, Sebastian; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Generator of spatial magnetic field is one of most recent achievements among the magnetostimulators. This apparatus allows to obtain the rotating magnetic field. This new method may be more effective than other widely used techniques of magnetostimulation and magnetotherapy. We investigated the influence of alternating, spatial magnetic field on the regeneration of the crushed rat sciatic nerves. Functional and morphological evaluations were used. After crush injury of the right sciatic nerve, Wistar C rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups (control and three experimental). The experimental groups (A, B, C) were exposed (20 min/day, 5 d/week, 4 weeks) to alternating spatial magnetic field of three different intensities. Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and tensometric assessments were performed every week after nerve crush. Forty-eight hours before the sacrificing of animals, DiI (1,1'-di-octadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyloindocarbocyanine perchlorate) was applied 5 mm distally to the crush site. Collected nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical staining. The survival rate of DRG neurons was estimated. Regrowth and myelination of the nerves was examined. The results of SFI and tensometric assessment showed improvement in all experimental groups as compared to control, with best outcome observed in group C, exposed to the strongest magnetic field. In addition, DRG survival rate and nerve regeneration intensity were significantly higher in the C group. Above results indicate that strong spatial alternating magnetic field exerts positive effect on peripheral nerve regeneration and its application could be taken under consideration in the therapy of injured peripheral nerves.

  2. Protein expression of sensory and motor nerves: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiwu; Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wenjing; Liang, Xiangdang; Zhao, Qing; Lu, Shibi

    2012-02-15

    The present study utilized samples from bilateral motor branches of the femoral nerve, as well as saphenous nerves, ventral roots, and dorsal roots of the spinal cord, to detect differential protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry techniques. A mass spectrum was identified using the Mascot search. Results revealed differential expression of 11 proteins, including transgelin, Ig kappa chain precursor, plasma glutathione peroxidase precursor, an unnamed protein product (gi|55628), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, lactoylglutathione lyase, adenylate kinase isozyme 1, two unnamed proteins products (gi|55628 and gi|1334163), and poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in motor and sensory nerves. Results suggested that these proteins played roles in specific nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury and served as specific markers for motor and sensory nerves.

  3. Protein expression of sensory and motor nerves Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Ren; Yu Wang; Jiang Peng; Li Zhang; Wenjing Xu; Xiangdang Liang; Qing Zhao; Shibi Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilized samples from bilateral motor branches of the femoral nerve, as well as saphenous nerves, ventral roots, and dorsal roots of the spinal cord, to detect differential protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry techniques. A mass spectrum was identified using the Mascot search. Results revealed differential expression of 11 proteins, including transgelin, Ig kappa chain precursor, plasma glutathione peroxidase precursor, an unnamed protein product (gi|55628), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, lactoylglutathione lyase, adenylate kinase isozyme 1, two unnamed proteins products (gi|55628 and gi|1334163), and poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in motor and sensory nerves. Results suggested that these proteins played roles in specific nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury and served as specific markers for motor and sensory nerves.

  4. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  6. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  7. Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

  8. An Unusual Course and Termination of Small Saphenous Vein: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    The superficial veins of the lower limb can vary in their course and termination. We report a relatively rare type of variation in the course and termination of small saphenous vein. The small saphenous vein had normal origin and course in the leg. However, instead of terminating into the popliteal vein, it continued up in the posterior compartment of the thigh and terminated into the femoral vein after piercing the fleshy part of the adductor magnus muscle. This course might lead to varicosity of the small saphenous vein due to the compression by the fleshy fibres of adductor magus near its termination. The case may be of interest to general and plastic surgeons and even cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27134850

  9. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. Aliabdo; Abd-Elmoaty M. Abd-Elmoaty; Hani H. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and ...

  10. Relationship between elevated platelet volume and saphenous vein graft disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Yusuf; Sen, Nihat; Yazici, Hüseyin Uğur; Hizal, Fatma; Açikgöz, Sadik Kadri; Turfan, Murat; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-06-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease is the major determinant of long term graft viability in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Although, platelets play a major role in this pathogenetic process the nature of this interaction has not been yet been clarified. Mean platelet volume (MPV) reflects platelet production rate and stimulation. This study was designed to investigate MPV in patients with late stage SVG disease. The study population composed of 188 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography more than one year after coronary artery bypass surgery. The study population was divided in to two groups according to SVG patency. The first group consisted of 90 patients (75 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 +/- 9.2 years) with patent SVG's (no-stenosis group). The second group consisted of 98 patients (80 men, 18 women; mean age, 62.1 +/- 10.1 years) with SVG stenosis based on the results of coronary angiography (stenosis group). Greater than 50% stenosis within the SVG was accepted as hemodynamically significant. MPV were significantly higher in patients with SVG disease in comparison with the patients without graft disease group (9.3 +/- 1.19 vs. 8.3 +/- 1.10 fl, respectively, p < 0.001). In a multiple regression model, SVG disease was independently associated with MPV (beta=0.837, p=0.05) along with LDL-cholesterol (beta=0.159, p=0.008) and time interval after bypass surgery (beta=-0.092, p=0.05). Platelet volume, and therefore platelet activation, appears to play a causal role in late SVG disease graft disease; hence, MPV may be useful as a post-operative marker of graft success.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  12. Computer Simulation Methods for Crushing Process in an Jaw Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ich Beloglazov, Ilia; Andreevich Ikonnikov, Dmitrii

    2016-08-01

    One of the trends at modern mining enterprises is the application of combined systems for extraction and transportation of the rock mass. Given technology involves the use the conveyor lines as a continuous link of combined technology. The application of a conveyor transport provides significant reduction of costs for energy resources, increase in labor productivity and process automation. However, the use of a conveyor transport provides for certain requirements for the quality of transported material. The maximum size of the rock mass pieces is one of the basic parameters for it. The crushing plants applies as a coarse crushing followed by crushing the material to the maximum size of piece which possible to use for conveyor transport. It is often represented by jaw crushers. Modelling of crushing process in jaw crushers allows to maximally optimize workflow and increase efficiency of the equipment at the further transportation and processing of rocks. We studied the interaction between walls of the jaw crusher and bulk material by using discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. The article examines the process of modeling by stages. It includes design of the crusher construction in solid and surface modeling system. Modelling of the crushing process based on the experimental data received via the crushing unit BOYD. The process of destruction and particle size distribution in the study was done. Analysis of research results shows a comparability of actual experiment and modeling process.

  13. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI, expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Groin Swelling in a Four-Year-Old Boy: Primary Great Saphenous Vein Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Mustafa Cüneyt; Çiçek, Ömer Faruk; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Taşoğlu, İrfan

    2015-11-01

    Primary venous aneurysm, especially in pediatric population, is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary great saphenous vein aneurysm in a 4-year-old boy. He was initially suspected of suffering from inguinal hernia because the soft mass was detected at the inguinal region when the patient was in the standing position, but color Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the swelling to be a great saphenous vein aneurysm. We decided that surgery was the best option because of potential risk for thromboembolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulmonary Embolism following Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA of the Great Saphenous Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Nwaejike

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A 70yr old lady presented to accident and emergency with sudden onset pleuritic chest pain. A pulmonary embolus (PE was diagnosed by CTPA. Ten days earlier she had bilateral EVLA for recurrent long saphenous vein disease. Confounding risk factors for pulmonary embolism included bilateral ligation and stripping of the long saphenous vein a year earlier, malignancy, EVLA and phlebitic tributary varices. EVLA has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial venous insufficiency with low morbidity and high patient satisfaction. The investigation of confounding risk factors and possible causes should not compromise the initial treatment of PE.

  16. Mycotic aortocoronary saphenous vein graft aneurysm presenting with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Glenn A; Johnston, Peter V; Conte, John V; Achuff, Stephen C

    2004-10-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a history of coronary bypass surgery 20 years prior who had a fever, chest pain, and a mediastinal mass develop after a complicated postoperative course of abdominal aortic aneurysm resection. A mycotic aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to his left anterior descending coronary artery was diagnosed based on blood culture results and visualization of the aneurysm before resection. A summary of the saphenous vein graft aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm cause, diagnosis, and management is detailed.

  17. A different management of saphenous vein graft failure related to cardiac tamponade following coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Serdar Başbuğ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tamponade is a state of constriction of the heart with an excessive fluid or hematoma resulted from various conditions. Postoperative tamponade can occur after coronary bypass surgery. Despite it is uncommon, its results may have a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Acute postoperative cardiac tamponade reveals a vast spectrum of symptoms. Moreover, a compression over the saphenous vein graft is the worst complication that should be managed without delay. We report a rare case of saphenous vein graft failure due to the cardiac tamponade following a coronary surgery and its management with a practical measure.

  18. Normal Anatomy and Compression Areas of Nerves of the Foot and Ankle: US and MR Imaging with Anatomic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Madani, Hardi; Lenchik, Leon; Kalume Brigido, Monica; Shahabpour, Maryam; Marcelis, Stefaan; de Mey, Johan; Scafoglieri, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the nerves of the foot and ankle is complex, and familiarity with the normal anatomy and course of these nerves as well as common anatomic variants is essential for correct identification at imaging. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allow visualization of these nerves and may facilitate diagnosis of various compression syndromes, such as "jogger's heel," Baxter neuropathy, and Morton neuroma. It may be difficult to distinguish the nerves from adjacent vasculature at MR imaging, and US can help in differentiation. The authors review the normal anatomy and common variants of the nerves of the foot and ankle, with use of dissected specimens and correlative US and MR imaging findings. In addition, the authors illustrate proper probe positioning, which is essential for visualizing the nerves at US. The authors' discussion focuses on the superficial and deep peroneal, sural, saphenous, tibial, medial and lateral plantar, medial and inferior calcaneal, common digital, and medial proper plantar digital nerves.

  19. The Relationship of Superficial Cutaneous Nerves and Interperforator Connections in the Leg: A Cadaveric Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Adam C; Ian Taylor, G; Corlett, Russell J; Briggs, Chris; Ashton, Mark W

    2017-04-01

    The lower limb is a source of many flaps both for closure of local defects and for free transfer. Fasciocutaneous flap techniques have been progressively refined, although the vascular basis for their success needs clarification. Archival studies of 48 lower limbs were reviewed and combined with 20 studies of lower limbs from fresh cadavers, making a total of 68 investigations. Lower limbs were injected with a dilute lead oxide solution; the integument was removed and radiographed; and the cutaneous nerves were dissected, tagged with wire, radiographed again, and their paths traced on the original images. The major cutaneous nerves in the leg are paralleled by a longitudinal vascular axis often comprising long branches with large-caliber true anastomotic connections between perforators. The most highly developed vascular axes followed the medial sural cutaneous and saphenous nerves, together with their accompanying veins, immediately superficial to the deep fascia. The intervening areas were characterized by shorter branches usually connected by small-caliber choke anastomotic connections. These findings provide the anatomical basis for the observed reliability of longitudinal flaps in the leg. The superficial cutaneous nerves of the leg, especially the saphenous and medial sural cutaneous nerves, are paralleled by a vascular axis on or beside the nerve comprising long perforator branches connected usually but not always by large-caliber true anastomotic connections. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the characteristics of interperforator anastomoses when designing and raising flaps.

  20. Sesame oil improves functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in a mouse model of acute peripheral nerve injury: role of Nrf-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Chia; Huang, Hui-Cheng; Wu, Po-Ting; Tai, Ta-Wei; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral nervous injury (PNI) is a common form of trauma in modern society, especially in sport players. Despite the advance of therapy for PNI, the recovery of function can never reach the preinjury level after treatments. Recently, inhibiting neural oxidative stress shows a beneficial effect in improving functional recovery after PNI. In addition, sesame oil has been reported to possess the excellent antioxidative properties. However, whether sesame oil can improve the functional recovery after PNI by its antioxidative effect has never been investigated. Thirty mice were randomly divided into five groups of six: group I mice received sham operation; group II mice received sciatic nerve crush; and groups III-V mice daily ingested 0.5, 1 and 2 ml/kg of sesame oil for 6 days, respectively, after sciatic nerve crush. Oxidative stress, GAP43 and nuclear Nrf2 levels as well as spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were assessed on day 6, while paw withdrawal latency and sciatic function index were assessed on days 0, 3, and 6. Sesame oil significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and GAP43 expression in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, sesame oil improved electrophysiological and functional assessments in mice with sciatic nerve crush. In conclusion, sesame oil may improve nerve functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in mouse acute peripheral nerve injury. Further, application of natural product sesame oil may be an alternative approach for improving nerve functional recovery in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and expression of growth associated protein-43 in dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yongfa Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is closely related to neuroplasticity, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP 43) is a molecular marker for neuronal development and neuroplasticity. The expression of GAP-43 during the development of neuropathic pain should have its own characters.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in behaviors of rats with sciatic nerve injury and GAP-43 expression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) affected ascribing to developing nerve transection and nerve crush, two types of neuropathic pain models.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology in Second Hospital of Xiamen City and Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 250 adult Wistar rats of either gender, weighing 180 to 250 g, were involved in the study. The rats were randomized into 3 groups: nerve transection group (n =120), nerve crush group (n =120), and normal control group (n =10). The rats in the nerve transection group and nerve crush group were subdivided separately into 6 groups,and were allowed to survive for 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after nerve injury (n =20). Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co.,Ltd.), Supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co.,Ltd., Shanghai), DAB/H2O2 (Boster Co.Ltd, Wuhan), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Surgical Department and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Hospital Affiliated to Shantou Medical College during April 2004 to April 2005. ① Grouping intervention: Animals were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve of the right side was exposed at thigh around ischial tuberosity. Sciatic nerves of rats in nerve transection group were transected at 1 cm below infrapiriform foramen, and those in nerve crush group were exposed as well as the nerve transection group, and crushed at 0.5 cm below

  2. Real time B-mode mapping of the greater saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H;

    1989-01-01

    Real time ultrasound mapping of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) was performed in 30 consecutive patients admitted for in situ femoro-crural revascularisation. The overall accuracy in predicting the adequacy of the GSV for in situ bypass was 90%. The predictive value of finding the vein usable...

  3. Histological Observations One Year After Mechanochemical Endovenous Ablation of the Great Saphenous Vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Hillebrands, Jan Luuk; van der Sloot, Kim; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report histological analysis of a great saphenous vein (GSV) 1 year after undergoing mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) and compare the findings with those of a healthy vein. Case Report: A 59-year-old patient with bilateral GSV incompetence was treated with MOCA using the ClariV

  4. The Dutch experience in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of narrowed saphenous veins used for aortocoronary arterial bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.T. Plokker; H.J. Meester (Hannie); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractOf 19,994 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures performed in The Netherlands between April 1980 and January 1989, the long-term follow-up of 454 patients who underwent angioplasty of greater than or equal to 1 saphenous vein bypass graft was reviewed. In 46% of patien

  5. Numerical modeling of macroscale brittle rock crushing during impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Salah A.; Abdelhaffez, Gamal S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Several machines, such as crushers use the physical effect of compression to cause fragmentation 'crushing' of brittle rocks. As a consequence of the complex fragmentation process, crushers are still sized by empirical approaches. This paper present the results of a numerical study to understand some aspects of rock crushing phenomenon in terms of energy consumption. The study uses the discrete element approach of PFC2D code to simulate a stamp mill. The stamp mill has a simple crushing mechanism of a fixed kinetic energy delivered by a rigid ram impact. A single rock fragment crushing process dependent on the number of stamp mill ram blows is numerically examined. Both amount and type of energy generated by a ram blow are monitored besides the type of fractures generated. The model results indicate that the ram impact energy is mainly consumed in form of friction energy (up to 61 %) while strain energy stays at about 5 % of delivered energy. The energy consumed by crushing the rock represents only 32 % to 45 % of stamp mill energy and tends to decrease as the number of impacts increases. The rock fragmented matrix tends to convert into more friction energy with reduced number of new fractures as number of blows increase. The fragmentation caused by tensile is more often compared to those caused by shear, this behaviour increased with increasing number of ram blows. (orig.)

  6. Multiple ligation of the proximal greater saphenous vein in the CHIVA treatment of primary varicose veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Delfrate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Saphenous femoral disconnection is the key point of most surgical techniques in the treatment of primary varicose vein surgery. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze different techniques for conservative saphenousfemoral ligation or disconnection. These techniques can be to perform mini invasive open surgery and are suitable for implementation of the conservative hemodynamic correction of venous insufficiency (CHIVA method. The aim was to present the follow-up by retrospective analysis of three different ligation-disconnection techniques of the proximal great saphenous vein (GSV according to the CHIVA method at the GSV end, i.e. between the very end of the GSV and the first arch tributary, according to the CHIVA method. The first thecnique consisted of a surgical division (crossotomy. The other two consisted of triple superposed ligation with No. 2 non-absorbable braided coated suture without division labeled TSFL (triple saphenous flush ligation and No. 0 polypropylenene ligation TPL (triple polypropylene ligation. The difference between TSFL and TPL was in the thickness and type of material of the thread, though both were non-absorbable. The follow up of 56 TPL procedures, 61 crossotomy procedures, and 82 TSFL procedures was analysed. The follow-up consisted of checking the sapheno-femoral junction occlusion with Duplex color ultra sound. The incidence rates of neovascularization (new vessels in the ligation or surgical disconnection site with saphenous-femoral reflux during the Valsalva maneuver were: 4.9% for the crossotomy group, 6.1% for the TSFL group and 37.5% for the TPL group. The data analysed show satisfactory results with both crossotomy and TSFL. Crossotomy has proven to be an effective technique for performing saphenous-femoral disconnection, but TSFL could also be a reliable, safe and low-cost varicose mini-invasive surgery in outpatients. TPL appeared to be less reliable.

  7. Crushing performance and resource characteristic of printed circuit board scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; GU Guo-hua; QI Yun-feng

    2005-01-01

    The crushing performance of printed circuit board (PCB) was studied on several crushers. The results show that PCB is a material which is difficult to crush. The crushing performance of PCB with disk crusher, especially vibration grinding, which has cut or impact action, excels that of jaw crusher or roller crusher. The PCB scrap is worthwhile to recycle using variety of modern characterization methods. When compared with natural resources, this material stream remains a rich precious metal and nonferrous metals. In PCB scrap, metals account for 47% of the total material composition, in which there exists 19.66% copper, 11.47% iron, 3.93% lead, 300 g/t gold and 5-10 kg/t silver, etc. In addition, the PCB scrap contains 27% of plastics and 26% of refractory oxides.

  8. A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S; Liu, H; Xia, K

    2014-12-01

    During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids.

  9. Size distribution of wet crushed waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Zhihai; He Yaqun; Xie Weining; Duan Chenlong; Zhou Enhui; Yu Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A wet impact crusher was used to breakdown waste printed circuit boards (PCB's) in a water medium.The relationship between the yield of crushed product and the operating parameters was established.The crushing mechanism was analyzed and the effects of hammerhead style,rotation speed,and inlet water volume on particle size distribution were investigated.The results show that the highest yield of -1 + 0.75 mm sized product was obtained with an inlet water volume flow rate of 5.97 m3/h and a smooth hammerhead turning at 1246.15 r/min.Cumulative undersize-product yield curves were fitted to a nonlinear function:the fitting correlation coefficient was greater than 0.998.These research results provide a theoretical basis for the highly effective wet crushing of PCB's.

  10. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  11. Improved functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle after temporary sensory nerve innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, J R; Veltri, K L; Chamberlain, D; Fahnestock, M

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged muscle denervation results in poor functional recovery after nerve repair. The possible protective effect of temporary sensory innervation of denervated muscle, prior to motor nerve repair, has been examined in the rat. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve, and the peroneal nerve was then sutured to the transected distal tibial nerve stump either immediately or after two, four or six months. In half of the animals with delayed repair, the saphenous (sensory) nerve was temporarily attached to the distal nerve stump. Muscles were evaluated three months after the peroneal-to-tibial union, and were compared with each other, with unoperated control muscles and with untreated denervated muscles. After four to six months of sensory "protection", gastrocnemius muscles weighed significantly more than unprotected muscles, and both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles exhibited better preservation of their structure, with less fiber atrophy and connective tissue hyperplasia. The maximum compound action potentials were significantly larger in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles following sensory protection, irrespective of the delay in motor nerve union. Isometric force, although less than in control animals and in those with immediate nerve repair, remained reasonably constant after sensory protection, while in unprotected muscles there was a progressive and significant decline as the period of denervation lengthened. We interpret these results as showing that, although incapable of forming excitable neuromuscular junctions, sensory nerves can nevertheless exert powerful trophic effects on denervated muscle fibers. We propose that these findings indicate a useful strategy for improving the outcome of peripheral nerve surgery.

  12. Crushing damage estimation for pavement with lightly cementitious bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available , Pretoria, South Africa. De Beer, M. 2013. Revision of the South African Pavement Design Method. Project Focus Area: Bound Materials: Damage Laws. Cementitious Materials: Expanded/Revised Damage Laws for Crushing Failure. Contract Report SANRAL/SAPDM-D3... stream_source_info De Beer_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 25820 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CRUSHING DAMAGE ESTIMATION...

  13. Optical coherence tomography for the assessment of pericardium covered stents for the treatment of degenerated saphenous vein grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Tyczynski (Pawel); N. Kukreja (Neville); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); J.J. Wykrzykowska (Joanna); M.N. Sheppard (Mary); C. di Mario (Carlo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAims: Pre- and post-interventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessment of degenerated saphenous vein grafts (SVG) treated with implantation of pericardium covered stents. Percutaneous treatment of SVG represents one of the major challenges of current percutaneous coronary

  14. Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guang-Bin; Shen, Mi; Gu, Xiao-Song; Yi, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Tau, a primary component of microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule assembly and/or disassembly and maintains the stability of the microtubule structure. Although the importance of tau in neurodegenerative diseases has been well demonstrated, whether tau is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration remains unknown. In the current study, we obtained sciatic nerve tissue from adult rats 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush and examined tau mRNA and protein expression levels and the location of tau in the sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury. The results from our quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the uninjured control sciatic nerve, mRNA expression levels for both tau and tau tubulin kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation, were decreased following peripheral nerve injury. Our western blot assay results suggested that the protein expression levels of tau and phosphorylated tau initially decreased 1 day post nerve injury but then gradually increased. The results of our immunohistochemical labeling showed that the location of tau protein was not altered by nerve injury. Thus, these results showed that the expression of tau was changed following sciatic nerve crush, suggesting that tau may be involved in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

  15. Stability of Crushed Tedizolid Phosphate Tablets for Nasogastric Tube Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerard; Osborn, Jim; Flanagan, Shawn; Alsayed, Najy; Bertolami, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. To determine whether the expected dose of tedizolid phosphate can be delivered via nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom venous access is not suitable, this in vitro study evaluated the recovery of tedizolid phosphate 200-mg tablets after crushing, dispersion in water, and passage through a nasogastric tube. To analyze the chemical stability of the crushed tablet dispersed in water, the aqueous preparation was assayed initially after dispersion and again after 4 h at room temperature. Recovery of tedizolid phosphate after the crushed tablets were dispersed in water and passed through nasogastric tubes ranged from 92.5 to 97.1 %, which is within the specified acceptance criteria of 90 to 110 %. There was no significant change in recovery values after 4 h of storage at room temperature (93.9 % initially and 94.7 % after 4 h). The stability and recovery findings support the feasibility of administering an aqueous dispersion of crushed tedizolid phosphate tablets through a nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom intravenous administration is not possible.

  16. A comparison of crushed ice and continuous flow cold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A

    2000-01-01

    Crushed ice was compared to continuous flow cold therapy for control of postoperative pain after arthroscopic patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. With all other variables held constant, cold was administered by either continuous flow (group 1) or crushed ice (group 2). The cold therapy was constant for 3 days, then as needed in days 4 through 7. Data were collected by investigator evaluations and patient diaries. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and categorical pain scale (Likert). Eighty-seven patients were included (52 continuous flow and 35 crushed ice). Continuous passive motion averaged 54 hours for group 1 and 43 hours for group 2 (Pcold therapy lowered VAS and Likert pain scores more, reduced hydrocodone bitartrate with acetaminophen use, was used more often, increased continuous passive motion, increased 1-week knee flexion, and was given significantly higher performance ratings by patients. Continuous flow cold is superior to crushed ice for outpatient ACL reconstruction pain and should not be considered an equivalent modality.

  17. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  18. Peripheral nerve injury causes transient expression of MHC class I antigens in rat motor neurons and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Nennesmo, I; Olsson, A B

    1989-01-01

    After a peripheral nerve lesion (rat facial and sciatic) an induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens class I was detected immunohistochemically in skeletal muscle fibers and motor neurons. This MHC expression was transient after a nerve crush, when regeneration occurred......, but persisted after a nerve cut, when regeneration was prevented. Since the time course of MHC class I expression correlates to that of regeneration a role for this cell surface molecule in regeneration may be considered....

  19. FORMALIZATION OF MINIMUM POWER CONSUMPTION CRITERION FOR CRUSHING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Shpurgalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical expressions describing dependence between basic parameters of potash ore crushing process have been constructed in the paper. While taking in account the generality of the Kirpichev formula some corrections have been made for direct applicability of the given hypothesis in calculation of energy which is required for crushing of potash ore specimen. Such approach makes it possible to consider not only general averaged size of specimens but percentage content of every concrete specimen of the specified dimensions. While investigating potash ore composition of the prescribed volume it has been established that every component contained in the specimen composition has its tensile strength and elastic modulus. In addition to this it has been demonstrated the percentage content of components in potash ore composition (sylvinite, halite and insoluble residue is different.It has been experimentally determined that the selected volume of the material (2 м3 supplied for benefication and the final product have normal distribution of ore pieces, it means that number of averaged size pieces is higher than pieces of minimum and maximum sizes. An expression has been obtained on the basis of the executed investigations and formula that corresponds to the Kirpichev hypothesis. The expression makes it possible to calculate energy required for crushing of the specified volume of potash ore. In this case chemical composition and percentage content of components included in the potash ore have been taken into account. The energy required for crushing of the potash ore volume consists of total sum of energy used for crushing of separate components included in chemical composition of potash ore and this sum is multiplied by percentage content of corresponding substance.

  20. Continuous Perfusion of Saphenous Vein by Oxygenated Blood during Beating Coronary Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mandegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The saphenous vein remains the most commonly used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. However, the long-term success of surgical revascularization is largely limited by development of occlusion in vein grafts. Objectives: We sought to reduce graft ischemia by maintaining the blood flow into the harvested vein throughout surgery at lowest costs and without special devices. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on three hundred patients aged 58.5 ± 8 years undergoing elective first-time off-pump CABG with saphenous veins. Results: In addition to preserving nutritional materials and oxygen, the veins harvested via this novel technique did not go into spasm and were not subjected to high-pressure distension, eventually resulting in minimal damage to the endothelium. Conclusions: This technique confers favorable myocardial function and protection in the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, especially in elderly patients.

  1. Evaluation of crushed ticagrelor tablet doses: recovery following crushing and naso-gastric tube passage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Barry; Finnie, Cindy; Crosby, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Orally available ticagrelor in combination with low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is indicated for adult patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, patients with swallowing difficulties may be unable to consume the currently available 90-mg tablet. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor could be given to this patient cohort as a crushed dose administered either orally or via a naso-gastric (NG) tube. To investigate the potential use of crushed ticagrelor tablets (90- and 180-mg doses) for oral dose or NG tube administration. Ticagrelor tablets (90 or 180 mg [two 90-mg tablets]) were prepared to emulate oral and NG tube administration by similar methods. For the oral dose, ticagrelor tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle and transferred to a dosing cup. 100 mL of water was added to the mortar, stirred, and the contents were transferred to the dosing cup and stirred to form a suspension. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient, it was collected for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The mortar was then flushed with 100 mL of water, and the contents were again transferred to the dosing cup, stirred, and collected for HPLC analysis. For the NG dose, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, and silicone size CH10 NG tubes were used. The tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle, diluted with 50 mL of water, and stirred. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient through an NG tube using a syringe, it was collected for HPLC analysis. The mortar was then flushed with two additional 50 mL aliquots of water and the contents were passed through the NG tube. HPLC analysis examined the recoverability of ticagrelor in each of the dose suspensions and flushes and the stability of the suspension when held in a syringe for up to 2 h. One or two crushed 90-mg ticagrelor tablets, prepared for either oral or NG tube administration, delivers a mean dose of ≥97% of the original

  2. Coronary bilateral ostial enlargement using the saphenous vein in a patient with syphilitic aortitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses A. Croti

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A patient with tertiary syphilis presenting with bilateral coronary ostial lesions and aortic regurgitation underwent surgical reconstruction of the coronary ostia by the anterior approach with autogenous saphenous vein grafting and substitution of the aortic valve with a bovine bioprosthesis. The procedure was easily performed and had good outcomes both early and late. The rarity of the association of a lesion in both coronary ostia with aortic regurgitation in syphilis and the surgical technique employed are discussed.

