WorldWideScience

Sample records for sap nitrogen compounds

  1. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  2. Investigation on the Assimilation of Nitrogen by Maize Roots and the Transport of Some Major Nitrogen Compounds by Xylem Sap. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanko, S.; Ingversen, J.

    1971-01-01

    Xylem sap was collected from nitrogen-starved maize plants and investigations were made on the nitrogen transported. It appears from the results that several pools for different amino acids exist, which have different relations to the transport of nitrogen taken up. While in maize roots Glu, Glu...

  3. Investigation on the Assimilation of Nitrogen by Maize Roots and the Transport of Some Major Nitrogen Compounds by Xylem Sap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanko, S.; Ingversen, J.

    1971-01-01

    The uptake and assimilation of nitrate and ammonia have been studied in Zea mays. Nitrogen-starved maize roots are capable of accumulating a potential capacity for nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Reestablishment of nitrogen supply leads to intense uptake, reaching 154 % of the reference variant...... level after 24 hours when nitrate is supplied, and 121 % when ammonia is supplied. After 24 hours the insoluble nitrogen fraction accounts for 80, 54 and 55 % of the total taken up in the PK + NO3-, PK + NH4+ and NPK variants respectively....

  4. Investigation on the Assimilation of Nitrogen by Maize Roots and the Transport of Some Major Nitrogen Compounds by Xylem Sap. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Ivanko, S.

    1971-01-01

    The amino acid and protein metabolism of roots of maize has been studied. The important role of the free amino acids and proteins of the roots as active agents in nitrogen assimilation is pointed out. Nitrogen supplied as nitrate is preferably incorporated into α-ketoglutaric acid, and then by tr...

  5. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer look...... at SAP’s strategy, however, revealed a closely connected and coordinated network of strategic decisions and investments for which alignment and finding the right balance were key challenges. Hence, it was crucial to ask: What were the principal challenges for SAP in aligning its innovation and sourcing...

  6. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, H.E.; Dey, G.R.; Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C.; Boucher, J.L.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Koppenol, W.H.; Janata, E.; Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C.

    2009-01-01

    Water radiolysis in presence of N 2 is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N 2 and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO 2 - and NO 3 -. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  7. Nitrogen compounds behavior under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Takagi, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate nitrogen compounds behavior in liquid phase under irradiation environments. Nitrogen compounds take a chemical form of ammonium ion under reducing condition by gamma irradiation, whereas ammonium ions are rather stable even under oxidizing conditions. Key reactions were pointed out and their reaction rate constants and activation energies were estimated through computer code simulation. A reaction scheme for nitrogen compounds including protonate reaction was proposed. (author)

  8. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decrea......Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses...... relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...... for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system...

  9. Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

  10. Physicochemical changes of raffia sap (Raphia mambillensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galax-07

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... on fermentation on the raffia sap property, its physico-chemical and .... transformed organic nitrogen of the dried sap into mineral nitrogen ..... International Congress on Engineering and Food. March ... uses in vignification.

  11. Chemical Compounds Of Granulated Palm Sugar Made From Sap Of Nipa Palm (Nypa Fruticans Wurmb Growing In Three Different Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms in South Kalimantan Province is a new innovation. The purpose of this study was to find out the chemical compounds contained in granulated sugar made from sap of nipa palms growing in 3 different places, which was expected to benefit wider community as a source of alternative sweetener. The chemical compound test of granulated nipa palm sugar was conducted at the Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry, Banjarbaru. Chemical parameters tested were water, sucrose, reducing sugar, fat, protein, phosphorus, and potassium content. The test results showed that the water content of granulated nipa palm sugar in treatment A1, A2, and A3 was 3.69%, 4.04%, and 2.31%, respectively; the protein content 0.65%, 2.19%, and 1.10%; the fat content 0.27 %, 0.34 %, and 0.20 %; the reducing sugar content 2.39%, 0.51%, and 0.52%; the sucrose content 75.14%, 68.15%, and 88.46%; the phosphorus content 1.1342%, 1.1196%, and 1.138%; and the potassium content 1.60%, 1.40%, and 1.58%, respectively. The test parameters of granulated nipa palm sugar that met the Mandatory Indonesia National Standard (SNI 01-3743-1995 were the water content of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms growing in dry place (land, the reducing sugar content and sucrose content in all treatments. It can be concluded from the three required parameters that granulated nipa palm sugar is able to become the source of new sweetener in addition to block arenga palm sugar and crystal cane sugar for the community in South Kalimantan.

  12. A comparative evaluation of nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dheer; Chopra, Anju; Patel, Mitra Bhanu; Sarpal, Amarjit Singh [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad (India). Research and Development Centre

    2011-07-15

    Although the concentration of nitrogen compounds in crude oil is relatively low, they can become more concentrated in petroleum distillates and poison the catalysts used in refining processes. They cause undesirable deposits, color formation and odor in products; they also contribute to air pollution and some are highly carcinogenic. The poisoned catalyst becomes deactivated for hydrodesulfurization and unable to remove sulfur from middle distillates. In order to understand the effect on catalytic processes, it is desirable to identify the nitrogen compounds in various petroleum distillates. This paper compares the nitrogen species profiles in different petroleum distillates using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector. In addition, four different petroleum distillate samples from different refineries were analyzed to find the variation in their nitrogen profiles. The nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillate samples were identified as anilines, quinolines, indoles, and carbazoles and their alkyl derivatives. Quantitation was carried out against known reference standards. The quantitative data were compared to the total nitrogen content determined by elemental analysis. (orig.)

  13. Structure of inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen tetrahedral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitola, A.; Ronis, J.; Avotins, V.; Millers, T.

    1997-01-01

    The structure analysis of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds has shown the possibility of the P(O,N) 4 tetrahedra to form various kinds of structures. The wide spectrum of the properties determined by the diversity of structures marks the considerable promise to the future application of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

  14. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss different cycles proposed for inorganic compounds in atmospheric precipitation and, finally, to assess the importance of these compounds from different points of view. Investigations of rainwater with a view to determine atmospheric pollution in industrial areas are mentioned incidentally but no results are detailed.

  15. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Reis, S.

    2012-01-01

    +)), oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and their reaction products) as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N). Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact...... on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO+NO2) emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions.......5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 mu m, respectively) with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human health. Little is known quantitatively and qualitatively about organic N in the atmosphere, other than that it contributes a significant...

  16. Atmospheric nitrogen compounds: Occurrence, composition and deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Pilegaard, K.; Egeløv, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Traffic in cities and on highways is an important contributor to NOy atmospheric pollution in open areas. In this situation both the concentration and composition of NOy compounds show a wide variation and are dependent on meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. The proportion of NOz ...

  17. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  18. Release of organic nitrogen compounds from Kerogen via catalytic hydropyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett B

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available High hydrogen pressure pyrolysis (hydropyrolysis was performed on samples of solvent extracted Kimmeridge Clay Formation source rock with a maturity equivalent to ca. 0.35% vitrinite reflectance. We describe the types and distributions of organic nitrogen compounds in the pyrolysis products (hydropyrolysates using GC-MS. Compounds identified included alkyl-substituted indoles, carbazoles, benzocarbazoles, quinolines and benzoquinolines. The distributions of the isomers of methylcarbazoles, C2-alkylcarbazoles and benzocarbazoles in the hydropyrolysates were compared to a typical North Sea oil. The hydropyrolysates compared to the North Sea oil, showed increased contributions from alkylcarbazole isomers where the nitrogen group is "exposed" (no alkyl substituents adjacent to the nitrogen functionality and appreciable levels of benzo[b]carbazole relative to benzo[a]- and benzo[c]carbazoles. Hydropyrolysis is found to be an ideal technique for liberating appreciable quantities of heterocyclic organic nitrogen compounds from geomacromolecules. The products released from the immature Kimmeridge Clay are thought to represent a potential source of nitrogen compounds in the bound phase (kerogen able to contribute to the free bitumen phase during catagenesis.

  19. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H [comp.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  20. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H. [comp.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  1. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  2. Transformation of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshikov, Igor A; Silva, Eliane O; Furtado, Niege A J C

    2014-02-01

    The saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds include many drugs and compounds that may be used as synthons for the synthesis of other pharmacologically active substances. The need for new derivatives of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles for organic synthesis, biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry, including optically active derivatives, has increased interest in microbial synthesis. This review provides an overview of microbial technologies that can be valuable to produce new derivatives of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles, including hydroxylated derivatives. The chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity of microbial processes can be indispensable for the synthesis of new compounds. Microbial processes carried out with fungi, including Beauveria bassiana, Cunninghamella verticillata, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteria, including Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Rhodococcus erythropolis, biotransform many substrates efficiently. Among the biological activities of saturated nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are antimicrobial, antitumor, antihypertensive and anti-HIV activities; some derivatives are effective for the treatment and prevention of malaria and trypanosomiasis, and others are potent glycosidase inhibitors.

  3. Toxicity of six heterocyclic nitrogen compounds to Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia M.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    We determined the relative toxicities to the aquatic crustacean Daphniz pulex of six heterocyclic nitrogen compunds. These compounds were selected because they were detected in lake trout or walleyes and were commercially available. Stress to the daphnid populations may affect forage fish populations that depend either directly or indirectly on zooplankton as a food source in the Great Lakes.

  4. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  5. Identifying organic nitrogen compounds in Rocky Mountain National Park aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, K. B.; Desyaterik, Y.; Ozel, M. Z.; Hamilton, J. F.; Collett, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition is an important issue in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). While inorganic nitrogen contributions to the ecosystems in this area have been studied, the sources of organic nitrogen are still largely unknown. To better understand the potential sources of organic nitrogen, filter samples were collected and analyzed for organic nitrogen species. Samples were collected in RMNP using a Thermo Fisher Scientific TSP (total suspended particulate) high-volume sampler with a PM2.5 impactor plate from April - November of 2008. The samples presented the opportunity to compare two different methods for identification of individual organic nitrogen species. The first type of analysis was performed with a comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) system using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). The filter samples were spiked with propanil in dichloromethane to use as an internal standard and were then extracted in water followed by solid phase extraction. The GCxGC system was comprised of a volatility based separation (DB5 column) followed by a polarity based separation (RXI-17 column). A NCD was used to specifically detect nitrogen compounds and remove the complex background matrix. Individual standards were used to identify peaks by comparing retention times. This method has the added benefit of an equimolar response for nitrogen so only a single calibration is needed for all species. In the second analysis, a portion of the same filter samples were extracted in DI water and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). The separation was performed using a C18 column and a water-methanol gradient elution. Electrospray ionization into a time of flight mass spectrometer was used for detection. High accuracy mass measurement allowed unambiguous assignments of elemental composition of resulting ions. Positive and negative polarities were used since amines tend to show up in positive mode and nitrates in

  6. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr compounds have different fates in the atmosphere due to differences in the governing processes of physical transport, deposition and chemical transformation. Nr compounds addressed here include reduced nitrogen (NHx: ammonia (NH3 and its reaction product ammonium (NH4+, oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO + nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their reaction products as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N. Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO + NO2 emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions generally have little impact on nearby ecosystems because of the small dry deposition rates of NOx. These compounds need to be converted into nitric acid (HNO3 before removal through deposition is efficient. HNO3 sticks quickly to any surface and is thereby either dry deposited or incorporated into aerosols as nitrate (NO3. In contrast to NOx compounds, NH3 has potentially high impacts on ecosystems near the main agricultural sources of NH3 because of its large ground-level concentrations along with large dry deposition rates. Aerosol phase NH4+ and NO3 contribute significantly to background PM2.5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human

  7. A study on radiolytic nitrogen compounds in bwr primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Eishi; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Masao; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Etho, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    Behavior of nitrogen compounds in a γ radiation field was evaluated. Twenty-four species and 73 reactions were proposed for analysis of the system. It was pointed out that reactions dominating analysis reliability were primary reactions which lead to evolution of atomic nitrogen and reactions related to ammonium ion decomposition. Theoretical calculations for the BWR primary system revealed that: (i) in-leaked nitrogen from a condenser did not deteriorate the oxygen reduction efficiency due to hydrogen addition in reactor water; (ii) most 16 N atmos released in the main steam line were in the form of nitrogen mono-oxide under both hydrogen and normal water chemistry; (iii) 16 N atoms in nitric and nitrous acids under normal water chemistry were reduced by hydrogen atom to 16 NO and then released to the main steam line under hydrogen water chemistry; and (iv) 16 N in the main steam under normal water chemistry could be suppressed one order of magnitude by addition of non-radioactive nitrous acid into the reactor water. (author)

  8. Identification of nitrogen compounds and amides from spent hydroprocessing catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.K.; Gray, M.R. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-06-01

    A spent commercial naphtha hydrotreating catalyst was analyzed to identify compounds which had accumulated on the catalyst surface during its active life. The catalyst was extracted with methylene chloride, methanol and pyridine to remove adsorbed organic material, which was rich in nitrogen and oxygen. A series of quinolones were identified in the methanol extract after enrichment with HCl-modified silica gel adsorption and subsequent silica gel chromatography. Tetra- and hexahydroquinolones with alkyl substituents up to C{sub 3} were identified. Similar amides have been identified in asphaltenes, and are very resistant to hydrogenation. Tetrahydroquinolines and piperidines were detected in the pyridine extract. 36 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. Nine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. The nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible t...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5330 - Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containing nitrogen. 721.5330 Section 721.5330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5330 Nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen. (a) Chemical... as nickel salt of an organo compound containing nitrogen (PMN P-92-686) is subject to reporting under...

  11. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  12. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  13. Solid-phase synthesis of compounds of europium and terbium with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds under mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskaya, I.V.; Karasev, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    Effect of solvents and parameters of mechanical treatment on basic regularities of synthesis of rare earth compounds with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds is studied. It is shown that interaction on europium (3) and terbium (3) nitrates with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds leads to formation of compounds of Ln(NO 3 )·2D composition, where Ln=Eu, Tb; D=2,2-dipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, diphenylguanidine. Effect of conditions of mechanical treatment and different additions on process and yield of products is studied. Compounds prepared are characterized by the methods of chemical element analysis, IR spectroscopy and luminescent spectroscopy [ru

  14. On the radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, R.; Bernard, Y.

    1964-01-01

    Continuing their study of the possible radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds, the authors study certain derivatives of imidazole and other compounds of similar structure. The results obtained showed: 1 - that the derivatives resulting from the presence in the imidazole ring of the mercapto, methyl, carbonyl, or benzyl groups are inactive: these substitutions appear to destroy the significant radioprotective activity of the imidazole, 2 - that benzimidazole, on the contrary, seems to possess highly interesting properties. The percentage of survivals obtained with mice treated with benzimidazole and exposed to lethal irradiation has encouraged the authors to undertake careful study of this substance, with a view to define optimum activity conditions, and to determine the mechanism responsible for its radioprotective action. Further on and so as to of clarify certain points that might give useful data concerning the mechanisms of action of radioprotective chemicals, in respect of each of the products the authors have studied: a - the action of these bodies on the internal temperature of mice, b - their radioprotective activity in vitro, in a solution of irradiated hemin. (authors) [fr

  15. Response of maize to reduced urea application combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiuying; WANG Zhengyin

    2006-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the response to application rate of urea labeled with 15 N combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists in the growth, yield, uptake and utilization rate of urea of maize. In pot experiment, the standard urea application rate is 120 mg/perpot; in field experiment, the standard urea application rate is 157.5 kg/hm 2 . Maize with 15 N-urea. The results showed that the growth of maize seedling was obviously promoted with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20%-60% of N). The treatments of urea application rate reduced by 5%-15% and added compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists, the growth and nitrogen content of maize were not significant changed, and the total 15 N uptake and nitrogen uptake by maize were the same as CK 2 or increased a little. Nitrogen use efficiency of other treatments increased by 5.6%-7.3% comparing with CK, except the treatment of urea application rate reduced by 30%. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 7.7%-17.0%. Under the field condition, maize yield, total uptake, net uptake, physiological rate and agronomic use efficiency of nitrogen were the same as CK or increased. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 14.8%-15.2% treated with urea reduced by 5%-15% (7.8-23.7 kg/hm 2 ) and added with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. It was not helpful for the growth and nitrogen utilization rate of maize when urea reduced by 30% and combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. As a result, treated with urea decreased by 15% and combined with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20% of urea), the growth and yield of maize had litter effect and higher the uptake and utilization of nitrogen. (authors)

  16. Transporte de compostos nitrogenados em soja cultivada com diferentes fontes de nitrogênio Xylem sap composition of soybean plants treated with different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1987-01-01

    the xylem sap. Nodulated plants were treated with nutrient solution either containing NO3- (15 mM, or NH4+ (10 mM, or without nitrogen (control for 7 days, near the flowering period. Higher proportion of alantoic acid was found relative to allantoin, and this proportion increased in plants grown on mineral N. The NH4+ ion had an intermediary effect compared to the other N-assimilatory processes, with respect to the quantity of N transported to the aerial parts, suggesting that the mecanism of transport depended on the interaction between the soil mineral nitrogen and the energy available. Asparagin was the amino acid in the greatest quantity in the xylem, independent of the treatment. Ammonium did not alter the levels of N-NH4+ in the sap, but increased slightly the level of NO3-. Nitrate caused slight increase in aspartic acid and large in NO3- content in the sap. These results suggested that the differences in the amino acid synthesis proceeded of a specific pathway of nitrogen uptake.

  17. Prediction model of biocrude yield and nitrogen heterocyclic compounds analysis by hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lili; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The model of biocrude yield and the nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction are two of the most concerned issues in this field at present. This study explored a hydrothermal liquefaction biocrude yield model involved in the interaction among biochemical compounds in microalgae and analysed nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude. The model compound (castor oil, soya protein and glucose) and Nanochloropsis were liquefied at 280°C for 1h. The products were analyzed by GC-MS, element analysis and FTIR. The results suggested that interactions among different components in microalgae enhanced biocrude yield. The biocrude yield prediction model involved cross-interactions performed more accurate than previous models.When the ratio of protein and carbohydrate around 3, the cross-interaction and nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude would both reach the highest extent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Kondo, Shigeo; Sekiya, Akira

    2008-06-30

    Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds, i.e., ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), ethylamine (C2H5NH2), and propylamine (C3H7NH2), were carried out to assess the flammability of potential natural refrigerants. The spherical-vessel (SV) method was used to measure the burning velocity over a wide range of sample and air concentrations. In addition, flame propagation was directly observed by the schlieren photography method, which showed that the spherical flame model was applicable to flames with a burning velocity higher than approximately 5 cm s(-1). For CH3NH2, the nozzle burner method was also used to confirm the validity of the results obtained by closed vessel methods. We obtained maximum burning velocities (Su0,max) of 7.2, 24.7, 26.9, and 28.3 cm s(-1) for NH3, CH3NH2, C2H5NH2, and C3H7NH2, respectively. It was noted that the burning velocities of NH3 and CH3NH2 were as high as those of the typical hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants difluoromethane (HFC-32, Su0,max=6.7 cm s(-1)) and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, Su0,max=23.6 cm s(-1)), respectively. The burning velocities were compared with those of the parent alkanes, and it was found that introducing an NH2 group into hydrocarbon molecules decreases their burning velocity.

  19. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Understanding chemistry behind secondary aerosol production from nitrogen and sulfur compounds from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural emissions impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Evidence from laboratory and field work suggest that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but nitrogen and sulfur containing volatile organic compounds also contribute. ...

  1. Distribution and utilization of nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules by plants during seeds developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Severino Matias de

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out, using radioisotopes, for evaluation of the leaf, schuck and seeds areas and, examination of the pattern which is used by the nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules

  2. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  3. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  4. Investigating differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of organic compounds between zucchini, squash and soybean using a pressure chamber method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Naho; Doucette, William J; White, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    A pressure chamber method was used to examine differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of caffeine (log Kow=-0.07), triclocarban (log Kow=3.5-4.2) and endosulfan (log Kow=3.8-4.8) for zucchini (cucurbita pepo ssp pepo), squash (cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera), and soybean (glycine max L.). Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) for caffeine (TSCF=0.8) were statistically equivalent for all plant species. However, for the more hydrophobic endosulfan and triclocarban, the TSCF values for zucchini (TSCF=0.6 and 0.4, respectively) were 3 and 10 times greater than the soybean and squash (TSCF=0.2 and 0.05, respectively). The difference in TSCF values was examined by comparing the measured solubilities of caffeine, endosulfan and triclocarban in deionized water to those in soybean and zucchini xylem saps using a modified shake flask method. The measured solubility of organic contaminants in xylem sap has not previously been reported. Caffeine solubilities in the xylem saps of soybean and zucchini were statistically equal to deionized water (21500mgL(-1)) while endosulfan and triclocarban solubilities in the zucchini xylem sap were significantly greater (0.43 and 0.21mgL(-1), respectively) than that of the soybean xylem sap (0.31 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively) and deionized water (0.34 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively). This suggests that the enhanced root to shoot transfer of hydrophobic organics reported for zucchini is partly due to increased solubility in the xylem sap. Further xylem sap characterization is needed to determine the mechanism of solubility enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The formation of nitrogeneous compounds in the γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horigome, Keiichi; Hirokami, Shun-ichi; Sato, Shin

    1978-01-01

    The γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane have been reinvestigated. A complete survey of nitrogen-containing products has been attempted. The nitrogeneous compounds observed were ammonia (0.7) and hydrogen azide (0.02) in the case of hydrogen, ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.1), methyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of methane, and ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.05), acetonitrile (0.04), ethyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of ethane. The values in parentheses are the G-values obtained at optimum conditions. The hydrolysis of the polymer obtained with methane gave formaldehyde in amounts which correspond to the fact that the G-value of the nitrogen atoms which were converted into the polymer is about 1.0. In order to explain these results, possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. (auth.)

  7. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: Influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gil, A. M.; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Félix Lara, J.; Pardo, F.; Rosario Salinas, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids...

  8. Formation of nitrogen-containing compounds during microwave pyrolysis of microalgae: Product distribution and reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Tahmasebi, Arash; Maliutina, Kristina; Yu, Jianglong

    2017-12-01

    The formation of nitrogen-containing compounds in bio-oil during microwave pyrolysis of Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae has been investigated in this study. Activated carbon (AC) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were used as microwave receptors during microwave pyrolysis experiments. It has been found that the use of Fe 3 O 4 increased the total yield of bio-oil. The use of different microwave receptors did not seem to have affected the total yield of nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil. However, Fe 3 O 4 promoted the formation of nitrogen-containing aliphatics, thereby reducing the formation of nitrogen-containing aromatics. The use of AC promoted the dehydration reactions during amino acid decomposition, thereby enhancing the formation of nitrogen-containing aromatics during pyrolysis. From the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis results, the major high-value nitrogen-containing compounds in the pyrolysis bio-oil of Chlorella and Spirulina were identified as indole and dodecamide. The formation mechanisms of nitrogen-containing compounds were proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less...... clear for reduced and oxidized nitrogen. In fact there are positive trends for nitrogen compounds in air at several stations. Acidity is generally reduced at many stations while the precipitation amount is either increasing or stable. Variability of sulphate concentrations in air for the period 1991......-2000 is reasonably well reproduced at most stations using an Eulerian, hemispherical model. Results for nitrogen compounds are weaker. Scenario studies show that even if large sulphur emission reductions take place in important source regions in South-East Asia in the coming decades, only small changes in Arctic...

  10. Nitrogen metabolism and microbial production of dairy cows fed sugarcane and nitrogen compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Geógenes da Silva; Pedreira,Marcio dos Santos; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Santos,Dimas Oliveira; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antonio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets containing two different sources of urea on nitrogen metabolism and microbial synthesis. Eight crossbred cows were confined and distributed in two 4x4 Latin: FS - soybean meal (control), conventional urea (UC) 100%; ULL 44 UC = 56% / 44% ULL, ULL 88 UC = 12% / 88% ULL. Diets were offered to animals during 21 days with 14 days of adaptation. The N intake, retained nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion in milk, urine, feces and ...

  11. Efficiency of nitrogen in NP compound (Mixed) fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Peng Genyuan; Wang Fujun

    1990-01-01

    Pot experiments with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) were designed to study the utilization rate of different forms of 15 N labelled components of fertilizers and the efficiency of N residual in soil. Results showed that: 1. Three kinds of fertilizers (nitrophosphate, urea + MAP, and urea + superphosphate) gave the same effect on the yields of wheat when they were used as a basal fertilizer. 2. The utilization rate of fertilizer nitrogen by the shoot of wheat depends on the nitrogen form rather than type and composition of fertilizer. The utilization rates are 35.0% for NH 4 + in urea + MAP; 31.4% for NH 4 + in nitrophosphate; 28.1% for urea N in urea + MAP; 24.8% for NO 3 - in nitrophosphate. Among the three forms, the NO 3 - of nitrophosphate was of the highest soil residual rate (48.9%) and the nitrogen in NH 4 H 2 PO 4 had the lowest loss (22.7%). 3. All types of tested fertilizers applied to spring wheat as basal nutrient were of equal effect on grain yield of the subsequently planted rice. 7.2%-8.9% of 15 N labelled components of fertilizers applied to spring wheat as basal nutrient were utilized by rice plants (grain + straw)

  12. Soil biochemical properties of grassland ecosystems under anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrevatykh, Irina; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Inflow of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems nowadays increases dramatically, that might be led to disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles and landscapes structure. Production of nitrogen fertilizers is one of the air pollution sources, namely by nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-). Air pollution by nitrogen compounds of terrestrial ecosystems might be affected on soil biochemical properties, which results increasing mineral nitrogen content in soil, changing soil P/N and Al/Ca ratios, and, finally, the deterioration of soil microbial community functioning. The research is focused on the assessment of anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds on soil properties of grassland ecosystems in European Russia. Soil samples (Voronic Chernozem Pachic, upper 10 cm mineral layer, totally 10) were taken from grassland ecosystem: near (5-10 m) nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), and far from it (20-30 km, served as a control) in Tula region. In soil samples the NH4+ and NO3- (Kudeyarov's photocolorimetric method), P, Ca, Al (X-ray fluorescence method) contents were measured. Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration method. Soil microbial respiration (MR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) was calculated as MR/Cmic ratio. Near NFF the soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents were a strongly varied, variation coefficient (CV) was 42 and 86This study was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research Grant No. 14-04-00098, 15-44-03220, 15-04-00915.

  13. Formation of Haloacetonitriles, Haloacetamides, and Nitrogenous Heterocyclic Byproducts by Chloramination of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihemaiti, Maolida; Le Roux, Julien; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Reckhow, David A; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-03

    The potential formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) was investigated from the chloramination of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous aromatic compounds. All molecules led to the formation of known N-DBPs (e.g., dichloroacetonitrile, dichloroacetamide) with various production yields. Resorcinol, a major precursor of chloroform, also formed di/trichloroacetonitrile, di/trichloroacetamide, and haloacetic acids, indicating that it is a precursor of both N-DBPs and carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs) upon chloramination. More detailed experiments were conducted on resorcinol to understand N-DBPs formation mechanisms and to identify reaction intermediates. Based on the accurate mass from high resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight GC-MS (GC-QTOF) and fragmentation patterns from electronic impact and positive chemical ionization modes, several products were tentatively identified as nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (e.g., 3-chloro-5-hydroxy-1H-pyrrole-2-one with dichloromethyl group, 3-chloro-2,5-pyrroledione). These products were structurally similar to the heterocyclic compounds formed during chlorination, such as the highly mutagenic MX (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) or halogenated pyrroles. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of halogenated nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds is reported from chloramination process. The formation of these nitrogenous byproducts during chloramination might be of concern considering their potential toxicity.

  14. synthesis and labelling of some nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    the imidazole nucleus has wide range of pharmaceutical activities . also , radioiodinated compounds are used in nuclear medicine. this thesis deals with the synthesis of 2-(iodophenyl)-4-oxazoline-5-ons e, which are used as starting materials in the synthesis of the corresponding imidazolinone derivatives. also, it deals with radioiodination f the synthesized compounds to evaluate their application in nuclear medicine. interaction of o- iodo hippuric acid (I) with aromatic aldehydes (i.e., benzaldehyde, p- methoxybenzaldehyde and p- nitrobenzaldehyde) in acetic anhydride and in the presence of fused sodium acetate effected cyclization to afford the corresponding 2-(2-iodophenyl)-4-arylidene- 2-oxazoline-5-ones(l l a-c )

  15. Thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric study on the evolution of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [Department of Energy and Environment, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion are a major environmental problem. The chemically bound nitrogen in fuel accounts for up to 80% of total NO{sub x} emissions. In this respect, fundamental studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and to identify the different species that are precursors in the formation of the NO{sub x}. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for decades as a successful technique in evolved gas analysis. However, MS is normally used to identify typical volatile compounds formed during coal pyrolysis (i.e. H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) but very few works on the detection by MS of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation can be found. In this work, the possibility of detecting different nitrogen compounds by means of thermogravimetric-MS during the temperature-programmed pyrolysis of coal was evaluated. Interferences in the N-compounds MS signals were determined. The use of model compounds provided additional information on the MS response factors of the volatile compounds produced.

  16. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Solar-wind interactions with the Moon: nature and composition of nitrogen compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    The lunar atmosphere and magnetic field are very tenuous. The solar wind, therefore, interacts directly with the lunar surface material and the dominant nature of interaction is essentially complete absorption of solar-wind particles by the surface material resulting in no upstream bowshock, but a cavity downstream. The solar-wind nitrogen ion species induce and undergo a complex set of reactions with the elements of lunar material and the solar-wind-derived trapped elements. The nitrogen concentration indigeneous to the lunar surface material is practically nil. Therefore any nitrogen and nitrogen compounds found in the lunar surface material are due to the solar-wind implantation of nitrogen ions. The flux of the solar-wind nitrogen ion species is about 6 X 10 3 cm -2 s -1 . Since there is no evidence for accumulation of nitrogen species in the lunar surface material, the outflux of nitrogen species from the lunar material to the atmosphere is the same as the solar-wind nitrogen ion flux. The species of the outflux are primarily NO and NH 3 , and their respective concentrations in the near surface lunar atmosphere are found to be 327 and 295 cm -3 . (Auth.)

  18. Removal of organic nitrogen compounds in LCO reduces the hydrodesulphurization severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Chen, J.; Ring, Z. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada and the United States committed to reducing diesel sulphur from 500 to 15 part per million by 2006. Refineries could benefit from a better understanding of the effects of feed matrix on sulphur removal by hydrodesulphurization (HDS) in selecting the right feed or feed pre-treatment options for their existing HDS units and achieve the required sulphur level at minimum cost. This paper presented a study that examined the influence of nitrogen compounds on the HDS activities of substituted dibenzothiophenes in light oil cycle over a nitrogen/molybdenum on alumina oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commercial catalyst using five light cycle oil feeds with different concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds. The paper discussed experiments that were conducted under conditions close to industrial HDS processes. The paper addressed feed preparation; the nitrogen effect on HDS reactivity of dibenzothiophene, 4-methyldibenzothiophene, and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene; sulphur composition analysis; hydrodenitrogenation; and kinetic modeling. It was concluded that organic nitrogen compounds have more of an inhibition effect on sulphur removal by the hydrogenation pathway than by the hydrogenolysis pathway. Nitrogen removal by feed pre-treatment was found to be an attractive alternative to achieve the ultra-low sulphur goal. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Nitrogenous compounds changes in emersed oysters: Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafrafi, Sarra; Uglow, Roger F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of emersing oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) for up to 66 h at 4 °C under humid air and nitrogen atmospheres were studied. A significant, gradual body mass loss occurred under nitrogen (8.36 ± 0.85% final weight loss) but no significant loss occurred under humid air (4.92 ± 2.67% final weight loss). Emersion duration and the mantle cavity fluid (MCF) total ammonia (TA) concentration showed a positive, linear relationship ( r2 = 0.73 and 0.74 under humid air and N 2, respectively). The MCF TA and trimethylamine (TMA) contents were also positively related ( r2 = 0.64 and 0.69 under humid air and N 2, respectively). Proline was the most abundant soft tissue free amino acid (71.07 ± 11.8%) in the control group and its concentration did not change significantly under either treatment. The concentration of alanine and valine increased significantly only under humid air. Under N 2, the concentrations of valine and lysine increased significantly and aspartate decreased significantly. Succinate showed a large increase during the first 6 h of emersion under both treatments but significantly more was accumulated in the N 2-exposed group (4.2-fold increase and 8.1-fold increase for the humid air- and N 2-exposed groups, respectively). The succinate concentration difference remained higher in the N 2-treated groups but, in the final 24 h, levels decreased again (quadratic regressions of r2 = 0.97 and 0.95 under humid air and N 2, respectively). Although the trend of succinate accumulation was similar under both treatments, the groups held under nitrogen did not gape (whereas those under humid air did). It is concluded that the implications of gaping behaviour on succinate accumulation in the initial hours of emersion have considerable ecological significance for oysters which occupy habitats in which they may become emersed for some hours naturally. Gaping behaviour also has considerable commercial implications because emersion occurs frequently during the marketing

  20. Thermal degradation of the vapours of organic nitrogen compounds in the presence of the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brault, A.; Chevalier, G.; Kerfanto, M.; Loyer, H.

    1983-04-01

    Following a quick survey of the literature on the products originated during the thermal degradation of some organic nitrogen compounds, the experimental results obtained by applying a technique previously used for other organic compounds are presented. The compounds investigated include: methyl and ethylamines at the origin of the bad smells of many gaseous wastes, trilaurylamine and tetraethylenediamine sometimes used in nuclear facilities. Attention is brought on the emission of noxious products during thermal degradation in the presence of the air, at various temperatures, viz. either usual combustion gases such as carbon monoxide, or nitro-derivatives such as hydrogen cyanide present whatever the compound investigated when temperatures are below 850 0 C [fr

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J.J.

    1988-12-01

    The work carried out during the first year of a four year Danish-Irish contract with the European Economic Community is described. The reactions of OH radicals with dialkyl sulfides and nitroalkanes have been studied applying both an absolute technique of pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopy and a relative rate method using conventional smog chamber facilities. The reactions of OH with dimethyl sulfide and nitromethane have been investigated in special detail. Rate constants for reaction of Cl atoms with the same compounds have been determing using the relative rate method. (author)

  2. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Basic nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds in the Murchison meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoks, P.G.; Schwartz, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A fragment of the Murchison (C2) carbonaceous meteorite was analyzed for basic, N-heterocyclic compounds, by dual detector capillary gas chromatography as well as capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using two columns of different polarity. In the formic acid extract 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, 2-methylquinoline and 4-methylquinoline were positively identified. In addition, a suite of alkylpyridines and quinolines and/or isoquinolines was tentatively identified from their mass spectra. The (iso)quinolines were found to contain methyl substituents exclusively. The distribution of the pyridines observed reveals a similarity to that observed from catalytic reactions of ammonia and simple aldehydes under conditions similar to those applied in Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. (author)

  4. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less ...

  5. Recovery of valuable nitrogen compounds from agricultural liquid wastes: potential possibilities, bottlenecks and future technological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Klapwijk, A.; Willers, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural liquid livestock wastes are an important potential source of valuable nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and proteins. Large volumetric quantities of these wastes are produced in areas with a high livestock production density. Much technological research has been carried out

  6. Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Nitrogen Source Preferences: Impact on Sequential Fermentation and Wine Volatile Compounds Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Antoine; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Morge, Christophe; Sparrow, Céline; Liu, Youzhong; Quintanilla-Casas, Beatriz; Vichi, Stefania; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S. cerevisiae in sequential fermentation has been little studied. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we studied the use of amino acids and ammonium by three strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Starmerella bacillaris, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Pichia membranifaciens) in grape juice. We first determined which nitrogen sources were preferentially used by these yeasts in pure cultures at 28 and 20°C (because few data are available). We then carried out sequential fermentations at 20°C with S. cerevisiae, to assess the impact of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the availability of assimilable nitrogen for S. cerevisiae. Finally, 22 volatile compounds were quantified in sequential fermentation and their levels compared with those in pure cultures of S. cerevisiae. We report here, for the first time, that non-Saccharomyces yeasts have specific amino-acid consumption profiles. Histidine, methionine, threonine, and tyrosine were not consumed by S. bacillaris, aspartic acid was assimilated very slowly by M. pulcherrima, and glutamine was not assimilated by P. membranifaciens. By contrast, cysteine appeared to be a preferred nitrogen source for all non-Saccharomyces yeasts. In sequential fermentation, these specific profiles of amino-acid consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts may account for some of the

  7. Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Nitrogen Source Preferences: Impact on Sequential Fermentation and Wine Volatile Compounds Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Gobert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S. cerevisiae in sequential fermentation has been little studied. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we studied the use of amino acids and ammonium by three strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Starmerella bacillaris, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Pichia membranifaciens in grape juice. We first determined which nitrogen sources were preferentially used by these yeasts in pure cultures at 28 and 20°C (because few data are available. We then carried out sequential fermentations at 20°C with S. cerevisiae, to assess the impact of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the availability of assimilable nitrogen for S. cerevisiae. Finally, 22 volatile compounds were quantified in sequential fermentation and their levels compared with those in pure cultures of S. cerevisiae. We report here, for the first time, that non-Saccharomyces yeasts have specific amino-acid consumption profiles. Histidine, methionine, threonine, and tyrosine were not consumed by S. bacillaris, aspartic acid was assimilated very slowly by M. pulcherrima, and glutamine was not assimilated by P. membranifaciens. By contrast, cysteine appeared to be a preferred nitrogen source for all non-Saccharomyces yeasts. In sequential fermentation, these specific profiles of amino-acid consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts may account for

  8. Positive and negative effects of nitrogen compounds on plants in the vicinity of a fertilizer factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, G

    1975-05-01

    At a distance of 300 m from a fertilizer plant, various grains and fodder plants, as well as spinach, string beans, and peas, were grown consecutively over a period of several years to determine the effects of various concentrations of nitrogen compounds emitted by a fertilizer plant on the cultivations. Injuries that were similar to those observed in fumigation experiments with nitrogen dioxide were observed in the leaves of the experimental plants. In relatively high concentrations, pollutants containing nitrogen were as toxic as sulfur dioxide. Lower concentrations had a positive stimulatory effect and increased vegetative growth. Legumes were the most sensitive to nitrogen pollutants. Production of chlorophyll was reduced in lupine and Alexandrine clover, although no visible injuries were observed. Nodule development of the lupine was significantly restricted. The contamination of food and fodder plants by nitrates was significant and was found to present a real danger to humans through the food chain.

  9. Comparison of sugars, iridoid glycosides and amino acids in nectar and phloem sap of Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, Gertrud; Schwerdtfeger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Floral nectar contains sugars and amino acids to attract pollinators. In addition, nectar also contains different secondary compounds, but little is understood about their origin or function. Does nectar composition reflect phloem composition, or is nectar synthesized and/or modified in nectaries? Studies where both, the nectar as well as the phloem sap taken from the same plant species were analyzed in parallel are rare. Therefore, phloem sap and nectar from different plant species (Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus) were compared. Nectar was collected with microcapillary tubes and phloem sap with the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The nectar of all three plant species contained high amounts of sugars with different percentages of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, whereas phloem sap sugars consisted almost exclusively of sucrose. One possible reason for this could be the activity of invertases in the nectaries. The total concentration of amino acids was much lower in nectars than in phloem sap, indicating selective retention of nitrogenous solutes during nectar formation. Nectar amino acid concentrations were negatively correlated with the nectar volumes per flower of the different plant species. Both members of the tribe Antirrhineae (Plantaginaceae) M. barclayana and L. erubescens synthesized the iridoid glycoside antirrhinoside. High amounts of antirrhinoside were found in the phloem sap and lower amounts in the nectar of both plant species. The parallel analyses of nectar and phloem sap have shown that all metabolites which were found in nectar were also detectable in phloem sap with the exception of hexoses. Otherwise, the composition of both aqueous solutions was not the same. The concentration of several metabolites was lower in nectar than in phloem sap indicating selective retention of some metabolites. Furthermore, the existence of antirrhinoside in nectar could be based on passive secretion from the phloem.