  3. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of great saphenous vein: Our initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of varicose veins in lower limbs is increasing in the Indian subcontinent. With the advent of radiofrequency ablation (RFA, an effective minimally invasive technique is now available to treat varicose veins. RFA can be performed with either unipolar or bipolar probes. We present a simple technique for bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the great saphenous vein. This can be a safe and effective alternative to surgical procedures.

  4. Coronary bifurcation lesions treated with double kissing crush technique compared to classical crush technique: serial intravascular ultrasound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shou-Jie; Ye, Fei; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Tian, Nai-Liang; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2013-04-01

    The double kissing (DK) crush technique is a modified version of the crush technique. It is specifically designed to increase the success rate of the final kissing balloon post-dilatation, but its efficacy and safety remain unclear. Data were obtained from the DKCRUSH-I trial, a prospective, randomized, multi-center study to evaluate safety and efficacy. Post-procedural and eight-month follow-up intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis was available in 61 cases. Volumetric analysis using Simpson's method within the Taxus stent, and cross-sectional analysis at the five sites of the main vessel (MV) and three sites of the side branch (SB) were performed. Impact of the bifurcation angle on stent expansion at the carina was also evaluated. Stent expansion in the SB ostium was significantly less in the classical crush group ((53.81 ± 13.51)%) than in the DK crush group ((72.27 ± 11.46)%) (P = 0.04). For the MV, the incidence of incomplete crush was 41.9% in the DK group and 70.0% in the classical group (P = 0.03). The percentage of neointimal area at the ostium had a tendency to be smaller in the DK group compared with the classical group ((16.4 ± 19.2)% vs. (22.8 ± 27.1)%, P = 0.06). The optimal threshold of post-procedural minimum stent area (MSA) to predict follow-up minimum lumen area (MLA) kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) and had smaller optimal cutoff value of post-procedural MSA at the SB ostium.

  5. Failure of cryopreserved saphenous vein allografts following coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, F W; Stanford, W; Rossi, N P

    1991-01-01

    Internal mammary arteries and saphenous vein grafts are the most satisfactory conduits for coronary artery bypass. However, at times these conduits are not available, due to previous use or poor quality. This paper reports our experience with 6 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass operations using 10 cryopreserved saphenous veins and internal mammary arteries. Postoperative graft patency was assessed with ultra fast computed tomography or cardiac catheterization. At operation, venous graft patency was 100% (10/10), at 1-8 weeks was 60% (6/10), and at 6-30 months was 0% (0/9). Alternately, all seven internal mammary artery grafts were patent at 2 to 18 months following surgery. One patient died 6 months following operation. Poor graft patency may be related to destruction of the cellular components or fibrosis resulting from the cryopreservation process or from immunologic factors. Because of poor patency compared to autologous conduits, we conclude the use of cryopreserved saphenous veins for coronary artery bypass should be severely restricted.

  6. Comparing frozen saphenous vein with Gore-tex in vascular access for chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Moatamedi, Mohammad Reza Kalantar; Me Akbari, Mohamad

    2011-10-01

    Performing chronic hemodialysis in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease needs a suitable vascular access like arteriovenous fistula in the upper limbs and bridge fistula in the upper or lower limbs, and also use of permanent and temporary catheters. The purpose of this study is to compare frozen saphenous vein versus using synthetic Gore-tex vascular graft for A-V fistula. In the prospective randomized study, 70 patients needing for dialysis access were randomly divided into two groups. We performed the frozen saphenous vein A-V fistula in the test group and the Gore-tex fistula in the control group. An assessment included function criteria (fistula thrill and murmur) and complications (infection and thrombosis) in planned intervals. At the end of the follow-up period, the flow rates of all fistulas were assessed by Doppler sonography. The data were compared. Comparing the function criteria (fistula murmur and thrill) and the flow rate of the test group (frozen saphenous A-V fistula) and the control group (Gore-tex method) showed no significant difference and also no significant difference between two groups in thrombosis. Infection rate of the Gore-tex method was significantly high (p Gore-tex arteriovenous graft in some aspects. © 2011 The Authors; Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis via Small Saphenous Veins for Treating Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Peng; Yu, Ji-Xiang; Li, Yu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Meng, Ran-Ran

    2016-08-23

    BACKGROUND There is little data comparing catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) via small saphenous veins vs. systematic thrombolysis on complications and efficacy in acute deep venous thrombosis patients. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of CDT via the small saphenous veins with systematic thrombolysis for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-six patients with acute DVT admitted from June 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups: 27 patients received systemic thrombolysis (ST group) and 39 patients received CDT via the small saphenous veins (CDT group). The thrombolysis efficiency, limb circumference differences, and complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in the 2 groups were recorded. RESULTS The angiograms demonstrated that all or part of the fresh thrombus was dissolved. There was a significant difference regarding thrombolysis efficiency between the CDT group and ST group (71.26% vs. 48.26%, P=0.001). In both groups the postoperative limb circumference changes were higher compared to the preoperative values. The differences between postoperative limb circumferences on postoperative days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the CDT group than in the ST group (all Pdeep venous thrombosis.

  8. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is used to ascertain the crush strength of the main honeycomb block and the bumper element honeycomb,...

  9. Crossectomy and Foam Sclerotherapy of the Great Saphenous Vein versus Stripping of Great Saphenous Vein and Varicectomy in the Treatment of the Legs Ulcers

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    Alvaro Delgado-Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To show our results in the surgical treatment of legs varicose ulcers, with crossectomy and foam sclerotherapy (CAFE of the great saphenous vein (GSV in group I and stripping of GSV and varicectomy in group II. Methods. 35 patients with active venous leg ulcers were recruited and treated. They were collected in two groups. Group I were treated by crossectomy and foam sclerotherapy of the GSV and group II were treated by stripping of GSV and varicectomy. The healing time of the ulcer and the complications were recorded after the procedure in the follow-up visits. Results. 29 out of the 35 patients completed the follow-up. There were eight cases of incomplete healing of the leg ulcer, 4 in group I (19.04% and 4 in group II (40%, P<0.05. The average rate of healing in group I was 0.38 cm/day and 0.13 in group II, P<0.05. Conclusion. CAFE technique of the great saphenous vein in the treatment of 6 CEAP patients is a procedure that improves the rate of ulcer healing as compared to these two groups. It is a safe and reliable minimally invasive method, with less morbidity.

  10. Decreased morbidity following long saphenous vein harvesting using a minimally invasive technique: a randomised controlled trial comparing two techniques for long saphenous vein harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkere Udim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the morbidity associated with long saphenous vein harvesting using the traditional open technique (A against a minimally invasive technique using the Mayo vein stripper (B that involves multiple short incisions. Design We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study in 80 patients undergoing first time coronary artery bypass grafting. Pain and healing was assessed on each postoperative day. Rings of long saphenous vein were subjected to organ-bath evaluation of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation. Results Three patients were excluded from the study, leaving 38 patients in Group A and 39 in Group B. With respect to operative procedure, Group A had a greater length of vein harvested than Group B. There was no statistical difference in pain scores and endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent relaxation between the two groups. However there were significantly more infections in Group A compared with Group B. Conclusion Harvesting vein through multiple incisions using the Mayo vein stripper is quicker, results in fewer infections and has no deleterious effect on endothelial function compared to open technique.

  11. Control system of roll crushes in emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. G.; Tagiltsev-Galeta, K. V.; Chaynikov, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    The system of emergency control of a roll crusher is developed, which allows the hardness of the crushed material to be evaluated indirectly estimating the current strength of the unit, or directly by swing of the deflecting the crusher jaw, and the pieces with the increased hardness to be recrushed, increasing compression, reducing the motor rotation frequency. This system reduces the number of emergencies and provides less downtime for equipment in the event of an accident than crushers using conventional safety elements: toggle plates and restraining spring or hydraulic fuses. Besides, this system is extensible, i.e. it does not interfere with the inclusion of additional devices (for example, mechanical breakers such as toggle plates), sensors (for example, angle protractor to improve the accuracy of measurements). With the combined use of direct and indirect evaluation of the crusher condition the accuracy and efficiency of the crusher control increases improving the reliability of a crushing unit as a whole.

  12. Coronary bifurcation lesions treated with double kissing crush technique compared to classical crush technique: serial intravascular ultrasound analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shou-jie; YE Fei; LIU Zhi-zhong; TIAN Nai-liang; ZHANG Jun-jie; HEN Shao-liang

    2013-01-01

    Background The double kissing (DK) crush technique is a modified version of the crush technique.It is specifically designed to increase the success rate of the final kissing balloon post-dilatation,but its efficacy and safety remain unclear.Methods Data were obtained from the DKCRUSH-I trial,a prospective,randomized,multi-center study to evaluate safety and efficacy.Post-procedural and eight-month follow-up intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis was available in 61 cases.Volumetric analysis using Simpson's method within the Taxus stent,and cross-sectional analysis at the five sites of the main vessel (MV) and three sites of the side branch (SB) were performed.Impact of the bifurcation angle on stent expansion at the carina was also evaluated.Results Stent expansion in the SB ostium was significantly less in the classical crush group ((53.81±13.51)%) than in the DK crush group ((72.27±11.46)%) (P=-0.04).For the MV,the incidence of incomplete crush was 41.9% in the DK group and 70.0% in the classical group (P=-0.03).The percentage of neointimal area at the ostium had a tendency to be smaller in the DK group compared with the classical group ((16.4±19.2)% vs.(22.8±27.1)%,P=-0.06).The optimal threshold of post-procedural minimum stent area (MSA) to predict follow-up minimum lumen area (MLA) <4.0 mm2 at the SB ostium was 4.55 mm2,yielding an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval:0.61 to 0.92).Conclusion Our data suggest that the DK crush technique is associated with improved quality of the final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) and had smaller optimal cutoff value of post-procedural MSA at the SB ostium.

  13. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  14. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  15. Distribution of Infections and Bacteriological Spectrum in Crush Syndrome

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    Fadime ERSOY DURSUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research was designed as a therapeutic and prognostic study to assess the clinical and bacteriological examination findings of crush syndrome patients admitted to our hospital after the Bingol earthquake. MATERIAL and METHODS: A retrospective assessment was carried out on the medical records of the patients with Crush syndrome. Sixteen patients were admitted to the nephrology department after the earthquake. The patients had a mean age of 23 ± 13 years and a mean time spent under rubble of 10.3 ± 7 hours. A total of 16 fasciotomy procedures were carried out in 16 of 11 cases (68%, while 9 of these cases had surgical wounds complicated by infection. RESULTS: Microbiology tests detected bacteriological agents in 88 of 43 (49% specimens collected from 16 of 13 (81% patients. The major bacterial isolates from wound infections included Acinetobacter (46%, Escherichia coli (23% and coagulase negative Staphylococci (14%. Increased length of hospitalization resulted in supervening of secondary bacterial infections. No patients who received treatment died, however a patient surviving a cardiac arrest later developed ischemic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Infections are a major problem in crush syndrome, but we suggest that early and vigorous care and appropriate prophylactic antibiotic treatment play a key role in decreased mortality.

  16. Effect of white adipose tissue flap and insulin-like growth factor-1 on nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ayhan; Ojo, Bukola; Rajfer, Rebecca A; Konopka, Geoffrey; Hagg, Daniel; Jang, Eugene; Akelina, Yelena; Mao, Jeremy J; Rosenwasser, Melvin P; Tang, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have shown potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an in vivo biologic scaffold, consisting of white adipose tissue flap (WATF) and/or IGF-1 on nerve regeneration in a crush injury model. Forty rats all underwent a sciatic nerve crush injury and then received: a pedicled WATF, a controlled local release of IGF-1, both treatments, or no treatment at the injury site. Outcomes were the normalized maximum isometric tetanic force (ITF) of the tibialis anterior muscle and histomorphometric measurements. At 4 weeks, groups with WATF had a statistically significant improvement in maximum ITF recovery, as compared to those without (P nerve regeneration in this model. Utilizing the WATF may have a beneficial therapeutic role in peripheral nerve injuries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers

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    Nicolás Acevedo Vélez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that it is possible for U.S. cattle feeders to obtain additional profits if a consistent technical strategy for trading is applied to the cattle crush spread. However, when trading costs are introduced, the likelihood of obtaining profit from trading the crush reduces considerably. It also shows that the level of gains from the cattle crush is related to the month the cattle are marketed. When the crush is used as a hedging strategy it decreases the profit from the feeding operation and reduces the volatility of those returns, helping producers to transfer part of the price risk associated with their production. To provide evidence of these findings, this study utilizes daily prices for 1995 to 2006 of the futures contracts of corn, feeder and live cattle to construct the daily cattle crush spread for two different combinations of futures contracts traded in the Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange. These contract combinations suppose that cattle are fed in feedlots for 170 days before being marketed in April and in October. Two different scenarios are also evaluated using the cattle crush spread: one in which the crush is employed as a pre-placement hedging tool and another in which the crush is used as a post-placement hedging method.En este estudio se muestra que es posible para un productor de ganado de carne en EE.UU obtener utilidades adicionales cuando estrategias de operación en el mercado financiero de futuros de Chicago son utilizadas (i.e. la estrategia “cattle crush”. No obstante, los costos de transacción presentes reduce la probabilidad de obtener utilidades mediante la estrategia de análisis técnico. También se muestra que el nivel de ganancia derivado del uso del “cattle crush” está relacionado con el ciclo ganadero en el cual se realice la operación. Cuando el “cattle crush” se utiliza como alternativa para cubrir riesgo, se reduce considerablemente la volatilidad de los

  18. Low Level Laser Irradiation of Nerve Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    significant difference reported. Rochkind et al. has published a series of articles on the effects of the HeNe low level laser on induced nerve injuries...been inconclusive. An example of all this relative confusion can be seen in articles on nerve regeneration subsequent to crush injury in the rat model...findings. Lasers Surg Med, 9(1): 1-5, 1989. 20. Kitchen, S.S., Partridge, C.J.: A review of low level laser therapy Part I, 11, and III. Physiotherapy

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Natural Products on Peripheral Nerve Degeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Filho, Heitor G; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Barreto, André S; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Barreto, Rosana S S; Quintans, Jullyana S S

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a serious public health problem that is linked with motor, sensory and autonomic deficits. Given the fact that this type of disorder leads to a decreased quality of life in most patients and adherence of available drugs is limited and have adverse effects, we investigated the efficacy of natural products in a PNI model. The search terms plants, medicinal, nerve regeneration, nerve crush, sciatic nerve as well as MeSH terms or free-text words were used to retrieve English language articles in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS published until July 2015. After sciatic nerve crush, natural products have improved significantly motor performance, sensory function and electrical conductance measured over weeks. Among the pharmacological targets suggested by the action of natural products, there were citations on the activation of the antiapoptotic signaling pathway, modulation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors. The systematic review provides scientific evidence that natural products are pharmacologically effective in the treatment of PNI such as sciatic nerve crush.

  20. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the ulnar nerve. This ... syndrome may result. When damage destroys the nerve covering ( ...

  1. Cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongFuhui

    2004-01-01

    The cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is named that, the cutaneous nerve's functional disorder caused by some chronic entrapment, moreover appears a series of nerve's feeling obstacle,vegetative nerve function obstacle, nutrition obstacle, even motor function obstacle in various degree.

  2. Nerve biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  3. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  4. TRPA1 insensitivity of human sural nerve axons after exposure to lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Reginald J; Ginsberg, Lionel; Jadoon, Saqiba; Orrell, Richard W; Bhattacharjee, Anupam

    2013-09-01

    TRPA1 is an ion channel of the TRP family that is expressed in some sensory neurons. TRPA1 activity provokes sensory symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, such as pain and paraesthesia. We have used a grease gap method to record axonal membrane potential and evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in vitro from human sural nerves and studied the effects of mustard oil (MO), a selective activator of TRPA1. Surprisingly, we failed to demonstrate any depolarizing response to MO (50, 250 μM) in any human sural nerves. There was no effect of MO on the A wave of the ECAP, but the C wave was reduced at 250 μM. In rat saphenous nerve fibres MO (50, 250 μM) depolarized axons and reduced the C wave of the ECAP but had no effect on the A wave. By contrast, both human and rat nerves were depolarized by capsaicin (0.5 to 5 μM) or nicotine (50 to 200 μM). Capsaicin caused a profound reduction in C fibre conduction in both species but had no effect on the amplitude of the A component. Lidocaine (30 mM) depolarized rat saphenous nerves acutely, and when rat nerves were pretreated with 30 mM lidocaine to mimic the exposure of human nerves to local anaesthetic during surgery, the effects of MO were abolished whilst the effects of capsaicin were unchanged. This study demonstrates that the local anaesthetic lidocaine desensitizes TRPA1 ion channels and indicates that it may have additional mechanisms for treating neuropathic pain that endure beyond simple sodium channel blockade.

  5. [Foot defect with vascular and neural injury due to freshwater stingray sting: reconstruction with a lesser saphenous vein adipo-fascial flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutran, M; Mojallal, A; Chekaroua, K; Martin, E; Braye, F

    2009-04-01

    The emergency care to stingrays envenomation permits, in the majority of cases, to limit the damage caused. In the case of delayed medical care, we can meet deep and extensive lesions that need to be thoroughly explored in order to better address their reconstruction. We report the case of a patient injured by freshwater stingray. He presented a necrotic defect of 6 cm in diameter under the right medial malleolus with bone exposure and neurovascular injury. We opted for a therapeutic strategy in two steps. The first step consisted in a large debridement of the necrotic defect, under appropriate antibiotics and negative pressure therapy. Three weeks later, we covered the defect with a distally based lesser saphenous vein veno-fascia-subcutaneous flap, covered with a split-thickness graft. The coverage of the defect was satisfactory. The infection was controlled with antibiotics, which we prolonged for one month. The patient presented, initially, hypoesthesia of the upper lateral foot in relation with a neurapraxis of the sural nerve. The symptoms resolved at two months. The foot edema due to venous stasis also resolved at two months. The donor site healed without complications. The ability to wear normal shoes was preserved. The patient resumed his daily activities promptly.

  6. Numerical simulation of endovenous laser treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqa, Mohamad Feras; Mordon, Serge; Hernández-Osma, Esteban; Trelles, Mario; Betrouni, Nacim

    2013-05-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (ELT) has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of reflux of the great saphenous vein. Before the procedure, peri-saphenous subcutaneous tumescent saline solution infiltration is usually performed. However, diffusion of this tumescent fluid is rapidly observed and can potentially reduce the efficacy as a heat sink. External skin cooling with cold air was proposed as an alternative solution. The objective of this study is to compare endovenous laser treatment without and with air cooling by realistic numerical simulations. An optical-thermal damage model was formulated and implemented using finite element modeling. The general model simulated light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, temperature rise using the bioheat equation, and laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. Parameters, used in clinical procedures, were considered: power, 15 W; pulse duration, 1 s; fiber pull back, 3-mm increments every second; cold air applied in continuous mode during ELT; and no tumescent anesthesia. Simulations were performed for vein locations at 5, 10, and 15 mm in depth, with and without air cooling. For a vein located at 15 mm in depth, no significant difference was observed with and without cooling. For a vein located at 10 mm in depth, surface temperature increase up to 45 °C is observed without cooling. For a vein located at 5 mm, without cooling, temperature increase leads to irreversible damage of dermis and epidermis. Conversely, with air cooling, surface temperature reaches a maximum of 38 °C in accordance with recordings performed on patients. ELT of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling system is a promising therapy technique. Use of cold air on the skin continuously flowing in the area of laser shot decreased significantly the heat extent and the thermal damage in the perivenous tissues and the skin.

  7. Comparison between mechanical properties of human saphenous vein and umbilical vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani Borhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a main cause of mortality in developed countries, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is known as silent killer with a considerable cost to be dedicated for its treatment. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG is a common remedy for CAD for which different blood vessels are used as a detour. There is a lack of knowledge about mechanical properties of human blood vessels used for CABG, and while these properties have a great impact on long-term patency of a CABG. Thus, studying these properties, especially those of human umbilical veins which have not been considered yet, looks utterly necessary. Methods Umbilical vein, as well as human Saphenous vein, are respectively obtained after cesarean and CABG. First, histological tests were performed to investigate different fiber contents of the samples. Having prepared samples carefully, force-displacement results of samples were rendered to real stress–strain measurements and then a fourth-order polynomial was used to prove the non-linear behavior of these two vessels. Results Results were analyzed in two directions, i.e. circumferentially and longitudinally, which then were compared with each other. The comparison between stiffness and elasticity of these veins showed that Saphenous vein’s stiffness is much higher than that of umbilical vein and also, it is less stretchable. Furthermore, for both vessels, longitudinal stiffness was higher than that of circumferential and in stark contrast, stretch ratio in circumferential direction came much higher than longitudinal orientation. Conclusion Blood pressure is very high in the region of aorta, so there should be a stiff blood vessel in this area and previous investigations showed that stiffer vessels would have a better influence on the flow of bypass. To this end, the current study has made an attempt to compare these two blood vessels’ stiffness, finding that Saphenous vein is stiffer than umbilical vein which is somehow as stiff as

  8. [Surgical technique of saphenous vein harvesting using a Cusco vaginal speculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kotaro; Endo, Yoshiki; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Osaka, Shin-ichi; Kurata, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    We used Cusco vaginal speculum in harvesting saphenous vein graft (SVG) as an assist device for making a skin tunnel. After making 2 incisions of 3 to 4 cm, the SVG was dissected in a usual procedure. Then Cusco vaginal speculum was inserted into the skin tunnel between the 2 incisions. The SVG was dissected in a usual fashion under direct vision with the speculum. This procedure requires only small incisions, short learning curve and low cost. The new technique using Cusco vaginal speculum can be a reliable option for harvesting SVG.

  9. [Minimally invasive technique for harvesting a saphenous vein via one small incision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Suenaga, E; Koga, S; Matsuyama, S

    2007-08-01

    We report a minimally invasive technique for harvesting a saphenous vein graft (SVG) via 1 small skin incision. The expected advantages of this technique are better cosmetic results and fewer wound complications than the conventional open technique or the bridging technique. The SVG, 10-15 cm in length, can be harvested by about 3 cm-long single small skin incision. SaphLITE Retractor System (Genzyme Srugical Products, Cambridge), SLS Hematostatic Clip System (Vitalitec International, Plymouth), and curved scissors were necessary instruments for this technique. It is feasible for cases that require a shorter length of SVG.

  10. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  11. Gene expression profiling studies in regenerating nerves in a mouse model for CMT1X: uninjured Cx32-knockout peripheral nerves display expression profile of injured wild type nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Mona; Asche-Godin, Samantha; Abrams, Charles K

    2015-01-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in GJB1, the human gene for Connexin32 (Cx32). This present study uses Ilumina Ref8-v2 BeadArray to examine the expression profiles of injured and uninjured sciatic nerves at 5, 7, and 14 days post-crush injury (dpi) from Wild Type (WT) and Cx32-knockout (Cx32KO) mice to identify the genes and signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the absence of Schwann cell Cx32. Given the assumption that loss of Schwann cell Cx32 disrupts the regeneration and maintenance of myelinated nerve leading to a demyelinating neuropathy in CMT1X, we initially hypothesized that nerve crush injury would result in significant increases in differential gene expression in Cx32KO mice relative to WT nerves. However, microarray analysis revealed a striking collapse in the number of differentially expressed genes at 5 and 7 dpi in Cx32KO nerves relative to WT, while uninjured and 14 dpi time points showed large numbers of differentially regulated genes. Further comparisons within each genotype showed limited changes in Cx32KO gene expression following crush injury when compared to uninjured Cx32KO nerves. By contrast, WT nerves exhibited robust changes in gene expression at 5 and 7 dpi with no significant differences in gene expression by 14dpi relative to uninjured WT nerve samples. Taken together, these data suggest that the gene expression profile in uninjured Cx32KO sciatic nerve strongly resembles that of a WT nerve following injury and that loss of Schwann cell Cx32 leads to a basal state of gene expression similar to that of an injured WT nerve. These findings support a role for Cx32 in non-myelinating and regenerating populations of Schwann cells in normal axonal maintenance in re-myelination, and regeneration of peripheral nerve following injury. Disruption of Schwann cell-axonal communication in CMT1X may cause dysregulation of signaling pathways that are essential for the

  12. Common complication of crush injury, but a rare compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome (CS is a common complication of crush injury but it is rare to find bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome (BGCS. Only six cases of BGCS have been reported in the literature. This syndrome has been reported after crush injury, drug overdose, surgical positioning, and vascular surgery. Apart from CS, crush injury is associated with multi-system adverse effects and these patients are at high risk for renal failure and sepsis. CS patients may present with dehydration; coagulation disorders; elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels; hyperkalemia and hypocalcaemia, which may cause life-threatening arrhythmias and therefore need urgent and aggressive therapy. The early goal in these patients is prevention of acute renal failure with aggressive fluid therapy, alkalinization of urine, and forced diuresis. Early treatment of hyperkalemia, antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis, and wound care will minimize the risk of arrhythmias and sepsis. CS must be considered when any patient is diagnosed with crush injury syndrome. CS is defined as elevation of interstitial/intracompartmental pressure, leading to microvascular and myoneural dysfunction and secondary hypoxia; it may cause functional loss or even death if not detected early and treated properly. The increase in pressure in one or all compartments of the gluteal region causes CS with devastating effects on muscle and neurovascular bundles. CS is traditionally diagnosed on the basis of five ′p′s: pain, pallor, paraesthesia, pulselessness and paralysis. Diagnosis of gluteal CS is difficult as the peripheral pulses are preserved and the condition is usually only diagnosed when neurological abnormality is noticed. Diagnosis of CS can be made by direct measurement of the compartment pressure and magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Gluteal CS is managed by fasciotomy and debridement of necrosed tissue, with secondary closure of fascia. A high index of

  13. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor from bone marrow-derived cells promotes post-injury repair of peripheral nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Takemura

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the origin of BNDF and its precise effect on nerve repair have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the role of BDNF from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs in post-injury nerve repair. Control and heterozygote BDNF knockout mice (BDNF+/- received a left sciatic nerve crush using a cerebral blood clip. Especially, for the evaluation of BDNF from BMDCs, studies with bone marrow transplantation (BMT were performed before the injury. We evaluated nerve function using a rotarod test, sciatic function index (SFI, and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV simultaneously with histological nerve analyses by immunohistochemistry before and after the nerve injury until 8 weeks. BDNF production was examined by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analyses. After the nerve crush, the controls showed severe nerve dysfunction evaluated at 1 week. However, nerve function was gradually restored and reached normal levels by 8 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, BDNF expression was very faint before injury, but was dramatically increased after injury at 1 week in the distal segment from the crush site. BDNF expression was mainly co-localized with CD45 in BMDCs, which was further confirmed by the appearance of GFP-positive cells in the BMT study. Variant analysis of BDNF mRNA also confirmed this finding. BDNF+/- mice showed a loss of function with delayed histological recovery and BDNF+/+→BDNF+/- BMT mice showed complete recovery both functionally and histologically. These results suggested that the attenuated recovery of the BDNF+/- mice was rescued by the transplantation of BMCs and that BDNF from BMDCs has an essential role in nerve repair.

  15. Crushing effects on TL and OSL on quartz: relevance to fault dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S. E-mail: toyoda@dap.ous.ac.jp; Rink, W.J.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Rees-Jones, J

    2000-12-15

    The effect of crushing on the TL and OSL signals in quartz was investigated to examine the feasibility of using OSL and TL for dating of faulted rocks. 275 deg. C TL signals were not reduced by crushing by hand (mortar and pestle), in a pellet die press, or using an automatic mortar and pestle, but the sensitivity of the 100 deg. C TL signal to a test dose decreased in crushed samples. Green light-stimulated OSL signal intensities were not decreased after crushing, but showed strongly increased inter-aliquot variability after crushing. We concluded that OSL and TL in quartz might be useful to characterize the crushing history of quartz in fault rocks, but their usefulness in dating fault events was not evident because we did not find evidence of signal zeroing under the conditions used in this study.

  16. Comparison of the fastest regenerating motor and sensory myelinated axons in the same peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Sørensen, Jesper; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing...... the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve...... after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6-S2 spinal roots using cuff...

  17. In vivo quantitative evaluation of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Atsushi; Higashide, Tomomi; Ohkubo, Shinji; Takeda, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for quantitative evaluation of the thickness of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in an optic nerve crush model. An OCT system was developed with a modified commercial time-domain OCT and a superluminescent diode with a bandwidth of 150 nm. Optical components were optimized to acquire rat retinal images. The right optic nerve was crushed intraorbitally with a clip. The left eye served as the untreated control. Circumpapillary OCT scans with a circle diameter of 500 microm centered on the optic disc were performed before and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the crush. Repeatability and reproducibility of RNFL thickness measurements were evaluated. The RNFL thicknesses at 400, 500, and 600 microm from the center of the optic disc determined by linear vertical OCT scans were compared with thicknesses in retinal sections. The mean RNFL thicknesses in circumpapillary OCT scans were 27.9 +/- 1.8, 29.2 +/- 2.4, 19.9 +/- 2.3, and 4.5 +/- 3.6 microm before and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the crush, respectively. RNFL thickness was unchanged 1 week after the crush, but then decreased significantly and progressively after the second week (P < 0.01). Coefficients of repeatability and reproducibility were less than 10% except for the crushed eyes at 4 weeks. RNFL thicknesses in OCT images correlated significantly with thicknesses determined histologically (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). OCT is a useful and valuable tool for quantitative evaluation of rat RNFL thickness.

  18. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part

  19. Reinforced long saphenous vein bypass graft for infrainguinal reconstruction procedures: case series and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Niamh

    2006-03-01

    Poor rehabilitation rates and the high-cost of managing postamputation patients justify an aggressive revascularization policy in critical lower limb ischemia. Endovascular therapy is our first choice for limb salvage in these patients. However there are patients for whom endovascular therapy is not feasible. When bypass is necessary, autologous vein is a superior conduit to synthetic material. However, varicosities usually contraindicate autologous vein bypass because of the risk of aneurysm formation, rupture and increased intimal hyperplasia compared with nonvaricose venous grafts. We report the use of varicosed long saphenous vein (LSV) with external Dacron support in infrainguinal bypass procedures for limb salvage, where endovascular therapy was not feasible. The external Dacron tube was not brought close to the distal anastomotic area itself. With a mean follow-up of 18 months, duplex ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography showed no evidence of stenosis of the reinforced vein segments or aneurysmal degeneration of the residual vein. External reinforcement with Dacron prosthesis allows the use of autogenous greater saphenous veins with varicose dilatation without compromising graft patency and limb salvage.

  20. Long-term results of external valvuloplasty in adult patients with isolated great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarac A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Sarac,1 Artan Jahollari,1 Sureyya Talay,1 Sevket Ozkaya,2 Ertugrul Ozal1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Samsun Medical Park Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study is to present our 7-year results of external valvuloplasty for isolated great saphenous vein (GSV insufficiency. Methods: External valvuloplasty was applied in 83 patients with isolated GSV insufficiency. Follow-up consisted of venous color duplex scanning performed on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative month, and then annually. Valvular insufficiency, venous reflux, and venous thrombosis formation in the saphenofemoral junction were the main outcomes. Results: A complete clinical and radiological healing was observed in 50 patients (60%. In 13 cases (15.6%, a secondary surgical treatment was performed consisting of vena saphena magna high ligation/stripping and varicose vein excisions, mainly due to severe and progressive vena saphena magna valvular insufficiency and clinical persistence of symptoms. Eight patients (9.6% developed superficial vein thrombosis, and only one patient (1.2% developed deep vein thrombosis. Contact was lost from 32 patients (38.5% for different reasons. Conclusion: External valvuloplasty is an effective surgical technique for selected cases of isolated GSV insufficiency without extensive varicose dilatations. This alternative method can be safely administered as an alternative to high ligation and conventional GSV stripping. Keyword: vein, saphenous, insufficiency, external valv, valvuloplasty, varicosis

  1. Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly

  2. Mathematical modeling on multi-stage series crushing ratio distribution based on fuzzy physical programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Long QI; Chen-Chen CAI; Ping-Zhen LANG

    2013-01-01

    Double-layer,multi-roller plate crusher is a new device,that uses a multi-stage series crushing style to break particles,with the crushing ratio distribution directly influencing the machine's performance.Three crushing ratios of 2.25,2.15 and 2.0 1,used for fuzzy physical programming,were determined.The comparison of the optimized result between the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher and a high pressure roll grinder showed that the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher had a better performance,reducing crushing force and wear.

  3. Reconstructions of fingertip and polydigital crush injuries with island and random flaps:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnakumar Subbaraman; SUN Bing-wei; TAI Ning-zheng; SHEN Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ A 42-year-old male labourer working in a harbor injured both his hands in a steel rolling device. In the left non-dominant hand the index finger, middle finger and ring finger had crush injury. The right dominant hand had a crush amputation of the tip of the middle finger. In the left hand the ring finger was severely crushed and was not amenable to salvage. The index finger and middle finger was also crushed and had comminuted fractures up to the middle phalanx which was diagnosed by a plain X-ray. The little finger sustained minor soft tissue loss in the fingertip.

  4. Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.

    1996-01-01

    Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing.

  5. Diagnosis of the rock crushing modes to increase the efficiency of one-roll crusher operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. G.; Laktionov, S. A.; Medvedeva, K. S.

    2017-09-01

    In the paper the hypotheses of destruction of brittle materials are given, as well as the analysis of energy costs for crushing. The methods of crushing are considered and a comparative analysis of their energy capacity and quality of the product is carried out. The parameters of the crushing process are determined from the point of view of their productivity and, accordingly, their energy efficiency. It is shown that the process of crushing in the one-roll crushers is due to the frictional forces acting between the surfaces of the roll and a piece of the crushed material, and also between the piece and the immovable jaw. The comparison of initial sizes of the crushed pieces in the crushes with the vertical and inclined surfaces of immovable jaw, which shows that with the increase in the bend angle of the immovable jaw the degree of crushing increases. Based on the analysis of forces acting on the crushed material in the one-roll crusher with the inclined surface of the jaw, the calculation of maximal possible value of the bend angle of the immovable jaw is performed.

  6. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the H-reflex of muscles of different fibre type composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C G; Arsenault, A B; Bourbonnais, D; Levin, M F

    1997-09-01

    Differential effects of repetitive stimulation of low threshold afferents on both the recruitment threshold and motoneuronal excitability of type I and type II motor units have been demonstrated. The present study was aimed at further investigating the differential effects of 30 minutes of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the H-reflex amplitude (Hmax/2) of the Soleus (SO), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) muscles. Eleven healthy subjects were tested in order to evaluate the effects of TENS on either the common peroneal (CPN), saphenous or sural nerve. The experimental session consisted of three consecutive 45 min periods. Within each of these periods, H-reflexes were recorded before, during and after the TENS was applied. It was hypothesized that repetitive low threshold afferent stimulation would either have inhibitory or facilitatory effects on the H-reflex amplitude of the SO or gastrocnemii muscles respectively. Non-parametric Friedman ANOVAs revealed a significant tendency (p sural nerve, as well as that of the GM during repetitive stimulation of the saphenous nerve. Although the present study failed to reveal any differential effects of TENS on the H-reflex amplitude of muscle on different fibre type content, the significant decrease in H-reflex observed on the triceps surae muscles during TENS applied over the CPN might have promising clinical outcomes for hyperreflexive subjects.

  7. Effect of Troglitazone on Expression of Adhesion Molecules and eNOS in Human Saphenous Vein Gaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu; HU Zhiwei; ZHANG Kailun; SU Wei; SUN Zongquan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-y (PPARγ) ligand Troglitazone can reduce endothelial injury and activation during storage of harvested saphenous vein grafts. Segments of human saphenous vein graft were collected from 9 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery and then divided into two equal parts of control and test specimens, were stored in ei-ther heparinized blood (control group) or heparinized blood containing 20 μmol/L troglitazone (test group) for 1 h at room temperature. Tissue distribution and protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were compared using immunohistochemistry and West-ern blot analysis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil sequestration in human saphenous vein grafts, was also measured in each group. The expression of ICAM-1 (753±132 versus 7201±934; P<0.01) , VCAM-1 (3731±294 versus 8292±793; P<0.01), and MPO activity (1.52±0.42 U/g, 5.04±1.26 U/g P<0.01) were significantly lower in test group. In contract, eNOS expression (7983±834 versus 3989±1008; P<0.01) was significantly higher in test group. PPARγ ligand troglita- zone might reduce endothelial injury during the storage period of human saphenous vein grafts.

  8. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the infusi

  9. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the

  10. Nature and origin of the neointima in whole vessel wall organ culture of the human saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gittenberger - Groot, A.C. de; Munsteren, J.C. van; Huysmans, H.A.; Bockel, J.H. van; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Poelmann, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Intimal proliferation is a characteristic feature of arteriosclerosis. Whole vessel wall organ culture systems have been developed to study the early stages of neointima formation. We have cultured a large number of explants of human saphenous vein specimens for several weeks, and have identified th

  11. Treatment of recurrent varicose veins of the great saphenous vein by conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendael, L. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; Flinkenflogel, L.; Roovers, E.A.; Sterkenburg, S.M. van; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Varicose vein recurrence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) is a common, costly, and complex problem. The aim of the study was to assess feasibility of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in recurrent varicose veins of the GSV and to compare this technique with conventional surgical reinterve

  12. Endovenous ablation of incompetent saphenous veins with a new 1,540-nanometer diode laser and ball-tipped fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Alvise; Marcer, Daniela; Ferrari Ruffino, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is an efficient method to treat incompetent saphenous veins with high occlusion rates. The major side effects are postoperative pain and bruising. Laser systems with higher wavelengths, associated with new energy delivery devices, have recently shown excellent short-term results, while reducing the previously reported side effects. The aim of this study is to show the first outcome after EVLA of incompetent saphenous veins with a newly developed ball-tipped fiber and a new wavelength 1,540-nm diode laser. Forty-five incompetent saphenous veins in 35 patients (27 women) were treated: 33 great saphenous veins, 6 short saphenous veins, and 6 anterior saphenous veins. The gravity of chronic venous disease was determined according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology (CEAP) classification, and the severity of symptoms was scored according to the revised Venous Clinical Severity Score. Patient satisfaction was assessed on a 0-3 scale. The average linear endovenous energy density was 63.5 J/cm of vein length. Patients returned to daily activities after a mean of 1.7 days (SD: 2) after treatment. The modified CEAP clinical severity score improved drastically from a preintervention mean of 4.9 (SD: 2.6) to 0.17 (SD: 0.38) at day 30. During the follow-up period (mean: 168 days [range: 90-240 days]), all the veins were occluded. All patients except 1 were satisfied or very satisfied with the method. No severe complications occurred. Two patients (5%) developed mild paresthesia in the treated area, which spontaneously resolved after 3 months. Postoperative ecchymoses are frequent (83%). Sixteen patients (43%) experienced pain, but only 5 patients (14%) described it as quite intense and required analgesic therapy. EVLA of saphenous veins with a 1,540-nm diode laser using a ball-tipped fiber is a safe and efficient therapy option, with a high success rate in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Diffusive transport in compacted mixtures of clay and crushed granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarson, D.W. (AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)); Hume, H.B. (AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)); Choi, J.W. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    1994-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients are important parameters for predicting migration rates of contaminants through earthen barrier materials used in many waste containment strategies. Apparent diffusion coefficients, D, were measured for Tc and I in compacted 1:3 mixtures of Lake Agassiz clay and crushed granite. Technetium-99 and [sup 129]I are two of the most important radioisotopes present in nuclear fuel waste. Lake Agassiz clay is a glacial lake clay composed principally of smectite, illite, quartz and kaolinite. Before being mixed with clay, crushed granite was separated into the following particle size fractions: <150, 150 to 300, 300 to 850, 850 to 2000, and 2000 to 4750 [mu]m. The dry density of the mixes was about 2 Mg/m[sup 3] and they were saturated with a Na-Ca-Cl-dominated synthetic groundwater solution having an effective ionic strength of 220 mol/m[sup 3]. The mean D values (n = 4) for Tc in the mixes ranged from 20 [mu]m[sup 2]/s when the granite particle size was 2000 to 4750 [mu]m to 0.19 [mu]m[sup 2]/s when it was <150 [mu]m. In clay alone, the mean D value was 59 [mu]m[sup 2]/s. The decrease in D with decreasing granite particle size is largely attributed to an increase in the extent of reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) and its subsequent sorption on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides present in granite. The reductants are probably Fe(II)-bearing minerals, such as magnetite, in granite. The finer the granite particle size, the greater the reactive surface area. For I, clay controls the diffusion process and granite is essentially inert filler. The mean D values for I are about 3 [mu]m[sup 2]/s in all cases. The results show that, depending on the environmental conditions and the nature of the diffusant, crushed granite in compacted clay-based barriers can markedly slow mass transport. (orig.)

  14. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  15. Recommendation for the management of crush victims in mass disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    "Recommendations for the management of crush victims in mass disasters" aims to assist medics, paramedics and rescue team members who provide care during disasters. Development of the recommendations followed an explicit process of literature review and, also internet and face-to-face discussions. The chapters cover medical and logistic measures, to be taken both at the disaster field and in the hospitals, to cope with the problems created by a catastrophe. Recommendations were based on retrospective analyses and case reports on past disasters, and also expert judgment or opinion. Since there are no randomized controlled trials, no GRADE approach was used to develop the recommendations, and no strengths of recommendations or levels of evidence are provided.

  16. Effect of crushed sand on mortar and concrete rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study conducted on fresh mortars and concretes made with crushed sand. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of aggregate particle shape and surface texture as well as dust content on mortar and concrete rheology. The experimental programme also addressed the impact of angular grains on chemical admixture performance and concrete bleeding. The findings showed that the use of crushed sand induces rheological behaviour that differs from the behaviour observed in natural sand and that superplasticisers can improve this behaviour considerably.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental del estado fresco de morteros y hormigones con arenas de machaqueo, orientado a la evaluación de la incidencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos del árido fino y del contenido de polvo sobre la reología de las mezclas. El programa experimental comprendió el estudio del estado fresco de hormigones con arenas con partículas angulares, la influencia de este tipo de partículas sobre la efectividad de los aditivos químicos y la evaluación de la influencia de las características físicas del árido fino sobre la exudación. Los resultados muestran que el empleo de arenas de machaqueo provoca un comportamiento reológico diferente al de hormigones con arenas naturales, y que el efecto de los aditivos superfluidificantes mejora notablemente este comportamiento.

  17. Endovenous laser ablation of great saphenous veins performed using tumescent cold saline solution without local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Alvise; Marcer, Daniela; Bernardini, Giovanni; Ferrari Ruffino, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, laser systems with higher wavelengths, associated with new optical fibers, have shown excellent short-term results in treating saphenous veins and reducing the side effects and, in particular, the postoperative pain. However, if the patients are not anesthetized, they may feel pain even when using low energy with the high-wavelength laser; the only tumescent local anesthesia often does not guarantee a complete pain control during endovenous laser ablation (EVLA). Aim of this study was to demonstrate that the local anesthesia during EVLA of great saphenous veins (GSVs) is not essential for the perioperative comfort of the patient if a mild sedation is made. Forty-nine incompetent GSVs were treated by EVLA with a cold saline tumescent solution (CSTS) without local anesthetic drugs. EVLA was performed with a 1540-nm diode laser and a 600-μc ball-tipped fiber. Intraoperative ultrasonography was then used to guide delivery of CSTS (cold saline solution 0.9% at 5°C) using a motor pump under intravenous sedation. The gravity of chronic venous disease was determined according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. Patients rated surgery global pain according to 4 types: "extremely," "rather," "slightly," and "not at all" painful. Twenty-five cases (51%) were classified as C3, 20 (41%) as C2, 6 (13%) as C4, and 1 (2%) as C6. Midazolam 2.5 mg + a mean of 0.16 mg of fentanil (minimum: 0.10; maximum: 0.20; standard deviation [SD]: 0.4) + a mean of 178.21 mg of propofol (minimum: 100; maximum: 300; SD: 47.1) were administrated as intravenous sedation. The total average linear endovenous energy density was 57.7 J/cm. Approximately 250 mL (minimum: 100; maximum: 780) of CSTS was administered. No Patient has had pain during the procedure. All patients were discharged 2.5 hrs after surgery. EVLA under sedation using CSTS without diluted anesthetic drugs is a suitable technique in an outpatients clinic, especially useful if the ablation

  18. Endovenous laser therapy for occlusion of incompetent saphenous veins using 1940nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Esipova, Anna; Dikic, Slobodan; Demhasaj, Sahit; Comsa, Florin; Schmedt, Claus-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Objective: Several studies indicate that ELT using wavelengths of high water absorption showed advantages compared to conventional ELT. Thulium-Lasers emit nearby the local absorption maximum of water at 1940nm. In this clinical study the effectiveness, safety and the feasibility of 1940nm-ELT is proven. Materials and Method: A single centric, prospective observational study was performed. 1940nm-laserenergy was applied using radial emitting fibres with continuous pullback (1mm/s). Treatment was performed under anesthesia (general, spinal, tumescent) thus simultaneous miniphlebectomy and ligation of perforators could be applied. Patient and technical details were systematically collected. Evaluation included: standardized questionnaire, clinical examination, color-duplex ultrasonography preoperatively, 3d, 4w, 6m postoperatively, statistic. Results: The 1940nm-ELT study include 55 patients (female/men=34/21, mean age 55y, range 23-90y) treating n=72 vessels. The mean maximum diameter of great saphenous veins (GSV, n=59) was 7.5mm (range 3.7-11.3mm) and of small saphenous veins (SSV, n=13) was 5.3mm (3.0-10.0mm). The mean applied longitudinal endovenous energy density (LEED) was 64.3J/cm (40.3-98.2J/cm) in GSVs and 51.0J/cm (37.6-72.7J/cm) in SSVs. Complete occlusion of the vein without sign of reflux was achieved in 100%. The mean length of non-occluded stump at the sapheno-femoral junction was 6.0mm (1.0-20.0mm). Postoperative reduction of the diameter of GSV was 1.6mm (21.3%) and 2.0mm (37.7%) in SSV. One (1.4%) endovenous heat induced thrombus (EHIT) was observed. Further adverse events were: paresthesia 10/72 (13.9%), ecchymosis 1/72 (1.4%), lymphocele 1/72 (1.4%), hyperpigmentation 1/72 (1.4%). The mean postoperative pain intensity was 1.3 and 1.8 single doses of analgesics were administered. Normal physical activity was reached after 3d (1-21d). Conclusion: 1940nm-ELT using radial light application effectively eliminates the reflux in insufficient saphenous

  19. Joining and reinforcing a composite bumper beam and a composite crush can for a vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Decker, Leland; Armstrong, Dale; Truskin, James; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Dwarmpudi, Ramesh; Doroudian, Mark

    2017-03-21

    A front bumper beam and crush can (FBCC) system is provided for a vehicle. A bumper beam has an interior surface with a plurality of ribs extending therefrom. The ribs and the interior surface are made of a chopped fiber composite and cooperate to engage a crush can. The chopped fiber composite reinforces the engaging surfaces of the crush can and the interior surface of the bumper beam. The crush can has a tubular body made of a continuous fiber composite. The crush can has outwardly-extending flanges at an end spaced away from the bumper beam. The flanges are at least partially provided with a layer of chopped fiber composite to reinforce a joint between the outwardly-extending flange and the vehicle frame.

  20. Cooling Effect of Crushed Rock-Based Embankment along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the cooling effect of crushed rock-based embankment on slope wetlands along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway. The result shows that only the embankment shady side can be effectively cooled down in a warm permafrost region and the crushed rock-based embankment can cool the entire embankment in a cold permafrost region. The crushed rock-based embankment cannot eliminate the problems from the south-north slope. Slope wetland can influence the temperature field of the crushed rock-based embankment. On the uphill side, it will lead to degradation in some cases and development of permafrost in other cases, which depends on the topsoil water content and ground surface runoff. On the downhill side, it always leads to the warming of permafrost. For crushed rock-based embankment constructed on slope wetlands, it is necessary to adopt other stronger measures to eliminate the sunny-shady slope problems.

  1. Joining and reinforcing a composite bumper beam and a composite crush can for a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Decker, Leland; Armstrong, Dale; Truskin, James; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Dwarmpudi, Ramesh; Doroudian, Mark

    2017-03-21

    A front bumper beam and crush can (FBCC) system is provided for a vehicle. A bumper beam has an interior surface with a plurality of ribs extending therefrom. The ribs and the interior surface are made of a chopped fiber composite and cooperate to engage a crush can. The chopped fiber composite reinforces the engaging surfaces of the crush can and the interior surface of the bumper beam. The crush can has a tubular body made of a continuous fiber composite. The crush can has outwardly-extending flanges at an end spaced away from the bumper beam. The flanges are at least partially provided with a layer of chopped fiber composite to reinforce a joint between the outwardly-extending flange and the vehicle frame.

  2. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm(3)), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm(3). Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-wire plaque crushing as a novel technique in treating chronic total occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ya-ling; WANG Dong-mei; LI Yi; WANG Shou-li; JING Quan-min; MA Ying-yan; WANG Geng; LUAN Bo; WANG Bin; WANG Zhu-lu

    2008-01-01

    Background Failure of balloon catheter passing through the occluded segment accounts for 10%-15% of all procedures during percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)for chronic total occlusion(CTO).We sought to investigate an original technique for facilitating balloon catheter passing by multi-wire plaque crushing.Methods Between July 2000 and October 2007,152 patients with 164 CTO lesions who had failed balloon passing were treated by multi-wire plaque crushing technique.The main process of this technique was to insert 1 or 2 wires along with the original wire located in the true lumen of CTO lesions after balloon failure for plaque crushing and then to withdraw the crushing wires to get an enlarged lumen inside of the occlusion segment,thus facilitating the balloon passing.Results Both overall lesion and technique success rates were 91.5%(150/164).A total of 211 crushing wires were used during PCI,including 1 crushing wire for 117(71.3%)lesions and 2 crushing wires for 47(28.7%)lesions.Approximately 57.3%(121/211)of all crushing wires were those already used in the same procedure.Technique failure occurred in 14 lesions(8.5%).Technique failure was due to crushing wires entering false lumen(92.9%,13/14)and coronary perforation(7.1%,1/14).Major procedural complications included coronary perforation(1 case)and severe coronary dissection(2 cases),all of which were successfully treated.Conclusions Multi-wire plaque crushing technique is effective in facilitating balloon catheter passing during CTO PCI.It is feasible,economical and relatively safe with a low rate of procedural complications.

  4. Mechanochemical endovenous Ablation versus RADiOfrequeNcy Ablation in the treatment of primary great saphenous vein incompetence (MARADONA) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; Holewijn, Suzanne; Vahl, Anco; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with an excellent outcome in the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. The use of thermal energy as a treatment source requires the instillation of tumescence anesthesia. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) combines

  5. Mechanochemical endovenous Ablation versus RADiOfrequeNcy Ablation in the treatment of primary great saphenous vein incompetence (MARADONA) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; Holewijn, Suzanne; Vahl, Anco; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with an excellent outcome in the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. The use of thermal energy as a treatment source requires the instillation of tumescence anesthesia. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) combines mecha

  6. Giant saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm to right posterior descending artery presenting with superior vena cava syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andres; Vargas-Estrada; Dianna; Edwards; Mohammad; Bashir; James; Rossen; Firas; Zahr

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein grafts(SVG) pseudoaneurysms,especially giant ones,are rare and occur as a late complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. This condition affects both genders and typically occurs within the sixth decade of life. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic incidental finding on imaging studies to new onset angina,dyspnea,myocardial infarction or symptoms related to compression of neighboring structures. An 82-year-old woman presented with acute onset back pain,dyspnea and was noted to have significantly engorged neck veins. In the emergency department,a chest computed tomographic angiogram with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured giant bilobed SVG pseudoaneurysm to the right posterior descending artery(RPDA). This imaging modality also demonstrated compression of the superior vena cava(SVC) by the SVG pseudoaneurysm. Coronary angiogram with bypass study was performed to establish the patency of this graft. Endovascular coiling and embolization of the SVG to RPDA was initially considered but disfavored after the coronary angiogram revealed preserved flow from the graft to this arterial branch. After reviewing the angiogram films,a surgical strategy was favored over a percutaneous intervention with a Nitinol self-expanding stent since the latter would have not addressed the superior vena cava compression caused by the giant pseudoaneurysm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated SVCcompression by the giant pseudoaneurysm cranial lobe. Our patient underwent surgical ligation and excision of the giant pseudoaneurysm and the RPDA was regrafted successfully. In summary,saphenous vein grafts pseudoaneurysms can be life-threatening and its therapy should be guided based on the presence of mechanical complications,the patency of the affected vein graft and the involved myocardial territory viability.

  7. New device for saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis without side-clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappainer Ernesto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side clamping to perform saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis is a well known cause of cerebral embolization during coronary bypass surgery. Automatic and manual devices have been introduced to avoid aortic clamping and facilitate proximal anastomosis but the manual ones only allow the traditional hand-sewing running suture. Nevertheless, they are not easy to use and very expensive to buy. Methods We developed a simple object that helps to perform a manual proximal anastomosis without the need to clamp the side of the aorta. This device is a steel bar which blocks the aortic hole and simultaneously it provides a slit to receive the needle. Through the slit comes out a thin, sharp, straight, but also well directed and predictable jet of blood which could be easily controlled during the suture. Results The function of the object is quite different from other devices. Nothing is deployed in the aorta. The object is only placed on the aorta with the small appendage slipped into the hole. The main advantage of the device is that while manipulation of the aorta is avoided no foreign bodies are incorporated in the suture and – most importantly – the aortic intima is not touched at all. The main drawback of the device is the blood jet coming from the slit so that the blood pressure has to be lowered by vasodilators during the anastomosis. Moreover, the suture has to change direction and the needle has to enter the aortic wall first to slip out through the slit. Conclusion The object was named "Slit Device" and is not a routine instrument. It would be only an alternative to other anastomotic devices with the same surgical indications. In the case of ascending aortic disease and saphenous vein grafting, the Slit Device avoids aortic clamping thereby preventing atheroembolism and also avoiding the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients with unclampable aorta.

  8. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiu-Gui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, biochemical and immunofluorescence assays. Methods Nineteen patients scheduled for CABG were prospectively identified. Each underwent VsEVH for one portion and "No-touch" open SV harvesting (OSVH for another portion of the SV. A two cm segment from each portion was immersed in GALA conduit preservation solution and transported overnight to our lab for processing. The segments were labeled with fluorescent markers to quantify cell viability, calcium mobilization and generation of nitric oxide. Morphology, expression, localization and stability of endothelial caveolin, eNOS, von Willebrand factor and cadherin were evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blot and multiphoton microscopy (MPM. Results Morphological, biochemical and immunofluorescence parameters of viability, structure and function were well preserved in VsEVH group as in OSVH group. However, tonic eNOS activity, agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and nitric oxide production were partially attenuated in the VsEVH group. Conclusions This study indicates that VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique preserves the structural and functional viability of SV endothelium, but may differentially attenuate the vasomotor function of the saphenous vein graft. Ultramini-Abstract Endoscopic extraction preserved the structure and function, but attenuated the calcium mobilization and nitric oxide generation in human SV endothelium.

  9. Vasorelaxant effect of 17α-ethynylestradiol on human saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodati, Ahmad Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Azarmi, Yadollah; Fallah, Sahar; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fouladi, Danial Fadaei; Safaei, Naser

    2015-03-01

    A protective effect for estrogens against cardiovascular problems has long been known. The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of 17α-Ethynylestradiol (17α-EE) on human saphenous vein. The veins were suspended horizontally between two triangular stainless steel hooks for the measurement of isometric tension in individual organ baths containing 10ml Krebs solution, at 37°C and gassed with carbogen under 3gr optimum tension. The effect of different concentrations of 17α-EE (2-40 μM) on vascular tone was investigated in veins precontracted with PGF2α. Relaxation was measured after 40min and expressed as the percent decrease of initial contraction. To determine the involvement of potassium channels, endothelium, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase and prostaglandins in the vasorelaxant effect of estrogen, the veins were incubated with tetraethyl ammonium, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue or indomethacin, respectively for 20min prior to experimentation. Responses to 17α-EE were directly compared to those obtained in the same tissues in the absence of the inhibitors. The mean relaxations induced by 17α-EE with concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40μM in tissues precontracted with PGF2α were 19.8 ±5.5%, 26.1±10.8%, 32.2±7.4%, 48.6±10.8%and56±7.6%, respectively. The results of the inhibition of potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase, cyclooxygenase and removing endothelium in relaxation induced by 17α-EE on precontracted veins with PGF2α proved no significant differences. This study showed that 17α-EE has significant vasorelaxant effect on human saphenous vein in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is probably independent of potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase, prostaglandin synthesis and endothelium functions.

  10. Effect of preemptive nerve block on inflammation and hyperalgesia after human thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Crawford, M E; Dahl, J B

    1996-01-01

    whether a prolonged nerve block administered before a superficial burn injury could reduce local inflammation and late hyperalgesia after recovery from the block. METHODS: The effects of a preemptive saphenous nerve block on primary and secondary hyperalgesia, skin erythema, and blister formation, were...... compared to the opposite unblocked leg for 12 h after bilateral thermal injuries (15 x 25 mm, 49 degrees C for 5 min) in 20 healthy volunteers. Recovery from the block was identified by return of sensation to cold. RESULTS: Six subjects were excluded because of insufficient initial block (2 subjects......) or because the block lasted beyond the study period (4 subjects). The remaining 14 subjects experienced significantly reduced primary (P = 0.005) and secondary hyperplasia (P = 0.01) in the blocked leg after return of cold sensation compared to the unblocked leg. Erythema intensity and blister formation were...