  10. Comparison of sugars, iridoid glycosides and amino acids in nectar and phloem sap of Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lohaus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Floral nectar contains sugars and amino acids to attract pollinators. In addition, nectar also contains different secondary compounds, but little is understood about their origin or function. Does nectar composition reflect phloem composition, or is nectar synthesized and/or modified in nectaries? Studies where both, the nectar as well as the phloem sap taken from the same plant species were analyzed in parallel are rare. Therefore, phloem sap and nectar from different plant species (Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus were compared. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nectar was collected with microcapillary tubes and phloem sap with the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The nectar of all three plant species contained high amounts of sugars with different percentages of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, whereas phloem sap sugars consisted almost exclusively of sucrose. One possible reason for this could be the activity of invertases in the nectaries. The total concentration of amino acids was much lower in nectars than in phloem sap, indicating selective retention of nitrogenous solutes during nectar formation. Nectar amino acid concentrations were negatively correlated with the nectar volumes per flower of the different plant species. Both members of the tribe Antirrhineae (Plantaginaceae M. barclayana and L. erubescens synthesized the iridoid glycoside antirrhinoside. High amounts of antirrhinoside were found in the phloem sap and lower amounts in the nectar of both plant species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The parallel analyses of nectar and phloem sap have shown that all metabolites which were found in nectar were also detectable in phloem sap with the exception of hexoses. Otherwise, the composition of both aqueous solutions was not the same. The concentration of several metabolites was lower in nectar than in phloem sap indicating selective retention of some metabolites. Furthermore, the existence of

  11. Supramolecular compounds of indium sulfates with nitrogen-containing cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Ilyukhin, A.B.; Ketsko, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Compounds with a general formula [Cat][In(H 2 O) n (SO 4 ) 2 ] x · mH 2 O (where Cat = C(NH 2 ) 3 , H(2,2'-Bipy), H 2 (4,4'-Bipy), H 2 [Py(CH 2 ) 3 Py], and H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ) were synthesized and identified from the elemental analysis, IR, and thermogravimetric analysis data. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline [C(NH 2 ) 3 ][In(H 2 O) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ] complex has shown that the polymer chains of In aqua sulfate form ensembles with guanidinium ions. The structure of [H 2 (4,4'-Bipy)][In 2 (H 2 O) 6 (SO 4 ) 4 ] · 2H 2 O consists of the dimeric anions of indium sulfate. The coordination sphere of In includes three O atoms of three SO 4 groups and three O atoms of water molecules. The dimers are united into framework by diprotonated Bipy cations [ru

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  13. A study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Moreno, A.H.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2001-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides during combustion are a major environmental problem. The chemically bound nitrogen in fuel accounts for up to 80% of total NOx emissions. In this respect, fundamental studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and to identify the different species that are precursors in the formation of the NOx. In this work, two methodologies were employed. Simultaneous thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis was used to study the pyrolysis behaviour of three coals of varying rank. The release of different nitrogen compounds was followed by means of temperature-programmed pyrolysis experiments. The influence of coal rank on the evolution of volatile compounds was also considered. In addition, a series of coal chars with different burn-off degrees were obtained in a bench scale fluidised bed reactor, using the same parent coal. The evolution of gaseous compounds arising from the thermal treatment of the partially burned chars was studied in the TG-MS system. It was found that the different chemical structure of the chars exerted some influence on the evolution of the gaseous compounds during the devolatilisation process. Finally, the evolution of the volatile compounds was also studied in the bench scale fluidised bed reactor. Special attention was given to the formation of N{sub 2}O during the pyrolysis of the coals used. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incidents' refer to 'incidents such as labour disputes and dissatisfaction with service delivery in which violence erupted and SAPS action was required to restore peace and order'.26. It is apparent from both the SAPS statistics and those provided by the Municipal IQ Hotspots. Monitor, that public protests and gatherings are.

  15. Incidence of nitrogenous compounds of must on ethyl carbamate formation induced by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Suárez Lepe

    2007-12-01

    Significance and impact of study: The composition of the nitrogen status of must has frequently been said to be a factor of concern on the final urethane concentration of wines. High contents of arginine coming from over fertilised vineyards are known to render significant levels of urea after alcoholic fermentation if conducted by arginase (+ yeast strains. This urea is always likely to undergo ethanolysis. No significant correlations were found between any of the nitrogenous compounds tested and final EC. High levels of arginine in the starting must did not lead to greater EC concentrations in the resulting wines.

  16. Isotope Investigations of Nitrogen Compounds in Different Aquatic Ecosystems in Cyprus, Russia and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voropaev, A.; Voerkelius, S.; Eichinger, L. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Grinenko, V. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The isotope analyses of nitrogen compounds is a powerful tool for the investigation of anrthropogenic influence on the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The isotopic composition of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrates from different groundwater aquifers in Cyprus reflects anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen mainly from industrial fertilizer application in agriculture. Significant denitrification as identified at many sampling sites is an important process, which reduces nitrate concentrations in groundwater. In surface water ecosystems anthropogenic influences and natural environmental changes are detected by the isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended organic material and in bottom sediments. In the oligotrophic fresh water of Lake Galich in Russia the waste water outflow is a reason for the local increase of {delta}{sup 15}N values in bottom sediments, where the nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of unpolluted sediments are very homogeneous. In the Neva estuary in russia the lateral destribution of {delta}{sup 15}N values in upper layers of bottom sediments reflects changes in the mixing pattern of marine and continental organic matter caused by a flood protection dam building in the Dneprovsko-Bugsky estuary in Ukraine - probably the increasing influence of anthropogenic {sup 15}N enriched nutrient load. (author)

  17. Germination of some important weeds influenced by red light and nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanfg, Dong-Seng; Hamayun, M.; Khan, A.L.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kim, H.A.; Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, Joon-Hee; Chae-In; Nawaz, Y.; Kang, Kee-Kyung; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy is a major constraint in the eradication of weeds from agriculture fields. Seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinocloa crus-galli and Digitaria adscendens were collected from cultivated fields, dried and then treated with different nitrogen containing compounds i.e., potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Some seeds were kept under dark while others were irradiated with red light for 10 min., after 12 hr of inhibition. The N-compounds were applied at the rate of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM, while the strength of red light pulse was maintained at 80 mu mols/sup -2/m/sup -1/. It was observed that red light significantly improved germination rates of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. adscendens. Nitrogenous compounds significantly improved germination of weeds and maximum germination was induced by ammonium nitrate. However, exposure of seeds to both red light and N-compounds provided significantly higher germination as compared to singular application of either of them. E. crusgalli recorded highest germination rates in response to red light and N-compounds, while D. adscendens provided least values for the same treatments. Application of N-compounds in conjunction with red light significantly improves germination rates of selected weed species by breaking their dormancy. (author)

  18. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  19. Removal of nitrogen compounds from Brazilian petroleum samples by oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, L.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: pergher@uricer.edu.br; Oliveira, J.V. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Souza, W.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-10-15

    This work reports liquid-liquid extraction of nitrogen compounds from oxidized and non-oxidized Brazilian petroleum samples. The experiments were accomplished in a laboratory-scale liquid-liquid apparatus in the temperature range of 303 K-323 K, using methanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF), and their mixtures as extraction solvents, employing solvent to sample volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1, exploring up to three separation stages. Results show that an increase in temperature, solvent to oil ratio, and number of equilibrium stages greatly improves the nitrogen removal from the oxidized sample (from 2600 to 200 ppm). The employed oxidation scheme is thus demonstrated to be an essential and efficient step of sample preparation for the selective liquid-liquid removal of nitrogen compounds. It is shown that the use of mixtures of DMF and NMP as well their use as co-solvents with methanol did not prove to be useful for selective nitrogen extraction since great oil losses were observed in the final process. (author)

  20. Key intermediates in nitrogen transformation during microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge: a protein model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Tian, Yu; Cui, Yanni; Zuo, Wei; Tan, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The nitrogen transformations with attention to NH3 and HCN were investigated at temperatures of 300-800°C during microwave pyrolysis of a protein model compound. The evolution of nitrogenated compounds in the char, tar and gas products were conducted. The amine-N, heterocyclic-N and nitrile-N compounds were identified as three important intermediates during the pyrolysis. NH3 and HCN were formed with comparable activation energies competed to consume the same reactive substances at temperatures of 300-800°C. The deamination and dehydrogenation of amine-N compounds from protein cracking contributed to the formation of NH3 (about 8.9% of Soy-N) and HCN (6.6%) from 300 to 500°C. The cracking of nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N compounds from the dehydrogenation and polymerization of amine-N generated HCN (13.4%) and NH3 (31.3%) between 500 and 800°C. It might be able to reduce the HCN and NH3 emissions through controlling the intermediates production at temperatures of 500-800°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immobilized periphytic cyanobacteria for removal of nitrogenous compounds and phosphorus from shrimp farm wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    BANERJEE, SANJOY; KHATOON, HELENA; SHARIFF, MOHAMED; YUSOFF, FATIMAH

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can be used to remove nitrogenous compounds from wastewater, but a major bottleneck in the process is the separation of cyanobacterial biomass from the treated water discharge, which may cause eutrophication. The current study assessed the suitability of three periphytic cyanobacteria (Geitlerinema sp., Gloeotrichia sp., and Lyngbya sp.) isolated from shrimp ponds. These cyanobacteria were immobilized by self-adhesion to polyvinyl chloride sheets, forming mats, and were screened...

  2. Transformation and Deposition of Sulphur and Nitrogen Compounds in the Marine Boundary Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O

    1995-10-01

    In this thesis the author performs a model study of the transformation and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the marine boundary layer, including source-receptor relationships. The central part of the study is the development and testing of a variable scale trajectory model for Europe, with special emphasis on modelling the concentrations of gases and aerosols in the marine atmosphere and the deposition to sea. A one-dimensional version of the model was developed to model the chemical degradation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the marine boundary layer. Although the model reproduces the observed levels of DMS and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) well, the calculated DMS concentration is not always in phase with observed levels, probably because of a local coastal emission that is correlated with the shifting tide. Another version of the trajectory model, Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model (ACDEP), was developed to study the deposition of nitrogen compounds to the Danish sea waters. This model uses a new numerical scheme, the Eulerian Backward Iterative method. The model is able to reproduce observations of air concentrations and wet deposition fairly well; data for dry deposition were not available. The model was also used for calculation of deposition of nitrogen compounds to the Kattegat. Finally, a sensitivity study was performed on the model. 175 refs., 87 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: heterocyclic nitrogen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Merski, Jerome A; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, 2,3-diethylpyrazine (DEP), 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), and 2-acetyl pyridine (AP), are naturally present in tobacco and are also added to tobacco as flavor ingredients. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes containing the three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds added individually at three different levels. The lowest target inclusion level of the ingredient was 10 ppm, and the highest was 10,000 ppm. Smoke from experimental and control cigarettes was evaluated in analytical smoke chemistry, in vitro cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity assays. The cigarettes with added DEP produced some minor (approximately 10%) changes in smoke chemistry when compared with the cigarettes containing no DEP. Smoke chemistry was effectively unchanged by the addition of either AP or TMP. Cytotoxicity, assessed by the neutral red uptake assay using both gas-vapor and particulate phases of smoke, was unaffected by the addition of any of the test ingredients. Mutagenicity, assessed in five strains of Salmonella treated with mainstream cigarette smoke condensate, also was unaffected by any of the test ingredients. Despite the exaggerated ingredient levels relative to commercial-use levels, there was a lack of a toxicological response for the three heterocyclic nitrogen compounds in the test systems used.

  4. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  5. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  6. Influence of the compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of herbage in mixed and pure culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjun; Hua Luo

    2002-01-01

    Under pot culture, the influence of compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of ryegrass in mono-culture and ryegrass/clover in mixture were studied on yellow brown earth which collected from sub-tropic mountain sward of southern China. The result showed as follows: (1) The percentage of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa) was decreased by nitrogen application in early growth stage and suitable amount of nitrogen application increased it in later growth stage. The % Ndfa of white clover in mixture was the highest with 6 mg/kg zinc application in all nitrogen levels. The transfer of fixed nitrogen by white clover to ryegrass was decreased by nitrogen application and increased by low amount of zinc application. (2) The percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) was significantly increased by nitrogen application, of which the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application was higher than other zinc application treatments on ryegrass in monoculture, and the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application on white clover/ryegrass in mixture was lower than other zinc treatments at the range from 30 to 90 mg/kg nitrogen application. (3) The percentage of nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs) of ryegrass both in pure and in mixture was significantly decreased as the increasing of the levels of nitrogen application, of which ryegrass in mono-culture was not obviously influenced by zinc application, and ryegrass/clover in mixture was decreased by 6-20 mg/kg zinc application under all nitrogen levels

  7. How intensive agriculture affects surface-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen and carbon compounds over peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, C.; Richter, U.; Schrader, F.; Hurkuck, M.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    Mid-latitude peatlands are often exposed to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition when located in close vicinity to agricultural land. As the impacts of altered deposition rates on nitrogen-limited ecosystems are poorly understood, we investigated the surface-atmosphere exchange of several nitrogen and carbon compounds using multiple high-resolution measurement techniques and modeling. Our study site was a protected semi-natural bog ecosystem. Local wind regime and land use in the adjacent area clearly regulated whether total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) concentrations were ammonia (NH3) or NOx-dominated. Eddy-covariance measurements of NH3 and ∑Nr revealed concentration, temperature and surface wetness-dependent deposition rates. Intermittent periods of NH3 and ∑Nr emission likely attributed to surface water re-emission and soil efflux, respectively, were found, thereby indicating nitrogen oversaturation in this originally N-limited ecosystem. Annual dry plus wet deposition resulted in 20 to 25 kg N ha-1 depending on method and model used, which translated into a four- to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load. As the bog site had likely been exposed to the observed atmospheric nitrogen burden over several decades, a shift in grass species' composition towards a higher number of nitrophilous plants was already visible. Three years of CO2 eddy flux measurements showed that the site was a small net sink in the range of 33 to 268 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions of 32 g CO2-eq were found to partly offset the sequestered carbon through CO2. Our study demonstrates the applicability of novel micrometeorological measurement techniques in biogeochemical sciences and stresses the importance of monitoring long-term changes in vulnerable ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure and climate change.

  8. Retardation effect of nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics on shale oil catalytic cracking processing and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Bin; Li, Shaojie; Yang, Chaohe; Chen, Xiaobo

    Untreated shale oil, shale oil treated with HCl aqueous solution and shale oil treated with HCl and furfural were used to do comparative experiments in fixed bed reactors. Nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics extracted by HCl and furfural were characterized by electrospray ionization Fourier transform cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, respectively. Compared with untreated shale oil, the conversion and yield of liquid products increased considerably after removing basic nitrogen compounds by HCl extraction. Furthermore, after removing nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics by both HCl and furfural, the conversion and yield of liquid products further increased. In addition, N 1 class species are predominant in both basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds, and they are probably indole, carbazole, cycloalkyl-carbazole, pyridine and cycloalkyl-pyridine. As for the condensed aromatics, most of them possess aromatic rings with two to three rings and zero to four carbon atom.

  9. MgO-templated nitrogen-containing carbons derived from different organic compounds for capacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Hidetaka; Onishi, Hiroaki; Azumi, Kazuhisa [Laboratory of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Noriko [Energy Technology Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Carbons containing nitrogen (C-N composites) were derived from three commercial organic compounds, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), polyacrylamide (PAA), and trimethylolmelamine (TMM) using the MgO template method. The C-N composites formed in nitrogen at 700-1000 C had nitrogen content, W{sub N}, of 3-23 mass% and the specific surface area by N{sub 2} adsorption, S{sub BET}, of 60-2000 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} without activation. Generally high nitrogen content of the starting compound led to larger W{sub N}, but W{sub N} was not proportional to the N/C mole ratio in the compounds. The value of S{sub BET} strongly depended on the compound: S{sub BET} (PVP) > S{sub BET} (PAA) >> S{sub BET} (TMM). There was a tendency for W{sub N} to decrease with increasing S{sub BET}. The capacitance measured in 1 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by cyclic voltammetry, C{sub M} in F g{sup -1}, suggested that both W{sub N} and S{sub BET} are influential in gaining large C{sub M}. For the composites with W{sub N} > 5 mass%, the capacitance normalized by S{sub BET}, C{sub A} = C{sub M}/S{sub BET}, was 0.17-0.65 F m{sup -2}, which was larger than the electric double layer capacitance (0.05-0.15 F m{sup -2}), indicating that the pseudo-capacitance contributes significantly to C{sub M}. The value of C{sub A} increased with increasing W{sub N}, but a correlation between C{sub A} and particular nitrogen species on the surface measured by XPS was obscure. It was suggested that the large C{sub A} is not simply explained by redox reactions of the surface functional groups. The composite derived from PAA at 900 C showed 234 F g{sup -1} at 2 mV s{sup -1} and 181 F g{sup -1} at 100 mV s{sup -1} with acceptable yield of the composite. (author)

  10. Nitrogen-oxy compounds formation in moist - N2 gaseous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.; Das, Tomi Nath

    2015-01-01

    In any high ionizing radiation zone continuous generation of nitrogen compounds such as NO 2 , NO 2 - and NO 3 - in aqueous and gas phase is a normal phenomena. Their formation mechanisms, and the control processes still pose a challenge with reference to the resulting corrosive environment generated, and it's effect on various structural materials used in nuclear industry. The source(s) of nitrogen for these products are mainly air which ingresses into the system, and/or nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, hydrazine, volatile amines used in different parts of the nuclear power plants to control pH and scavenge dissolved oxygen in coolant/moderator systems. Under high radiation environment their subsequent chemistry leads to the formation of various N-O compounds. With the objective to elucidate such reaction mechanisms, we studied and compared the chemistry of nitrogen in water and moist-nitrogen systems under the complimentary initiation techniques of cold plasma, wherein free electrons in eV energy range initiate the radical induced chemistry. In the gas phase, cold plasma produced NO and NO 2 which were confirmed on-line by respective absorbance measurement at 204, 214.5, 226 and 400 nm, while NO 2 - was analyzed as additional product after wet-chemical sampling in sulphanalic acid (0.5%) and N (1-naphthyl) ethylene diamine dihydrochloride (0.1%) mixed solution followed by absorbance measurement at 540 nm. This work was explored in three different systems: (i) N 2 from commercial high purity N 2 gas cylinder, (ii) N 2 from such source pretreated with activated silica gel (to reduce/minimize moisture concentration further) and (iii) N 2 bubbled through water (saturated moisture in N 2 system). The observed concentration of NO 2 - was found to be higher in moisture saturated N 2 system. In this presentation a brief summary of the results on various aspect of the formation of different N-O compounds during radiolysis of aqueous systems and gas phase cold

  11. Size effects on cation heats of formation. I. Methyl substitutions in nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat of formation of cations as a function of ln(n) where n is the number of atoms in the ion: methyl substituted immonium cations. N = substitution at nitrogen sites, C = substitution at carbon sites. Highlights: ► Heats of formation of nitrogenous cations by graphical method relating to ion size. ► Methyl substitution in formamides, acetamides, immonium, amine, and imine cations. ► Methyl substitution in ammonium and amino cations. ► New studies ionization energies and heats of formation required in several cases. - Abstract: The heats of formation of molecular ions are often not known to better than 10 or 20 kJ/mol. The present study on nitrogenous compounds adopts the graphical approach of Holmes and Lossing which relates cation heats of formation to cation size. A study of methyl substitution in formamides and acetamides is followed by an examination of heat of formation data on carbon-site and nitrogen-site methyl substitution in immonium, amine, imine, ammonium and amino cations. The results provide tests of the validity of this graphical method and also suggest investigating or re-investigating the ionization energies and the heats of formation of several of the molecules studied.