  11. Grain Crush and Its Evolution in Granular Material:a Two-Dimensional Distinct Element Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Shan; SHI Xing-Jue; CHEN Yong; GE Hong-Kui; WONG Teng-Fong

    2004-01-01

    @@ A crush criterion and a simplified post-crush process for spherical grains are introduced into the traditional distinct dement modd (DEM). The crush criterion is based on Hertzian contact, and it indicates a negative rdation between critical force Fcr and radius R via Fcr ∝ R-3/2.

  12. The cooling effect of crushed rock structures on permafrost under an embankment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis and comparison of soil temperature, thermal regime and permafrost table under the experimental embankment of crushed rock structures in Beiluhe, results show that crushed rock structures provide an extensive cooling effect, which produces a rising permafrost table and decreasing soil temperatures. The rise of the permafrost table under the embankment ranges from an increase of 1.08 m to 1.67 m, with an average of 1.27 m from 2004 to 2007. Mean annual soil temperatures under the crushed rock layer embankment decreased significantly from 2005 to 2007, with average decreases of ?1.03 °C at the depth of 0.5 m, ?1.14 °C at the depth of 1.5 m, and ?0.5 °C at the depth of 5 m. During this period, mean annual soil temperatures under the crushed rock cover embankment showed a slight decrease at shallow depths, with an average decrease of ?0.2 °C at the depth of 0.5 m and 1.5 m, but a slight rise at the depth of 5 m. After the crushed rock structures were closed or crammed with sand, the cooling effect of the crushed rock layer embankment was greatly reduced and that of the crushed rock cover embankment was just slightly reduced.

  13. Muscle crush injury of extremity: quantitative elastography with supersonic shear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Faqin; Tang, Jie; Luo, Yukun; Ban, Yu; Wu, Rong; Tian, Jiangke; Yu, Tengfei; Xie, Xia; Li, Tanshi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic of muscle crush injury at quantitative ultrasonographic elastography using supersonic shear imaging (SSI). Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits underwent crush injury to left hind leg caused by a special balloon cuff device. Conventional ultrasonography and SSI quantitative elastography were performed at both crushed and uncrushed regions of the left hind legs. Quantitative lesion elasticity was measured using the Young's modulus (in kilopascals) at 0.5 h, 2 h, 6 h, 24 h and 72 h after the release of the crushing pressure. Compared with those from the uncrushed regions, both the maximum and mean elasticity values at these time points from the crushed regions were significantly higher (p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to assess diagnostic performance. ROC curves showed that extremity crush injury was diagnosed using elasticity value and the greater the elasticity value, the greater the diagnostic value. SSI provides quantitative elasticity measurements, thus, adding complementary information that potentially could help in crush injury characterization with conventional ultrasonography. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Segmented Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in T-Direction, Dynamic Crush Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; SWANSON,LLOYD H.

    2000-08-23

    Thirteen segmented aluminum honeycomb samples (5 in. diameter and 1.5 in. height) have been crushed in an experimental configuration that uses a drop table impact machine. The 38.0 pcf bulk density samples are a unique segmented geometry that allows the samples to be crushed while maintaining a constant cross-sectional area. A crush weight of 175 lb was used to determine the rate sensitivity of the honeycomb's highest strength orientation, T-direction, in a dynamic environment of {approx}50 fps impact velocity. Experiments were conducted for two honeycomb manufacturers and at two temperatures, ambient and +165 F. Independent measurements of the crush force were made with a custom load cell and a force derived from acceleration measurements on the drop table using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique with a Calibrated Force (SWAT-CAL). Normalized stress-strain curves for all thirteen experiments are included and have excellent repeatability. These data are strictly valid for material characteristics in the T orientation because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb did not change during the crush. The dynamic crush data have a consistent increase in crush strength of {approximately}7--19% as compared to quasi-static data and suggest that dynamic performance may be inferred from static tests. An uncertainty analysis estimates the error in these data is {+-} 11%.

  15. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-kui Zhao; Hong-lian Yu; Bo Liu; Hui Wang; Qiong Luo; Xie-gang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxida-tive stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities signiifcantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-pos-itive nerve ifbers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These ifndings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neu-roregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir crushed versus whole tablets in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Brookie M; Capparelli, Edmund V; Diep, Huy; Rossi, Steven S; Farrell, Michael J; Williams, Elaine; Lee, Grace; van den Anker, John N; Rakhmanina, Natella

    2011-12-01

    Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) is first-line therapy for pediatric HIV infection. In clinical practice, Kaletra tablets are occasionally crushed for pediatric administration. This study compared lopinavir/ritonavir exposure between whole and crushed tablets in HIV-infected children. This was a randomized, open-label, cross-over study of pediatric patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir as part of their antiretroviral regimen. Each subject had 2 separate (within 30 days) steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) studies with crushed and whole 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets. PK blood samples were drawn at 0 (predose), 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours postdose. Lopinavir and ritonavir plasma concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography were used to calculate non-compartmental area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) and clearance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared PK values between crushed and whole tablets. Twelve children, median age of 13 years (10-16 years), took 550/138 mg·m(-2) per day lopinavir/ritonavir divided every 12 hours. The median lopinavir AUC after crushed and whole tablets were 92 mg·hr·L(-1) and 144 mg·hr·L(-1), respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.55 (P = 0.003). Median ritonavir AUC of crushed and whole tablets were 7 mg·hr·L(-1) and 13.3 mg·hr·L(-1), respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.53 (P = 0.006). Administration of crushed 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets to children significantly reduced lopinavir and ritonavir exposure with a decrease in AUC by 45% and 47%, respectively. The administration of crushed tablets would require higher doses and therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure adequate lopinavir exposure in patients requiring this practice. The use of crushed lopinavir/ritonavir tablets should be avoided, if possible.

  17. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as well as powder (CBP. The first phase of the research focuses on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and micro-structural analysis (MSA were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight, higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and environmental aspects are imperative.

  18. Contaminated open fracture and crush injury:a murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shawn R Gilbert; Justin Camara; Richard Camara; Lynn Duffy; Ken Waites; Hyunki Kim; Kurt Zinn

    2015-01-01

    Modern warfare has caused a large number of severe extremity injuries, many of which become infected. In more recent conflicts, a pattern of co-infection with Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged. We attempted to recreate this pattern in an animal model to evaluate the role of vascularity in contaminated open fractures. Historically, it has been observed that infected bones frequently appear hypovascular, but vascularity in association with bone infection has not been examined in animal models. Adult rats underwent femur fracture and muscle crush injury followed by stabilization and bacterial contamination with A. baumannii complex and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vascularity and perfusion were assessed by microCT angiography and SPECT scanning, respectively, at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after injury. Quantitative bacterial cultures were also obtained. Multi-bacterial infections were successfully created, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus predominating. There was overall increase in blood flow to injured limbs that was markedly greater in bacteria-inoculated limbs. Vessel volume was greater in the infected group. Quadriceps atrophy was seen in both groups, but was greater in the infected group. In this animal model, infected open fractures had greater perfusion and vascularity than non-infected limbs.

  19. Failure analysis of crush hammers based on damage fracture energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-ping; ZHOU Hong-yi; BAI Zhan-wei; YIN Yi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    To prolong the life-span of crush hammers in the pyrite concentrate workplace of Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Nantong Mining Ltd., we used a progressive damage constitutive model based on the ductile and shear damage fracture energy to analyze the hammer wear failure caused by the impact and abrasion on the hammer surface by pyrite, and carried out simulation analysis with the explicit algorithm on hammer leftovers from the plant during the process of coarser pyrite comminution. The simulation results are consistent with hammer wear failure caused by pyrite impact. Then we proposed corrective measures to prolong hammer life-span. Results of the production test in the Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant showed that non-clearance hammers can avoid wear erosion, and adding steel bonded tungsten carbides F3002 prolonged the hammer life-span. The effect of austenitic manganese steel work-hardening was not prominent. Therefore, the hammer failure was mainly caused by superficial abrasion instead of fatigue cracks appearing when grains acted on the hardening layer.

  20. Aorto-right atrial fistula secondary to rupture of an occluded old saphenous venous graft to right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Carlos Sebastian; Saaibi, José Federico; Ortiz, Santiago Navas

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of an acquired aorta-right atrial fistula, secondary to a ruptured proximal anastomosis of an old saphenous vein graft 12 years after a coronary artery bypass surgery, in a 57 year old patient with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. On admission, he presented with congestive heart failure and on examination a continuous murmur was detected on the right parasternal border. Catheterization showed a fistula from the proximal anastomosis of an occluded right coronary artery saphenous vein graft draining to the right atrium with a large left to right shunt. The fistula was successfully occluded by a percutaneous approach with a Life Tech duct occluder with complete resolution of heart failure. The patient was discharged one week afterwards. After a two-year follow-up, the fistula remained occluded.

  1. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...... on plate unit elements are employed in the analyses. The crushing forces and the total absorbed energy obtained by the simplified analyses are compared with those obtained from large-scale bulbous bow experiments. The accuracy and the applicability of these methods are discussed in detail....

  2. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  3. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  4. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy of great saphenous vein with 2% polidocanol – one-year follow-up results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osęka, Marcin; Tworus, Robert; Gałązka, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) of varicose veins is a useful treatment option. It is a relatively safe method in the case of limited, small varicose veins. In theory, a justified concern could be raised that the injection of an active drug into the large superficial venous vessels may potentially cause life-threatening consequences. Aim To assess the safety and efficacy of UGFS using a 2% solution of polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol 2%) in the case of great saphenous vein incompetence. Material and methods Fifty-two patients with great saphenous vein incompetence underwent ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. The efficacy criterion was the elimination of reflux measured ultrasonographically and withdrawal or decrease of complaints: 1 week, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment. Complications of sclerotherapy were reported during follow-up. Results Decrease or withdrawal of complaints of chronic venous insufficiency was reported in 96% of cases (50 patients). Disappearance or decrease of varicose veins was noted in all patients (100%). During examination after 12 months, full success of ultrasound was achieved in 38 (73%) cases, and 11 (21%) patients presented a partial desired effect according to the consensus from Tegernsee. Persistence of reflux longer than 1 s in the treated great saphenous vein was reported in 3 (6%) cases. Serious complications, such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, dyspnea, anaphylaxis, or neurological abnormalities, were not recorded. Conclusions Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy of incompetent great saphenous vein and varicosities with 2% polidocanol was found to be an effective and safe method of treatment during 1 year of observation. However, longer observation is necessary. PMID:27458485

  5. Huge saphenous vein graft aneurysm presenting as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and compressing the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencir, Cemil; Akpek, Mahmut; Onay, Sevil; Selvi, Mithat

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery maintains an important role in the treatment of coronary artery disease. The huge saphenous vein graft aneurysm (HSVGA) is rare and occurs as a late complication after CABG. Here, we reported a case of HSVGA presenting as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çağlı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  7. Application of tissue clearing and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to assess optic nerve regeneration in unsectioned tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueting; Yungher, Benjamin; Park, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    Optic nerve crush injury, as a model to study central nervous system (CNS) injury, is widely used to assess potential therapeutic strategies, aimed at promoting axon regeneration and neuronal survival. Traditional methods to evaluate optic nerve regeneration rely on histological sectioning. However, tissue sectioning results in inevitable loss of three-dimensional (3D) information, such as axonal trajectories and terminations. Here we describe a protocol for whole-tissue assessment of optic nerve regeneration in adult mice without the need for histological sectioning.

  8. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    to large neurons after crush and regeneration than in controls, indicating that regeneration of small neurons was less complete than that of large ones. This contrasted with the fact that unmyelinated axons in the regenerated sural nerve after 74 days were only slightly reduced....... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate...

  9. Preservação da veia safena magna na cirurgia de varizes dos membros inferiores Varicose vein surgery in lower limbs with preservation of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Almeida Rollo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A veia safena magna autóloga é o melhor substituto arterial nas revascularizações dos membros inferiores, importante na revascularização do miocárdio e pode ser utilizada nas cirurgias do sistema venoso e nos traumas das extremidades. A fleboextração aumenta os riscos de lesões linfáticas e neurológicas. Assim, no tratamento das varizes primárias dos membros inferiores por meio da cirurgia ou de outras técnicas, a preservação da safena é recomendável se ela for normal ou apresentar alterações que ainda permitam sua preservação pela correção da causa desencadeante. Tal correção pode ser feita por técnicas cirúrgicas. Entre elas, a cura hemodinâmica da insuficiência venosa em ambulatório (CHIVA tem mostrado bons resultados. Recentemente, um ensaio clínico randomizado e controlado foi publicado comprovando sua eficácia. Outra técnica bastante utilizada é a da ligadura rasante da junção safenofemoral + crossectomia + ligadura das tributárias de crossa, com a qual se tem obtido resultados contraditórios. Finalmente, as técnicas que corrigem a insuficiência da safena reparando as valvas ostial e pré-ostial (valvoplastia externa são mais fisiológicas. Um ensaio clínico internacional multicêntrico, randomizado e controlado, testando um novo dispositivo, está sendo realizado, com resultados iniciais favoráveis. Este estudo pretende fazer uma revisão sobre as técnicas utilizadas na preservação da safena magna.The autologous great saphenous vein is the most effective bypass choice for lower limb revascularization, playing an important role in myocardial revascularization, and can be used in venous system surgeries and extremity traumas. Stripping increases the risk of lymphatic lesions and nerve damage. Therefore, when surgery or other techniques are used to treat primary varicose veins in the lower limbs, preservation of the saphenous vein is a desirable objective whenever the vein remains healthy or

  10. Identification and characterization of (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine binding to alpha2-adrenoceptors in the canine saphenous vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gout, B.

    1988-01-01

    The biochemical exploration of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors was investigated in the canine saphenous vein using the highly selective alpha2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine as a tritiated ligand. Following an enzymatic digestive pretreatment, the authors isolated a purified smooth muscle cell membranes fraction from saphenous veins in quantity sufficient to permit them to study the venous alpha2-adrenoreceptor content. The binding of tritiated rauwolscine was rapid, specific, saturable and reversible. The presence of high affinity sites with a density of binding Bmax of 125.2 /+ -/ 43.1 fmol/mg protein was demonstrated on a unique class of non interacting sites. The kinetically derived Kd was 1.28 nM, in good agreement with the value obtained from saturation isotherms. The pharmacological profile of these sites was assessed by the comparison of the potency of alpha-adrenergic agonists and antagonists to inhibit 1 nM (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine. Their efficacy was respectively: rauwolscine > phentolamine > RX 781094 > clonidine >> prazosin > (-)-phenylephrine > (-)-noradrenaline. The results showed that (/sup 3/H)-rauwolscine bound specifically to sites in their membranal preparation, which had the pharmacological characteristics of the alpha2-adrenoceptors. The correlation between biochemical and pharmacological data revealed the usefulness of binding methods in the further study of adrenergic mechanisms in the canine saphenous vein.

  11. Endovenous ablation (radiofrequency and laser and foam sclerotherapy versus conventional surgery for great saphenous vein varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Nesbitt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive techniques to treat great saphenous varicose veins include ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (USGFS, radiofrequency ablation (RFA and endovenous laser therapy (EVLT. Compared with conventional surgery (high ligation and stripping (HL/S, proposed benefits include fewer complications, quicker return to work, improved quality of life (QoL scores, reduced need for general anaesthesia and equivalent recurrence rates. OBJECTIVE : To review available randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT data comparing USGFS, RFA, EVLT to HL/S for the treatment of great saphenous varicose veins. METHODS : Search methods: The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD Group searched their Specialized Register (July 2010 and CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3. In addition the authors performed a search of EMBASE (July 2010. Manufacturers of EVLT, RFA and sclerosant equipment were contacted for trial data. Selection criteria: All RCTs of EVLT, RFA, USGFS and HL/S were considered for inclusion. Primary outcomes were recurrent varicosities, recanalization, neovascularization, technical procedure failure or need for re-intervention, patient quality of life (QoL scores and associated complications. Secondary outcomes were type of anaesthetic, procedure duration, hospital stay and cost. Data collection and analysis: CN, RE, VB, PC, HB and GS independently reviewed, assessed and selected trials which met the inclusion criteria. CN and RE extracted data. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used. CN contacted trial authors to clarify details. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen reports from five studies with a combined total of 450 patients were included. Rates of recanalization were higher following EVLT compared with HL/S, both early (within four months (5/149 versus 0/100; odds ratio (OR 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.45 to 32.64 and late recanalization (after four months (9/118 versus 1/80; OR 2.97; 95% CI 0

  12. The Use of Steel Works Crushed Slag (Lidonit in the Preparation of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Gugiuman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The high costs of the quarry crushed aggregates (producer costs to which additional railroad transport costs are taken into account result in the fact that at large distance away from quarry lesser amounts of chippings and crushing sands are provided only. The initiation of the crushed aggregates production manufactured out of steelworks crushed slag. Lidonit, at a competitive delivering price, has led to the first series of laboratory tests. In the first stage two asphalt concrete mixtures were made in cube-shaped and cylinder-shaped (Marshall test-tubes on which physical and mechanical characteristic values are determined. The results of these first tests outlined the real opportunity of using these products in supplying the roads and streets with asphalt mix for pavements.

  13. The Tree-Crushing Program on the Kenai National Moose Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the tree-crushing program at Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Efforts to control vegetation on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge for the benefit of...

  14. Crystal plasticity and grain crushing in high-porosity rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, H.; Tjioe, M.; Borja, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies show the significance of considering microstructure of individual crystals in modeling the inelastic behavior of high-porosity rocks. Plastic deformation of high-porosity crystalline rocks, exemplified by limestone, is mainly attributed to crystal plasticity and cataclastic flow. Crystal plasticity is defined as the plastic deformation along potential slip systems within the crystal lattice. In the context of continuum mechanics this micro-mechanism is modeled by a nonlinear relationship between stresses and strains. Two types of nonlinearity characterize the inelastic behavior of the crystal grains: material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity. Material nonlinearity defines the changes in stiffness matrix due to plastic slip along slip systems. Geometric nonlinearity contributes to the changes in stiffness matrix due to changes in the geometry of the crystal grains. Geometric nonlinearity is modeled using theory of finite deformation, which assumes the geometry of slip systems to be a function of crystal deformation. This type of nonlinearity is very important in modeling crystal deformation mainly because of plastic spin induced by anisotropy in the crystal structure. However, considering the geometry of slip systems as a function of crystal slip makes the equations highly nonlinear. As a result, many studies either ignore geometric nonlinearity or make other assumptions to simplify the equations. Cataclastic flow, on the other hand, is characterized by pervasive grain crushing in which larger grains are converted into smaller ones. We model cataclastic flow as strong discontinuity in the grain scale via an assumed enhanced strain method formulated within the context of nonlinear finite elements. The method allows the individual finite elements, identified to be in critical condition, to break into two pieces along a plane identified by theory of bifurcation. We show that modeling cataclastic flow combined with finite deformation crystal

  15. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  16. Severe crush syndrome complicated with acute pancreatitis: a case report and review of the literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; ZHANG Ling; FU Ping; SU Bai-hai; CHEN Xiao-lei; LIU Ling; CHEN Wei-xia; TAO Ye; HUANG Song-min

    2009-01-01

    @@ Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. As we know, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of mortality after the direct impact of trauma.~(1-3) It is a serious clinical case that develops among casualties of earthquakes or other catastrophic events that may also result in a variety of ensuing uncommon complications. Cases of crush syndrome complicated with acute pancreatitis (AP) following the earthquakes are seldom reported.

  17. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  18. Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    et al. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia increases the ability of neutrophils to generate superoxide anion in humans. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0007 Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia Dr. Barbara St...after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA7014-10-2-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Anatomical study of endoscopic sural nerve harvesting in the carbon dioxide gas cavity%CO_2气腔内窥镜下切取腓肠神经的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁健; 高伟阳; 洪建军

    2009-01-01

    目的 为CO_2气腔内窥镜下腓肠神经切取术提供解剖学依据.方法 解剖20侧新鲜成人下肢标本,观察腓肠神经组成、走行、血供特点,及与小隐静脉的关系.结果 腓肠神经组成类型以腓肠内、外侧皮神经汇合型为主,腓肠内、外侧皮神经发出后走行于深筋膜深面,在深筋膜下的长度分别为(18.54±0.32)cm和(19.64±0.20)cm;腓肠神经走行于浅筋膜层.在小腿上段神经与小隐静脉之间有深筋膜分隔.而小腿下段腓肠神经与小隐静脉伴行密切共同走行于浅筋膜层.在腓肠肌肌峰平面,腓肠内侧皮神经位于小隐静脉深面内侧(0.70±0.06)cm,腓肠外侧皮神经位于小隐静脉深面外侧(3.16±0.04)cm.结论 在小隐静脉体表投影腓肠肌肌峰平面外侧1.5cm设计内镜入口,在内镜入口内、外侧3.0~3.5cm设计操作入口安全.在深筋膜深面切取腓肠内、外侧皮神经,长度分别为19cm和18cm;还可以避免损伤小隐静脉.腓肠神经走行于浅筋膜层内与小隐静脉关系密切,切取容易导致出血和小隐静脉的损伤.%Objective To provide the anatomic basis for endoscopic sural nerve harvesting in the carbon dioxide created space. Methods Twenty fresh adult cadaver lower limbs were dissected to explore the composition, course and blood supply of the sural nerve and its relationship to the lesser saphenous vein. Results Most of the sural nerves were formed by converging of the medial sural nerve and lateral sural nerve which run mainly under the deep fascia. The length of the medial sural nerve and lateral sural nerve under the deep fascia were (18.54± 0.32) cm, and (19.64 ±0.20)cm, respectively.The sural nerve ran through the subcutaneous layer. The medial sural nerve and lateral sural nerve were separated from the lesser saphenous vein by deep fascia in the upper portion of the lower leg, while in the lower portion of the lower leg the sural nerve accompanied the lesser saphenous vein

  20. THE ROLE OF SATELLITE CELLS IN CRUSH INJURY OF RAT SKELETON MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DilekBURUKOĞLU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crush type of injury in rat skeletal muscle is often used in tissue degeneration and regeneration. After crush injury muscle tissue begins to regenerate. In this process, it is accepted that satellite cells play an important role which are very sensitive to muscle injury. The aim of this microscopic study was to examine role of satellite cells in muscle regeneration in crush injury. This research was done the department of Histology&Embryology in Eskişehir Osmangazi University in 2008. Ethic approval of this study has been received. During the study, the whole essential and ethics conditionshave been done. In the study 36 Spraque-Dawley rats were used. The rats were separated into 5 groups as test and control groups. Crush type of injury has been applied on muscles of right hind extremitiesof testing group rats by applying 3.5 kg of weight for 6 hours. In according to testing periods rats were anaesthetized intraperitoneally with ketamine 30mg/kg + xylazine 10mg/kg and sacrificied 3, 7, 14 and 21-day intervals. After crush injury, increased satellite cells were particularly observed on day 7. Alsosignificant increased of satellite cells and regenerated myofibrils were detected on day 14. However, satellite cells were seen on day-21 were similar to control group. In crush injuries, number of satellitecells were markedly increased and actively involved into regeneration process of the skeleton muscle.

  1. Freshly crushed garlic is a superior cardioprotective agent than processed garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-08-12

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-a-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all of the rats were sacrificed and isolated the hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both of the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, the freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of antiapoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFkappaB, Nrf2, and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection, the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

  2. Morphology does not predict performance: jaw curvature and prey crushing in durophagous stingrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Crofts, Stephanie B; Dean, Mason N; Summers, Adam P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2015-12-01

    All stingrays in the family Myliobatidae are durophagous, consuming bivalves and gastropods, as well as decapod crustaceans. Durophagous rays have rigid jaws, flat teeth that interlock to form pavement-like tooth plates, and large muscles that generate bite forces capable of fracturing stiff biological composites (e.g. mollusk shell). The relative proportion of different prey types in the diet of durophagous rays varies between genera, with some stingray species specializing on particular mollusk taxa, while others are generalists. The tooth plate module provides a curved occlusal surface on which prey is crushed, and this curvature differs significantly among myliobatids. We measured the effect of jaw curvature on prey-crushing success in durophagous stingrays. We milled aluminum replica jaws rendered from computed tomography scans, and crushed live mollusks, three-dimensionally printed gastropod shells, and ceramic tubes with these fabricated jaws. Our analysis of prey items indicate that gastropods were consistently more difficult to crush than bivalves (i.e. were stiffer), but that mussels require the greatest work-to-fracture. We found that replica shells can provide an important proxy for investigations of failure mechanics. We also found little difference in crushing performance between jaw shapes, suggesting that disparate jaws are equally suited for processing different types of shelled prey. Thus, durophagous stingrays exhibit a many-to-one mapping of jaw morphology to mollusk crushing performance. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ren; Hong Zhang; Chao Qi; Mei-ling Gao; Hong Wang; Xia-qing Li

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immuno-lfuorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clus-ters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve.

  4. Restoration of sensory dysfunction following peripheral nerve injury by the polysaccharide from culinary and medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. through its neuroregenerative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui WONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.

  5. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to measure the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

  6. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toe-out movements Tests of nerve activity include: Electromyography (EMG, a test of electrical activity in muscles) Nerve ... Peroneal neuropathy. In: Preston DC, Shapiro BE, eds. Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  7. Specific Paucity of Unmyelinated C-Fibers in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerves of the African Naked-Mole Rat: Comparative Analysis Using Six Species of Bathyergidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan S; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (∼1.5:1 compared with ∼3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the β-catenin gene in the skin. These β-catenin loss-of function mice (β-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:2785–2803, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22528859

  8. Human periodontal ligament stem cells repair mental nerve injury*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bohan Li; Hun-Jong Jung; Soung-Min Kim; Myung-Jin Kim; Jeong Won Jahng; Jong-Ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells are easily accessible and can differentiate into Schwann cells. We hypothesized that human periodontal ligament stem cells can be used as an alternative source for the autologous Schwann cells in promoting the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. To validate this hypothesis, human periodontal ligament stem cells (1 × 106) were injected into the crush-injured left mental nerve in rats. Simultaneously, autologous Schwann cells (1 × 106) and PBS were also injected as controls. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that at 5 days after injection, mRNA expression of low affinity nerve growth factor receptor was sig-nificantaly increased in the left trigeminal ganglion of rats with mental nerve injury. Sensory tests, histomorphometric evaluation and retrograde labeling demonstrated that at 2 and 4 weeks after in-jection, sensory function was significantly improved, the numbers of retrograde labeled sensory neurons and myelinated axons were significantly increased, and human periodontal ligament stem cells and autologous Schwann cells exhibited similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggest that transplantation of human periodontal ligament stem cells show a potential value in repair of mental nerve injury.

  9. Associations between flow in paratibial perforating veins and great saphenous vein patterns of reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perforating veins contribute to chronic venous valvular insufficiency (CVVI, subset of CVI of lower extremities (LE. We investigated the role of medial, proximal calf paratibial perforating veins (PTPV. Women with PTPV reflux, diameter ≥3 mm, or tortuosity were selected among 2199 LE mappings. Duplex ultrasonography (US was performed standing. Reflux >0.5 s was abnormal. PTPV conditions were related to great saphenous vein (GSV patterns of reflux. US of 442 LE of 379 women were analyzed, all being Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification C1, C2, and/or having intermittent, conditional swelling. Etiology was primary. Pathophysiology was reflux, not thrombosis or obstruction. Most PTPV drained (n=281, 64% of 442 or 13% of 2199, or were source (n=73, 17%/442, 3%/2199 of GSV reflux; 49 (11%/442, 2%/2199 had reflux not associated with GSV; 39 (9%/442, 2%/2199 did not have reflux. PTPV, when significative for CVVI, primarily drained-GSV reflux. PTPV was linked to reflux in 1 of 5 and was a major source of reflux in 1 of 20 legs. Detailed US of PTPV insured over 80% accuracy in CVVI mapping.

  10. Aberrant Phenotype in Human Endothelial Cells of Diabetic Origin: Implications for Saphenous Vein Graft Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2DM confers increased risk of endothelial dysfunction, coronary heart disease, and vulnerability to vein graft failure after bypass grafting, despite glycaemic control. This study explored the concept that endothelial cells (EC cultured from T2DM and nondiabetic (ND patients are phenotypically and functionally distinct. Cultured human saphenous vein- (SV- EC were compared between T2DM and ND patients in parallel. Proliferation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis assays were performed; western blotting was used to quantify phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and eNOS. The ability of diabetic stimuli (hyperglycaemia, TNF-α, and palmitate to modulate angiogenic potential of ND-EC was also explored. T2DM-EC displayed reduced migration (~30% and angiogenesis (~40% compared with ND-EC and a modest, nonsignificant trend to reduced proliferation. Significant inhibition of Akt and eNOS, but not ERK phosphorylation, was observed in T2DM cells. Hyperglycaemia did not modify ND-EC function, but TNF-α and palmitate significantly reduced angiogenic capacity (by 27% and 43%, resp., effects mimicked by Akt inhibition. Aberrancies of EC function may help to explain the increased risk of SV graft failure in T2DM patients. This study highlights the importance of other potentially contributing factors in addition to hyperglycaemia that may inflict injury and long-term dysfunction to the homeostatic capacity of the endothelium.

  11. Aberrant phenotype in human endothelial cells of diabetic origin: implications for saphenous vein graft failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anna C; Gohil, Jai; Hudson, Laura; Connolly, Kyle; Warburton, Philip; Suman, Rakesh; O'Toole, Peter; O'Regan, David J; Turner, Neil A; Riches, Kirsten; Porter, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) confers increased risk of endothelial dysfunction, coronary heart disease, and vulnerability to vein graft failure after bypass grafting, despite glycaemic control. This study explored the concept that endothelial cells (EC) cultured from T2DM and nondiabetic (ND) patients are phenotypically and functionally distinct. Cultured human saphenous vein- (SV-) EC were compared between T2DM and ND patients in parallel. Proliferation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis assays were performed; western blotting was used to quantify phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and eNOS. The ability of diabetic stimuli (hyperglycaemia, TNF-α, and palmitate) to modulate angiogenic potential of ND-EC was also explored. T2DM-EC displayed reduced migration (~30%) and angiogenesis (~40%) compared with ND-EC and a modest, nonsignificant trend to reduced proliferation. Significant inhibition of Akt and eNOS, but not ERK phosphorylation, was observed in T2DM cells. Hyperglycaemia did not modify ND-EC function, but TNF-α and palmitate significantly reduced angiogenic capacity (by 27% and 43%, resp.), effects mimicked by Akt inhibition. Aberrancies of EC function may help to explain the increased risk of SV graft failure in T2DM patients. This study highlights the importance of other potentially contributing factors in addition to hyperglycaemia that may inflict injury and long-term dysfunction to the homeostatic capacity of the endothelium.

  12. Saphenous vein graft thrombus findings by scanning electron microscopy in a patient with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Marcela Dias; Aguillera, André Haraguti [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brilhante, José Joaquim; Caixeta, Adriano [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An eighty-year-old male patient with a history of prior (19 years) coronary artery bypass graft surgery was admitted to the hospital with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). During the hospital stay he was taking acetylsalicylic acid 100mg per day, a loading dose of 600mg clopidogrel, and low molecular weight heparin 1mg/kg twice a day. Twenty-four hours later the patient underwent coronary angiography, which showed a 90% obstruction in the mid portion of the saphenous vein graft to obtuse marginal with signs of degeneration and local thrombus (Figure 1). Thrombus aspiration was performed with a 6-Fr Export{sup ™} catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA), which removed small reddish colored fragments. They were fixed in 2,5% glutaraldehyde in a 0.1M sodium cacodilate buffer. The material was processed following the GOTO protocol in which the fragments were washed with osmium tetroxide and titanic acid, after which they were dried in a critical-point device and a golden bath. Scanning electron microscopy and high definition photos (3,000 to 27,221x magnification) were obtained by the FEI Quanta{sup ™} FEG SEM device (FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA). The images showed that the thrombus was rich in activated platelets, with few erythrocytes or inflammatory cells. Many cholesterol crystals were observed (Figures 2 to). The fibrin networks were sparse and thin, which is compatible with a short ischemic time and recent thrombus formation.

  13. The Physics of Nerves

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

  14. Different sensitivities to rocuronium of the neuromuscular junctions innervated by normal/damaged facial nerves and somatic nerve in rats: the role of the presynaptic acetylcholine quantal release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-liang; LI Shao-qin; CHI Fang-lu; CHEN Lian-hua; LI Shi-tong

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscles present different responses to muscle relaxants,a mechanism of importance in surgeries requiring facial nerve evoked electromyography under general anaesthesia.The non-depolarizing muscle relaxants have multiple reaction formats in the neuromuscular junction,in which pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine was one of the important mechanisms.This study was to compare the pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine from the neuromuscular junctions innervated by normal/damaged facial nerves and somatic nerve under the effect of rocuronium in rats in vitro.Methods Acute right-sided facial nerve injury was induced by nerve crush axotomies.Both sided facial nerve connected orbicularis oris strips and tibial nerve connected gastrocnemius strips were isolated to measure endplate potentials (EPP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPP) using an intracellular microelectrode gauge under different rocuronium concentrations.Then,the pre-synaptic quantal releases of acetylcholine were calculated by the ratios of the EPPs and the MEPPs,and compared among the damaged or normal facial nerve innervated orbicularis oris and tibial nerve innervated gastrocnemius.Results The EPP/MEPP ratios of the three neuromuscular junctions decreased in a dose dependent manner with the increase of the rocuronium concentration.With the concentrations of rocuronium being 5 μg/ml,7.5 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml,the decrease of the EPP/MEPP ratio in the damaged facial nerve group was greater than that in the normal facial nerve group.The decrease in the somatic nerve group was the biggest,with significant differences.Conclusions Rocuronium presented different levels of inhibition on the pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine in the three groups of neuromuscular junctions.The levels of the inhibition showed the following sequence:somatic nerve >damaged facial nerve > normal facial nerve.The difference may be one of the reasons causing the different sensitivities to

  15. Failure probability analysis of coal crushing induced by uncertainty of influential parameters under condition of in-situ reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立松; 闫相祯; 杨秀娟; 田中兰; 杨恒林

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainties of some key influence factors on coal crushing, such as rock strength, pore pressure and magnitude and orientation of three principal stresses, can lead to the uncertainty of coal crushing and make it very difficult to predict coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir. To account for the uncertainty involved in coal crushing, a deterministic prediction model of coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir was established based on Hoek-Brown criterion. Through this model, key influence factors on coal crushing were selected as random variables and the corresponding probability density functions were determined by combining experiment data and Latin Hypercube method. Then, to analyze the uncertainty of coal crushing, the first- order second-moment method and the presented model were combined to address the failure probability involved in coal crushing analysis. Using the presented method, the failure probabilities of coal crushing were analyzed for WS5-5 well in Ningwu basin, China, and the relations between failure probability and the influence factors were furthermore discussed. The results show that the failure probabilities of WS5-5 CBM well vary from 0.6 to 1.0; moreover, for the coal seam section at depth of 784.3-785 m, the failure probabilities are equal to 1, which fit well with experiment results; the failure probability of coal crushing presents nonlinear growth relationships with the increase of principal stress difference and the decrease of uniaxial compressive strength.

  16. Etiology of lingual nerve injuries in the third molar region: a cadaver and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M Anthony; Le, Hung

    2006-12-01

    It has been suggested that different etiologies of lingual nerve damage in the third molar area will produce a different clinical and histologic appearance in the nerve. If the clinical and histologic pictures were different, it could result in different treatments being recommended. Eight preserved cadavers (16 lingual nerves) were used for this study. As far as possible, the nerves were left in situ and damaged in a way that could be envisaged during third molar surgery. In each case, the damaged sections of nerve were photographed, resected, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned in 5 mum sections, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and examined histologically. The scalpel clinically produced a clean wound with sharply defined edges; this was confirmed histologically with minimal disruption to the fascicles. The 702 fissure bur produced a ragged stretch-type injury clinically, and histologically this was confirmed with an irregular-edged border to the lesion and stretching and internal damage to the fascicles immediately adjacent to the wound. The crush injury clinically caused considerable apparent damage to the nerve, which was confirmed histologically with crushing and disruption of the fascicles and reduction to approximately 25% of their preinjury thickness. The stretch injury clinically showed no damage, but histologically showed irregular internal disruption of the fascicles over the whole area subject to stretching movements. It does appear that different modalities in nerve injury produce a different type of injury both clinically and histologically. This information has implications for both natural clinical recovery and the indications for surgical intervention. Clinical recovery may occur best with close approximation of a sharp scalpel-type wound or excision of a crushed area of nerve with reapproximation of the nerve endings, but a ragged wound caused by a fissure bur may require excision back to healthy nerve with subsequent reapproximation, whereas

  17. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NRCF DERIVED FROMDISTAL STUMPS OF MOTOR NERVE AND SENSORY NERVEAND b-FGF ON CULTURED MOTONEURON IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of neurotropism in peripheral nerve regeneration by assessing the bioactivity of regeneration microcircumstance on motoneurons. Methods The motor branch of femoral nerve to quadriceps was incised and the distal stump was sutured with one-end silicone chamber. The nerve regeneration chamber fluids from distal motor nerve stumps ( motor branch of femoral nerve ) ( MD-NR- CF) was collected 7d post-operatively, and with the same method, nerve regeneration conditioned fluids from distal stumps nerve stumps ( saphenous nerve) ( SD-NRCF) was collected. The dissociated rat's motoneurons were co-cultured with MD-NRCF, SD-NRCF, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and serum-free medium for 72h respectively and then were photographed under phase-contrast microscope. The longest neurites and cell- body areas of motoneurons from each group were measured by cell image processing computer system. MTT col- orimetric assay was also used to measure cell activation. Results The cells of MD-NRCF group had signifi- cantly longer neurites than the other 3 groups, and their activation was also superior to those of the other groups. Conclusion These results indicate that MD-NRCF has more significant neurite-promoting and neu- robiological effects on motoneuron than SD-NRCF and b-FGF.

  18. Crushed Limestone Dust Valorization for Eco Friendly non Fired Wall Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing crushed limestone dust; the by-product of crushing limestone plant for producing non-fired wall tiles is the objective of this research. The main raw materials of non-fired wall tiles consist of laterite soil, fluvial sand and Portland cement. The crushed limestone dust has been used as the substitute material of non-fired wall tiles for enhancing their bending strength. In this experiment, four groups of formulas have been constructed. Firstly, crushed limestone dust has been mixed into the basic formula for substitution of laterite soil. Secondly, crushed limestone dust has been used for substitution to river soil of the basic formula. Thirdly, it has been substituted to Portland cement in the basic formula. Finally, the best formulas of the first three groups has been selected and mixed up to make the new formulas. After mixing the raw materials of selected formula, forming specimens by uni-axial pressing at 100 bar has been performed. Then, they have been aged for 1 week at the room temperature. After that, testing the specimens’ properties has been carried out. They are bending strength and water absorption which comparing with Thailand Industrial Standard (TIS 614-2529. The experimental results show that adding the crushed limestone dust to the basic composition has an effect on the bending strength and water absorption. The compositions of the best formula are laterite soil 55%, fluvial sand 7.5%, Portland cement 22.5%, and crushed limestone dust 15%. It gives the bending strength by 2.32 MPa, water absorption 3.20%. The water absorption property can pass the TIS standard, but bending strength could not pass. The estimated cost of raw materials is 0.09065 THB/100 g.

  19. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  20. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  1. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea G(a)rtner; Yuri Nakamura; Satoshi Hayakawa; Akiyoshi Osakah; Beatriz Porto; Ana Lúcia Luís; Artur SP Varej(a)o; Ana Colette Maurício; Tiago Pereira; Maria Jo(a)o Sim(o)es; Paulo AS Armada-da-Silva; Miguel L Fran(c)a; Rosa Sousa; Simone Bompasso; Stefania Raimondo; Yuki Shirosaki

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration.The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration,associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord,in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury.Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase.Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro,to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival,expansion,and differentiation.For the in vivo testing,Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each:Group 1,sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2,the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250- 1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3,axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type Ⅲ membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitlllCell) and Group 4,axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type Ⅲ membrane (Group 4-CrushChitlll).Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index,static sciatic index,extensor postural thrust,and withdrawal reflex latency.Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers.Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells,or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration.Results obtained with chitosan type Ⅲ membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may represent a very promising

  2. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andrea; Pereira, Tiago; Simões, Maria João; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo AS; França, Miguel L; Sousa, Rosa; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Shirosaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osakah, Akiyoshi; Porto, Beatriz; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Varejão, Artur SP; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration, associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury. Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase. Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro, to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. For the in vivo testing, Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each: Group 1, sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2, the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250–1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitIIICell) and Group 4, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane (Group 4-CrushChitIII). Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index, static sciatic index, extensor postural thrust, and withdrawal reflex latency. Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells, or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Results obtained with chitosan type III membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may

  3. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andrea; Pereira, Tiago; Simões, Maria João; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo As; França, Miguel L; Sousa, Rosa; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Shirosaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osakah, Akiyoshi; Porto, Beatriz; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Varejão, Artur Sp; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2012-10-15

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration, associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury. Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alterations were found in metaphase. Chitosan membranes were previously tested in vitro, to assess their ability in supporting human mesenchymal stem cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. For the in vivo testing, Sasco Sprague adult rats were divided in 4 groups of 6 or 7 animals each: Group 1, sciatic axonotmesis injury without any other intervention (Group 1-Crush); Group 2, the axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was infiltrated with a suspension of 1 250-1 500 human mesenchymal stem cells (total volume of 50 μL) (Group 2-CrushCell); Group 3, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane covered with a monolayer of non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (Group 3-CrushChitIIICell) and Group 4, axonotmesis lesion of 3 mm was enwrapped with a chitosan type III membrane (Group 4-CrushChitIII). Motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated throughout a healing period of 12 weeks using sciatic functional index, static sciatic index, extensor postural thrust, and withdrawal reflex latency. Stereological analysis was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. Results showed that infiltration of human mesenchymal stem cells, or the combination of chitosan membrane enwrapment and human mesenchymal stem cell enrichment after nerve crush injury provide a slight advantage to post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Results obtained with chitosan type III membrane alone confirmed that they significantly improve post-traumatic axonal regrowth and may

  4. Lectures on ceramics experimenting technologies. Crushing; Ceramics jikken gijutsu koza. Funsai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    This paper explains a laboratory process for ceramics crushing. Crushing is performed to obtain powder particles having desired size, shape and grain size distribution for the purpose of improving their formability and sinterability. Crushing devices and methods may vary according to these requirements. A ball mill is suitable for obtaining wide grain size distribution, and a vibration mill and a media stirring mill for obtaining narrow grain size distribution. However, an easily cleanable and inexpensive device suits better in a study stage because what is require for a study is mainly property experiments. Calcinated BaTiO3, for example, is first crushed to several mm or smaller with the dry method by using a mortar and a pestle. Then, it is pulverized to sub-microns with the wet method by using a ball mill, a vibration mill or a media stirring mill. Particle size and its distribution may be measured to evaluate particles before and after the crushing. A sieve can classify particles relatively easily if their size is 50 {mu} m or larger. A particle size distribution measuring device can measure sizes ranging from sub-microns to several hundred {mu}m continuously in a short time. Specific surface area is measured generally by using the nitrogen gas adsorption BET method. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Study on characteristics of printed circuit board liberation and its crushed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2012-11-01

    Recycling printed circuit board waste (PCBW) waste is a hot issue of environmental protection and resource recycling. Mechanical and thermo-chemical methods are two traditional recycling processes for PCBW. In the present research, a two-step crushing process combined with a coarse-crushing step and a fine-pulverizing step was adopted, and then the crushed products were classified into seven different fractions with a standard sieve. The liberation situation and particle shape in different size fractions were observed. Properties of different size fractions, such as heating value, thermogravimetric, proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined. The Rosin-Rammler model was applied to analyze the particle size distribution of crushed material. The results indicated that complete liberation of metals from the PCBW was achieved at a size less than 0.59 mm, but the nonmetal particle in the smaller-than-0.15 mm fraction is liable to aggregate. Copper was the most prominent metal in PCBW and mainly enriched in the 0.42-0.25 mm particle size. The Rosin-Rammler equation adequately fit particle size distribution data of crushed PCBW with a correlation coefficient of 0.9810. The results of heating value and proximate analysis revealed that the PCBW had a low heating value and high ash content. The combustion and pyrolysis process of PCBW was different and there was an obvious oxidation peak of Cu in combustion runs.

  6. Relevant factors affecting the outcome of ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Falaschi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS constitutes a valid ablative treatment for superficial vein diseases for the great saphenous vein (GSV, but no standardized protocol for its execution has yet been defined. Different variable factors involved in this procedure influence the final outcome and clinical results. The aim of our study was to analyze the respective influence on efficacy and side effects of three variable factors (foam volume, foam concentration, and contact time between the foam and the endothelium for UGFS procedures for GSV insufficiency in order to select the best protocol for treatment. A retrospective analysis was made of UGFS procedures (190 patients, 201 legs performed for GSV insufficiency in our institute from January 2007 to January 2010. All great saphenous veins included in our study exhibited a trans-ostial reflux and caliber range was 7-11 mm. In all cases, foam was prepared according to the Tessari method, using polidocanol (POL and a gas mixture of CO2 (70% and filtered room air (30%, in a proportion of 1:4. A single injection procedure in the GSV was performed under Doppler ultrasound guidance at mid to lower third of the thigh. Legs were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment protocols: - Group A (71 legs: POL 3%, mean foam volume 4.5 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group B (61 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group C (69 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, continuous groin pressure 5 min followed by intermittent groin pressure 5 min, continuous leg compression 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min. Efficacy of treatment and occurrence of side effects were evaluated in each group at two weeks and again at two years after the procedure and the cumulative results compared. Analysis of outcomes did not show any significant difference between the complete obliteration rate (P=0.825 or occurrence of local

  7. Adaptation of oral medication in people institutionalized in nursing homes for whom medication is crushed: The ADECUA Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases,...

  8. Sclerofoam assisted laser therapy for saphenous refluxes: an innovative tumescence-free technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endovenous laser (EL and radiofrequency devices have continuously increased their appealing in the last decade. Even if miniinvasive, such procedure still requires multiple high volume injections of tumescent anesthesia: a medical act that is not totally complications- free. Aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of a hybrid technique (so called sclerofoam assisted laser therapy, SFALT combining foam sclerotherapy (FS and EL in a tumescence free approach. Fourty primary chronic venous disease patients (8 males, 32 females, C2-4EpAsPr presenting a sapheno-femoral reflux both at the Valsalva and compression/relaxation maneuver underwent a SFALT procedure. Diameters were measured at mid-thigh in supine. It consists in a EL fiber introduction into the great saphenous vein (GSV, shrinking it for a single cm at 200 J/cm. After a shrunk plug is created, keeping the fiber stuck in it, 5 cc of foam sclerotherapy [Tessari method, 1% polidocanol (POL or 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS] are injected through the same 6 Fr EL introducer. The consequent spasm allows a following EL mediated shrinkage by means of a significantly reduced fluence. Clinical and sonographic follow up were performed at one and three weeks. At 3 weeks follow up all the 40 cases presented a shrunk GSV, without recanalization signs. Neither major nor minor complications were reported. At the mid-thigh the standing GSV caliber decreased from a preoperative mean value of 0.6±0.2 cm to a post FS injection 0.3±0.1 cm value (P<0.05, showing no statistical difference among STS and POL. SFALT approach is feasible, safe and with potentially interesting outcomes. More investigations are needed in order to define the proper fluence parameters and the chance of eliminating the even mild sedation. This technique offers the chance of a possible tumescence free GSV treatment, even in case of major calibers vessels.

  9. A kinetic study of the ouabain-induced efflux of norepinephrine from the dog saphenous vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.G. (Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Porto (Portugal))

    1991-07-01

    Dog saphenous vein strips were incubated with (3H)norepinephrine ((3H)NE), 1.4 microM, after inhibition of the NE-metabolizing enzymes and extraneuronal uptake, and superfused for up to 290 min. From the 70th min onwards the strips were exposed to 10 microM ouabain, some of them being subject to electrical stimulation from the 140th min onwards. Other strips were exposed to either 1, 10 or 100 microM ouabain from the 70th min onwards. The spontaneous efflux of (3H)NE had a long half-time (156 min), and over 90% of the (3H)NE accumulated did not participate in efflux (bound fraction). Ouabain, 10 microM, induced a pronounced increase of the rate of efflux of (3H)NE, which was delayed in its onset and reached a maximum at t = 135 min of superfusion. Increasing the concentration of ouabain decreased both the delay to the beginning of the overflow and the time to maximum efflux and increased the maximum rate of efflux. In Ca(++)-free medium (during the superfusion period), the maximum rate of efflux was lower than in Ca(++)-containing medium, but was attained earlier. The bound fraction amounted to 22% when the efflux was induced by 10 microM ouabain in Ca(++)-containing medium, a value unnaffected by electrical stimulation but reduced markedly by omitting calcium. The results support the view that the efflux of (3H)NE induced by ouabain is delayed and that it is both carrier-mediated and due to exocytosis.

  10. Arctigenin improves vascular tone and decreases inflammation in human saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daci, Armond; Neziri, Burim; Krasniqi, Shaip; Cavolli, Raif; Alaj, Rame; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Beretta, Giangiacomo

    2017-09-05

    The goal of this study was to test the effects of bioactive phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin (ATG) in vascular tone. Human bypass graft vessel, from a saphenous vein (SV), were set up in organ bath system and contracted with potassium chloride (KCl, 40mM). Two concentration-response curves of noradrenaline (NE) (10nM-100μM) separated with an incubation period of 30min without (Control) or with ATG (3-100μM) were established. Inhibitors of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, K(+) related channels or calcium influx were used to delineate the molecular mechanisms beyond ATG effects. To investigate anti-inflammatory actions, SV were treated with 10μM or 100μM ATG and incubated for 18h in the absence or presence of both interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the physiological or inflamed tissue conditions. Proatherogenic and inflammatory mediators İnterleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteine-1 (MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α), İnterleukine-6 (IL-6), Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and İnterleukine-8 (IL-8) in the supernatant were measured. ATG significantly decreased vascular contractile response to NE. Moreover, it reduced contractions induced by KCl and cumulative addition of CaCl2. The mediators were significantly increased in inflammatory conditions compared to normal conditions, an effect which was inhibited by ATG (10 and 100µM). ATG reduces contractions in SV and decreases the production of proinflammatory-proatherogenic mediators, setting the stage for further evaluating the effect of ATG in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of static and dynamic motor function in peripheral nerve regeneration: SSI and CatWalk gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, A; Scheffel, J; Brook, G A; Joosten, E A; Suschek, C V; O'Dey, D M; Pallua, N; Deumens, R

    2011-05-16

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of interventions to bridge-repair peripheral nerve defects heavily relies on the demonstration of improved functional outcome. In the present study we used CatWalk gait analysis (locomotor-test) and Static Sciatic Index (SSI) (static-toe-spread-test) to assess the behavioural benefits of autologous nerve transplantation (ANT) repair of 2-cm rat sciatic nerve defects (neurotmesis-lesion). A reproducible and standardised rat sciatic nerve crush lesion model (axonotmesis-lesion) was used to assess the extent of recovery supported by maximal axon regeneration (measured by SSI and CatWalk). Animals were behaviourally followed for a period of 10 weeks. SSI analysis showed that ANT induced a significant improvement in motor deficit from about -95 to -65, however, CatWalk analysis did not show any major indication of locomotor recovery. This discrepancy might suggest that improvements in static motor functions (such as toe spreading) could reflect an early indicator for the recovery of function. We also noted differences in axon regeneration including increased axon density, smaller axon diameters and thinner myelin sheaths in the distal region of the ANT in comparison to the equivalent region of crushed and normal nerves. This difference in axon regeneration may be related to the clearly improved toe spreading function. We conclude that SSI and CatWalk present different advantages and disadvantages for the assessment of motor recovery after bridge-repair of peripheral nerve defects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Piglet saphenous vein contains multiple relaxatory prostanoid receptors: evidence for EP4, EP2, DP and IP receptor subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Richard J; Giles, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 produced endothelium-independent relaxation of phenylephrine- and 5-HT-contracted piglet saphenous vein (PSV; pEC50=8.6±0.2; n=6).The prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonist GW627368X (30–300 nM) produced parallel rightward displacement of PGE2 concentration–effect (E/[A]) curves (pKb=9.2±0.2; slope=1). Higher concentrations of GW627368X did not produce further rightward shifts, revealing the presence of non-EP4 prostanoid receptors.In all, 18 other prostanoid receptor agonists re...

  13. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  14. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...

  15. Quercetin promotes motor and sensory function recovery following sciatic nerve-crush injury in C5713L/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ming-Ming; Qin, Jing; Chen, Shu-Jian; Yao, Le-Meng; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Liao, Hong

    Injuries and diseases that occur in the nervous system are common and have few effective treatments. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has a therapeutic effect on nervous system injuries, but its potential effects on and mechanisms of action related to behavioral recovery and axonal

  16. Design of two crushing devices for release of the fluid inclusion volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublyansky, Yuri

    2012-06-01

    Two crushing cells have been described for the release of volatiles from fluid inclusions in minerals in vacuum, static gas, and gas-flow applications. To minimize the adsorption of released volatiles on the freshly created mineral surfaces, both devices employed heated crushing. In the MTSN (Museo Tridentine di Scienze Naturali) crusher, samples were disintegrated by a piston driven by an induction coil. For efficient crushing, the electromagnet operated in dynamic impulse mode. In the LFU (Leopold-Franzens-Universität) crusher, the sample was disintegrated through the combined action of compression (manually operated hydraulic ram) and attrition. Crushers are able to be used in off-line and on-line modes, in gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses.

  17. Simulation of Cobalt-Rich Crust's Crushing Process Based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is a great concern in international oceanology to mine cobalt-rich crust. At present, spiral mining head is regarded as the best crushing scheme. Based on the dynamic model of spiral mining head, the of cobalt crust's crushing process was simulated with the ANSYS software. The material model of Johnson and Cook Plasticity, maximal principal stress failure criterion, and eroding contact arithmetic were selected. At the same time, the influence of cutting depth, feed speed, rotational speed of mining head on torque and force subjected by mining head was taken into account. At last a computer simulation model of crushing process of cobalt crust was established. By analyzing simulation results, the relationships among these controllable process parameters, torque and force can be obtained, which will provide a technical reference for practical mining system.

  18. Pudendal nerve palsy in trauma and elective orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Ioannis; Tsitskaris, Konstantinos; Oussedik, Sam

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of pudendal nerve palsy following routine trauma and elective orthopaedic surgery procedures ranges from 1.9% to 27.6%. Excessive and/or prolonged traction against the perineal post of a traction table, leading to direct compression and localised ischaemia to the nerve are suggested mechanisms of injury. Misuse of traction and the inappropriate placement of the perineal post, leading to crushing and stretching of the pudendal nerve, are two main contributing factors leading to its postoperative palsy. The sequelae may be sensory, motor or mixed. In most cases, these injuries are transient and tend to resolve within several weeks or months. However, complete neurological recovery may be unpredictable and the effects of ongoing dysfunction potentially disastrous for the individual. In terms of preventative measures, magnitude and duration of traction time should be minimised; traction should be limited to the critical operative steps only. Additionally, the perineal post should be placed between the genitalia and the contralateral leg. A well-padded, large-diameter perineal post should be used (>10cm). Adequate muscle relaxation during anaesthesia is particularly important in young men who have strong muscles and thus require larger traction forces when compared to elderly patients. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the pathophysiology behind the development of this palsy and the measures that can be employed to reduce its occurrence. In procedures where a traction table is employed, consenting for pudendal nerve palsy should be considered by the surgical team.

  19. Randomized Comparison of the Crush Versus the Culotte Stenting for Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Wei Zheng; Dong-Hui Zhao; Hong-Yu Peng; Qian Fan; Qin Ma; Zhen-Ye Xu; Chao Fan

    2016-01-01

    Background:The crush and the culotte stenting were both reported to be effective for complex bifurcation lesion treatment.However,their comparative performance remains elusive.Methods:A total of 300 patients with coronary bifurcation lesions were randomly assigned to crush (n =150) and culotte (n =150) treatment.The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 12 months including cardiac death,myocardial infarction,stent thrombosis,and target vessel revascularization.Index lesion restenosis at 12 months was a secondary endpoint.The surface integrals of time-averaged wall shear stress at bifurcation sites were also be quantified.Results:There were no significant differences in MACE rates between the two groups at 12-month follow-up:Crush 6.7%,culotte 5.3% (P =0.48).The rates of index lesion restenosis were 12.7% versus 6.0% (P =0.047) in the crush and the culotte groups,respectively.At 12-month follow-up,the surface integrals of time-averaged wall shear stress at bifurcation sites in the crush group were significantly lower than the culotte group ([5.01 ± 0.95] × 10-4 Newton and [6.08 ± 1.16] × 10 4 Newton,respectively;P =0.003).Conclusions:Both the crush and the culotte bifurcation stenting techniques showed satisfying clinical and angiographic results at 12-month follow-up.Bifurcation lesions treated with the culotte technique tended to have lower restenosis rates and more favorable flow patterns.

  20. Increased expression of nestin in the major pelvic ganglion following cavernous nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, O; Ross, AE; Schaeffer, EM; Gratzke, C; Stief, CG; Strong, TD; Burnett, AL; Hedlund, P; Bivalacqua, TJ

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to identify neuronal repair mechanisms of the major pelvic ganglion (MPG), we evaluated changes in the expression of nestin, an intermediate filament protein and neural stem cell marker following cavernous nerve crush injury (CNI). We utilized two groups of Sprague Dawley rats: (i) sham and (ii) bilateral CNI. Erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) were determined at 48 h in a subset of rats. The MPG was isolated and removed at 48 h after CNI, and nestin immunolocalization, protein levels and RNA expression were evaluated. At 48 h, erectile responses to CNS in CNI rats were substantially reduced (P<0.05; ~70% decrease in intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure) compared with sham surgery controls. This coincided with a dramatic 10-fold increase (P<0.05) in nestin messenger RNA expression and protein levels in the MPG of rats with CNI. Immunoflourescence microscopy demonstrated that nestin upregulation after CNI occurred within the ganglion cell bodies and nerve fibers of the MPG. In conclusion, CNI induces nestin in the MPG. These data suggest that nestin may be involved in the regenerative process of the cavernous nerve following crush injury. PMID:21993267

  1. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.).