  12. Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts for visible response prepared by using organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nosaka, Masami Matsushita, Junichi Nishino and Atsuko Y. Nosaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize visible light in photocatalytic reactions, nitrogen atoms were doped in commercially available photocatalytic TiO2 powders by using an organic compound such as urea and guanidine. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicated that N atoms were incorporated into two different sites of the bulk phase of TiO2. A significant shift of the absorption edge to a lower energy and a higher absorption in the visible light region were observed. These N-doped TiO2 powders exhibited photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of 2-propanol in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity increased with the decrease of doped N atoms in O site, while decreased with decrease of the other sites. Degradation of photocatalytic activity based on the release of nitrogen atoms was observed for the reaction in the aqueous suspension system.

  13. Semi-microdetermination of nitrogen in actinide compounds by Dumas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, M.S.; Ruikar, P.B.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the application of the Dumas method for the semi-micro determination of nitrogen in actinide compounds and actinide complexes with organic ligands. The usual set up has been modified to make it adaptable for glove box operations. The carbon dioxide generator and nitrometer assemblies were located outside the glove box while the reaction tube and combustion furnaces were housed inside. The nitrogen gas collected in the nitrometer was read with the help of a travelling microscope with a vernier attachment fitted in front of the nitrometer burette. The set up was standardised using acetanilide and employed for the determination of nirtogen in various substances such as uranium nitride, and a variety of substituted quinoline and pyrazolone derivatives of actinides as well as some ternary uranium-PMBR-sulphoxide complexes. Full details of the technique and the analytical data obtained are contained in this report. (author)

  14. Decomposition and Ignition of the high-nitrogen compound triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Ali, Arif N.; Son, Steven F. [Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 High Explosives Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Brill, Thomas B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The high-nitrogen compound triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT) belongs to a class of C, H and N compounds that are free of both oxygen and metal, but retain energetic material properties as a result of their high heat of formation. Its decomposition thus lacks secondary oxidation reactions of carbon and hydrogen. The fact that TAGzT is over 80% nitrogen makes it potentially useful as a gas generant and energetic material with a low flame temperature to increase the impulse in gun or rocket propellants. The burning rate, laser ignition and flash pyrolysis (T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy) characteristics were determined. It was found that TAGzT exhibits one of the fastest low-pressure burning rates yet measured for an organic compound. Both the decomposition and ignition behavior of TAGzT are dominated by condensed phase reactions. T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy indicates that condensed phase reactions release about 65% of the energy, which helps to explain the high burning rate at low pressure. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Ammoxidation of Lignocellulosic Materials: Formation of Nonheterocyclic Nitrogenous Compounds from Monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidized technical lignins are valuable soil-improving materials that share many similarities with native terrestrial humic substances. In contrast to lignins, the chemical fate of carbohydrates as typical minor constituents of technical lignins during the ammoxidation processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, we reported the formation of N-heterocyclic, ecotoxic compounds (OECD test 201) from both monosaccharides (d-glucose, d-xylose) and polysaccharides (cellulose, xylan) under ammoxidation conditions and showed that monosaccharides are a source more critical than polysaccharides in this respect. GC/MS-derivatization analysis of the crude product mixtures revealed that ammoxidation of carbohydrates which resembles the conditions encountered in nonenzymatical browning of foodstuff affords also a multitude of nonheterocyclic nitrogenous compounds such as aminosugars, glycosylamines, ammonium salts of aldonic, deoxyaldonic, oxalic and carbaminic acids, urea, acetamide, α-hydroxyamides, and even minor amounts of α-amino acids. d-Glucose and d-xylose afforded largely similar product patterns which differed from each other only for those products that were formed under preservation of the chain integrity and stereoconfiguration of the respective monosaccharide. The kinetics and reaction pathways involved in the formation of the different classes of nitrogenous compounds under ammoxidation conditions are discussed. PMID:23967905

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds at boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xuan; Zhu, Xiuping; Li, Hongna; Jiang, Yi; Ni, Jinren

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) are toxic and bio-refractory contaminants widely spread in environment. This study investigated electrochemical degradation of NHCs at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode with particular attention to the effect of different number and position of nitrogen atoms in molecular structure. Five classical NHCs with similar structures including indole (ID), quinoline (QL), isoquinoline (IQL), benzotriazole (BT) and benzimidazole (BM) were selected as the target compounds. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that degradation of all NHCs was fit to a pseudo first-order equation. The five compounds were degraded with the following sequence: ID>QL>IQL>BT>BM in terms of their rates of oxidation. Quantum chemical calculation was combined with experimental results to describe the degradation character of NHCs at BDD anode. A linear relationship between degradation rate and delocalization energy was observed, which demonstrated that electronic charge was redistributed through the conjugation system and accumulated at the active sites under the attack of hydroxyl radicals produced at BDD anode. Moreover, atom charge was calculated by semi empirical PM3 method and active sites of NHCs were identified respectively. Analysis of intermediates by GC-MS showed agreement with calculation results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  18. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  19. Synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds in the rumen and their digestion in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Salter, D.N.; McAllan, A.B.; Williams, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Pathways and efficiency of NPN utilization were studied after introducing isonitrogenous feeds containing urea labelled with 15 N with or without groundnut protein into the rumen of the young steer. The 15 N abundance in rumen ammonia decreased from 1 h after the dose whereas that in suspended bacteria (only a small part of the total population but regarded, with reservation, as representative) increased to a peak value at 3-5 h. Patterns of incorporation into different nitrogen constituents of the bacteria indicated that part of the 15 N first moved rapidly into a labile pool, which included amide nitrogen, and then moved from this pool into other amino acids. Different amino acids were labelled to different extents (lowest for proline and arginine, highest for aspartic acid and alanine), presumably as different amounts of pre-formed amino acids were used in protein synthesis. Differences largely disappeared when the diet with urea as the only nitrogen source was given. Estimates of microbial 15 N recovery at the duodenum confirmed earlier findings that overall incorporation was least when the latter diet was given, and no improvement was seen when the urea was given in three doses over 4 h instead of in a single dose. Lactosyl, like glucosyl, ureide was degraded fairly slowly in the rumen and is being studied as a possible NPN source likely to yield simultaneous ammonia and energy for microbial growth. Studies on the origin and composition of nitrogen compounds entering the duodenum showed that the RNA of rumen bacteria (labelled with 32 P) contributed 82-109% of the RNA entering the duodenum of the steer. It was also shown that protecting dietary casein with formaldehyde reduced its degradability in the rumen to such an extent that a deficiency of fermentable nitrogen in that organ ensued. In other experiments with two calves receiving flaked maize and hay, net digestibility of nitrogen compounds between duodenum and ileum was about 60%. True digestibility

  20. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  1. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maple sap. 1437.107 Section 1437.107 Agriculture... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be...

  2. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF TOMATOES FERTIGATED WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FILGUEIRAS JORGE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of organic cherry tomatoes grown under fertigation with organic dairy cattle wastewater (DCW with different nitrogen rates. Tomato plants, grown in an agroecological farm in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were subjected to four different nitrogen rates (T1=0, T2=50, T3=100 and T4=150% of N. The moisture, lipids, ashes, protein and total fiber contents, soluble solids (ºBrix, reducing and total sugars (%, pH and total titratable acidity (mg NaOH per 100 g were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods. The different nitrogen rates (%N affected the pH, protein and soluble solids contents. The increase in %N increased the antioxidant capacities, according to the DPPH assay, and TPC. On the other hand, the tomatoes under fertigation with the highest %N presented lower antioxidant capacities according to the FRAP assay. The fertigation did not affect the microbiological characteristics of the tomatoes, which presented fecal coliforms count <3 NMP g-1 and absence of Salmonella in 25 g.

  4. CO{sub 2} removal potential of carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and nitrogen containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Drage, T.C.; Smith, K.; Snape, C.E. [University of Nottingham, Fuel Science Group, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The nitrogen enrichment of active carbons is reported to be effective in enhancing the specific adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for CO{sub 2}. In this work, nitrogen-enriched carbons were prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and a series of nitrogen compounds with different nitrogen functionalities. The results show that although the amount of nitrogen incorporated to the final adsorbent is important, the N-functionality seems to be more relevant for increasing CO{sub 2} uptake. Thus, the adsorbent obtained from urea co-pyrolysis presents the highest nitrogen content but the lowest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. However, the adsorbent obtained from carbazole co-pyrolysis, despite the lower amount of N incorporated, shows high CO{sub 2} uptake, up to 9wt.%, probably because the presence of more basic functionalities as determined by XPS analysis.

  5. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and…

  6. Coordinated regulation of nitrogen supply mode and initial cell density for energy storage compounds production with economized nitrogen utilization in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lei; Yao, Changhong; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Lipids and carbohydrates are main energy storage compounds (ESC) of microalgae under stressed conditions and they are potential feedstock for biofuel production. Yet, the sustainable and commercially successful production of ESC in microalgae needs to consider nitrogen utilization efficiency. Here the impact of different initial cell densities (ICDs) on ESC accumulation in Isochrysis zhangjiangensis under two nitrogen supply modes (an initially equal concentration of nitrogen per-cell in the medium (N1) and an equal total concentration of nitrogen in the culture system (N2)) were investigated. The results demonstrated that the highest ESC yield (1.36gL(-1)) at N1, which included a maximal nitrogen supply in the cultivation system, and the highest ESC content (66.5%) and ESC productivity per mass of nitrogen (3.28gg(-1) (N) day(-1)) at N2, were all obtained under a high ICD of 8.0×10(6)cellsmL(-1). Therefore I. zhangjiangensis qualifies for ESC-enriched biomass production with economized nitrogen utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress protection by newly synthesized nitrogen compounds with pharmacological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João P; Areias, Filipe M; Proença, Fernanda M; Coutinho, Olga P

    2006-02-09

    In this study we used new nitrogen compounds obtained by organic synthesis whose structure predicted an antioxidant potential and then an eventual development as molecules of pharmacological interest in diseases involving oxidative stress. The compounds, identified as FMA4, FMA5, FMA7 and FMA8 differ in the presence of hydroxyl groups located in the C-3 and/or C-4 position of a phenolic unit, which is possibly responsible for their free radicals' buffering capacity. Data from the DPPH discoloration method confirm the high antiradical efficiency of the compounds. The results obtained with cellular models (L929 and PC12) show that they are not toxic and really protect from membrane lipid peroxidation induced by the ascorbate-iron oxidant pair. The level of protection correlates with the drug's lipophilic profile and is sometimes superior to trolox and equivalent to that observed for alpha-tocopherol. The compounds FMA4 and FMA7 present also a high protection from cell death evaluated in the presence of a staurosporine apoptotic stimulus. That protection results in a significant reduction of caspase-3 activity induced by staurosporine which by its turn seems to result from a protection observed in the membrane receptor pathway (caspase-8) together with a protection observed in the mitochondrial pathway (caspase-9). Taken together the results obtained with the new compounds, with linear chains, open up perspectives for their use as therapeutical agents, namely as antioxidants and protectors of apoptotic pathways. On the other hand the slight pro-oxidant profile obtained with the cyclic structures suggests a different therapeutic potential that is under current investigation.

  8. New benchmark for basic and neutral nitrogen compounds speciation in middle distillates using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Brodusch, Nicolas; Durand, Emmanuelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2007-04-27

    This paper reports an analytical method for the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) separation and identification of nitrogen compounds (N-compounds) in middle distillates according to their types (basicity). For the evaluation of the best chromatographic conditions, a non-polar x polar approach was chosen. The impact of the second dimension (stationary phase and column length) on the separation of basic and neutral N-compounds was evaluated by mean of two-dimensional resolution. This study revealed that the implementation of polar secondary column having free electron pairs improves drastically the separation of N-compounds. Indeed, the presence of permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions between neutral N-compounds and the stationary phase was enlightened. The comparison of two different nitrogen chemiluminescence detectors (NCD) was also evaluated for GC x GC selective monitoring of N-compounds. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity achieved using developed chromatographic and detection conditions, it was possible to identify univocally and to quantitate N-compounds (i) by class of compounds and (ii), within a class, by carbon number. Finally, quantitative comparison of GC x GC-NCD with conventional gas chromatography illustrates the benefits of GC x GC leading to an excellent correlation with results obtained by American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) methods for the determination of basic/neutral nitrogen ratio in diesel samples.

  9. The compositional study of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in products of heavy oil primary and secondary upgrading processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielowiec, J.

    1986-02-01

    The primary objective was to characterize nitrogen and oxygen compound types in the upgraded products derived from Athabasca bitumen. Nitrogen compounds, depending on their nature and concentrations, in charge stocks to catalytic processess (hydro-processes and reforming) can severely limit or poison the catalyst activity. Oxygen compounds are corrosive (especially naphthenic acids) and can promote gum formation as part of the deterioration of the hydrocarbons in the petroleum product. A secondary objective was to evaluate the advantages and limitations of in-house mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy methods for analyzing specific classes of polar compounds in naphthas, middle distillates, and gas oils. An analytical procedure that was based on the discrimination of polar compound classes using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analysis was tested. The chemical intelligence on the fractions obtained from Athabasca bitumen and its upgrading products has been advanced by determining structural characteristics of the nitrogen and oxygen components. This report describes the determination of the distributions of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in samples from various process streams. This procedure is capable of providing information useful for evaluating hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation reactions.

  10. Reversal by prostaglandin E2 infusion of the effects of indomethacin on the excretion of nitrogenous compounds in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, D. J.; Gedeon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were treated with Indomethacin (Indo; 2 mg/kg/d) with or without concomitant infusion of prostaglandin (PG)E2 (100 micrograms/d) to investigate the effects of inhibition of PG synthesis and PG replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogenous compounds, urea and creatinine and on the plasma concentration of urea and creatinine. The results indicated: (1) Indo significantly reduced the urine excretion of nitrogen, urea and creatinine within 48 hours of drug administration. (2) Thi...

  11. Anoxic degradation of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds by activated sludge and their active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-05-01

    The potential for degradation of five nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs), i.e., imidazole, pyridine, indole, quinoline, and carbazole, was investigated under anoxic conditions with acclimated activated sludge. Results showed that NHCs with initial concentration of 50 mg/L could be completely degraded within 60 hr. The degradation of five NHCs was dependent upon the chemical structures with the following sequence: imidazole>pyridine>indole>quinoline>carbazole in terms of their degradation rates. Quantitative structure-biodegradability relationship studies of the five NHCs showed that the anoxic degradation rates were correlated well with highest occupied molecular orbital. Additionally, the active sites of NHCs identified by calculation were confirmed by analysis of intermediates using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  13. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  14. Measurement and ANN prediction of pH-dependent solubility of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Yu, Qingni; Zhu, Jingke; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang

    2015-09-01

    Based on the solubility of 25 nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) measured by saturation shake-flask method, artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to the study of the quantitative relationship between the structure and pH-dependent solubility of NHCs. With genetic algorithm-multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR) approach, five out of the 1497 molecular descriptors computed by Dragon software were selected to describe the molecular structures of NHCs. Using the five selected molecular descriptors as well as pH and the partial charge on the nitrogen atom of NHCs (QN) as inputs of ANN, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model without using Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) equation was successfully developed to predict the aqueous solubility of NHCs in different pH water solutions. The prediction model performed well on the 25 model NHCs with an absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 5.9%, while HH approach gave an AARD of 36.9% for the same model NHCs. It was found that QN played a very important role in the description of NHCs and, with QN, ANN became a potential tool for the prediction of pH-dependent solubility of NHCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic effects of nitrogenous compounds on survival and growth of juvenile pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Wasielesky

    Full Text Available Abstract In response to growing worldwide market demand, intensive shrimp farming, based on high feed, has developed over the past decade. The nitrogenous compounds mainly generated by animal excretion can cause deterioration of water quality and produce chronic or even acute toxicity to aquatic animals. As prevention, theoretical safety levels have been estimated from acute toxicity tests and they are traditionally used to prevent toxic effects on biota. However, are those concentrations of nitrogenous compounds really safe to Farfantepenaeus paulensis? The current study aimed to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to juvenile F. paulensis based on safety levels. Each experiment was performed independently in 100 L tanks for 30 days. The survival rates and wet weight of all shrimps were recorded every 10 days. The concentrations tested for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were respectively: treatment “T1/4”, a quarter of the safety level (0.91 mg/L TA-N, 2.55 mg/L NO2--N and 80.7 mg/L NO3--N; treatment “TSL”, the safety level (3.65 mg/L TA-N, 10.2 mg/L NO2--N and 323 mg/L NO3--N; and treatment “T2X”, twice the safety level (7.30 mg/L TA-N, 20.4 mg/L NO2--N and 646 mg/L NO3--N. For F. paulensis cultivation, the real safety level for nitrite was estimated to be 2.55 mg/L NO2--N. For ammonia and nitrate, the recommended concentrations were <0.91 mg/L TA-N corresponding to 0.045 mg/L NH3-N and <80.7 mg/L NO3--N, respectively.

  16. Chronic effects of nitrogenous compounds on survival and growth of juvenile pink shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielesky, W J; Poersch, L H; Martins, T G; Miranda-Filho, K C

    2017-01-01

    In response to growing worldwide market demand, intensive shrimp farming, based on high feed, has developed over the past decade. The nitrogenous compounds mainly generated by animal excretion can cause deterioration of water quality and produce chronic or even acute toxicity to aquatic animals. As prevention, theoretical safety levels have been estimated from acute toxicity tests and they are traditionally used to prevent toxic effects on biota. However, are those concentrations of nitrogenous compounds really safe to Farfantepenaeus paulensis? The current study aimed to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to juvenile F. paulensis based on safety levels. Each experiment was performed independently in 100 L tanks for 30 days. The survival rates and wet weight of all shrimps were recorded every 10 days. The concentrations tested for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were respectively: treatment "T1/4", a quarter of the safety level (0.91 mg/L TA-N, 2.55 mg/L NO2--N and 80.7 mg/L NO3--N); treatment "TSL", the safety level (3.65 mg/L TA-N, 10.2 mg/L NO2--N and 323 mg/L NO3--N); and treatment "T2X", twice the safety level (7.30 mg/L TA-N, 20.4 mg/L NO2--N and 646 mg/L NO3--N). For F. paulensis cultivation, the real safety level for nitrite was estimated to be 2.55 mg/L NO2--N. For ammonia and nitrate, the recommended concentrations were <0.91 mg/L TA-N corresponding to 0.045 mg/L NH3-N and <80.7 mg/L NO3--N, respectively.

  17. Analysis of water and nitrogen use efficiency for maize (Zea mays L.) grown on soft rock and sand compound soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanyuan; Han, Jichang; Tong, Wei; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Haiou

    2017-06-01

    Maize was grown on compound soils constituted from mixtures of soft rock and sand at different ratios, and water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (FNUE) were quantified. The data were used to assist in designing strategies for optimizing water and nitrogen management practices for maize on the substrates used. Maize was sown in composite soil prepared at three ratios of soft rock and sand (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 v/v) in Mu Us Sandy Land, Yuyang district, Yulin city, China. Yields, amount of drainage, nitrogen (N) leaching, WUE and NUE were calculated. Then a water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was calibrated and validated. No significant difference in evapotranspiration of maize was found among compound soils with soft rock/sand ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5, while water drainage increased significantly with increasing soft rock/sand ratio. WUE increased to 1.30 kg m -3 in compound soil with 1:2 soft rock/sand ratio. Nitrogen leaching and ammonia volatilization were the main reason for nitrogen loss, and N reduction mainly relied on crop uptake. NUE and FNUE could reach 33.1 and 24.9 kg kg -1 N respectively. Water drainage and nitrogen leaching occurred mostly during heavy rainfall or irrigation. Through a scenario analysis of different rainfall types, water and fertilizer management systems were formulated each year. This study shows that soft rock plays a key role in improving the WUE, NUE and FNUE of maize. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  19. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  20. Gold Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Formation of Nitrogen-containing Compounds-From Mechanistic Understanding to Synthetic Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik; Kegnaes, Soren; Fristrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, heterogeneous catalysis using gold nanoparticles has gained importance as an efficient method for the oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes. The scope of these reactions has recently been extended to nitrogen-containing compounds, which is a particularly promising substrate...