  2. Characteristics of the development of pore stucture during carbonization of crushed and gradulated lean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Yu.A.; Limonov, N.V.; Ivakhnyuk, G.K.

    1992-06-20

    The development of the pore structure of crushed and granulated lean coal during carbonization was investigated from the results of a study of the change of weight and volume of the coal pieces. It was shown that the macropore structure of the coal is formed in the low-temperature stage of carbonization and is due to the process of the removal of binder from the granules (620 K) and to destruction and elimination of volatile products from the crushed material (770 K). 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Microstructure and Properties of Silty Siliceous Crushed Stone-lime Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiankun; CHEN Youzhi; LI Fangxian; SUN Tao; XU Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    The clayish crushed stone was used for making aerated concrete. Through studying hydro-thermal synthesis reaction, mix ratio, gas-forming and performance analysis, Grade-B05 and Grade-B06 aerated concrete were prepared successfully. The proper mix ratio and key processing parameters were achieved. The microstructure of aerated concrete with crush stone was analyzed by means of XRD and SEM. The experimental results indicate that the hydration products are poorly crystalline C-S-H (B), tobermorite and hydrogarnet. No component of clay was found. Unreacted SiO2 can be in existence, and the structure system of aerated concrete is homogeneous and dense.

  4. Efficacy of crushed lanthanum carbonate for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yukie; Takahashi, Taeko; Sato, Yuzuru; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LaC) is a non-calcium-based phosphate binder used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oral administration of LaC is difficult in patients undergoing tube feeding or those who are of advanced age because it is essential to chew the LaC tablet sufficiently before swallowing it. We report two cases in whom crushed LaC was used in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding. In both cases, previously crushed LaC was mixed into enteral nutrients. We found that LaC administered this way was effective for decreasing serum phosphorus levels.

  5. 3D Design and Analysis of Crushing Roller of High-pressure Grinding Roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Crushing roller is one of the main parts of High-p re ssure Grinding Roller, which is a kind of high efficient ore crushing equipment. A kind of assembled roller, which is more convenient to renovate worn surface b y simply replacing segmented surface of the roller, was developed. The structura l models of assembled roller's components were designed with SolidWorks softwar e based on feature modeling, these solid models of the roller were virtually ass embled. Through this work, not only was the assemble i...

  6. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical bond- ing required clear access 5 mm proximal and dis- tal to coaptation sites. As a result, the maximum achievable nerve gap before...rodents for nerve gap reconstruction. Induction and maintenance anesthesia was achieved using isoflurane (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, Ill...injury, nerve gap , nerve wrap, PTB, photosealing, Rose Bengal, amnion, nerve conduit, crosslinking, allograft, photochemistry. 3. Accomplishments

  7. Transaortic Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Catheter Insertion through a Separate Saphenous Vein Graft in Patients with Severe Aortoiliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Toktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP is the most widely used mechanical assist device for hemodynamic support in high risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim of our study was to confirm whether transaortic route is a suitable alternative to allow IABP insertion in patients with severe aortoiliac diseases. Methods. This study included 7 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease associated with severe aortoiliac disease. These patients could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass and required the IABP support, which were placed through the ascending aorta. IABP catheter was inserted indirectly through a separate saphenous vein graft anastomosed to the ascending aorta by an end-to-side manner under a partial occluding clamp and advanced to the desired position in the descending thoracic aorta and exteriorly brought into the subcutaneous tissues in the jugulum. Results. The procedure was successfully performed in all the patients. The mean duration of IABP support was 54.0±13.4 hours. There were no in-hospital mortality and complications related to transaortic route. IABP removal did not require repeat sternotomy. At postoperative 6th month, multislice CT examination showed thrombotic occlusion at the remnant of the saphenous vein graft. Conclusions. This technique is a simple, reliable, and reproducible option in patients with severe aortoiliac disease in whom retrograde femoral route is not possible.

  8. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  9. Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-related relaxations diminish with age in murine saphenous arteries of both sexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, R.; Lamers, W. H.; Koehler, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    of saphenous arteries were analysed by wire myography in the absence and presence of stimuli of the endothelium, inhibitors of NOS, and inhibitors and stimulants of small (K(Ca)2.3) and intermediate (K(Ca)3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. KEY RESULTS Arterial relaxing responses to sodium...... pronounced ACh-induced relaxation, which was significantly reduced in 34- and 64-week-old mice of both sexes. The EDH-related component of ACh-induced relaxations was abolished by TRAM-34 (K(Ca)3.1 blocker) or UCL 1684 (K(Ca)2.3 blocker). Although the maximal relaxation induced by NS309 (K-Ca activator......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated the effects of aging on the contributions of NO and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) to endothelium-dependent relaxation in saphenous arteries of male and female C57BL/6J mice aged 12, 34 and 64 weeks. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Vasomotor responses...

  10. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Pagnussat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330 g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either "skilled" (reaching for small food pellets or "unskilled" (walking on a motorized treadmill training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05. The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury.

  11. Necrotizing fasciitis following saphenofemoral junction ligation with long saphenous vein stripping: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Graeme

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare condition with a mortality rate of around 34%. It can be mono- or polymicrobial in origin. Monomicrobial infections are usually due to group A streptococcus and their incidence is on the rise. They normally occur in healthy individuals with a history of trauma, surgery or intravenous drug use. Post-operative necrotizing fasciitis is rare but accounts for 9 to 28% of all necrotizing fasciitis. The incidence of wound infection following saphenofemoral junction ligation and vein stripping is said to be less than 3%, although this complication is probably under-reported. We describe a case of group A streptococcus necrotizing fasciitis following saphenofemoral junction ligation and vein stripping. Case Presentation A 39-year-old woman presented three days following a left sided saphenofemoral junction ligation with long saphenous vein stripping at another institution. She had a three day history of fever, rigors and swelling of the left leg. She was pyrexial and shocked. She had a very tender, swollen left groin and thigh, with a small blister anteriorly and was in acute renal failure. She was prescribed intravenous penicillin and diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. She underwent extensive debridement of her left thigh and was commenced on clindamycin and imipenem. Post-operatively, she required ventilatory and inotropic support with continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. An examination 12 hours after surgery showed no requirement for further debridement. A group A streptococcus, sensitive to penicillin, was isolated from the debrided tissue. A vacuum assisted closure device was fitted to the clean thigh wound on day four and split-skin-grafting was performed on day eight. On day 13, a wound inspection revealed that more than 90% of the graft had taken. Antibiotics were stopped on day 20 and she was discharged on day 22. Conclusion Necrotizing fasciitis is a very serious complication for a

  12. Assessment of vascularization and myelination following peripheral nerve repair using angiographic and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun S.; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Easow, Jeena M.; Villiger, Martin; Welt, Jonathan; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Randolph, Mark A.; Redmond, Robert W.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2017-02-01

    A severe traumatic injury to a peripheral nerve often requires surgical graft repair. However, functional recovery after these surgical repairs is often unsatisfactory. To improve interventional procedures, it is important to understand the regeneration of the nerve grafts. The rodent sciatic nerve is commonly used to investigate these parameters. However, the ability to longitudinally assess the reinnervation of injured nerves are limited, and to our knowledge, no methods currently exist to investigate the timing of the revascularization in functional recovery. In this work, we describe the development and use of angiographic and polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to visualize the vascularization, demyelination and remyelination of peripheral nerve healing after crush and transection injuries, and across a variety of graft repair methods. A microscope was customized to provide 3.6 cm fields of view along the nerve axis with a capability to track the nerve height to maintain the nerve within the focal plane. Motion artifact rejection was implemented in the angiography algorithm to reduce degradation by bulk respiratory motion in the hindlimb site. Vectorial birefringence imaging methods were developed to significantly enhance the accuracy of myelination measurements and to discriminate birefringent contributions from the myelin and epineurium. These results demonstrate that the OCT platform has the potential to reveal new insights in preclinical studies and may ultimately provide a means for clinical intra-surgical assessment of peripheral nerve function.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  14. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Marta; León-Lobera, Fernando; Lillo, Concepción; Arévalo, Rosario; Aijón, José; Lara, Juan Manuel; Velasco, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP), as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes. PMID:27149509

  15. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  16. Expression of NF-кB in Schwann cells and its effect on motor neuron apoptosis in spinal cord following sciatic nerves injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-tang; LU Xiu-min; YU Ying; YANG Yan-hong; GAO Jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB) in Schwann cells (SCs) and its effect on motor neuron apoptosis in spinal cord following sciatic nerves injury in adult rats. Methods:Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into normal control group (n=6),and sciatic nerves crushing group (n=30),and the later was further equally randomized into 5 nerves were examined by immunohistochemistry staining,and the apoptosis of motor neurons in spinalcord of lumbar 4 to lumbar 6(L4-L6)was investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay.Both were quantitated by image analysis.Results:In the normal control group (P<0.05,P<0.01).At 1 d after sciatic nerves crushing,the expression of served in the time-course on motor neuron apoptosis after sciatic nerves injury.Correlation analyses refollowing sciatic nerves injury(r=0.976 0,P<0.01).Conclusion:After injury of sciatic nerves,the presence and up-regulation of NF-κB in SCs may be involved in motor neuron apoptosis in L4-L6 spinal cord.

  17. Comparing low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral-obturator block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Katja; Jensen, Kenneth; Tanggaard, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-RC) is often associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain even with a multimodal analgesic regimen. We aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy of low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral- obturator block in p...

  18. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  19. Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins improves venous clinical severity score despite failure of complete closure of the saphenous vein after 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Yong Jin

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, RFA of varicose veins had an initial success rate of 97.7% and a significantly improved patient VCSS at 1 year. Patients with episodic recanalization of the saphenous vein also exhibited an improved VCSS with favorable duplex findings at 1 year.

  20. Conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation of recurrent varicose veins of the small saphenous vein: a retrospective clinical comparison and assessment of patient satisfaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendael, L. van; Flinkenflogel, L.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Roovers, E.A.; Sterkenburg, S.M. van; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrences of varicosities of the small saphenous vein (SSV) are common. Surgical reintervention is associated with increased complication rates. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in recurrent varicose veins of the SSV and to compare

  1. Impulse conduction increases mitochondrial transport in adult mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sajic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Matching energy supply and demand is critical in the bioenergetic homeostasis of all cells. This is a special problem in neurons where high levels of energy expenditure may occur at sites remote from the cell body, given the remarkable length of axons and enormous variability of impulse activity over time. Positioning mitochondria at areas with high energy requirements is an essential solution to this problem, but it is not known how this is related to impulse conduction in vivo. Therefore, to study mitochondrial trafficking along resting and electrically active adult axons in vivo, confocal imaging of saphenous nerves in anaesthetised mice was combined with electrical and pharmacological stimulation of myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively. We show that low frequency activity induced by electrical stimulation significantly increases anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial traffic in comparison with silent axons. Higher frequency conduction within a physiological range (50 Hz dramatically further increased anterograde, but not retrograde, mitochondrial traffic, by rapidly increasing the number of mobile mitochondria and gradually increasing their velocity. Similarly, topical application of capsaicin to skin innervated by the saphenous nerve increased mitochondrial traffic in both myelinated and unmyelinated axons. In addition, stationary mitochondria in axons conducting at higher frequency become shorter, thus supplying additional mitochondria to the trafficking population, presumably through enhanced fission. Mitochondria recruited to the mobile population do not accumulate near Nodes of Ranvier, but continue to travel anterogradely. This pattern of mitochondrial redistribution suggests that the peripheral terminals of sensory axons represent sites of particularly high metabolic demand during physiological high frequency conduction. As the majority of mitochondrial biogenesis occurs at the cell body, increased anterograde

  2. Low-intensity ultrasound for regeneration of injured peripheral nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; Wenzhi Chen; Kun Zhou; Zhibiao Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound is a kind of mechanical wave and characterized by mechanical effect,heat affect and physical and chemical effect.Ultrasound can promote regeneration of peripheral nerves after a slight injury based on its mechanical effect.However,whether it can promote regeneration of peripheral nerves after a severe injury or not is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of low-intensity ultrasound(LIU)on regeneration of injured peripheral nerve,throgh examining sciatic nerve function index,the sensory nerve conduction velocity and the thickness of myelin sheath.DESIGN: Single factor design of contrast observation.SETTING: Institute of Ultrasound Engineering,Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS:A total of 64 female Wistar rats,of clean grade,age 3 moths,weighing 200-250g ,were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Chongqing Medical University. All rats were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 32 in each group. In addition rats were observed at 4 time points, including 2,4,6 and 8 weeks,with 8 at each time point.The main equipments were detailed as follows:forceps (Medical Treatment Apparatus Company,Chongqing),low-intensity ultrasound treatment instrument(Institute of Ulrasound Engineering in Medicine),the analysis instrument of diagram resembles and arithmetic figure(the United States Bio-RAD Company),ultrasound coupling agent(Xunde Image material factory,Hangzhou),Osmium Tetraoxide(Next Chimicam,South Africa).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in Institute of Ultrasound Engineering of Chongqing Medical University from December 2003 to May 2004.The right sciatic nerves of 64 rats were crushed with forceps for 30 s to form the experimental animal models.Then they were treated at 3 days after operation.Rats in the treatment group received the LIU exposure.LIU was applied every other day to the crush site of rats,which had a spatial peak,time-averaged intensity of 0.25 W/cm2 operated at 1 MHz for 1 minute per

  3. Suprascapular nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, E; Rashkoff, E S

    1989-11-01

    Isolated traumatic suprascapular nerve palsy without associated fracture is a rare occurrence. Localized segmental muscle atrophy limited to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles associated with weakness in initiating abduction and in external rotation of the shoulder should suggest the diagnosis. Electromyography will confirm the diagnosis by excluding nerve root and brachial plexus involvement with denervation potentials limited to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles.

  4. Imaging the hypoglossal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Pedro [Department of Radiology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central-Hospital de Sao Jose, Rua Jose Antonio Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: tojais.pedro@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve. It provides motor control to the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles thus being essential for normal tongue movement and coordination. In order to design a useful imaging approach and a working differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglossal nerve damage one has to have a good knowledge of the normal anatomy of the nerve trunk and its main branches. A successful imaging evaluation to hypoglossal diseases always requires high resolution studies due to the small size of the structures being studied. MRI is the preferred modality to directly visualize the nerve, while CT is superior in displaying the bony anatomy of the neurovascular foramina of the skull base. Also, while CT is only able to detect nerve pathology by indirect signs, such as bony expansion of the hypoglossal canal, MRI is able to visualize directly the causative pathological process as in the case of small tumors, or infectious/inflammatory processes affecting the nerve. The easiest way to approach the study of the hypoglossal nerve is to divide it in its main segments: intra-axial, cisternal, skull base and extracranial segment, tailoring the imaging technique to each anatomical area while bearing in mind the main disease entities affecting each segment.

  5. Effect of Hybridized Fiber Wrapped Around the Aluminum Tubes on the Crushing Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. E.; Noranai, Z.; Mohd Nor, N. H.; Mohd Tobi, A. L.; Ahmad, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, synthetic fibres for an example glass fibres is frequently used to wrap the metallic tubes in order to increase their load-bearing capacity. Due to environmental considerations and non-biodegradable behaviour, natural fibres or materials are increasingly used to replace synthetic fibres. The use of synthetic fibres can be minimized by combining them with natural fibres. Based on the literature survey, combining both fibres (synthetic and natural) for crushing applications are relatively new and therefore the main work of this paper is to present the crushing performances of hybridized fibres wrapped around the aluminium tubes when subjected to quasi-static crushing forces. Glass fibres are then combined with yarn kenaf fibres according to these volume fractions: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The hybridized fibres are wrapped around the tubes twice using different orientations [0o/0o], [15°/-15°], [30o/-30o] and [45o/-45o] included empty tubes before they are immersed into polyester resin bath. The composite tubes are then quasi-statically compressed using a constant cross-head displacement of 10mm/min. The force-displacement curves for each tube conditions are recorded automatically and analysed. The relation between hybridized fibbers and fibre orientations with crashworthiness parameters are investigated and discussed associating with their crushing mechanisms.

  6. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  7. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    modulus of elasticity. Tensile and compressive strength were found to depend both on aggregate type and on the properties of the interfacial zone close to the aggregate surface. Freeze-thaw scaling resistance was good with crushed granite, whereas sea gravel led to more severe scaling caused by porphyry...

  8. Energy absorption of andwiched honeycombs with facesheets under in-plane crushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Gandhi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The in-plane crushing and energy absorption of sandwiched honeycomb cores with facesheets are examined through finite element simulations. Assuming no debonding between the facesheet and honeycomb core (which would be the case if manufacturing techniques such as brazing are used to produce very stro

  9. Key factors of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from crushed e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Dong, Lipeng; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Mingzhi; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of e-waste in China had caused serious pollutions. Eddy current separation is an environment-friendly technology of separating nonferrous metallic particles from crushed e-waste. However, due to complex particle characters, separation efficiency of traditional eddy current separator was low. In production, controllable operation factors of eddy current separation are feeding speed, (ωR-v), and Sp. There is little special information about influencing mechanism and critical parameters of these factors in eddy current separation. This paper provided the special information of these key factors in eddy current separation of recovering aluminum particles from crushed waste refrigerator cabinets. Detachment angles increased as the increase of (ωR-v). Separation efficiency increased with the growing of detachment angles. Aluminum particles were completely separated from plastic particles in critical parameters of feeding speed 0.5m/s and detachment angles greater than 6.61deg. Sp/Sm of aluminum particles in crushed waste refrigerators ranged from 0.08 to 0.51. Separation efficiency increased as the increase of Sp/Sm. This enlightened us to develop new separator to separate smaller nonferrous metallic particles in e-waste recovery. High feeding speed destroyed separation efficiency. However, greater Sp of aluminum particles brought positive impact on separation efficiency. Greater Sp could increase critical feeding speed to offer greater throughput of eddy current separation. This paper will guide eddy current separation in production of recovering nonferrous metals from crushed e-waste.

  10. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González-Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of a new C3v -symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn-trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI-MS.

  11. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium‐Catalyzed Arylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González‐Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a new C 3v‐symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium‐catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn‐trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI‐MS. PMID:27774038

  12. An experimental study on the recovery of the hardened cement from crushed end of life concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotfi, S.; Rem, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the C2CA concrete recycling process, autogenous milling of the crushed End of Life (EOL) concrete is a mechanical method to remove cement paste from the surface of aggregates. During autogenous milling, the combination of shearing and compression forces, promotes selective attrition and delivers

  13. 40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  14. Roof pre-blasting to prevent support crushing and water inrush accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaozhen; Xu Jialin; Zhu Weibing; Li Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    Support crushing and water inrush when mining under an unconsolidated confined aquifer in the Qidong Coal Mine was prevented by roof pre-blasting.The mechanism and applicable conditions for this method have been studied.The results show that when an overburden structure that may cause support crushing and a water inrush accident exists the weakening of the primary key stratum,which thereby reduces its weighting step,roof pre-blasting is both feasible and effective.If the position of the primary key stratum can be moved upward to exceed 10 times the mining height the possibility of support crushing and water inrush disaster caused by key stratum compound breakage will be lowered.The overburden structure of the number 7121 working face was considered during the design of a technical proposal involving roof pre-blasting.After comprehensively analyzing the applicability of roof pre-blasting the resulting design prevented support crushing and water inrush disasters from happening at the number 7121 working face and laid a solid foundation for mining safely.

  15. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  16. Biological and artificial nerve conduit for repairing peripheral nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao Xie; Changqing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, with the development of biological and artificial materials, the experimental and clinical studies on application of this new material-type nerve conduit for treatment of peripheral nerve defect have become the hotspot topics for professorial physicians.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms "nerve conduits, peripheral nerve, nerve regeneration and nerve transplantation" in English, we searched Pubmed database, which was published during January 2000 to June 2006, for the literatures related to repairing peripheral nerve defect with various materials. At the same time, we also searched Chinese Technical Scientific Periodical Database at the same time period by inputting" peripheral nerve defect, nerve repair, nerve regeneration and nerve graft" in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were firstly selected, and literatures about study on various materials for repairing peripheral nerve defect and their full texts were also searched. Inclusive criteria: nerve conduits related animal experiments and clinical studies. Exclusive criteria: review or repetitive studies.DATA EXTRACTION: Seventy-nine relevant literatures were collected and 30 of them met inclusive criteria and were cited.DATA SYNTHESTS: Peripheral nerve defect, a commonly seen problem in clinic, is difficult to be solved. Autogenous nerve grafting is still the gold standard for repairing peripheral nerve defect, but because of its application limitation and possible complications, people studied nerve conduits to repair nerve defect. Nerve conduits consist of biological and artificial materials.CONCLUSION: There have been numerous reports about animal experimental and clinical studies of various nerve conduits, but nerve conduit, which is more ideal than autogenous nerve grafting, needs further clinical observation and investigation.

  17. Associations of anterior accessory or thigh posterior tributary and great saphenous reflux patterns in early stages of chronic venous valvular insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins are a common disorder. Extensive ultrasound (US mapping of lower extremity chronic venous valvular insufficiency includes the great saphenous vein (GSV, anterior accessory saphenous vein (AASV and thigh posterior tributary to GSV such as the posterior accessory saphenous vein (PTSV, PASV. The aim of this study was to determine associations between GSV-AASV-PTSV (including PASV reflux in a specific sample population of Southern Brazilian women, mostly euro descendents, with telangiectasias, reticular veins, varices and/or intermittent edema. US performed in 1016 extremities of 513 women, 43±18 (18-81 years old were included. Women with previous venous thrombosis, surgery, suspicion of pelvic congestion syndrome, and men were excluded. Small saphenous vein and related thigh veins were excluded from analysis. GSV-AASV-PTSV reflux patterns were analyzed; prevalence was compared using χ2 statistics. Reflux prevalence in AASV and/or thigh PTSV was 5.8% (59/1016: 1.3% at PTSV (n=13 and 4.5% at AASV (n=46, significantly lower than GSV reflux: 72% (n=727 (P<0.001. AASV and/or PTSV reflux was associated with GSV reflux (81%, n=48/59; common pattern was diffuse reflux, starting at AASV/PTSV saphenous junctions (56%, n=33/59; otherwise, short, non-diffuse reflux was noted in part of the AASV/PTSV evaluated. Isolated AASV or PTSV reflux was rare (1%, n=11/1016: 9 at the AASV, and 2 at the PTSV. US mapping of AASV/PTSV in early stages of disease, in women without pelvic congestion syndrome, increased reflux detection by 1%, and improved definition of reflux patterns in about 6% of the extremities.

  18. The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johel Chaves-Campos

    Full Text Available Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

  19. An Investigation of Correlation between Electrophysiological and Functional Recovery after the Sciatic Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Guven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Video or photo assisted footprint analysis method is used to determine the motor and sensorial development instead of classic walking track footprint analysis in experimental peripheral nerve injury. Besides, the sucrose-gap method is used for measuring the electrophysiological activity in the sciatic nerves in-vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between functional and electrophysiological recovery during the nerve regeneration in Wistar rats. Methods: In the experiments, after the unilateral sciatic nerve crushing, the rats were evaluated at the preoperative and 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks postoperative using the sucrose gap method, and photo assisted footprint method. The compound action potentials (CAP, the Peak- time (PT and the ½ Falling- time (1/2FT were measured, and compared to functional results. Results: Two weeks after being crushed sciatic nerves, complete function loss was seen operated legs in all rats. The amplitude of CAP was determined too small. The PT and the 1/2FT values were three fold longer than intact. However, following 4th – 8th weeks, the amplitude of CAP and other parameters of CAP were closed to intact values. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the results of the functional recovery were correlated to electrophysiological results. However, functional results showed almost full functional recovery in the 4th week, the electrophysiological results did not reach to intact values in the 8th week. We conclude that photo assisted footprint analysis method and sucrose-gap technique, which are useful functional and electrophysiological methods to produce complementary knowledge with each other in the investigation of experimental peripheral nerve regeneration. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 177-185

  20. Changes in nerve microcirculation following peripheral nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Changshui Weng; Xinglin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve compression, peripheral nerve microcirculation plays important roles in regulating the nerve microenvironment and neurotrophic substances, supplying blood and oxygen and maintaining neural conduction and axonal transport. This paper has retrospectively analyzed the articles published in the past 10 years that addressed the relationship between peripheral nerve compression and changes in intraneural microcirculation. In addition, we describe changes in different peripheral nerves, with the aim of providing help for further studies in peripheral nerve microcirculation and understanding its protective mechanism, and exploring new clinical methods for treating peripheral nerve compression from the perspective of neural microcirculation.

  1. Great saphenous vein dilatation with reflux at the saphenofemoral junction: A rare underlying association of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH is an exceedingly rare benign tumor-like lesion prevalent in childhood, which can produce pain and marked sweating. Histological features include proliferation of eccrine sweat glands and angiomatous capillary channels. It may be rarely associated with underlying pathological conditions. A 15-year-old female patient presented with multiple tender reddish papules and nodules coalescing to form plaques of 10 × 8 cm over the anterior aspect of the right lower thigh since birth. It was associated with hypertrichosis, hyperhidrosis, pain, and occasional bleeding on trauma. Histopathological examination of the lesion showed increased proliferation of both eccrine and angiomatous channels. Ultrasonography and Color Doppler of the right thigh showed dilatation of the great saphenous vein (GSV above the right knee, with evidence of grade 3 reflux at saphenofemoral junction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed large dilated GSV with slow flow and venous malformation in the anterior part of the right knee

  2. Sequential saphenous vein grafting combined with selective arterialization of middle cardiac vein during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; QI Dan-ni; GU Cheng-xiong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Currently coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most commonly used procedure for revascularization of coronary heart disease. However it may not be suitable for the patients with diffuse coronary artery diseases. Under this circumstance, retrograde perfusion via cardiac venous system, namely retrograde coronary venous bypass graft (CVBG), may be the proper therapeutic selection.1 The idea of myocardial revascularization by means of grafting the coronary venous system is more than a century old. However, few clinical trials and long-term outcome data have been presented. The use of venous arterialization has not been widely used. We report the use of a sequential saphenous vein graft from the aorta to middle cardiac vein in a patient with diffuse lesions in right coronary artery during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB).

  3. Characterization of Optic Nerve Regeneration using transgenic Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike eDiekmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS, fish are able to functionally regenerate severed axons upon injury. Although the zebrafish is a well-established model vertebrate for genetic and developmental studies, its use for anatomical studies of axon regeneration has been hampered by the paucity of appropriate tools to visualize re-growing axons in the adult CNS. On this account, we used transgenic zebrafish that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of a GAP-43 promoter. In adult, naïve retinae, GFP was restricted to young retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and their axons. Within the optic nerve, these fluorescent axons congregated in a distinct strand at the nerve periphery, indicating age-related order. Upon optic nerve crush, GFP expression was markedly induced in RGC somata and intra-retinal axons at 4 to at least 14 days post injury. Moreover, individual axons were visualized in their natural environment of the optic nerve using wholemount tissue clearing and confocal microscopy. With this novel approach, regenerating axons were clearly detectable beyond the injury site as early as 2 days after injury and grew past the optic chiasm by 4 days. Regenerating axons in the entire optic nerve were labelled from 6 to at least 14 days after injury, thereby allowing detailed visualization of the complete regeneration process. Therefore, this new approach could now be used in combination with expression knockdown or pharmacological manipulations to analyze the relevance of specific proteins and signaling cascades for axonal regeneration in vivo. In addition, the RGC-specific GFP expression facilitated accurate evaluation of neurite growth in dissociated retinal cultures. This fast in vitro assay now enables the screening of compound and expression libraries. Overall, the presented methodologies provide exciting possibilities to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying successful CNS regeneration in

  4. Endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein using a bare fibre versus a tulip fibre: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, M E; Thomis, S; Mahieu, P; Mordon, S; Fourneau, I

    2012-12-01

    This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the clinical results of the use of a tulip fibre versus the use of a bare fibre for endovenous laser ablation. In a multicentre prospective randomised trial 174 patients were randomised for the treatment of great saphenous vein reflux. A duplex scan was scheduled 1 month, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Ecchymosis was measured on the 5th postoperative day. In addition, pain, analgesics requirement, postoperative quality of life (CIVIQ 2) and patient satisfaction rate were noted. Patients treated with a tulip fibre had significantly less postoperative ecchymosis (0.04 vs. 0.21; p < 0.001) and pain (5th day) (1.00 vs. 2.00; p < 0.001) and had a better postoperative quality of life (27 vs. 32; p = 0.023). There was no difference in analgesic intake (p = 0.11) and patient satisfaction rate (p = 0.564). The total occlusion rate at 1 year was 97.02% and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.309). Using a tulip fibre for EVLA of the great saphenous vein results, when compared with the use of a bare fibre, in equal occlusion rates at 1 year but causes less postoperative ecchymosis and pain and in a better postoperative quality of life. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Damaged axillary nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches. Other causes include systemic disorders that cause neuritis (inflammation of ...

  6. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  7. Sacral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M

    2004-01-01

    The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited.

  8. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  9. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the nerve that helps control the deltoid muscles of the shoulder and the skin around it. A problem with ... can cause difficulty moving your arm. The deltoid muscle of the shoulder may show signs of muscle atrophy . Tests that ...

  10. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  11. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  12. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu; Mehmet Alptekin; Sirma Geyik; Abidin Murat Geyik; Inan Gezgin; Abdulvahap Gk

    2015-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potas-sium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug in-jection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efifcacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by cyclosporine-A administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours). The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour) and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant im-provement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05); at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  13. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  14. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  15. Adaptation of oral medication in people institutionalized in nursing homes for whom medication is crushed: The ADECUA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Apolo Carvajal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results: Medication was being crushed for 33% (618/1875 of residents (mean: 5 drugs susceptible of crushing. 220 pharmaceutical interventions were performed, mostly in extended release or gastro-resistant drugs (48% were accepted. Switch was the type of intervention more frequent (79%, mainly to Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results

  16. Mapping of Autogenous Saphenous Veins as an Imaging Adjunct to Peripheral MR Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease and Peripheral Bypass Grafting: Prospective Comparison with Ultrasound and Intraoperative Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Marie Bintu Munda Jah-Kabba; Guido Matthias Kukuk; Dariusch Reza Hadizadeh; Frank Träber; Arne Koscielny; Mustapha Sundifu Kabba; Frauke Verrel; Hans Heinz Schild; Winfried Albert Willinek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mapping of the great saphenous vein is very important for planning of peripheral and coronary bypass surgery. This study investigated mapping of the great saphenous vein as an adjunct to peripheral MR angiography using a blood pool contrast agent in patients who were referred for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and bypass surgery. METHODS: 38 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (21 men; mean age: 71 years, range, 44-88 years) underwent periphera...

  17. Differential presynaptic control of the synaptic effectiveness of cutaneous afferents evidenced by effects produced by acute nerve section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Chávez, D

    2013-05-15

    In the anaesthetized cat, the acute section of the saphenous (Saph) and/or the superficial peroneal (SP) nerves was found to produce a long-lasting increase of the field potentials generated in the dorsal horn by stimulation of the medial branch of the sural (mSU) nerve. This facilitation was associated with changes in the level of the tonic primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the mSU intraspinal terminals. The mSU afferent fibres projecting into Rexed's laminae III-IV were subjected to a tonic PAD that was reduced by the acute section of the SP and/or the Saph nerves. The mSU afferents projecting deeper into the dorsal horn (Rexed's laminae V-VI) were instead subjected to a tonic PAD that was increased after Saph and SP acute nerve section. A differential control of the synaptic effectiveness of the low-threshold cutaneous afferents according to their sites of termination within the dorsal horn is envisaged as a mechanism that allows selective processing of sensory information in response to tactile and nociceptive stimulation or during the execution of different motor tasks.

  18. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal.

  19. Treatment of varicose veins of the small saphenous vein by completely minimally phlebectomy.%完全点式剥脱治疗小隐静脉瓣膜功能不全疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓明; 白云清

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨完全点式剥脱术治疗下肢小隐静脉的手术方法及疗效.方法 对2004年10月至2011年4月间,应用该手术方法治疗的40例患者(47条下肢)下肢小隐静脉曲张的临床资料进行回顾性研究.观察其手术时间、术后住院时间、并发症、手术效果及对切口外观满意度等.结果 本组肢体行小隐静脉完全点式剥脱,手术时间平均45 min;手术后平均1.5 d出院.所有患者术后下肢静脉曲张消失,临床症状缓解.腓肠神经损伤(外侧足背皮肤麻木感)1例(2.5%).无严重并发症发生.全部患者获得随访,平均随访24(1~48)个月,无明确的下肢静脉曲张复发;1例腓肠神经损伤的患者在术后2个月恢复.无下肢深静脉血栓等严重的并发症发生,疗效满意.结论 小隐静脉完全点式剥脱术治疗下肢静脉曲张的手术方法是外科方法中简单、微创、有效的治疗方法.%Objective To evaluate the completely minimally phlebectomy in the treatment of varicose vein. Methods From Oct. 2004 to Oct. 2010,40 patients ( 47 limbs ) with small saphenous vein varices received completely minimally phlebectomy,and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results Satisfied surgical results with varicose veins reflux disappeared were obtained in all cases. The average operative time and the average hospitalization after operation were 45 minutes and 1.5 days, respectively. Sural nerve damage occurred in 1 (2.5% ) case. Moreover, 580 patients were followed up with a mean time of 24 ( 1 -48 ) months, no remained varicose veins, and cases with sural nerve damage recovered in 2 -3 months postoperatively. JNo serious complications such as deep venous thrombosis occurred and the satisfied cosmetic effects and cost - effect ratio achieved. Conclusion Treatment of varicose veins of small saphenous vein by completely minimally phlebectomy has the benefit of mini - invasion, fast recovery, and good curative effect.

  20. Study of the fracture behavior of mortar and concretes with crushed rock or pebble aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the fracture energy of mortar and concretes produced with crushed rock and pebble aggregates using zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of aggregates mixed with standard mortar and applying the wedge splitting method to achieve stable crack propagation. The samples were cast in a special mold and cured for 28 days, after which they were subjected to crack propagation tests by the wedge splitting method to determine the fracture energies of the mortar and concrete. The concretes showed higher fracture energy than the mortar, and the concretes containing crushed rock showed higher resistance to crack propagation than all the compositions containing pebbles. The fracture energy varied from 38 to 55 J.m-2. A comparison of the number of aggregates that separated from the two concrete matrices with the highest fracture energies indicated that the concrete containing pebbles crumbled more easily and was therefore less resistant to crack propagation.

  1. Evaluation of steel slag and crushed limestone mixtures as subbase material in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in pavement layers. They are particularly useful in areas where a good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregates, which used as subbase material in Egypt. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads. These loads cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics, and the resistance factors were improved by adding steel slag to the crushed limestone.

  2. Candy Crush : hábitos de consumo de una App de éxito

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amb l'aparició dels smartphones han nascut fenòmens com Candy Crush Saga, que en poc temps va aconseguir milions de descarregues i molts seguidors fidels. ¿Com pot ser que un joc gratuït hagi generat tants diners? ¿Per què un joc tan senzill, amb una mecànica tan explotada anteriorment ha enganxat, de cop a milions de persones d’arreu del mon? Amb una investigació dels hàbits de consum de Candy Crush s'han intentat resoldre qüestions com quan i on prefereixen jugar, quin es el seu vincle amb ...

  3. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  4. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  5. DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

    'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

  6. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  7. Biosynthesis of membrane cholesterol during peripheral nerve development, degeneration and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J K

    1988-09-01

    Biosynthesis of peripheral nerve cholesterol was investigated by the in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]-acetate into sciatic endoneurium of normal rats during development, degeneration and regeneration. Labeled sterols were rapidly formed (less than 10 min) within the endoneurial portion of sciatic nerve after [1-14C]acetate administration by intraneural injection. The majority of labeled sterols were initially found in lanosterol and desmosterol. After six hr, the 14C-labeling in both precursors was decreased to minimum, whereas cholesterol became the major labeled product of sterol. As myelination proceeded, the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into endoneurial cholesterol decreased rapidly and reached a minimum after six mo. In mature adult nerve, an increased proportion of biosynthesis of lanosterol and desmosterol also was demonstrated. The in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into cholesterol was inhibited during Wallerian degeneration. Instead, cholesteryl esters were labeled as the major sterol product. Such inhibition, however, was not observed in the adult Trembler nerve (Brain Res. 325, 21-27, 1985), which is presumed to be due to a primary metabolic disorder of Schwann cells. The cholesterol biosynthesis was gradually resumed in degenerated nerve by either regeneration of crush-injured nerve or reattachment of the transected nerve. These results suggest that cholesterol biosynthesis in peripheral nerve relies on the axon to provide necessary substrates. De novo synthesis appears to be one of the major sources of endoneurial cholesterol that forms and maintains peripheral nerve myelin.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of re-innervation and hyperinnervation patterns by uninjured CGRP fibers in the rat foot sole epidermis after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraku, Liron S; Hossaini, Mehdi; Hoendervangers, Sieske; Falke, Lukas L; Kambiz, Shoista; Mudera, Vivek C; Holstege, Joan C; Walbeehm, Erik T; Ruigrok, Tom J H

    2012-08-30

    The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model, which involves complete transections of the tibial and common peroneal nerve while sparing the sural and saphenous branches, mechanical hypersensitivity was induced of the uninjured lateral (sural) and medial (saphenous) area of the foot sole. At different time points, a complete foot sole biopsy was taken from the injured paw and processed for Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, a novel 2D-reconstruction model depicting the density of CGRP fibers was made to evaluate the course of denervation and re-innervation by uninjured CGRP fibers. The results show an increased density of uninjured CGRP-IR epidermal fibers on the lateral and medial side after a SNI procedure at 5 and 10 weeks. Furthermore, although in control animals the density of epidermal CGRP-IR fibers in the footpads was lower compared to the surrounding skin of the foot, 10 weeks after the SNI procedure, the initially denervated footpads displayed a hyper-innervation. These data support the idea that uninjured fibers may play a considerable role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain and that it is important to take larger biopsies to test the relationship between innervation of injured and uninjured nerve areas.

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of re-innervation and hyperinnervation patterns by uninjured CGRP fibers in the rat foot sole epidermis after nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraku Liron S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI model, which involves complete transections of the tibial and common peroneal nerve while sparing the sural and saphenous branches, mechanical hypersensitivity was induced of the uninjured lateral (sural and medial (saphenous area of the foot sole. At different time points, a complete foot sole biopsy was taken from the injured paw and processed for Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, a novel 2D-reconstruction model depicting the density of CGRP fibers was made to evaluate the course of denervation and re-innervation by uninjured CGRP fibers. The results show an increased density of uninjured CGRP-IR epidermal fibers on the lateral and medial side after a SNI procedure at 5 and 10 weeks. Furthermore, although in control animals the density of epidermal CGRP-IR fibers in the footpads was lower compared to the surrounding skin of the foot, 10 weeks after the SNI procedure, the initially denervated footpads displayed a hyper-innervation. These data support the idea that uninjured fibers may play a considerable role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain and that it is important to take larger biopsies to test the relationship between innervation of injured and uninjured nerve areas.

  10. Anatomical study of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhao Jia; Qing Xia; Jinmin Sun; Qiang Zhou; Weidong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many diseases of the common peroneal nerve are a result of sciatic nerve injury. The present study addresses whether anatomical positioning of the sciatic nerve is responsible for these injuries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anatomical causes of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve injury by studying the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observe and measure repeatedly. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Tianjin Medical College between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-two adult cadavers 33 males and 19 females, with a total of 104 hemispheres, and fixed with formaldehyde, were provided by Tianjin Medical College and Tianjin Medical University. METHODS: A posterior cut was made from the lumbosacral region to the upper leg, fully exposing the piriformis and path of the sciatic nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Anatomical characteristics of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. (2) According to different areas where the sciatic nerve crosses the piriformis, the study was divided into two types--normal and abnormal. Normal is considered to be when the sciatic nerve passes through the infrapiriform foramen. Remaining pathways are considered to be abnormal. (3) Observe the relationship between the suprapiriform foramen, infrapiriform foramen, as well as the superior and inferior space of piriformis. RESULTS: (1) The nerve tract inside the common peroneal nerve is smaller and thinner, with less connective tissue than the tibial nerve. When pathological changes or variations of the piriformis, or over-abduction of the hip joint, occur, injury to the common peroneal nerve often arises due to blockage and compression. (2) A total of 76 hemispheres (73.08%) were normal, 28 were abnormal (26.92%). The piriformis can be injured, and the sciatic nerve can become compressed, when the hip joint undergoes intorsion, extorsion, or abduction. (3) The structures between the infrapiriform and

  11. [Anatomic study on intercostal nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bin; Hu, Shaonan; Chen, Liang; Song, Jie

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the 3rd-6th intercostal nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for reconstruction of shoulder abduction. Fifteen thoracic walls (30 sides) were collected from cadavers. The 3rd-6th intercostal nerve length which can be dissected between the midaxillary line and midclavicular the transfer distance between the midaxillary line and midpoint of the clavicular bone (prepared point for neurotization) measured. In 30 sides of specimens, the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerves could be obtained between the midaxillary and midclavicular line, the available length of which was significantly greater than the transfer distance (P intercostal nerve and 16 sides of 6th intercostal nerve were covered by the costal cartilage before reaching the midclavicular line. The available length of the 5th intercostal nerve was similar to the transfer distance (P > 0.01), while the available the 6th intercostal nerve was significantly less than transfer distance (P intercostal nerve length and length (2 cm) of suprascapular nerve was significantly greater than the transfer distance (P intercostal nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for reconstruction of shoulder abduction. And 6th intercostal nerve, longer dissociated length may be required for direct coaptation or using a graft for nerve repair.

  12. Study on Removal Distance of a Crushing Station in Buzhaoba Surface Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A semi-continuous technology combines the merits of discontinuous and continuous technologies. Compared with the discontinuous technology, the semi-continuous technology can be used to decrease haulage costs in mines because of the use of a belt conveyor instead of trucks. The method may improve efficiency by using shovels instead of BWE. This paper discusses the removal distance of a crushing station based on the Buzhaoba surface mine.

  13. Malnutrition and inflammation in acute kidney injury due to earthquake-related crush syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition and inflammation are common and serious complications in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the profile of these complications in patients with AKI caused by crush syndrome (CS) remains unclear. This study describes the clinical characteristics of malnutrition and inflammation in patients with AKI and CS due to the Wenchuan earthquake. Methods One thousand and twelve victims and eighteen healthy adults were recruited to the study. They were divi...

  14. Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

    1992-07-01

    This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

  15. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

  16. Correlation of fat embolism severity and subcutaneous fatty tissue crushing and bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan Andreas; Muehlematter, Karin; Thali, Michael Josef; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2011-05-01

    Pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) is frequently encountered in blunt trauma. The clinical manifestation ranges from no impairment in light cases to death due to right-sided heart failure or hypoxaemia in severe cases. Occasionally, pulmonary fat embolism can give rise to a fat embolism syndrome (FES), which is marked by multiorgan failure, respiratory disorders, petechiae and often death. It is well known that fractures of long bones can lead to PFE. Several authors have argued that PFE can arise due to mere soft tissue injury in the absence of fractures, a claim other authors disagree upon. In this study, we retrospectively examined 50 victims of blunt trauma with regard to grade and extent of fractures and crushing of subcutaneous fatty tissue and presence and severity of PFE. Our results indicate that PFE can arise due to mere crushing of subcutaneous fat and that the fracture grade correlated well with PFE severity (p = 0.011). The correlation between PFE and the fracture severity (body regions affected by fractures and fracture grade) showed a lesser significant correlation (p = 0.170). The survival time (p = 0.567), the amount of body regions affected by fat crushing (p = 0.336) and the fat crush grade (p = 0.485) did not correlate with the PFE grade, nor did the amount of body regions affected by fractures. These results may have clinical implications for the assessment of a possible FES development, as, if the risk of a PFE is known, preventive steps can be taken.

  17. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  18. Optimization and Implementation of Long Nerve Allografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    nerve tissue requires a graft to restore continuity and promote nerve regeneration and recovery of function. Presently, there is no acceptable nerve ...for nerve regeneration and meaningful recovering of nerve function that, in several cases was better than autografting. Other decellularized allografts... nerve graft, allograft, nerve regeneration , rehabilitation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  19. Saphenous vein graft true aneurysms: Report of nine cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The true aneurysm formation of the autogenous saphenous vein graft (ASVG is a very rare complication after bypass surgery [1 -5]. In 1969 Pillet [1] first described a true fusiform aneurysm formation of the ASVG which had been used as a replacement of the iwured superficial femoral artery in 26-year-old male patient. We present nine cases. CASE!. A 71-year-old man with previous history of arterial hypertension and higher serum lipid level, was admitted with an asymptomatic pulsating swelling of the medial portion on the thigh. Five years ago the bellow knee F-P bypass with ASVG due to occlusive disease has been performed. The transfemoral angiography (Figure 1 showed patent graft with fusiform true aneurysm formation at its mid portion. This aneurysm has been replaced with PTFE graft. The pathohistological examination showed an atherosclerotic origin of the aneurysm. This patient died four years after operation due to myocardial infarction with patent graft. CASE 2. A 57-year-old female with previous history of arterial hypertension and higher serum lipid level, had an elective resection and replacement of the superficial femoral artery aneurysm. For the reconstruction an ASVG was used. The saphenous vein showed postflebitic changes. Four years later she was admitted with asymptomatic pulsating mass of the mid portion of the thigh. The control transfemoral angiography showed patent graft with fusiform aneurysm formation of its mid portion. After aneurismal resection, an above knee F-P bypass with 8 mm PTFE graft was performed. A pathohistological examination showed a partially degenerated elastic membrane with fragmentation and disruption, without atherosclerosis (Figure 2. During the follow up period an elective resection of the subclavian artery aneurysm as well as abdominal aortic aneurysm, were performed. CASE3. A subclavian artery aneurysm caused by TOS has been repaired with sapehnous vein graft at 40-year-old female patient

  20. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2002-06-28

    The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

  1. Effects of Palm Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Concrete Crushed Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuddin Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Researches has been conducted worldwide on a large number of natural or artificial lightweight aggregates. In spite of many of the researches of using natural fibers show considerable promise, the use of natural fibers to improve the properties of lightweight concrete still required to be a subject of further research and investigation. Approach: This experimental investigation was carried out to study the properties of lightweight crushed brick concrete containing palm fiber of different volume fractions. An experimental programme was planned in which the tests such as density, compressive strength and flexural strength were conducted to investigate the properties of lightweight crushed brick concrete reinforced by palm fiber. The specimen incorporated different volume fractions of palm fiber, i.e., 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%. Results: Tests results showed that the use of this fiber slightly increases the density of lightweight concrete. The use of 0.8% of palm fiber increases the compressive strength and flexural strength by about 13.4 and 16.1% respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of palm fiber with lightweight crushed brick concrete enhances the mechanical properties of the concrete and the optimization of the palm fiber fractions is required to get the best performance.

  2. Dynamic rupture and crushing of an extruded tube using artificial neural network (ANN) approximation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Marzbanrad; Behrooz Mashadi; Amir Afkar; Mostafa Pahlavani

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of the crushing of thin-walled circular aluminum tubes has been carried out to investigate the crashworthiness behaviors under axial impact loading. These kinds of tubes are usually used in automobile and train structures to absorb the impact energy. Previous researches show that thin-walled circular tube has the highest energy absorption under axial impact amongst different structures. In this work, the crushing between two rigid flat plates and the tube rupture by 4 and 6 blades cutting tools is modeled with the help of ductile failure criterion using the numerical method. The tube material is aluminum EN AW-7108 T6 and its length and diameter are 300 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Using the artificial neural network (ANN), the most important surfaces of energy absorption parameters, including the maximum displacement of the striker, the maximum axial force, the specific energy absorption and the crushing force efficiency in terms of impact velocity and tube thickness are obtained and compared to each other. The analyses show that the tube rupture by the 6 blades cutting tool has more energy absorption in comparison with others. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tube cutting with the help of multi-blades cutting tools is more stable, controllable and predictable than tube folding.

  3. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  4. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  5. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  6. Electrical properties of rat muscle after sciatic nerve injury: Impact on surface impedance measurements assessed via finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, M. A.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods are sensitive to changes in muscle status and can therefore provide a means for studying neuromuscular disease noninvasively. In order to better understand the relationship between surface impedance measurements and the actual muscle electrical properties, we performed measurements on 20 adult Wistar rats, 8 of which underwent sciatic nerve crush. Surface impedance measurements were performed on the left hind limb both before injury and out to 2 weeks after injury. In addition, both normal and sciatic crush animals were sacrificed and the dielectric properties of the extracted gastrocnemius muscle measured. We found that 50 kHz conductivities were greater in the animals that underwent crush than in the animals that did not. The permittivities in both directions, however, showed non-significant differences. In order to analyze the effect of these changes as well as the accompanying reduction in muscle volume, a finite element model of the hind limb was developed based on computerized tomographic imaging. The model successfully predicted the surface impedance values in the animals after crush injury and, by its inverse application, may be used to help determine the underlying electrical properties of muscle in various neuromuscular diseases based on surface impedance data.

  7. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miličević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  8. The Beneficial Effects of ETS-GS, a Novel Vitamin E Derivative, on a Rat Model of Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakane, Yuko; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Yamada, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Shimazaki, Junya; Imamura, Yukio; Ogura, Hiroshi; Jin, Takashi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Crush syndrome is a devastating condition leading to multiple organ failure. The mechanisms by which local traumatic injuries affect distant organs remain unknown. ETS-GS is a novel water-soluble, stable anti-oxidative agent composed of vitamin E derivative. Given that one of the main pathophysiological effects in crush syndrome is massive ischemia-reperfusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the injured extremities would be systemically involved in distant organ damage. We investigated whether ETS-GS could suppress inflammatory response and improve mortality in a rat model of crush injury. Crush injury was induced by compression of bilateral hindlimbs for 6 h followed by release of compression. Seven-day survival was significantly improved by ETS-GS treatment. To estimate anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ETS-GS, serum was collected 6 and 20 h after the injury. ETS-GS treatment significantly dampened the up-regulation of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase in the serum, which were induced by crush injury. Serum levels of interleukin 6 and high mobility group box 1 were significantly decreased in the ETS-GS group compared with those in the control group. Lung damage shown by hematoxylin-eosin staining at 20 h after the injury was ameliorated by the treatment. Ex vivo imaging confirmed that ETS-GS treatment reduced ROS generation in both the lung and the muscle following crush injury. The administration of ETS-GS could suppress ROS generation, systemic inflammation, and the subsequent organ damage, thus improving survival in a rat model of crush injury. These findings suggest that ETS-GS can become a novel therapeutic agent against crush injury.

  9. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caishun Zhang; Gang Lv

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acel ular nerve al ografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tis-sue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle;regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acel ular nerve al ografts combined with bone marrow me-senchymal stem cel bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects.

  10. Dog sciatic nerve gap repaired by artificial tissue nerve graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaosong; ZHANG Peiyun; WANG Xiaodong; DING Fei; PENG Luping; CHENG Hongbing

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of repairing dog sciatic nerve damage by using a biodegradable artificial tissue nerve graft enriched with neuroregenerating factors is investigated. The artificial nerve graft was implanted to a 30 mm gap of the sciatic nerve damage in 7 dogs. The dogs with the same nerve damage that were repaired by interposition of the autologous nerve or were given no treatment served as control group 1 or 2, respectively. The observations include gross and morphological observations, immune reaction, electrophysiological examination, fluorescence tracing of the neuron formation and the number of the neurons at the experimental sites, etc. Results showed that 6 months after the implantation of the graft, the regenerated nerve repaired the damage of the sciatic nerve without occurrence of rejection and obvious inflammatory reaction in all 7 dogs, and the function of the sciatic nerve recovered with the nerve conduction velocity of (23.91±11.35)m/s. The regenerated neurons and the forming of axon could be observed under an electron microscope. This proves that artificial tissue nerve graft transplantation can bridge the damaged nerve ends and promote the nerve regeneration.

  11. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  12. Preferential and comprehensive reconstitution of severely damaged sciatic nerve using murine skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk

  13. CAP1 was associated with actin and involved in Schwann cell differentiation and motility after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhui; Yao, Li; Guo, Aisong; Li, Aihong; Sun, Huiqing; Wang, Ning; Liu, Hanzhang; Duan, Zhiqin; Cao, Jianhua

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a member of cyclase-associated proteins that regulating actin dynamics, was shown to regulate actin filaments, localize to dynamic actin structures and mediate such processes as establishment of cell polarity, motility, morphogenesis, receptor-mediated endocytosis and mRNA location. But little is known about the role of CAP1 during peripheral nervous system injury. Here, we found the spatiotemporal protein expression of CAP1 after sciatic nerve crush. After crush, CAP1 had an increased protein expression level, reached a peak at about day 5 and then returned to the normal level at 4 weeks, similar to Oct-6. Besides, in 5-day injured tissue, using double immunofluorescent staining we found CAP1 had a colocalization with S100 and Oct-6. In vitro, during the process of cAMP-induced Schwann cells differentiation, we observed enhanced expression of CAP1 and P0. Specially, CAP1-specific siRNA-tranfected SCs did not show significant actin structure which form cellure surface tension and protrusion shape after cAMP treatment. And we observed the interaction of CAP1 with actin and that CAP1-specific siRNA-transfected SCs had a decreased motility and migration. Together, all these data indicated that the change of CAP1 protein expression was associated with Schwann cells motility and differentiation after the crush of sciatic nerve.

  14. Disruption of spinal cord white matter and sciatic nerve geometry inhibits axonal growth in vitro in the absence of glial scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutcher Keith A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons within the mature mammalian central nervous system fail to regenerate following injury, usually resulting in long-lasting motor and sensory deficits. Studies involving transplantation of adult neurons into white matter implicate glial scar-associated factors in regeneration failure. However, these studies cannot distinguish between the effects of these factors and disruption of the spatial organization of cells and molecular factors (disrupted geometry. Since white matter can support or inhibit neurite growth depending on the geometry of the fiber tract, the present study sought to determine whether disrupted geometry is sufficient to inhibit neurite growth. Results Embryonic chick sympathetic neurons were cultured on unfixed longitudinal cryostat sections of mature rat spinal cord or sciatic nerve that had been crushed with forceps ex vivo then immediately frozen to prevent glial scarring. Neurite growth on uncrushed portions of spinal cord white matter or sciatic nerve was extensive and highly parallel with the longitudinal axis of the fiber tract but did not extend onto crushed portions. Moreover, neurite growth from neurons attached directly to crushed white matter or nerve tissue was shorter and less parallel compared with neurite growth on uncrushed tissue. In contrast, neurite growth appeared to be unaffected by crushed spinal cord gray matter. Conclusions These observations suggest that glial scar-associated factors are not necessary to block axonal growth at sites of injury. Disruption of fiber tract geometry, perhaps involving myelin-associated neurite-growth inhibitors, may be sufficient to pose a barrier to regenerating axons in spinal cord white matter and peripheral nerves.

  15. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  16. The effects of aging on the intimal region of the human saphenous vein: insights from multimodal microscopy and quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cindy; Taatjes, Douglas J; Callas, Peter; Ittleman, Frank; Bovill, Edwin G

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that structural remodeling associated with advancing age occurs in human saphenous veins. To address this hypothesis, we have identified structural remodeling in human saphenous veins by applying histochemistry, fluorescence staining and quantitative image analysis to specifically assess intimal area, intimal cellularity and intimal collagen content and organization. Saphenous veins were collected from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Area measurements and cellularity were quantified using the image analysis software Stereo Investigator, employing planimetry and counting frames, respectively. Collagen content and organization were quantified in MetaMorph image analysis software based on measurements of color (hue, saturation, and intensity) from polarized light images. Intimal area and cellularity showed no statistically significant increases with age; in contrast, total collagen content showed a significant decrease with advancing age. Furthermore, collagen fiber types also demonstrated a statistically significant alteration with age; increases in age resulted in decreases in larger collagen fibers. No significant changes in small collagen fibers were identified. These results raise the possibility that age-associated structural alterations in total collagen content, specifically collagen fiber size, could be a factor in the etiology of age-associated venous diseases.

  17. Curcumin upregulates S100 expression and improves regeneration of the sciatic nerve following its complete amputation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-min Liu; Kun Xu; Juan Li; Yun-gang Luo

    2016-01-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve injury after complete amputation is dififcult, and even with anastomosis, the rapid recovery of nerve function remains challenging. Curcumin, extracted from plants of the genus Curcuma, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inlfammatory properties and to improve sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Here, we determined whether curcumin had neuroprotective effects following com-plete peripheral nerve amputation injury. BALB/c mice underwent complete sciatic nerve amputation, followed by an immediate epineurium anastomosis. Mice were intragastrically administered curcumin at doses of 40 (high), 20 (moderate), and 10 mg/kg/d (low) for 1 week. We found that myelin in the mice of the high-and moderate-dose curcumin groups appeared with regular shape, uniform thickness, clear boundary, and little hyperplasia surrounding the myelin. High and moderate doses of curcumin markedly improved both action potential amplitude of the sciatic nerves and the conduction velocity of the corresponding motor neurons, and upregulated mRNA and protein ex-pression of S100, a marker for Schwann cell proliferation, in L4–6 spinal cord segments. These results suggest that curcumin is effective in promoting the repair of complete sciatic nerve amputation injury and that the underlying mechanism may be associated with upregulation of S100 expression.