  1. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOGENIC LANDSCAPES RECULTIVATION ON FUNCTIONING OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS COMMUNITIES WHICH TAKE PART IN TRANSFORMATION OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Syshchykova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is established that mining recultivation of tailings dams slimes promotes restoration of numerical structure of soil microorganisms community which take part in processes of nitrogen compounds transformation. The certificate of that is number restoration of the organotrophic bacteria of a nitrogen cycle to 0.3 million CFU/g of soil and increase by 2-3 times of streptomycetes quantity in blankets. The received results of quantitative structure of the microorganisms which are taking part in processes of nitrogen mineral compounds transformation in the chernozem usual allow to claim that in blankets the number of microorganisms makes 3.89 and 2.33 million CFU/g soil. It should be noted that the best conditions for microflora development are formed on slime with drawing 50 cm of loess-like loam and 30 cm of a fertile layer. The microorganism quantity on the specified monitoring area increases by 3-4 times in the soil of a fertile layer and by 1.3-1.6 times in loess-like loam in comparison with slime without recultivation. Increase of microbiological processes intensity, extremely important, considering strengthening of ecosystems self-regulation functions. It is established high level of microbiological transformation of organic substance, the indicator is made 7.3-11.1 in the edatopes of the recultivated slimes. Increasing indicators of microbiological transformation and mineralization of organic compounds in the technozems confirm restoration of a slimes biogenity at carrying out of recultivation that promotes an intensification of mineralization processes and assimilation by plants nitrogen compounds in the soil. Keywords: microorganisms, nitrogen compounds, technozems, mining recultivation.

  2. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  3. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts.

  4. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  5. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation over the former Soviet Union in 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, S.; Ryaboshapko, A.; Gromov, S. [Inst. of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Granat, L.; Rodhe, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-12-01

    Published information on sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation in background regions of the Former Soviet Union (F SU) was collected and analyzed. Bad or doubtful data were removed. The spatial patterns of sulphur and nitrogen compounds indicate that western and southern regions are the most polluted and eastern Siberia the cleanest. Dry deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen on all the F SU territory was estimated to 3.3 Mt S and 1.6 Mt N per year (an average of 0. 15 gS/m{sup 2} yr and 0.07 gN/m{sup 2} yr). Deposition with precipitation was estimated to 14.7 Mt S and 7.9 Mt N per year (an average of 0.66 gS/m{sup 2}yr and 0.35 gN/m{sup 2}yr). Deposition fluxes are largest during the warm season. Data from the GAW monitoring network during the period 1980-1995 showed a visible increase of nitrate and ammonium in precipitation whereas the concentration of sulfate was rather stable. The sulfur dioxide concentration in air decreased significantly in several regions of the F SU during the decade 1980-1990. The data on nitrogen compounds in air are too limited to permit any firm conclusions regarding trends.

  6. Application of biotechnology for treatment of nitrogen compounds in gold mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.; Gould, W.D.; Bedard, P.; Morin, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research study that is being conducted by the Mine Effluents Program, Mining and Mineral Science Laboratory (MMSL), Natural Resources Canada aimed at evaluating biotechnology processes for the treatment of nitrogen compounds such as thiocyanide (CNS) and ammonia (NH 4- N) which are present in gold mill effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology, commonly used for the biological treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, was used in this study. In the SBR process, the micro-organisms were able to degrade CNS to NH 4- N and NH 4- N to nitrate (NO 3- N) at operating conditions of two 12 h treatment cycles per day, with pH maintained in the 7.4 to 7.6 range, and at room temperature (approximately 21 o C) and also at 12 o C. The end products of CNS and NH 4- N biological oxidation were NO 3- N and sulphate (SO 4 ) that are relatively non-toxic. Partial removal of NO 3- N was achieved by biological denitrification reactions in the SBR process. The SBR process effluent was measured to be non-toxic to rainbow trout based on the 96 h acute toxicity test. The microbial consortium isolated from the SBR treating a simulated effluent was able to effectively oxidize CNS and NH 4- N to NO 3- N in water samples (under batch conditions) collected at three mine sites located in Quebec, the Northwest Territories, and Yukon. (author)

  7. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3-, with the concentration varying from 0.1 mg/L to 206 mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh ( 100 mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ15N and δ18О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ18О values from - 4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions.

  8. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO 3 - , with the concentration varying from 0.1mg/L to 206mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh (shallow groundwater of the Poyang Lake basin has Eh>100mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ 15 N and δ 18 О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ 18 О values from -4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15 N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Collection of pure phloem sap from wheat and its chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, H.; Chino, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat Phloem sap was collected without contamination from the stylets of small brown planthopper severed by a YAG laser beam. The sugar, amino acid and inorganic ion composition was determined using only one μl of the sap. The sap had a high sucrose level (251 mM), and also a high K+ level (299 mM). Total amino acid compounds in the sap reached 262 mM. The dominant amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine, while r-amino butylic acid was absent. The major anion in the sap was Cl− and its concentration was 25.1 mM. Nitrate was also present at a concentration of 8.1 mM. These results suggested that the sap obtained from the cut end of the stylets of the small brown planthopper was a phloem origin of wheat. (author)

  10. Frações dos compostos nitrogenados associados à parede celular em forragens tropicais Fractions of cell wall nitrogenous compounds in tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Henriques

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The total and undegradable fractions of nitrogenous compounds associated to cell wall organic matrix in some tropical forages were evaluated. Samples of corn silage, elephantgrass silage and sugarcane were used. Neutral detergent insoluble nitrogenous compounds were divided in three different fractions associated with: hemicellulose (HN, cellulose (CN, and lignin (LN. The size of the different fractions varied among feeds. A portion of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, which is the sum of CN and LN, was potentially degradable in the rumen. A portion of HN was not degradable in the rumen. The heterogeneous dimensions of degradable portion of all nitrogenous compounds among feeds can compromise the estimates of cell wall undegradable nitrogen by simple chemical approaches in tropical forages. The LN overestimated the lignin contents and the correction for those compounds on lignin has been suggested.

  11. Synthesis of novel 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid-derived nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their evaluation for tuberculostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobis, Katarzyna; Foks, Henryk; Bojanowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid derivatives and 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid-derived nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (1-8) have been synthesized and evaluated for tuberculostatic activity. Compounds 1a, 1c, 1e and 1f bearing benzimidazole or benzimidazole-like systems showed the most potent tuberculostatic activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with MIC values ranging from 1.5 to 12.5μg/mL. More importantly 1a (6-chloro-2-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-4-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole) and 1f (2-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine) appeared selective for M. tuberculosis as compared with eukaryotic cells (human fibroblasts), and other antimicrobial strains. These compounds may thus represent a novel, selective class of antitubercular agents. Additionally compound 1a stimulated type I collagen output by fibroblasts, in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds; Etude des proprietes radioprotectrices de composes heterocycliques azotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R; Bernard, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Continuing their study of the possible radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds, the authors study certain derivatives of imidazole and other compounds of similar structure. The results obtained showed: 1 - that the derivatives resulting from the presence in the imidazole ring of the mercapto, methyl, carbonyl, or benzyl groups are inactive: these substitutions appear to destroy the significant radioprotective activity of the imidazole, 2 - that benzimidazole, on the contrary, seems to possess highly interesting properties. The percentage of survivals obtained with mice treated with benzimidazole and exposed to lethal irradiation has encouraged the authors to undertake careful study of this substance, with a view to define optimum activity conditions, and to determine the mechanism responsible for its radioprotective action. Further on and so as to of clarify certain points that might give useful data concerning the mechanisms of action of radioprotective chemicals, in respect of each of the products the authors have studied: a - the action of these bodies on the internal temperature of mice, b - their radioprotective activity in vitro, in a solution of irradiated hemin. (authors) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole ayant ete mises en evidence dans un precedent travail, les auteurs poursuivent leur experimentation sur certains derives de ce noyau ainsi que des composes de structure voisine. Leurs resultats montrent: 1 - que les composes obtenus par substitution d'un groupement mercapto, methyle, carbonyle ou benzyle, a un hydrogene du noyau imidazole sont inactifs, 2 - que le benzimidazole presente par contre des proprietes interessantes. Pour ce dernier compose le pourcentage de survie pouvant atteindre 90 pour cent les auteurs ont determine les conditions optimales de son activite radioprotectrice; de plus, dans le but d'obtenir des renseignements susceptibles de preciser le mecanisme d'action de la radioprotection

  13. Study on utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from compound fertilizer by rice using isotopes 15N and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Li Dongyang; Zhang Xizhong; Chen Yizhu

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of urea plus ordinary superphospate (OSP) which gave higher grains yield than by application of compound fertilizer UPA (ureaplus compound ammonium phosphates). Isotopes tracer experiment showed that the utilizations of nitrogen fertilizer are: mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > urea > urea - ammonium phosphates. The utilizations of phosphorus by rice are: urea-ammomium phosphate > mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > OSP. It is shown that the A N -value of soil was significantly correlated with yield of rice grains

  14. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOGENIC LANDSCAPES RECULTIVATION ON FUNCTIONING OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS COMMUNITIES WHICH TAKE PART IN TRANSFORMATION OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syshchykova Oksana Vitalyevna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is established that mining recultivation of tailings dams slimes promotes restoration of numerical structure of soil microorganisms community which take part in processes of nitrogen compounds transformation. The certificate of that is number restoration of the organotrophic bacteria of a nitrogen cycle to 0.3 million CFU/g of soil and increase by 2-3 times of streptomycetes quantity in blankets. The received results of quantitative structure of the microorganisms which are taking part in processes of nitrogen mineral compounds transformation in the chernozem usual allow to claim that in blankets the number of microorganisms makes 3.89 and 2.33 million CFU/g soil. It should be noted that the best conditions for microflora development are formed on slime with drawing 50 cm of loess-like loam and 30 cm of a fertile layer. The microorganism quantity on the specified monitoring area increases by 3-4 times in the soil of a fertile layer and by 1.3-1.6 times in loess-like loam in comparison with slime without recultivation. Increase of microbiological processes intensity, extremely important, considering strengthening of ecosystems self-regulation functions. It is established high level of microbiological transformation of organic substance, the indicator is made 7.3-11.1 in the edatopes of the recultivated slimes. Increasing indicators of microbiological transformation and mineralization of organic compounds in the technozems confirm restoration of a slimes biogenity at carrying out of recultivation that promotes an intensification of mineralization processes and assimilation by plants nitrogen compounds in the soil.

  15. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Nils G; Neubeck, Anna

    2009-10-22

    Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  16. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubeck Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  17. A study of nitrogenation of a NdFe12-xMox compound by in situ neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, C.; Short, S.M.; Lin, J.; Ding, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effects on the crystal lattice of a NdFe 12-x Mo x (x congruent 1.7) during controlled nitrogenation over the 25 endash 600 degree C temperature range were studied by neutron powder diffraction. Prior to nitrogenation the sample contained a major phase of NdFe 10.3 Mo 1.7 and a minor phase (∼12vol%) of bcc-Fe. The sample inside the furnace was connected to a closed volume of ultrapure nitrogen gas while neutron data were collected over regular time intervals during sequential heating. Substantial nitrogen absorption occurred between 500 and 600 degree C. During the nitrogenation process the NdFe 12-x Mo x N y lattice expanded while the bcc-Fe lattice contracted. An increasing decomposition of the compound into bcc-Fe at 600 degree C was observed. The average size of the NdFe 12-x Mo x N y crystalline grains decreased starting at ∼300 degree C, reaching a minimum at ∼500 degree C and then increased markedly at higher temperatures. The development of lattice strains, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend, i.e., a maximum at 500 degree C. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. American specialists and SAP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Within the past days of November the project teams of SAP Nuclear in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. incorporated the specialists from PSEG from New Jersey, U.S.A. The goal of their stay here was to pass on the professional experience and good practice from the implementation of quite demanding project in the nuclear power plants. We have learned more about the company and the objectives from an interview with Clay Warren, SAP Nuclear Project Manager in SE. (author)

  19. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  20. The relationship between sap-flow rate and sap volume in dormant sugar maples

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Gabriel; Russell S. Walters; Donald W. Seegrist

    1972-01-01

    Sap-flow rate is closely correlated with the sap volume produced by dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and could be used in making phenotypic selections of trees for superior sap production.

  1. Nitrogen-rich higher-molecular soil organic compounds patterned by lignin degradation products: Considerations on the nature of soil organic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Falk; Bertoli, Luca; Pour, Georg; Klinger, Karl; Ragab, Tamer; Rosenau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The pathways leading to accumulation of covalently bonded nitrogen in higher-molecular soil organic matter (SOM) are still a controversial issue in soil science and geochemistry. Similarly, structural elucidation of the variety of the types of nitrogenous moieties present in SOM is still in its infancy even though recent NMR studies suggest amide-type nitrogen to form the majority of organically bonded nitrogen which is, however, frequently not in accordance with the results of wet-chemical analyses. Following the modified polyphenol theory of Flaig and Kononova but fully aware of the imperfection of a semi-abiotic simulation approach, this work communicates the results of a study that investigated some potential nitrogen accumulation pathways occurring in the re-condensation branch of the theory following the reactions between well-known low-molecular lignin and carbohydrate degradation products with nitrogenous nucleophiles occurring in soils under aerobic conditions. Different low-molecular degradation products of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, such as hydroquinone, methoxyhydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, 2,5-dihydroxy-[1,4]benzoquinone, glucose, xylose, and the respective polysaccharides, i.e. cellulose, xylan as well as various types of lignin were subjected to a joint treatment with oxygen and low-molecular N-nucleophiles, such as ammonia, amines, and amino acids in aqueous conditions, partly using respective 15N labeled compounds for further 15N CPMAS NMR studies. Product mixtures derived from mono- and polysaccharides have been comprehensively fractionated and analyzed by GC/MS after derivatization. Some of ammoxidized polyphenols and quinones have been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Some products, such as those obtained from ammoxidation of methoxy hydroquinone using 15N labeled ammonia were fractionated following the IHSS protocol. Individual humin (H), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) fractions were subjected to elemental analyses

  2. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Reactivity Of Radiolytically-Produced Nitrogen Oxide Radicals Toward Aromatic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Gracy

    2010-01-01

    radiolysis of the modifier (Cs-7SB), which solvates both metal complexes, is responsible for this change. These reactions presumably occur due to reactions with radiolytically-produced nitrogen-centered radicals like (sm b ullet)NO, (sm b ullet)NO 2 and (sm b ullet)NO 3 . Anisole (C 6 H 5 -OCH 3 ) was used in this study as a surrogate for Cs-7SB, since both are aryl ethers. Toluene was used as a surrogate for Cs-7SB because of the alkyl group on the benzene ring in both molecules. Anisole, highly reactive in acids, is a small molecule compared to Cs-7SB and the nitration products are easier to identify compared to those for the larger Cs-7SB molecule. Toluene is less reactive than anisole. Therefore, the highly reactive anisole and the less reactive toluene were considered in this study as model compounds to compare the reaction mechanisms and the nitrated products in acidic media under irradiation. Experiments were designed to elucidate the mechanism of the nitration of aromatic rings in γ-irradiated aqueous nitric acid. Since a suite of radical and ionic reactive species are produced in this condensed-phase system, solutions of nitric acid, neutral nitrate and neutral nitrite were irradiated in separate experiments to isolate selected reactive species. Product nitration species were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed phase C-18 column and photodiode array detector. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. In contrast, the distribution of nitrated derivatives for toluene showed nitronium ion electrophilic substitution in the unirradiated acidic medium as a result of thermal nitration only at elevated temperatures

  4. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  5. Formation of chemical compounds from irradiated mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the analysis of products of the photochemical degradation of toluene and toluene-14C in smog chamber experiments. Compounds identified included methylglyoxal, possibly the recently postulated butenedial and other carbonyl compounds. The main product of photochemical degradation

  6. Preparation, morphologies and thermal behavior of high nitrogen compound 2-amino-4,6-diazido-s-triazine and its derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, Q.-L.; Musil, T.; Zeman, S.; Matyáš, R.; Shi, X.-B.; Vlček, Milan; Pelikán, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 604, 20 March (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0040-6031 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : azido-s-triazine * decomposition * high nitrogen compounds Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.938, year: 2015

  7. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial Degradation of Nitrogenous Energetic Compounds (NEC) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-10

    isotope values in the upper bay; C) DOC appears to be high in lignin concentration, especially in the Patuxent River. Figure 12. Bacterial...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, lignin ; Suen et al. 1996). We hypothesized that nitrogenous energetics will be transient in nitrogen-limited...water, TNT nitro groups can be reduced to amines (Barrows et al. 1996) affecting its reactivity (Achtnich et al. 2000). The presence of reduced

  9. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers derived from Mg-biquinoline-dicarboxy compound for efficient oxygen electroreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Aiguo, E-mail: agkong@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Fan, Xiaohong; Chen, Aoling [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Zhang, Hengiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hebei Normal University for Nationalities, Chengde 067000 (China); Shan, Yongkui, E-mail: agkong@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2017-02-15

    An in-situ MgO-templating synthesis route was introduced to obtain the mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers by thermal conversion of new Mg-2,2′-biquinoline 4,4-dicarboxy acid coordination compound (Mg-DCA) microfibers. The investigated crystal structure of Mg-DCA testified that the assembling of Mg{sup 2+} and DCA through Mg-O coordination bond and hydrogen bond contributed to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) crystalline Mg-DCA microfibers. The nitrogen-doped carbons derived from the pyrolysis of Mg-DCA showed the well-defined microfiber morphology with high mesopore-surface area. Such mesoporous microfibers exhibited the efficient catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solutions with better stability and methanol-tolerance performance. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers with efficient oxygen electroreduction activity were prepared by thermal conversion of new Mg-biquinoline-based coordination compound microfibers.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES REGARDING THE NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN WASTE WATERS FROM SMITHFIELD – PERIAM SWINE FARM, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented study was to analyse and compare the nitrogen compounds in waste waters from a swine farm from the west of Romania and the environmental impact on the quality of surface water and groundwater. Water samples were taken from sites likely to be potentially sensitive to pollution, above, near and below the waste water discharge in the Mureş river and biopond units. Nitrogen concentrations from 652 mg/l at the pomp station 1 to 12.1 mg/l downstream 1 km after the discharge in the Mureş stream exceed the standard limits accepted for the surface waters. As regarding the ammonia concentrations are also very high, in the analysed samples for the old cleaning system, but lies under the admitted limits in the new system of wastewater cleaning. In conclusion, wastewater from Periam swine farm had a minor pollution impact for surface waters including for Mureş River, while in the new system some values for the nitrogen compounds lies over those obtained in the old system of wastewater cleaning.

  11. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix melichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gaschromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of potassium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  12. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix mielichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gas-chromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of kalium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  13. Effect of Borax and cysteamine compound on finishing sheep growth performance, nitrogen retention, serum biochemical indices and body protein motabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xinyao' Xie Hongbing; Wei Gangcai; Wang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of borax, cysteamine and the mixture of two compounds on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, protein turn-over and nitrogen aggradation of sheep by using isotope ( 15 N-Gly) technique, nitrogen balance trial and serum testing. The results showed that both borax and cysteamine could increase the growth performance of sheep, especially the cysteamine and its mixture with borax, which increased average daily feed intake (P 3 ) and levothyroxine (T 4 ) of mixture were higher than that of control group (P<0.05), and the concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were also significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference of insulin (INS) between experiment groups and control group (P<0.05). Both mixture and borax contributed to increasing nitrogen retention, net nitrogen utilization, digestibility and biological value. Both borax and cysteamine accelerated protein degradation rate, apparent amino acid utilization rate and net amino acid utilization rate as well as biological value, body protein and oxidation rate, but the former was greater than the later. (authors)

  14. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part B--Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and Oxygen-Containing Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-07-01

    Present study focused on the biodegradation of various heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (NSO) compounds using naphthalene-enriched culture. Target compounds in the study were pyridine, quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran. Screening studies were carried out using different microbial consortia enriched with specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and NSO compounds. Among different microbial consortia, naphthalene-enriched culture was the most efficient consortium based on high substrate degradation rate. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order pyridine > quinoline > benzofuran > benzothiophene. Benzothiophene and benzofuran were found to be highly recalcitrant pollutants. Benzothiophene could not be biodegraded when concentration was above 50 mg/l. It was observed that 2-(1H)-quinolinone, benzothiophene-2-one, and benzofuran-2,3-dione were formed as metabolic intermediates during biodegradation of quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran, respectively. Quinoline-N and pyridine-N were transformed into free ammonium ions during the biodegradation process. Biodegradation pathways for various NSO compounds are proposed. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate single substrate biodegradation kinetics satisfactorily. Benzothiophene and benzofuran biodegradation kinetics, in presence of acetone, was simulated using a generalized multi-substrate model.