  18. Tissue engineering with peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mengjie; Wang, Xianghai; Chen, Yijing; Cao, Shangtao; Wen, Jinkun; Wu, Guofeng; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Lixia; Qian, Changhui; Qin, Zhenqi; Li, Zhenlin; Tan, Dandan; Fan, Zhihao; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury repair can be enhanced by Schwann cell (SC) transplantation, but clinical applications are limited by the lack of a cell source. Thus, alternative systems for generating SCs are desired. Herein, we found the peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) could be induced into SC like cells with expressing SC-specific markers (S100, P75NTR and CNPase) and functional factors (NGF, NT-3, c-Fos, and Krox20). When the induced PBMSCs (iPBMSCs) were transplanted into crushed rat sciatic nerves, they functioned as SCs by wrapping the injured axons and expressing myelin specific marker of MBP. Furthermore, iPBMSCs seeded in an artificial nerve conduit to bridge a 10-mm defect in a sciatic nerve achieved significant nerve regeneration outcomes, including axonal regeneration and remyelination, nerve conduction recovery, and restoration of motor function, and attenuated myoatrophy and neuromuscular junction degeneration in the target muscle. Overall, the data from this study indicated that PBMSCs can transdifferentiate towards SC-like cells and have potential as grafting cells for nerve tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Una nueva experiencia clínica: Colgajo safeno interno diferido A new clinical experience: the delayed reverse saphenous flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Wolff I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos de tejidos blandos de la pierna y el pie cuasados por traumatismos, tumores o infecciones, requieren frecuentemente procedimientos de cobertura mediante el empleo de colgajos. El colgajo safeno interno ha demostrado ser una excelente opción por su versatilidad y su poca morbilidad en el área donante. El diferimiento es un procedimiento útil para reducir las complicaciones vasculares de los colgajos, en pacientes con factores de riesgo añadidos. Su fisiología ha sido estudiada detalladamente, pero aún persisten interrogantes en torno a su uso y al periodo de diferimiento. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica con el uso de colgajos diferidos en 2 casos de reconstrucción de pie y tobillo secundarios a traumatismos, en los que se presentó sufrimiento vascular agudo al realizar el colgajo safeno interno reverso. El período de diferimiento varió entre los 7 y los 10 días. Los resultados postoperatorios fueron satisfactorios. Se presentó solo un complicación consistente en necrosis de los bordes de uno de los colgajos (menor del 1%. En conclusión, creemos que el diferimiento de los colgajos regionales es una herramienta útil para reducir la tasa de complicaciones vasculares en los mismos. Nuestra experiencia con el colgajo safeno interno diferido, reportada por primera vez según nuestro conocimiento, confirma la utilidad del procedimiento en este tipo de colgajo, demostrando que aún en condiciones de riesgo vascular esta modificación del colgajo se presenta como una opción alternativa para la reconstrucción exitosa de este tipo de defectos.Complex soft tissue defects of the distal third of the leg and foot represent a challenge in the reconstructive. The internal saphenous flap is a frequently used option for lower leg reconstruction because its versatility and minimal donor site morbidity. The commonly known delay procedure is an alternative. The concept of delay was clearly explained years ago, but still there is

  20. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

  1. Erythropoietin enhances nerve repair in anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated models of immune neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is a monophasic immune neuropathic disorder in which a significant proportion of patients have incomplete recovery. The patients with incomplete recovery almost always have some degree of failure of axon regeneration and target reinnervation. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (Abs are the most commonly recognized autoimmune markers in all forms of GBS and specific Abs are associated with the slow/poor recovery. We recently demonstrated that specific anti-ganglioside Abs inhibit axonal regeneration and nerve repair in preclinical models by activation of small GTPase RhoA and its downstream effectors. The objective of this study was to determine whether erythropoietin (EPO, a pleiotropic cytokine with neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, enhances nerve regeneration in preclinical cell culture and animal models of autoimmune neuropathy/nerve repair generated with monoclonal and patient derived Abs. Primary neuronal cultures and a standardized sciatic crush nerve model were used to assess the efficacy of EPO in reversing inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside Abs on nerve repair. We found that EPO completely reversed the inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside Abs on axon regeneration in cell culture models and significantly improved nerve regeneration/repair in an animal model. Moreover, EPO-induced proregenerative effects in nerve cells are through EPO receptors and Janus kinase 2/Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 pathway and not via early direct modulation of small GTPase RhoA. These preclinical studies indicate that EPO is a viable candidate drug to develop further for neuroprotection and enhancing nerve repair in patients with GBS.

  2. Erythropoietin enhances nerve repair in anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated models of immune neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Lehmann, Helmar C; Bogdanova, Nataliia; Gao, Tong; Zhang, Jiangyang; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2011-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a monophasic immune neuropathic disorder in which a significant proportion of patients have incomplete recovery. The patients with incomplete recovery almost always have some degree of failure of axon regeneration and target reinnervation. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are the most commonly recognized autoimmune markers in all forms of GBS and specific Abs are associated with the slow/poor recovery. We recently demonstrated that specific anti-ganglioside Abs inhibit axonal regeneration and nerve repair in preclinical models by activation of small GTPase RhoA and its downstream effectors. The objective of this study was to determine whether erythropoietin (EPO), a pleiotropic cytokine with neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, enhances nerve regeneration in preclinical cell culture and animal models of autoimmune neuropathy/nerve repair generated with monoclonal and patient derived Abs. Primary neuronal cultures and a standardized sciatic crush nerve model were used to assess the efficacy of EPO in reversing inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside Abs on nerve repair. We found that EPO completely reversed the inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside Abs on axon regeneration in cell culture models and significantly improved nerve regeneration/repair in an animal model. Moreover, EPO-induced proregenerative effects in nerve cells are through EPO receptors and Janus kinase 2/Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 pathway and not via early direct modulation of small GTPase RhoA. These preclinical studies indicate that EPO is a viable candidate drug to develop further for neuroprotection and enhancing nerve repair in patients with GBS.

  3. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they were damaged. Cranial nerve disorders can affect smell, taste, vision, sensation in the face, facial expression, ... Cranial Nerve Number Name Function Test 1st Olfactory Smell The ability to smell is tested by asking ...

  4. Bilateral eventration of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection of a 60 years male cadaver, it was observed that the two divisions of sciatic nerve were separate in the gluteal region on both the sides with the tibial nerve passing below the piriformis and the common peroneal nerve piercing the piriformis muscle. The abnormal passage of the sciatic nerve (SN, the common peroneal nerve (CPN, and the tibial nerve (TN, either through the piriformis or below the superior gemellus may facilitate compression of these nerves. Knowledge of such patterns is also important for surgeons dealing with piriformis syndrome which affects 5-6% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. A high division may also account for frequent failures reported with the popliteal block. Keywords: eventration, piriformis muscle, piriformis syndrome, sciatic nerve

  5. Angiographic and clinical outcomes after implantation of drug eluting stents in bifurcation lesions with crush or kissing stent technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Asim N; Jolly, Sanjit S; Burstein, Jason M; Sharieff, Waseem; Mohammad, Atif; Yeoh, Eunice; Mancini, G B John; Cantor, Warren J; Kutryk, Michael J B; Strauss, Bradley H; Chisholm, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Long-term outcome after bifurcation stenting with drug-eluting stents (DES) for obstructive coronary artery disease is poorly understood. In this study, we report 6-9-month angiographic follow-up and long-term clinical outcomes after implantation of drug-eluting stents by crush and kissing stent technique for coronary bifurcation lesions. Consecutive patients undergoing bifurcation stenting with DES by crush or kissing stent technique were enrolled in a prospective registry. Angiographic follow-up was obtained at 6-9 months and clinical follow-up completed for a median of 38 months. A total of 86 patients participated in the study. Bifurcation stenting by crush technique was performed in 73 (85%) and by kissing stent in 13 (15%) patients. Stenting of left main bifurcation was applied in 24 (28%) patients. Angiographic follow-up was completed in 75 (87%) patients and showed restenosis in the main for 8 (11%) and side branch for 20 (27%) patients. Clinical follow-up was available for a median duration of 38 months. During follow-up, 2 (2%) patients died, 4 (5%) experienced myocardial infarction (MI), and 11 (13%) underwent target vessel revascularization (TVR) with an overall major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate of 16%. In left main cohort, angiographic restenosis occurred in 9 (37%) patients, and 3 (12%) patients required TVR. There were no deaths or stent thrombosis. A comparison of crush and kissing stent technique showed significantly higher angiographic restenosis with crush (26% vs 13% in kissing stent patients, P = 0.046) and 95% of restenosis in crush group involved ostium of the side branch. There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the crush and kissing stent groups. Final kissing balloon dilatation (FKB) was successful in 65 (89%) patients in the crush group and associated with a significant reduction in MACE (8% in FKB successful vs 37% in FKB unsuccessful, P = 0.04) during follow-up. Bifurcation stenting with crush or kissing stent

  6. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akassoglou, K; Kombrinck, K W; Degen, J L; Strickland, S

    2000-05-29

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin and can trigger the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. In the nervous system, under noninflammatory conditions, tPA contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death, probably through degradation of laminin. To evaluate the contribution of extracellular proteolysis in inflammatory neuronal degeneration, we performed sciatic nerve injury in mice. Proteolytic activity was increased in the nerve after injury, and this activity was primarily because of Schwann cell-produced tPA. To identify whether tPA release after nerve damage played a beneficial or deleterious role, we crushed the sciatic nerve of mice deficient for tPA. Axonal demyelination was exacerbated in the absence of tPA or plasminogen, indicating that tPA has a protective role in nerve injury, and that this protective effect is due to its proteolytic action on plasminogen. Axonal damage was correlated with increased fibrin(ogen) deposition, suggesting that this protein might play a role in neuronal injury. Consistent with this idea, the increased axonal degeneration phenotype in tPA- or plasminogen-deficient mice was ameliorated by genetic or pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, identifying fibrin as the plasmin substrate in the nervous system under inflammatory axonal damage. This study shows that fibrin deposition exacerbates axonal injury, and that induction of an extracellular proteolytic cascade is a beneficial response of the tissue to remove fibrin. tPA/plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis may be a widespread protective mechanism in neuroinflammatory pathologies.

  7. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  8. Neuron-Specific Deletion of the Nf2 Tumor Suppressor Impairs Functional Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Toledo, Andrea; Baader, Stephan L.; von Maltzahn, Julia; Irintchev, Andrey; Bauer, Reinhard; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to axons of the central nervous system (CNS), axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) show better, but still incomplete and often slow regeneration following injury. The tumor suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumor syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), has recently been shown to have RhoA regulatory functions in PNS neurons—in addition to its well-characterized, growth-inhibitory activity in Schwann cells. Here we report that the conditional knockout of merlin in PNS neurons leads to impaired functional recovery of mice following sciatic nerve crush injury, in a gene-dosage dependent manner. Gross anatomical or electrophysiological alterations of sciatic nerves could not be detected. However, correlating with attenuated RhoA activation due to merlin deletion, ultrastructural analysis of nerve samples indicated enhanced sprouting of axons with reduced caliber size and increased myelination compared to wildtype animals. We conclude that deletion of the tumor suppressor merlin in the neuronal compartment of peripheral nerves results in compromised functional regeneration after injury. This mechanism could explain the clinical observation that NF2 patients suffer from higher incidences of slowly recovering facial nerve paralysis after vestibular schwannoma surgery. PMID:27467574

  9. High division of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Shrivastava

    2014-04-01

    Results: In all except two cadavers, the nerve divided at the apex of the popliteal fossa. In two cadavers the sciatic nerve divided bilaterally in the upper part of thigh. Conclusion: The high division presented in this study can make popliteal nerve blocks partially ineffective. The high division of sciatic nerve must always be borne in mind as they have important clinical implications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 686-688

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  11. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...

  12. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic reso

  13. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  14. Nerve growth factor and injured peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endong Shi; Bingchen Wang; Qingshan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) exhibits many biological activities, such as supply of nutrients, neuroprotection, and the generation and rehabilitation of injured nerves. The neuroprotective and neurotrophic qualities of NGF are generally recognized. NGF may enhance axonal regeneration and myelination of peripheral nerves, as well as cooperatively promote functional recovery of injured nerves and limbs. The clinical efficacy of NGF and its therapeutic potentials are reviewed here. This paper also reviews the latest NGF research developments for repairing injured peripheral nerve, thereby providing scientific evidence for the appropriate clinical application of NGF.

  15. Identification of the crushing behavior of brittle foam: From indentation to oedometric tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterf, A.; Adrien, J.; Maire, E.; Brajer, X.; Hild, F.; Roux, S.

    2017-01-01

    Compaction of the core of plasterboard is one of the limiting phenomena for its mechanical performance. This mechanism is studied herein in an indentation test. A cylinder made of foamed gypsum is indented in situ in an X-ray lab tomograph with a sphere of millimeter radius. The reported experiments show that foamed plaster displays a sharp transition between an undamaged state (with linear elastic behavior) and a compacted state with collapsed porosity under the indenter. Tomographic acquisitions of the sample under load associated with a global version of Digital Volume Correlation allow displacement fields to be measured at different load levels. However, because of the heterogeneous nature of the indentation test, a fine spatial resolution of the displacement fields is required to measure the strains at the crushing limit. A dedicated procedure exploiting computed displacement fields within the digital volume correlation procedure is utilized. It allows for the quantification of stress fields that are post-processed to identify the crushing criterion. It is shown that this analysis is very consistent with more macroscopic oedometric tests. Last, predictions of a Mohr-Coulomb model are compared with macroscopic and microscopic data. It is shown that despite the fact that this model reproduces very well the load-displacement response of the indentation test, a poorer prediction of the experimental crushed zone is observed. In particular, the transition between compacted plaster and its pristine state is not captured by the model, which predicts a very progressive transition rather than an abrupt one. The same conclusions are drawn for a crushable foam model when compared with experimental evidence of an in situ oedometric test.

  16. Case report: Myofascial pain syndrome: a double crush-like appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, R. Kevin; Richardson, Daniel L.; Shiel, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the case of a patient with myofascial pain syndrome that appeared similar to double crush syndrome. Clinical Features This is a case report of a 45-year old female who presents to the private practice clinic with the same signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, 1 year post-carpaltunnel surgery. The history is consistent with injuries that result in double crush syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient history includes a motor vehicle accident (MVA) in 1963 that resulted in a prolonged hospital stay and fracture of a cervical vertebral (C4) body. She fractured the olecranon process of the right elbow during a fall in 1970's. She has smoked approximately 1 pack a day for 20 years. Her job involves long periods of sitting at a keyboard and in a car. All of these portions of the patient history are possible factors in the clinical signs and symptoms of double crush syndrome. Intervention and Outcome Treatment involved chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy modalities for the elimination of pain and returning the patient's full range of motion in the wrist, elbow, shoulder and cervical spine. After range of motion was restored, a home exercise program was initiated. The home exercise program included a return to past sporting activity and active, resistive (Theraciser band) activities for the elbow and cervical spine. Also a reduction in smoking was initiated as part of the patient's treatment plan. Conclusion It is our contention that patients who have electromyographic (EMG) demonstrable carpal tunnel syndrome need a cervical spine workup and a period of conservative care to include skilled manipulation, physical therapy and home exercises before surgery is recommended. PMID:19674598

  17. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is notenough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changesin sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospectivecross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society ofNephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ionschanges in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of25.6 § 6.9 yearswere studied (57.3 male. On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3 of the patientshad hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3 on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemicon admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. Theprevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5 and on the 10th day of hospitalization66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8 of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy shows the 52.5%prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia amongcrush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trendshows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3%hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic.

  18. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

  19. Bullous contact dermatitis caused by self-applied crushed Paederus fuscipes for the treatment of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dong-O; Kang, Jung-Dae; Youn, Nyoung-Hoon; Park, Seok-Don

    2003-11-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a linear, blistering contact dermatitis caused by pederin, a potent vesicant agent that is contained in insects belonging to the genus Paederus. This form of dermatitis usually occurs accidentally in those who have contact with this insect during the summer season. We report a peculiar case of a patient developing severe chemical burnlike lesions after application to her skin of many crushed Paederus fuscipes that she collected from the soil of a riverbank in the early spring for the treatment of her vitiligo.

  20. Edwards's statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in crushed self-avoiding sheets with finite bending rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S; Flores-Cano, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the crumpling of thin matter. The Edwards-like statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in a crushed self-avoiding sheet with finite bending rigidity is developed. The statistical distribution of crease lengths is derived. The relationship between sheet packing density and hydrostatic pressure is established. The entropic contribution to the crumpling network rigidity is outlined. The effects of plastic deformations and sheet self-contacts on crumpling mechanics are discussed. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data and results of numerical simulations. Thus, the findings of this work provide further insight into the physics of crumpling and mechanical properties of crumpled soft matter.

  1. Clinical study of lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-hui ZHANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore diagnostic method and surgical outcome of lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training. Methods  Fifteen patients with lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training from May 2006 to May 2008 were enrolled in this study, including 12 men (14 knees and 3 women (3 knees, aged from 22 to 43 years old with an average of 27.3 years. Randomly selected 18 healthy volunteers with similar age and gender but no knee pain symptom were selected to serve as a control group. Anteroposterior and lateral X-ray photographs of knee joint and axial photographs of the patella were taken in both groups for observing the bone architecture of the knee joint and measuring the femoral trochlear angle, patellofemoral congruence angle and patellofemoral index, and the data were compared. The 17 knee joints in patient group were treated with lateral patellar retinaculum release. Then the preoperative and postoperative pain severity was evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS. Results  Patellofemoral congruence angle was 7.67°± 5.81° and patellofemoral index was 2.49±1.40 in patient group, while they were -2.2°±-2.71° and 1.25±0.15 in control group. The difference between two groups showed statistical significance (P < 0.05. The change in bone architecture was obvious in patient group. The preoperative pain score was 7.06±0.85, and postoperative pain score was 3.87±0.24 after 6 months and 3.01+0.17 after 1 year in patient group. The difference between preoperative pain score and postoperative pain score showed statistical significance (P < 0.05. Conclusions  Diagnosis of patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training requires a combination of case history, typical symptoms, objective sign and X-ray examination. Among these, X-ray examination is the fundamental auxiliary diagnostic tool for lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome, and the patellofemoral index is convenient for

  2. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  3. A novel wastewater cleaning system for the stone-crushing and sand-making process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenjun; Li Yanfeng; Tang Jie

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the slurry from the stone-crushing and sand-making processes is analyzed to develop a novel separation process.The process comprises hydro-cyclone separation followed by screening of the fines,clarification,and filtration.Recovering fine sand and clean wastewater for recycle is demonstrated.The +0.045 mm fine sand fraction and-0.045 mm ultra-fine clay in the slurry are separated and recovered.Fine sand that was previously lost and wasted is now recoverable.The cleaned and reused water is as much as 94% of the total.

  4. Topology optimization design of crushed 2D-frames for desired energy absorption history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with topology optimization for obtaining a desired energy absorption history of a crushed structure. The optimized energy absorbing structures are used to improve the crashworthiness of transportation vehicles. The ground structure consists of rectangular 2D-beam elements...... with plastic hinges. The elements can undergo large rotations, so the analysis accommodates geometric nonlinearities. A quasi-static nonlinear finite element solution is obtained with an implicit backward Euler algorithm, and the analytical sensitivities are computed by the direct differentiation method....

  5. Reverse Regulatory Pathway (H2S / PGE2 / MMP in Human Aortic Aneurysm and Saphenous Vein Varicosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a mediator with demonstrated protective effects for the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, prostaglandin (PGE2 is involved in vascular wall remodeling by regulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous H2S may modulate PGE2, MMP-1 activity and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1/-2. This regulatory pathway could be involved in thinning of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA and thickening of saphenous vein (SV varicosities. The expression of the enzyme responsible for H2S synthesis, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and its activity, were significantly higher in varicose vein as compared to SV. On the contrary, the endogenous H2S level and CSE expression were lower in AAA as compared to healthy aorta (HA. Endogenous H2S was responsible for inhibition of PGE2 synthesis mostly in varicose veins and HA. A similar effect was observed with exogenous H2S and consequently decreasing active MMP-1/TIMP ratios in SV and varicose veins. In contrast, in AAA, higher levels of PGE2 and active MMP-1/TIMP ratios were found versus HA. These findings suggest that differences in H2S content in AAA and varicose veins modulate endogenous PGE2 production and consequently the MMP/TIMP ratio. This mechanism may be crucial in vascular wall remodeling observed in different vascular pathologies (aneurysm, varicosities, atherosclerosis and pulmonary hypertension.

  6. Pulsatile ex vivo perfusion of human saphenous vein grafts under controlled pressure conditions increases MMP-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Rüdiger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of human saphenous vein grafts (HSVGs as a bypass conduit is a standard procedure in the treatment of coronary artery disease while their early occlusion remains a major problem. Methods We have developed an ex vivo perfusion system, which uses standardized and strictly controlled hemodynamic parameters for the pulsatile and non-static perfusion of HSVGs to guarantee a reliable analysis of molecular parameters under different pressure conditions. Cell viability of HSVGs (n = 12 was determined by the metabolic conversion of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT into a purple formazan dye. Results Under physiological flow rates (10 mmHg HSVGs remained viable for two weeks. Their exposure to arterial conditions (100 mmHg was possible for one week without important reduction in viability. Baseline expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 after venous perfusion (2.2 ± 0.5, n = 5 was strongly up-regulated after exposure to arterial conditions for three days (19.8 ± 4.3 or five days (23.9 ± 6.1, p Conclusion Therefore, our system might be helpful to more precisely understand the molecular mechanisms leading to an early failure of HSVGs.

  7. Reverse Regulatory Pathway (H2S / PGE2 / MMP) in Human Aortic Aneurysm and Saphenous Vein Varicosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ingrid; Ozen, Gulsev; Deschildre, Catherine; Amgoud, Yasmine; Boubaya, Lilia; Gorenne, Isabelle; Benyahia, Chabha; Roger, Thomas; Lesèche, Guy; Galardon, Erwan; Topal, Gokce; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Longrois, Dan; Norel, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a mediator with demonstrated protective effects for the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, prostaglandin (PG)E2 is involved in vascular wall remodeling by regulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous H2S may modulate PGE2, MMP-1 activity and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1/-2). This regulatory pathway could be involved in thinning of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and thickening of saphenous vein (SV) varicosities. The expression of the enzyme responsible for H2S synthesis, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and its activity, were significantly higher in varicose vein as compared to SV. On the contrary, the endogenous H2S level and CSE expression were lower in AAA as compared to healthy aorta (HA). Endogenous H2S was responsible for inhibition of PGE2 synthesis mostly in varicose veins and HA. A similar effect was observed with exogenous H2S and consequently decreasing active MMP-1/TIMP ratios in SV and varicose veins. In contrast, in AAA, higher levels of PGE2 and active MMP-1/TIMP ratios were found versus HA. These findings suggest that differences in H2S content in AAA and varicose veins modulate endogenous PGE2 production and consequently the MMP/TIMP ratio. This mechanism may be crucial in vascular wall remodeling observed in different vascular pathologies (aneurysm, varicosities, atherosclerosis and pulmonary hypertension).

  8. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype, Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Saphenous Vein Graft Atherosclerosis in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Zeinali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interactions among Angiotensin-I converting enzyme genotype, insertion/deletion polymorphism and atherosclerosis of vein grafts in Iranian patients, and characterize their clinical and demographic profile. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery more than five years ago, were included for angiographic analysis. Atherosclerosis was determined by quantitative angiography and adjusted Gensini score. The gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients participated in this study. Eighty-four patients were male. The frequency distribution of DD, ID and II polymorphism were 23.6%, 62.7% and 13.7% respectively. There were no differences among genotypic groups in age, sex, number of risk factors, number of vein grafts and months since bypass surgery. According to adjusted Gensini score [0.18±0.12 (II vs. 0.11±0.09 (ID and 0.1±0.09 (DD P=0.021] the II genotype was associated with severity of vein graft atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Although there are conflicting results about gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and the degree of venous bypass graft degeneration, this study suggests an association between ACE genotype II and atherosclerosis of saphenous vein grafts, however, large samples considering clinical, demographic and ethnic profile are necessary to confirm these results.

  9. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  11. Transcorneal electrical stimulation alters morphology and survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Voigt, Nadine; Prilloff, Sylvia; Fedorov, Anton; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2013-05-24

    Traumatic optic nerve injury leads to retrograde death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) can increase the cell survival rate. To understand the mechanisms and to further define the TES-induced effects we monitored in living animals RGC morphology and survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) in real time by using in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) of the retina. ONC was performed in rats and ICON was performed before crush and on post-lesion days 3, 7 and 15 which allowed us to repeatedly record RGC number and size. TES or sham-stimulation were performed immediately after the crush and on post-injury day 11. Three days after ONC we detected a higher percentage of surviving RGCs in the TES group as compared to sham-treated controls. However, the difference was below significance level on day 7 and disappeared completely by day 15. The death rate was more variable amongst the TES-treated rats than in the control group. Morphological analysis revealed that average cell size changed significantly in the control group but not in stimulated animals and the morphological alterations of surviving neurons were smaller in TES-treated compared to control cells. In conclusion, TES delays post-traumatic cell death significantly. Moreover, we found "responder animals" which also benefited in the long-term from the treatment. Our in vivo cellular imaging results provide evidence that TES reduces ONC-associated neuronal swelling and shrinkage especially in RGCs which survived long-term. Further studies are now needed to determine the differences of responders vs. non-responders.

  12. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  13. DK crush technique: modified treatment of bifurcation lesions in coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-liang; GE Jun-bo; YE Fei; ZHANG Jun-jie; ZHU Zhong-sheng; LIN Song; SHAN Shou-jie; LIU Zhi-zhong; LIU Yan; DUAN Bao-xiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bifurcation lesions are still technically challenging even in the era of modern stents.1 High incidence of restenosis both in main vessel and side branch limits the long-term prognosis although several kinds of techniques have been identified to be successful for coronary bifurcations.2-5 Reports have demonstrated the main reason for higher incidence of ostial side branch even though drug-eluting stent used in side vessel lies in that there were gaps in metal coverage and drug application.6-9 Therefore, new technique ensuring complete vessel scaffolding without gaps in drug delivery at the bifurcation is crush technique which is similar to other techniques including T- and Y- stenting still needing postdilatation of kissing balloon angioplasty to expand the stent fully in the ostial side branch and to prevent stent distortion in main vessel.10 As a result, kissing balloon angioplasty is a key step to improve the final result and to reduce the restenosis after stenting bifurcation lesions. However, kissing angioplasty is difficult to be underwent or impossible because operators usually fail to rewire two layers of metal strut, which would result in suboptimal stent deployment, a main reason of high incidence of restenosis, and acute- or-late-thrombosus. The present study reports modified DK crush technique improving success rate of kissing balloon angioplasty under the guidance of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).

  14. Successful salvage of the upper limb after crush injury requiring nine operations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-03-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as "excellent" (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was "good" (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V.

  15. Infectious complications in patients with crush syndrome following the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; ZENG Jian-wei; WANG Guang-lin; TU Chong-qi; HUANG Fu-guo; PEI Fu-xing

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the results of clinical and bacteriological examinations in patients with crash syndrome who suffered infectious complications after an earthquake in Sichuan,China.Methods:A total of 313 bacteriological samples among 147 patients with crush syndrome were collected.Infectious complications,results of microbiological examinations,potential risk factors of infection and mortality were analyzed statistically.Results:In the obtained database,112 out of the 147 (75.7%) patients had infectious complications,in which,wound infection,pulmonary infection,and sepsis were most common.The time under the rubble and the time from injury to treatment were related to the occurrence of wound infection (P=0.013,odds ratio 2.25; P=0.017,odds ratio 2.31).Sepsis and wound infection were more common in patients who underwent fasciotomy or amputation than in those who did not (P=0.001).Conclusion:Quick rescue and injury treatment can decrease the infection risk in crush syndrome patients.It is better to obtain microorganic proofs before applying antibiotics,and bacteriological and drug sensitivity data should be taken into account,especially considering that most of these infections are hospital-acquired and drug resistance.Emphasizing the accuracy and efficiency of wound management in emergency situations,cautiously assessing the indications for fasciotomy to avoid open wounds from unnecessary osteofascial compartment decompression incisions may decrease the incidence of infection and ameliorate the prognosis.

  16. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  17. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  18. Evaluation of a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Goldoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to evaluate a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains. There is no consensus about standards and rules for testing aggregates, the lack of methodology to prepare and conduct tests may produce incorrect results, which do not satisfactorily represent the aggregate characteristics. One way to perform these analyzes is the use of images obtained with magnifying glasses or similar equipment. To contribute to this, three experiments were prepared with samples of crushed sand from the city of Passo Fundo. The fixed and evaluated p