  15. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Gaskins, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14 C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14 C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14 C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14 C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14 C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14 CO 2 , about 15% of the total 14 C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  16. Interspecific variations in mangrove leaf litter decomposition are related to labile nitrogenous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Salewski, Tabea; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove leaves form a large pool of carbon, nitrogen and energy that is a major driver of element cycles and detrital food webs inside mangrove forests as well as in adjacent coastal waters. However, there are large gaps in knowledge on the transformation pathways and ultimate fate of leaf nitrogen. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the amount and composition of nitrogenous organic matter and possible species-specific differences during the decomposition of mangrove leaf litter. For that purpose a three month decomposition experiment with litterbags was conducted using leaves of Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and Sonneratia caseolaris in the mangrove forest of the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Detrital leaves were analyzed for bulk carbon and total nitrogen (N), stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (δ13C, δ15N), total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and total hydrolyzable hexosamines (THHA). Decomposition rates (k d-1) were highest and tM50 values (when 50% of the original mass had been degraded) lowest in S. caseolaris (k = 0.0382 d-1; tM50 = 18 days), followed by A. alba, C. decandra, A. corniculatum, and R. apiculata (k = 0.0098 d-1; tM50 = 71 days). The biochemical composition of detrital leaves differed significantly among species and over time. S. caseolaris and A. alba had higher concentrations of N, THAA and THHA and a lower C/N ratio than the other three species. For most of the species concentrations of N, THAA and THHA increased during decomposition. The hexosamine galactosamine, indicative of bacterial cell walls, was first found in leaves after 5-7 days of decomposition and increased afterwards. Our findings suggest an increasing, but species-specific varying, portion of labile nitrogenous OM and total N in decomposing leaves over time that is partly related to the activity of leaf-colonizing bacteria. Despite a higher relative nitrogen content in the

  17. Leaf Volatile Compounds and Associated Gene Expression during Short-Term Nitrogen Deficient Treatments in Cucumis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is an important macronutrient for plant growth and development, but the regulatory mechanism of volatile compounds in response to N deficiency is not well understood, especially in cucumber, which consumes excessive N during growth. In this study, the major volatile compounds from cucumber leaves subjected to N deficiency were analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 24 volatile components were identified including 15 aldehydes, two ketones, two alkenes, and five other volatile compounds in 9930 leaves. Principal component analysis using volatile compounds from cucumber leaves provided good separation between N-sufficient and N-deficient treatments. The main volatiles in cucumber leaves were found to be C6 and C9 aldehydes, especially (E-2-hexanal and (E,Z-2,6-nonadienal. (E-2-hexanal belonged to the C6 aldehyde and was the most abundant compound, whereas (E,Z-2,6-nonadienal was the chief component of C9 aldehydes. During N-deficient treatment, short-chain volatile content was significantly improved at 5 day, other volatiles displayed significant reduction or no significantly changes in all sampling points. Improvement of short-chain volatiles was confirmed in the six other inbred lines at 5 day after N-deficient treatments. The expression analysis of 12 cucumber LOX genes and two HPL genes revealed that CsLOX19, CsLOX20, and CsLOX22 had common up-regulated expression patterns in response to N-deficient stress in most inbred lines; meanwhile, most sample points of CsHPL1 also had significant up-regulated expression patterns. This research focused on the relationship between volatiles in cucumber and different nitrogen environments to provide valuable insight into the effect of cultivation and management of the quality of cucumber and contributes to further research on volatile metabolism in cucumber.

  18. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  19. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  20. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a nitrogenated melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Choong-Jin [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo-Young [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Duck [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub 2.9] compound powders were prepared from parent alloys of Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] which were made by both arc melting and rapid solidification processes. The cast Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] contained mixed phases of SmFe[sub 3] and [alpha]-Fe, and correspondingly formed less Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] with a rather large amount of residual [alpha]-Fe after nitrogenation. The melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] compound, however, was single phase and exhibited a negligible amount of residual [alpha]+Fe after nitrogenation. The residual amount of free iron was found to increase as a function of milling time and to impede the development of promising permanent magnetic properties. The melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] compound powders exhibited a coercivity value [sub i]H[sub c] of 5 kOe, which is double that of the as-cast Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] powders and a high remanence B[sub r]=60 e.m.u. g[sup -1]. The average magnetic moment of Fe atoms in the crystal is estimated to be 2.29 [mu][sub B] and the Fe atom in the 6c site exhibits the highest magnetic moment of 2.65 [mu][sub B]. The expansion in the c axial direction of the nitrogenated crystal was found to be mainly due to extension of Sm(6c)-Fe(c) and Fe(18f)-Fe(18f) distances. ((orig.))

  1. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment

  2. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  3. Formation of chemical compounds from irradiated mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besemer, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of products of the photochemical degradation of toluene and toluene- 14 C in smog chamber experiments is described. Compounds identified included methylglyoxal, possibly the recently postulated butenedial and other carbonyl compounds. The main product of photochemical degradation of methylglyoxal appeared to be acetaldehyde. (author)

  4. Synthesis and study on biological activity of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds – regulators of enzymes of nucleic acid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva I. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on the development of new regulators of functional activity of nucleic acid biosynthesis enzymes based on polycyclic nitrogen-containing heterosystems are summarized. Computer design and molecular docking in the catalytic site of target enzyme (T7pol allowed to perform the directed optimization of basic structures. Several series of compounds were obtained and efficient inhibitors of herpes family (simple herpes virus type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A and hepatitis C viruses were identified, as well as compounds with potent antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activity. It was established that the use of model test systems based on enzymes participating in nucleic acids synthesis is a promising approach to the primary screening of potential inhibitors in vitro.

  5. Errors in the SAP reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dongen, van B.F.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The SAP Reference Model is a set of information models that is utilized to guide the configuration of SAP systems. A big part of these models are business process models represented in the Eventdriven Process Chains (EPC) notation. These EPC models provide a easy to comprehend overview of SAP

  6. A Novel Superfamily of Transporters for Allantoin and Other Oxo Derivatives of Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Marcelo; Catoni, Elisabetta; Ludewig, Uwe; Hilpert, Melanie; Schneider, Anja; Kunze, Reinhard; Tegeder, Mechthild; Frommer, Wolf Bernd; Schumacher, Karin

    2002-01-01

    A wide spectrum of soil heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are potential nutrients for plants. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis plants are able to use allantoin as sole nitrogen source. By functional complementation of a yeast mutant defective in allantoin uptake, an Arabidopsis transporter, AtUPS1 (Arabidopsis thaliana ureide permease 1), was identified. AtUPS1 belongs to a novel superfamily of plant membrane proteins with five open reading frames in Arabidopsis (identity, 64 to 82%). UPS proteins have 10 putative transmembrane domains with a large cytosolic central domain containing a “Walker A” motif. Transport of 14C-labeled allantoin by AtUPS1 in yeast exhibited saturation kinetics (Km ∼ 52 μM), was dependent on Glc and a proton gradient, and was stimulated by acidic pH. AtUPS1 transports uric acid and xanthine, besides allantoin, but not adenine. Protons are cosubstrates in allantoin transport by AtUPS1, as demonstrated by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In plants, AtUPS1 gene expression was dependent on the nitrogen source. Therefore, AtUPS1 presumably is involved in the uptake of allantoin and other purine degradation products when primary sources are limiting. PMID:11971139

  7. Influence of nitrogen status on the bioconcentration of hydrophobic organic compounds to Selenastrum capricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Nyholm, Niels; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    - creased from 17 to 44% of the algal dry weight as a consequence of nitrogen starvation. An increase in total lipid from 17 to 44% should theoretically increase the BCFs by a factor of 2.6. BCFs for PCB 31, PCB 49, PCB 153, and DDT increased with maximum lipid content by factors of 6.3, 8.9, 8.9, and 6...

  8. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  9. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  10. Physiological Mechanisms in Herbivores for Retention and Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, I. [Department of Animal Physiology, Agricultural College of Sweden, Uppsala 7 (Sweden)

    1968-07-01

    A short review is given of some aspects of nitrogen metabolism in herbivorous mammals. In the rumen the passage of urea into the rumen and of ammonia out of the rumen are of considerable importance. As yet no facts have been disclosed which definitely prove the existence of special mechanisms influencing these processes in a way favouring the use of endogenous urea in the rumen. The excretion of urea by the kidneys on the other hand is regulated in a manner which appears to be adapted for improved utilization of nitrogen when the nitrogen supply is low. It is further pointed out that efficient retention of microbial protein produced in the caecum must be of considerable importance to herbivores with a large caecum. Some preliminary results are given concerning the physiology of the colon in rabbits and the anatomy and physiology of the colon in lemmings. In the rabbit it appears probable that the passage of fluid and fine particles through the colon is considerably delayed compared with the passage of larger particles. In the lemming an anatomically complicated proximal part of the colon effects a very efficient separation of the microorganisms from the indigestible food residues when caecal contents pass through the colon. The microorganisms appear to be returned to the most proximal part of the colon or into the caecum. Mechanisms of this type seem to be of considerable value to herbivores, enabling them to utilize food with a low digestibility and a low protein content. (author)

  11. Compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in aqueous samples using solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael; Bolotin, Jakov; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2007-03-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to determine the delta15N and delta13C signatures of selected nitroaromatic contaminants such as the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for derivation of isotopic enrichment factors of contaminant transformation. Parameters for efficient extraction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and substituted anilines from water samples were evaluated by SPME-GC/MS. delta13C signatures determined by SPME-GC/IRMS and elemental analyzer IRMS (EA-IRMS) were in good agreement, generally within +/-0.7 per thousand, except for 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and TNT, which showed slight deviations (IRMS were between 73 and 780 microg L-1 and correlated with the extraction efficiencies of the compounds determined by SPME-GC/MS. Nitrogen isotope measurements by SPME-GC/IRMS were of similar precision (standard deviations IRMS within +/-1.3 per thousand (+2.5 per thousand for TNT), but no systematic trend was found for the deviations. LODs of delta15N measurements ranged from 1.6 to 9.6 mg L-1 for nitrotoluenes, chlorinated NACs and DNTs (22 mg L-1 for TNT). The SPME-GC/IRMS method is well suited for the determination of isotopic enrichment factors of various NAC transformation processes and provides so far unexplored possibilities to elucidate behavior and degradation mechanisms of nitroaromatic contaminants in soils and groundwaters.

  12. Origin and tracing techniques of high 15N nitrogen compounds in industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talma, A.S.; Meyer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Effluents and process waters from various industrial plants were investigated for the 15 N/ 14 N isotope ratio in nitrate and ammonia. It was found that large isotope fractionation occurs in cases where ammonia is involved in gas-liquid phase changes. This feature was found to occur in two coke oven plants where ammonia gas is removed from a gas stream by solution in water, in an ammonia sulphate plant where ammonia gas is absorbed in sulphuric acid and in a water treatment plant where ammonia is removed from (high pH) water by blowing air through the process water. In all these cases 15 N isotope enrichments (in the range of 10 to 30 per mille) occurred. These enrichments are in excess of those found naturally. Ammonia in such wastewaters essentially retains this high 15 N content when it is converted to nitrate underground: which occurs rapidly under well-oxidised conditions. Nitrate is a fairly conservative tracer and its contamination in water can be followed readily. In the low recharge environment in the central parts of South Africa evidence of waste management practices of 10-20 years earlier were still quite evident using this isotopic label. The high 15 N nitrate signal could be used to distinguish industrial nitrogen pollution from pollution by local sewage disposal systems. Vegetation that derives its nitrogen from such high 15 N sources retains the isotope signature of its source. Grass and other annual plants then exhibit the isotope signature of the water of a specific year. Trees exhibit the isotope signature of deeper water, which shows the effects of longer term pollution events. The use of high 15 N as tracer enables the source apportionment of nitrogen derived pollution in these specific circumstances. (author)

  13. Characterization of the compounds of nitrogen and total suspended particles in the municipality Regla, Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallo Vazquez, Antonio; Cuesta Santos, Osvaldo

    2006-01-01

    The questions related with the atmospheric contamination in urban areas every day they charge bigger importance for the affectations that it can take place so much in the health of the human beings as in the materials, constructions, etc. In the city of Havana those made up of nitrogen and the particles suspended totals are of the pollutants whose concentrations are elevated in the atmosphere. Inside this context, the present work intends the analysis of the behavior of this concentrations, taken as experimental polygon the municipality Regla in city of Havana

  14. Allylic azides as potential building blocks for the synthesis of nitrogenated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcus M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic potential of multifunctional allylic azides and imines in attempted intramolecular cyclizations to nitrogen-containing heterocycles was investigated. Tandem Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction of (E-3-aryl-2-(azidomethylpropenoates with triphenylphosphine and aldehydes yielded N-allylic imines in good yield. The (E-stereochemistry of C=C and C=N bonds was assigned based on NOESY experiments. AlCl3 mediated formation of 3-carbomethoxyquinoline from methyl (E-2-(azidomethyl-3-phenylpropenoate is also described.

  15. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  16. Nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur containing heterocyclic compounds as analgesic drugs used as modulators of the nitroxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Kinga; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2013-03-01

    Numerous lines of evidence suggest that heterocyclic compounds used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-migraine agents can be potent regulators of the nitroxidative stress and targeting free nitrogen and oxygen radicals is a very promising strategy for future pain management. Both classical analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid drugs) and many analgesic adjuvants, including desipramine, duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, escitalopram, phenytoin or carbamazepine and α-lipoic acid can modulate the balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in the mammalian tissues and these properties of drugs such as indomethacin, meloxicam, tenoxicam, valdecoxib or some metabolites of analgesic drugs formed by the activity of tissue peroxidases may contribute to their clinical efficacy and drug-related toxic effects, including gastrointestinal ulcers, hepatic failure, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, neutropenia, opiate-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. The antioxidant capacities of novel heterocyclic compounds, including the compounds acting either by prevention of formation or catalyzed decomposition of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-), namely the peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts or as superoxide (O2 •-)-scavengers which are the functional mimetics of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes (SODm), as well as the derivatives of 6-nitro-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-Nacylhydrazone (LASSBio-881) or γ-butyrolactone (LPP1, BM113, BM113A, BM138 and BM138A) are also discussed as potent and promising future heterocyclic analgesics.

  17. [New-type electrodeless excilamp for advanced treatment on nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) in aqueous solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhao-Lian; Wang, Bin; Lu, Juan-Juan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Ren-Xi

    2012-03-01

    A novel 206 nm excilamp generated by microwave-driven Kr/I2 mixtures was employed for nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) degradation in aqueous solution. The photodissociation efficiencies of indole and quinoline with 206 nm excilamp were estimated on the basis of removal efficiency of targeted compounds and the loss of total organic carbon (TOC). The results indicated that removal efficiency of 20 mg x L(-1) indole was as high as 62.0% after 80 min and TOC loss efficiency of 50.7% for 150 min. The irradiation time, initial concentration and pH value had some influences on quinoline degradation. Indole removal efficiency and TOC loss was markedly higher than that of quinoline under the same condition. The intermediates were identified qualitatively by gas chromatography/mass spectrum (GC/MS) with headspace sampling after they were extracted by rotary evaporator. GC/MS analysis indicated that indole and quinoline underwent ring-open dissociation under 206 nm irradiation, as a result, benzene, xylene, acetate, aldehyde, as well as ester compounds were formed, while indole aggregation reaction occurred during indole photodegradation. At last, degradation mechanisms of quinoline and indole in aqueous media with 206 nm excilamp were proposed on the basis of intermediates.

  18. Vitamin C, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Florets Grown under Different Nitrogen Treatments Combined with Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñas Elena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption is rising worldwide and fertilization is a tool to increase its production. However, little is known about the effect of mineral supplementation to the soil on the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to analyze the content of vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of broccoli florets cultivated under different nitrogen (N conditions in combination with selenium (IV and VI. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in broccoli grown in commercial soil treated with different N sources [(NH42SO4, NaNO3, NH4NO3 or CO(NH22 at 160 kg N/ha]. In addition, selenium (Se salts [Na2SeO3 (Se IV or Na2SeO4 (Se VI at 10 and 20 kg Se/ha] were applied. There were no evidences of the influence of N treatment on vitamin C content whilst Se (IV or VI uptake led to a significant reduction of this vitamin in broccoli florets, irrespective of the N source. In contrast, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity underwent a significant increment under N application. However, their combination with Se salts modified total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities in broccoli florets depending on N source and Se doses. Among all the experimental trials, application of NH4NO3 combined with 10 g Se (IV/ha was the elective treatment strategy to produce broccoli florets with higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and, therefore, enhanced functionality.

  19. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  20. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  1. Volatile organic compounds released from Microcystis flos-aquae under nitrogen sources and their toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghuan; Yang, Lin; Yang, Wangting; Bai, Yan; Hou, Ping; Zhao, Jingxian; Zhou, Lv; Zuo, Zhaojiang

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris. M. flos-aquae released 27, 22, 20, 27, 19, 25 and 17 compounds, respectively, with NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NH 4 Cl, urea, Ser, Lys and Arg as the sole N source. With the reduction in N amount, the emission of VOCs was increased markedly, and the most VOCs were found under Non-N condition. C. vulgaris cell propagation, photosynthetic pigment and Fv/Fm declined significantly following exposure to M. flos-aquae VOCs under Non-N condition, but not under Normal-N condition. When C. vulgaris cells were treated with two terpenoids, eucalyptol and limonene, the inhibitory effects were enhanced with increasing concentrations. Therefore, multiple N sources in eutrophicated water induce different VOC emissions from cyanobacteria, and reduction in N can cause nutrient competition, which can result in emissions of more VOCs. Those VOCs released from M. flos-aquae cells under Non-N for nutrient competition can inhibit other algal growth. Among those VOCs, eucalyptol and limonene are the major toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SAP buran injury management of mangoes (mangifera indica L.) in sri lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapillai, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - Willard, Karuthakolumban, Chembaddan and Ambalavi - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 and 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 and 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in Karuthakolumban. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in Willard, Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. (author)

  3. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B; Sanglard, D; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M; Schäfer, W; Brown, A J; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  4. Synthesis of Fuels and Value-Added Nitrogen-Containing Compounds from N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    compounds by solid state magnetometry, DFT calculations and EPR spectroscopy revealed principally ligand centered radicals, demonstrating a vanadium...provides definitive experimental proof of the enabling role of metal-ligand cooperativity. Aspects of this work were recently published as an article ...Centered Ered = -1.71 V pKa ≈ 28 BDFE(expt) = 65 kcal/mol BDFE(DFT) = 69 kcal/mol Imido/Amido Cation - EPR giso = 2.003 Aiso(51V) = 8 MHz giso = 1.990

  5. Origins of extreme broadening mechanisms in near-edge x-ray spectra of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Elam, W. T.; Denlinger, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the observation of many-body lifetime effects in valence-band x-ray emission. A comparison of the N K α emission of crystalline ammonium nitrate to molecular-orbital calculations revealed an unexpected, extreme broadening of the NO σ recombination—so extensively as to virtually disappear. GW calculations establish that this disappearance is due to a large imaginary component of the self-energy associated with the NO σ orbitals. Building upon density-functional theory, we have calculated radiative transitions from the nitrogen 1 s level of ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride using a Bethe-Salpeter method to include electron-hole interactions. The absorption and emission spectra of both crystals evince large, orbital-dependent sensitivity to molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that many-body effects as well as thermal and zero-point motion are vital for understanding observed spectra. A computational approach using average atomic positions and uniform broadening to account for lifetime and phonon effects is unsatisfactory.

  6. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetic variability of the phloem sap metabolite content of maize (Zea mays L.) during the kernel-filling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Dinant, Sylvie; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Quilleré, Isabelle; Armengaud, Patrick; Monfalet, Priscilla; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Using a metabolomic approach, we have quantified the metabolite composition of the phloem sap exudate of seventeen European and American lines of maize that had been previously classified into five main groups on the basis of molecular marker polymorphisms. In addition to sucrose, glutamate and aspartate, which are abundant in the phloem sap of many plant species, large quantities of aconitate and alanine were also found in the phloem sap exudates of maize. Genetic variability of the phloem sap composition was observed in the different maize lines, although there was no obvious relationship between the phloem sap composition and the five previously classified groups. However, following hierarchical clustering analysis there was a clear relationship between two of the subclusters of lines defined on the basis of the composition of the phloem sap exudate and the earliness of silking date. A comparison between the metabolite contents of the ear leaves and the phloem sap exudates of each genotype, revealed that the relative content of most of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing metabolites was similar. Correlation studies performed between the metabolite content of the phloem sap exudates and yield-related traits also revealed that for some carbohydrates such as arabitol and sucrose there was a negative or positive correlation with kernel yield and kernel weight respectively. A posititive correlation was also found between kernel number and soluble histidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of TXRF spectrometry and HPLC for the characterization of xylem saps of nickel contaminated cucumber plants grown in urea containing nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, E.; Mihucz, V.G.; Varga, G.; Zaray, G.; Cseh, E.

    2000-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used to determine the elemental composition of xylem saps of cucumber plants grown in nutrient solutions having urea, as the sole nitrogen source and artificially contaminated with nickel(II) ions in concentration of 10 μM, which proved to be toxic for the plants. The saps of uncontaminated plants - grown at the same time with the contaminated ones - were also investigated. The collection of the samples was performed for 1 hour followed by two additional 30-minute-long time periods, thus three samples resulted for each group of plants. The TXRF measurements were performed using Ga as internal standard. For excitation, Mo tube was used and the integration time was 300 s. The nutrient heavy metals determined by the TXRF spectrometry in the saps were Fe, Mn and Zn in concentration range of ng/cm 3 . Two other nutrient elements, Ca and K were also determined and they were present in the samples in concentration of μg/cm 3 . The concentration of nickel in the saps originating from the contaminated plants, was approximately 1400 ng/cm 3 . The concentration of another nutrient heavy metal, Cu was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption (GF-AAS) spectrometry. Applying a reversed-phased HPLC method, the organic acids of the samples, citric, malic and fumaric acids were also quantified, their concentrations being also in the μg/cm 3 concentration range. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were also performed in order to detect possible macromolecules of the saps. Both techniques, having low sample volume demand, were suitable to perform reliable measurements of the samples whose masses were between 0,9-2,5 g. Furthermore, the absence of the matrix effects is also an important advantage of the TXRF spectrometry that permits the direct analysis of the xylem saps. These investigations form part of our work focusing on the availability, accumulation and transport of heavy metals in

  9. Formation of nitrogen-containing compounds during slow pyrolysis and oxidation of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The petroleum coke from a fluid coking process was pyrolyzed in helium and oxidized in 1% and 4% O{sub 2} and in air, with the aim to determine N-containing compounds such as HCN, NH{sub 3}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. The experiments were performed with and without limestone. NO was the major product during all oxidation runs. N{sub 2}O was formed only in air. In this case, N{sub 2}O formation was delayed when compared with that of NO. The addition of limestone decreased formation of HCN and increased that of NH{sub 3}, whereas NO formation was least affected. 36 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Nitrapyrin in streams: The first study documenting off-field transport of a nitrogen stabilizer compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrapyrin is a bactericide that is co-applied with fertilizer to prevent nitrification and enhance corn yields. While there have been studies of the environmental fate of nitrapyrin, there is no documentation of its off-field transport to streams. In 2016, 59 water samples from 11 streams across Iowa were analyzed for nitrapyrin and its degradate, 6-chloropicolinic acid (6-CPA), along with three widely used herbicides, acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Nitrapyrin was detected in seven streams (39% of water samples) with concentrations ranging from 12 to 240 ng/L; 6-CPA was never detected. The herbicides were ubiquitously detected (100% of samples, 28–16000 ng/L). Higher nitrapyrin concentrations in streams were associated with rainfall events following spring fertilizer applications. Nitrapyrin persisted in streams for up to 5 weeks. These results highlight the need for more research focused on the environmental fate and transport of nitrapyrin and the potential toxicity this compound could have on nontarget organisms.

  11. Fermentative activity and production of volatile compounds by Saccharomyces grown in synthetic grape juice media deficient in assimilable nitrogen and/or pantothenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X D; Bohlscheid, J C; Edwards, C G

    2003-01-01

    To understand the impact of assimilable nitrogen and pantothenic acid on fermentation rate and synthesis of volatile compounds by Saccharomyces under fermentative conditions. A 2 x 3 factorial experimental design was employed with the concentrations of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) (60 and 250 mg l(-1)) and pantothenic acid (10, 50 and 250 microg l(-1)) as variables. In media containing 250 microg l(-1) pantothenic acid, H2S production by two different species of Saccharomyces decreased when YAN was increased from 60 to 250 mg l(-1). Conversely, H2S production was significantly higher when the concentration of assimilable nitrogen was increased if pantothenic acid was deficient (10 or 50 microg l(-1)). Yeast synthesis of other volatile compounds were impacted by both assimilable nitrogen and pantothenic acid. While growth and fermentative rate of Saccharomyces was more influenced by nitrogen than by pantothenic acid, complicated interactions exist between these nutrients that affect the synthesis of volatile compounds including H2S. This study has important implications for the winemaking industry where a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of Saccharomyces is necessary to reduce fermentation problems and to improve final product quality.

  12. Thermodynamic study on six tricyclic nitrogen heterocyclic compounds by thermal analysis and effusion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Bruno [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P .le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Lapi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, and Istituto CNR di Metodologie Chimiche (IMC-CNR), Sezione Meccanismi di Reazione, Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.vecchio@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento S.B.A.I., Sapienza Università di Roma, Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, I-00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-07-20

    Highlights: • Melting characteristics of tricyclic N-hetero tricyclic compounds were measured by DSC. • Vapor pressures of solid and liquid compounds were measured by effusion and iso-TG. • Thermochemical data from solid and liquid phases were compared with literature. • Good agreement between experimental and literature data with only few exceptions. - Abstract: The molar sublimation and vaporization enthalpies of acridine, phenanthridine, 1,7-phenanthroline, 1,10-phenanthroline, 4,7-phenanthroline and phenazine were determined at the averages of their respective experimental temperature ranges (Δ{sub cr}{sup g}H{sup 0}{sub m} () and Δ{sub l}{sup g}H{sup 0}{sub m} (), respectively) from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressure determined using Knudsen Effusion Mass Loss (KEML), Torsion Effusion (TE) and Isothermal Thermogravimetry (ITG) above their solid and liquid phases. The fusion characteristics (melting temperatures and the molar standard enthalpies of fusion at their melting temperatures) measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were compared with the available literature values. Solid and liquid vapor pressure data determined by KEML, TE and ITG techniques as well as Δ{sub cr}{sup g}H{sup 0}{sub m} () and Δ{sub l}{sup g}H{sup 0}{sub m} () values, adjusted at 298.15 K by using the values of C{sub p}(cr) and C{sub p}(l) calculated by a well-known group additivity method, were found to be fairly correlated and are consistent with the available literature data. Final Δ{sub cr}{sup g}H{sup 0}{sub m}(298.15 K) values were also provided as weighted averages of all the available data.

  13. Compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D-alanine, L-alanine, and valine: application of diastereomer separation to delta15N and microbial peptidoglycan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an analytical method to determine the compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions of individual amino acid enantiomers using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A novel derivatization of amino acid diastereomers by optically active (R)-(-)-2-butanol or (S)-(+)-2-butanol offers two advantages for nitrogen isotope analysis. First, chromatographic chiral separation can be achieved without the use of chiral stationary-phase columns. Second, the elution order of these compounds on the chromatogram can be switched by a designated esterification reaction. We applied the method to the compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D- and L-alanine in a peptidoglycan derived from the cell walls of cultured bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus staphylolyticus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Streptomyces sp.), natural whole bacterial cells (Bacillus subtilis var. natto), (pseudo)-peptidoglycan from archaea (Methanobacterium sp.), and cell wall from eukaryota (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We observed statistically significant differences in nitrogen isotopic compositions; e.g., delta15N ( per thousand vs air) in Staphylococcus staphylolyticus for d-alanine (19.2 +/- 0.5 per thousand, n = 4) and L-alanine (21.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand, n = 4) and in Bacillus subtilis for D-alanine (6.2 +/- 0.2 per thousand, n = 3) and L-alanine (8.2 +/- 0.4 per thousand, n = 3). These results suggest that enzymatic reaction pathways, including the alanine racemase reaction, produce a nitrogen isotopic difference in amino acid enantiomers, resulting in 15N-depleted D-alanine. This method is expected to facilitate compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acid stereoisomers.

  14. ACCUMULATION OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS AND NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN LETTUCE CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT CROP SYSTEMS ACÚMULO DE COMPOSTOS NITROGENADOS E ATIVIDADE DA REDUTASE DO NITRATO EM ALFACE PRODUZIDA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nunes Ibrahim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nitrate content determination is important for food quality evaluation, therefore when ingested nitrate is reduced the nitrite, which can generate harmful compounds to the human organism. Ahead of this, the present work had as objective to study the transport and accumulation of nitrogen compounds and the nitrate reductase activity in lettuce cultivar 'Vera' produced in Registro (SP in different cropping systems. Were collected samples of the xylem sap, aerial part and root for quantification of nitrogen compounds and of the reductase activity in vivo. The nitrate concentration in the xylem sap, the nitrate and amino acids contents, as well as the nitrate reductase activity, demonstrated more intense transport, accumulation and assimilation in plants cultivated in in hydroponic solution, followed of the conventional system and finally, of the organic. The stem of the plant in the three systems of culture presented high capacity of accumulation and assimilation the nitrogen compounds. The nitrate reductase activity in leaves was superior of the root. The content nitrate, independent of the culture system, varied of 24.32 the 800.06 mg kg-1 of FW in the different parts of the plant. However, it did not exceed the maximum

  15. Architecture of SAP ERP understand how successful software works

    CERN Document Server

    Boeder, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This book - compiled by software architects from SAP - is a must for consultants, developers, IT managers, and students working with SAP ERP, but also users who want to know the world behind their SAP user interface.

  16. Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

    2009-05-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.

  17. Experimental study on the particulate matter and nitrogenous compounds from diesel engine retrofitted with DOC+CDPF+SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Lou, Diming; Tan, Piqiang; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations will mandate the retrofit of after-treatment devices for in-use diesel vehicles, in order to reduce their substantial particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions. In this paper, a combination of DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), CDPF (catalytic diesel particulate filter) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) retrofit for a heavy-duty diesel engine was employed to perform experiment on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the particulate matter emissions including particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), particle size distributions and nitrogenous compounds emissions including NOX, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOX, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) slip. In addition, the urea injection was also of our concern. The results showed that the DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit almost had no adverse effect on the engine power and fuel consumption. Under the test loads, the upstream DOC and CDPF reduced the PN and PM by an average of 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. While the downstream SCR brought about an average decrease of 85% NOX. Both PM and NOX emission factors based on this retrofit were lower than China-Ⅳ limits (ESC), and even lower than China-Ⅴ limits (ESC) at medium and high loads. The DOC and CDPF changed the particle size distributions, leading to the increase in the proportion of accumulation mode particles and the decrease in the percentage of nuclear mode particles. This indicates that the effect of DOC and CDPF on nuclear mode particles was better than that of accumulation mode ones. The upstream DOC could increase the NO2/NOX ratio to 40%, higher NO2/NOX ratio improved the efficiency of CDPF and SCR. Besides, the N2O emission increased by an average of 2.58 times after the retrofit and NH3 slip occurred with the average of 26.7 ppm. The rate of urea injection was roughly equal to 8% of the fuel consumption rate. The DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit was proved a feasible and effective measurement in terms

  18. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM) 2 Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(Ph) 2 leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(η 2 -C 6 H 4 ) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO 2 and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM){sub 2}Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph){sub 2} leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs.

  20. Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Hong, E-mail: hyao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and COS are emitted during different sludge conditioning processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} generation increase in the acidic environment created by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaO leads to the conversion of free ammonia or protonated amine to volatile NH{sub 3}. - Abstract: Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S emissions in the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant

  1. Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Total ammonium (tot-NH4+ and total nitrate (tot-NO3 provide chemically conservative quantities in the measurement of surface exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds ammonia (NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3, using the aerodynamic gradient method. Total fluxes were derived from concentration differences of total ammonium (NH3 and NH4+ and total nitrate (HNO3 and NO3 measured at two levels. Gaseous species and related particulate compounds were measured selectively, simultaneously and continuously above a spruce forest canopy in south-eastern Germany in summer 2007. Measurements were performed using a wet-chemical two-point gradient instrument, the GRAEGOR. Median concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3 were 0.57, 0.12, 0.76, and 0.48 μg m−3, respectively. Total ammonium and total nitrate fluxes showed large variations depending on meteorological conditions, with concentrations close to zero under humid and cool conditions and higher concentrations under dry conditions. Mean fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate in September 2007 were directed towards the forest canopy and were −65.77 ng m−2 s−1 and −41.02 ng m−2 s−1 (in terms of nitrogen, respectively. Their deposition was controlled by aerodynamic resistances only, with very little influence of surface resistances. Including measurements of wet deposition and findings of former studies on occult deposition (fog water interception at the study site, the total N deposition in September 2007 was estimated to 5.86 kg ha−1.

  2. Effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds using a modified QSAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds were investigated using a modified half life equation. The potential future pharmaceutical compounds investigated were approximately 2000 pharmaceutical drugs currently undergoing the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) testing. EPI Suite (BIOWIN) model estimates the fates of compounds based on the biodegradability under aerobic conditions. While BIOWIN considered the biodegradability of a compound only, the half life equation used in this study was modified by biodegradability, sorption and cometabolic oxidation. It was possible that the potential future pharmaceutical compounds were more accurately estimated using the modified half life equation. The modified half life equation considered sorption and cometabolic oxidation of halogenated aromatic/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics in the sub-surface, while EPI Suite (BIOWIN) did not. Halogenated aliphatics in chemicals were more persistent than halogenated aromatics in the sub-surface. In addition, in the sub-surface environment, the fates of organic chemicals were much more affected by halogenation in chemicals than by nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics. © 2013.

  3. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  4. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  5. The role of nitrogen and sulphur bearing compounds in the wettability of oil reservoir rocks: an approach with nuclear microanalysis and other related surface techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, F.; Toulhoat, N.; Potocek, V.; Trocellier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Oil recovery is strongly influenced by the wettability of the reservoir rock. Some constituents of the crude oil (polar compounds and heavy fractions such as asphaltenes with heteroatoms) are believed to react with the reservoir rock and to condition the local wettability. Therefore, it is important to obtain as much knowledge as possible about the characteristics of the organic matter/mineral interactions. This study is devoted to the description at the microscopic scale of the distribution of some heavy fractions of crude oil (asphaltenes) and nitrogen molecules (pyridine and pyrrole) on model minerals of sandstone reservoir rocks such as silica and clays. Nuclear microanalysis, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and other related microscopic imaging techniques allow to study the distribution and thickness of the organic films. The respective influences of the nature of the mineral substrate and the organic matter are studied. The important role played by the nitrogen compounds in the adsorption of organic matter is emphasized

  6. Helium implantation effects in SAP and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Thomas, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A series of 300 keV He implantations of Al and SAP 930 have been conducted at temperatures between 150 and 773K. The He re-emission was monitored during implantation and the samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope after implantation. Both Al and SAP 930 were found to blister after a critical He dose was reached at temperatures above 473K, both underwent flaking below that temperature, with blistering re-appearing in SAP 930 at an implantation temperature of 150K. The surface deformation and He re-emission are strongly dependent on microstructural effects in the intermediate temperature regime

  7. Nanostructured polypyrrole for automated and electrochemically controlled in-tube solid-phase microextraction of cationic nitrogen compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiabi, Hamid; Yamini, Yadollah; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe an efficient method for microextraction and preconcentration of trace quantities of cationic nitrogen compounds, specifically of anilines. It relies on a combination of electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction and on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using polypyrrole-coated capillaries. Nanostructured polypyrrole was electrically deposited on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube and used as the extraction phase. It also acts as a polypyrrole electrode that was used as a cation exchanger, and a platinum electrode that was used as the anode. The solution to be extracted is passed over the inner surface of the polypyrrole electrode, upon which cations are extracted by applying a negative potential under flow conditions. This method represents an ideal technique for SPME of protonated anilines because it is fast, easily automated, solvent-free, and inexpensive. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection are in the 0.10–0.30 μg L -1 range. The method works in the 0.10 to 300 μg L -1 concentration range. The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSD%; for n = 3) range from 5.1 to 7.5 % and from 4.7 to 6.0 % at the concentration levels of 2, 10 and 20 μg L -1 , respectively. The EC-in-tube SPME method was successfully applied to the analysis of methyl-, 4-chloro-, 3-chloro and 3,4-dichloroanilines in (spiked) water samples. (author)

  8. Detection of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds at Rocknest Using the Sample Analysis At Mars (SAM) Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Brunner, A.; Coll, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Jones, J. H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of Rocknest material at Gale Crater. Hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile were identified by the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) both in direct evolved gas analysis (EGA). SAM carried out four separate analyses from Rocknest Scoop 5. A significant low temperature release was present in Rocknest runs 1-4, while a smaller high temperature release was also seen in Rocknest runs 1-3. Here we evaluate whether these compounds are indigenous to Mars or a pyrolysis product resulting from known terrestrial materials that are part of the SAM derivatization.

  9. 46 CFR 16.203 - Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. 16.203 Section... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. (a) Employers...) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements...

  10. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Dosing Simulations of Nitrogen-Scavenging Compounds: Disposition of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Jon P. R.; Mokhtarani, M.; Diaz, G. A.; Rhead, W.; Lichter-Konecki, U.; Berry, S. A.; LeMons, C.; Dickinson, K.; Coakley, D.; Lee, B.; Scharschmidt, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate mediate waste nitrogen excretion in the form of urinary phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired urea synthesis and hyperammonemia. Sodium phenylbutyrate is approved for UCD treatment; the development of glycerol phenylbutyrate afforded the opportunity to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both compounds. A population PK model was developed using data fro...

  11. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2013-06-30

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Maeng, Sungkyu; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  13. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  14. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  15. A charged aerosol detector/chemiluminescent nitrogen detector/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for regular and fragment compound analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutao; Hascall, Daniel; Li, Delia; Pease, Joseph H

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we introduce a high throughput LCMS/UV/CAD/CLND system that improves upon previously reported systems by increasing both the quantitation accuracy and the range of compounds amenable to testing, in particular, low molecular weight "fragment" compounds. This system consists of a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) added to a LCMS/UV system. Our results show that the addition of CAD and CLND to LCMS/UV is more reliable for concentration determination for a wider range of compounds than either detector alone. Our setup also allows for the parallel analysis of each sample by all four detectors and so does not significantly increase run time per sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The efficiency of mechanisms driving Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the seasonal and diurnal variation of SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams occurrence based on 3663 SAPS events identified in DMSP ion drift observations in the Northern Hemisphere during July 2001 and June 2003. Their relationships with high latitude convection electric field, substorm, and ionospheric conductivity have been addressed. SAPS occurrences show a clear seasonal and diurnal variation with the occurrence rates varying by a factor of 5. It is found that the convection electric field might play a dominant role in association with SAPS occurrence. Peak convection electric fields mark the occurrence maximum of SAPS. Substorm might play a secondary role related to SAPS occurrence. It account for the secondary maximum in SAPS occurrence rate during December solstice. Our work demonstrates that the substorm induced electric field can develop SAPS during relatively low global convection. Somewhat low fluxtube-integrated conductivity is favorable for SAPS to develop. Another topic is the temporal relationship between SAPS and substorm phases. SAPS can occur at substorm onset, substorm expansion and recovery phases. Most probably SAPS tend to occur 60 min/45 min after substorm onset during quiet/more disturbed geomagnetic activity, respectively. This indicates that enhanced global convection helps SAPS to develop quicker during substorms. The peak plasma velocity of SAPS is increased on average only by 5–10 % by the substorm process.

  18. Implementation of SAP Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, M.L.; LaBorde, C.M.; Nichols, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) assumed responsibility for newly generated waste on October 1, 2005. To ensure effective management and accountability of newly generated waste, Y-12 has opted to utilize SAP, Y-12's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) tool, to track low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), hazardous waste, and non-regulated waste from generation through acceptance and disposal. SAP Waste will include the functionality of the current waste tracking system and integrate with the applicable modules of SAP already in use. The functionality of two legacy systems, the Generator Entry System (GES) and the Waste Information Tracking System (WITS), and peripheral spreadsheets, databases, and e-mail/fax communications will be replaced by SAP Waste. Fundamentally, SAP Waste will promote waste acceptance for certification and disposal, not storage. SAP Waste will provide a one-time data entry location where waste generators can enter waste container information, track the status of their waste, and maintain documentation. A benefit of the new system is that it will provide a single data repository where Y-12's Waste Management organization can establish waste profiles, verify and validate data, maintain inventory control utilizing hand-held data transfer devices, schedule and ship waste, manage project accounting, and report on waste handling activities. This single data repository will facilitate the production of detailed waste generation reports for use in forecasting and budgeting, provide the data for required regulatory reports, and generate metrics to evaluate the performance of the Waste Management organization and its subcontractors. SAP Waste will replace the outdated and expensive legacy system, establish tools the site needs to manage newly generated waste, and optimize the use of the site's ERP tool for integration with related business processes while promoting disposition of waste. (authors)

  19. Analysis list: SAP30 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAP30 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP...30.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP...30.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP30.Pluripote

  20. Studying The Contamination Status And The Sources Of Nitrogen Compounds In Groundwater In Ho Chi Minh City Area Using The Isotope Hydrology Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Huynh Long; Tran Bich Lien; Luong Thu Tra

    2013-01-01

    The obtained data on nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen concentration of 100 groundwater samples collected from 3 main aquifers show that although the nitrate concentration is still lower than the authorized limit of this compound in groundwater but the concentration and, specially the distribution of nitrate in shallow aquifer (Pleistocene) shows the increasing tendency in pollution level while ammonium and also total nitrogen content exceeded the authorized limit of these compounds in groundwater. For deeper aquifers (Upper and Lower Pliocene) groundwater is less polluted by nitrogen compounds. Analysis data on isotopic composition δ 15 N and δ 18 O of nitrate of the collected groundwater samples in compiling with other environmental isotopes data as δ 2 H, δ 18 O of water and natural radioactive isotopes in groundwater ( 3 H and 14 C) show that nitrate in Pleistocene groundwater is derived from both sources, geogenic source such as organic matter buried in aquifer soil layers and anthropogenic source like fertilizers, manure and septic wastes with the dominance of anthropogenic source. At the same time, obtained isotopic data proved the geogenic source of nitrate in water of the deeper aquifers. Study results on infiltration rate and infiltration depth of fertilizers and water using tracer techniques in the zone specializing in legume cultivation of the study area show the possible infiltration into shallow groundwater of water and also fertilizers. The obtained results prove the need of better management of the use of fertilizers for cultivation activities in the study area and to apply the advanced cultural manners for minimizing amount of fertilizers used. At the same time to strengthen wastes management and treatment in whole study area, especially in the zones which intake rain water as a recharge source to shallow groundwater such as Cu Chi, Hoc Mon and also inner city districts. (author)

  1. Positron annihilation lifetime studies of changes in free volume on some biorelevant nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their S-glycosylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.R.; Khodair, A.I.; Shaban, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic compounds was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy as well as Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) at room temperature. The results showed that the formation probability and life time of ortho-positronium in this series are structure and electron-donation character dependent, and can give more information about the structure. The DBAR provides direct information about the change of core and valance electrons as well as the number of defect types present in these compounds. - Highlights: • N-heterocyclic compounds were studied by PALS and DBAR at room temperature. • These compounds contain thiohydantoins which have wide applications as anticarcinogenic, antiviral, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antimicrobial activity. • The DBAR provides direct information about the change of core and valance electrons as well as the number of defect types present in these compounds.

  2. SAP ERP financial accounting and controlling configuration and use management

    CERN Document Server

    Okungbowa, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SAP ERP modules are notoriously hard to configure and use effectively without a lot of practice and experience. But as SAP ERP Financial Accounting and Controlling: Configuration and Use Management shows, it doesn't have to be so difficult. The book takes a systematic approach that leads SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling (FICO) users step by step through configuring and using all the program's facets. This approach makes configuration complexities manageable. The book's author-SAP expert, trainer, and accountant Andrew Okun

  3. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  4. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  5. Effect of interstitial nitrogen on magnetism and entropy change of LaFe11.7Si1.3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, M.; Rosca, M.; Fruchart, D.; Gignoux, D.

    2009-01-01

    Crystal structure, magnetism and magnetocaloric properties of LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y (y=0, 1.3) compounds have been studied by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y compounds present a cubic NaZn 13 -type structure. Insertion of 1.3 nitrogen atoms per LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 formula increases the lattice parameter and Curie temperature from 11.467 to 11.733 A and from 190 to ∼230 K, respectively. Besides, the absorption of nitrogen drives drastically the magnetic transition from first to second order and accordingly strongly decreases the magnetocaloric effect compared to the parent alloy. Under an external field change of 5 T, the value of isothermal entropy change -ΔS is about 28 and 3.5 J/kg K for LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 and LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N 1.3 , respectively, close to their Curie temperature. However, the relative cooling power RCP(S) of the nitride is about half that of the parent alloy

  6. INCREASE OF ADHESION OF PAINT-AND-LACQUER MATERIALS TO WOOD THROUGH THE MODIFICATION OF ITS SURFACE BY BORON-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koteneva Irina Vasil'evna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the efficiency of protection of wooden structures, covered with paints and lacquer materials, from the influence of the environment, depends on the adhesion size. It is common knowledge that improvement of adhesion of capillary-porous materials to the wood, and, hence, the increase of the service life of the sheeting requires the reduction in the dimensions of the wood surface, as the reduction of diameters of capillaries leads to the growth of forces of capillary condensation and to the increase in the depth of penetration of paints into the material. Adhesion of a water-soluble acrylic paint and organic-soluble enamels to the surface of the wood modified by boron-nitrogen compounds and to unmodified wood is the subject of the research. It is identified that the increase in the adhesive durability of paint and varnish coverings if glued to the surface of the wood modified by boron-nitrogen compounds, is driven by the growth of the polarity of a substrate and the reduction of dimensions of the wood surface.

  7. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  8. [Rainfall effects on the sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Zha, Than Shan; Jia, Xin; Qin, Shu Gao; Qian, Duo; Guo, Xiao Nan; Chen, Guo Peng

    2016-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, plant physiological responses to water availability depend largely on the intensity and frequency of rain events. Knowledge on the responses of xerophytic plants to rain events is important for predicting the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems under changing climate. The sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium in the Mu Us Sand Land was continuously measured during the growing season of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to quantify the dynamics of sap flow under different weather conditions, and to examine the responses of sap flow to rain events of different sizes. The results showed that the daily sap flow rates of H. scoparium were lower on rainy days than on clear days. On clear days, the sap flow of H. scoparium showed a midday plateau, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and relative humidity. On rainy days, the sap flow fluctuated at low levels, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and air temperature. Rain events not only affected the sap flow on rainy days through variations in climatic factors (e.g., solar radiation and air temperature), but also affected post-rainfall sap flow velocities though changes in soil moisture. Small rain events (sap flow, whereas large rain events (>20 mm) significantly increased the sap flow on days following rainfall. Rain-wetted soil conditions not only resulted in higher sap flow velocities, but also enhanced the sensitivity of sap flow to solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and air temperature.

  9. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  10. Uncertainty in sap flow-based transpiration due to xylem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, N. T.; Hu, J.; Martin, J. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from plants through their stomata, is a key component of the terrestrial water balance, influencing streamflow as well as regional convective systems. From a plant physiological perspective, transpiration is both a means of avoiding destructive leaf temperatures through evaporative cooling and a consequence of water loss through stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide. Despite its hydrologic and ecological significance, transpiration remains a notoriously challenging process to measure in heterogeneous landscapes. Sap flow methods, which estimate transpiration by tracking the velocity of a heat pulse emitted into the tree sap stream, have proven effective for relating transpiration dynamics to climatic variables. To scale sap flow-based transpiration from the measured domain (often area) to the whole-tree level, researchers generally assume constancy of scale factors (e.g., wood thermal diffusivity (k), radial and azimuthal distributions of sap velocity, and conducting sapwood area (As)) through time, across space, and within species. For the widely used heat-ratio sap flow method (HRM), we assessed the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to uncertainty in k (a function of wood moisture content and density) and As. A sensitivity analysis informed by distributions of wood moisture content, wood density and As sampled across a gradient of water availability indicates that uncertainty in these variables can impart substantial error when scaling sap flow measurements to the whole tree. For species with variable wood properties, the application of the HRM assuming a spatially constant k or As may systematically over- or underestimate whole-tree transpiration rates, resulting in compounded error in ecosystem-scale estimates of transpiration.

  11. Factors affecting levels of some phenolic compounds, digestibility, and nitrogen content of the mature leaves ofBarteria fistulosa (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, P G; Ross, J A; McKey, D B

    1984-03-01

    Levels of total phenolics, condensed tannins, acid detergent fiber, pepsin/cellulase digestibility, and nitrogen in mature leaves of 26 individuals of the ant-plant,Barteria fistulosa, have been determined. Analysis of the results in terms of the presence or absence of ants and the position of the branch from which the leaves were collected showed no relationship with concentrations of phenolics or fiber and only a weak relationship with digestibility and nitrogen. By contrast, light intensity strongly influenced levels of phenolics, notably condensed tannins, so that mature leaves of individuals growing in direct sunlight were less digestible and appeared to be of lower quality as food for herbivores than did mature leaves of individuals in shaded positions. Possible reasons for the variation in condensed tannin levels are discussed.

  12. Gaseous byproducts from high-temperature thermal conversion elemental analysis of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds with considerations for δ2H and δ18O analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsinger, Glendon B; Tipple, Christopher A; Stern, Libby A

    2013-07-30

    High-temperature, conversion-reduction (HTC) systems convert hydrogen and oxygen in materials into H2 and CO for δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. HTC of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing materials produces unintended byproduct gases that could affect isotope analyses by: (1) allowing isotope exchange reactions downstream of the HTC reactor, (2) creating isobaric or co-elution interferences, and (3) causing deterioration of the chromatography. This study characterizes these HTC byproducts. A HTC system (ThermoFinnigan TC/EA) was directly connected to a gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer in scan mode (m/z 8 to 88) to identify the volatile products generated by HTC at conversion temperatures of 1350 °C and 1450 °C for a range of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing solids [keratin powder, horse hair, caffeine, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, and three nitrated organic explosives (PETN, RDX, and TNT)]. The prominent HTC byproduct gases include carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, acetylene, and water for all nitrogen-bearing compounds, as well as carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide for sulfur-bearing compounds. The 1450 °C reactor temperature reduced the abundance of most byproduct gases, but increased the significant byproduct, hydrogen cyanide. Inclusion of a post-reactor chemical trap containing Ascarite II and Sicapent, in series, eliminated the majority of byproducts. This study identified numerous gaseous HTC byproducts. The potential adverse effects of these gases on isotope ratio analyses are unknown but may be mitigated by higher HTC reactor temperatures and purifying the products with a purge-and-trap system or with chemical traps. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhupinder Singh; Sumedha Ahuja; Renu Pandey; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14 C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source ( 60 Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14 C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  14. Positron annihilation lifetime studies of changes in free volume on some biorelevant nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their S-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K R; Khodair, A I; Shaban, S Y

    2015-11-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic compounds was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy as well as Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) at room temperature. The results showed that the formation probability and life time of ortho-positronium in this series are structure and electron-donation character dependent, and can give more information about the structure. The DBAR provides direct information about the change of core and valance electrons as well as the number of defect types present in these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the disposition of several nitrogen-containing compounds in the sea urchin and other marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, P.F.; Crosby, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    1. The disposition of an aromatic amine and three aromatic nitro compounds was investigated in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. 2. The sea urchin rapidly eliminated injected compounds. The elimination rate constants decreased in the order p-toluidine greater than p-nitroanisole . p-nitrophenol greater than p-nitrotoluene. The fraction of total injected compound eliminated in 8 h was lowest for p-nitrophenol less than p-toluidine less than p-nitrotoluene less than p-nitroanisole. 3. Biotransformation for the sea urchin was primarily reduction of the nitro group followed by acetylation of the amine. 4. Other animals, starfish (Pisaster ochraceus), sea cucumber (Cucumaria miniata), gum boot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) and mussels (Mytilus californianus), injected with p-nitroanisole exhibited a trend toward oxidative biotransformation. 5. Elimination of parent compound was the major pathway for reducing body burden of xenobiotics for the invertebrates studied. 6. p-Toluidine oxidizes during analysis and was thus not suitable for studying biotransformation.

  16. Sources and transformation of dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre indicated by compound-specific δ15N analysis of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the use of compound-specific nitrogen isotopes of amino acids (δ15NAA) of coupled dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen (DON, PON) samples as a new approach to examine relative sources, transformation processes, and the potential coupling of these two major forms of N cycle in the ocean water column. We measured δ15NAA distributions in high-molecular-weight dissolved organic nitrogen (HMW DON) and suspended PON in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) from surface to mesopelagic depths. A new analytical approach achieved far greater δ15NAA measurement precision for DON than earlier work, allowing us to resolve previously obscured differences in δ15NAA signatures, both with depth and between ON pools. We propose that δ15N values of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) represents a proxy for proteinaceous ON δ15N values in DON and PON. Together with bulk δ15N values, this allows δ15N values and changes in bulk, proteinaceous, and ;other-N; to be directly evaluated. These novel measurements suggest three main conclusions. First, the δ15NAA signatures of both surface and mesopelagic HMW DON suggest mainly heterotrophic bacterial sources, with mesopelagic HMW DON bearing signatures of far more degraded material compared to surface material. These results contrast with a previous proposal that HMW DON δ15NAA patterns are essentially ;pre-formed; by cyanobacteria in the surface ocean, undergo little change with depth. Second, different δ15NAA values and patterns of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the surface NPSG suggest that sources and cycling of these two N reservoirs are surpisingly decoupled. Based on molecular δ15N signatures, we propose a new hypothesis that production of surface HMW DON is ultimately derived from subsurface nitrate, while PON in the mixed layer is strongly linked to N2 fixation and N recycling. In contrast, the comparative δ15NAA signatures of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the mesopelagic also suggest a

  17. [Validity of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales in obstetric patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskikh, I B; Musaeva, T S; Denisova, E A

    2012-01-01

    to estimate efficiency of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA scales for obstetric patients with heavy sepsis. 186 medical cards retrospective analysis of pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis, 40 women with urosepsis and puerperas with abdominal sepsis--66 was performed. Middle age of women was 26.7 (22.4-34.5). In population of puerperas with abdominal sepsis APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA scales showed to good calibration, however, high resolution was observed only in APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA (AUROC 0.95; 0.93; 0.92 respectively). APACHE III and SOFA scales provided qualitative prognosis in pregnant women with urosepsis; resolution ratio of these scales considerably exceeds APACHE II, SAPS 2 and SAPS 3 (AUROC 0.73; 0.74; 0.79 respectively). APACHE II scale is inapplicable because of a lack of calibration (X2 = 13.1; p < 0.01), and at other scales (APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA) was observed the insufficient resolution (AUROC < 0.9) in pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis. Prognostic possibilities assessment of score scales showed that APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales can be used for a lethality prognosis for puerperas with abdominal sepsis, in population of pregnant women with urosepsis--only APACHE III and SOFA, and with pulmonary sepsis--SAPS 3 and APACHE III only in case of additional clinical information.

  18. Reactivities of polystyrenic polymers with supercritical water under nitrogen or air. Identification and formation of degradation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, M.A.; Dozol, J.F.; Massiani, C.; Ambrosio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of ion-exchange resins (IER) that are radioactive process wastes and which contain radioactivity. The GC/MS technique was used successfully to identify the low-concentration degradation compounds that are present in the cold liquid effluent after SCWO of polystyrenic IER at 380 C (25.5 MPa). The study of the behavior of these IER in supercritical water enhances the role of temperature and the role of supercritical water in the degradation process. With the exception of acetic acid, the identified compounds are aromatic. The functional groups are released during the heating time, and they do not interfere in the degradation process. The oxidation involves a complex set of reaction pathways. A mechanism including parallel and competitive reactions is proposed

  19. Separation of pharmacologically active nitrogen-containing compounds on silica gels modified with 6,10-ionene, dextran sulfate, and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioutsi, A. N.; Shapovalova, E. N.; Ioutsi, V. A.; Mazhuga, A. G.; Shpigun, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    New stationary phases for HPLC are obtained via layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes and studied: (1) silica gel modified layer-by-layer with 6,10-ionene and dextran sulfate (Sorbent 1); (2) silica gel twice subjected to the above modification (Sorbent 2); and (3) silica gel modified with 6,10-ionene, gold nanoparticles, and dextran sulfate (Sorbent 3). The effect the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase and the concentration and pH of the buffer solution have on the chromatographic behavior of several pharmacologically active nitrogen-containing compounds is studied. The sorbents are stable during the process and allow the effective separation of beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, alpha-agonists, and antihistamines. A mixture of caffeine, nadolol, tetrahydrozoline, pindolol, orphenadrine, doxylamine, carbinoxamine, and chlorphenamine is separated in 6.5 min on the silica gel modified with 6,10-ionene, gold nanoparticles, and dextran sulfate.

  20. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2002-12-01

    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications. See Featured Molecules.

  1. Removal of Basic Nitrogen Compounds from Fuel Oil with [Hnmp]H2PO4 Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid (IL N-methyl pyrrolidone dihydrogen phosphate ([Hnmp]H2PO4 was synthesized and its structure was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The denitrogenation performance of the ionic liquid was investigated using Fushun shale diesel oil that included 0.52 w% basic nitrogen as feedstock. Experiment results showed that under the operating conditions with temperature of 30 °C, 1:7 (w/w IL: oil, reaction time of 20 min, and settling time of 2 h, the ionic liquid exhibited good denitrogenation performance achieving 86.27 % basic N-extraction efficiency and the yield of refined diesel oil can reach more than 90 %. In addition, the basic N-removal efficiency can still reach 54 % during four recycles of the ionic liquid.

  2. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  3. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  4. Protein characterization of Roditis Greek grape variety and Sauvignon blanc and changes in certain nitrogen compounds during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Nakopoulou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Must and wine samples of the Greek grape variety Roditis and the French one Sauvignon blanc were analysed in order to obtain further knowledge of the protein profile of Roditis and to watch the evolution of grape proteins during the alcoholic fermentation of Roditis and Sauvignon blanc musts. For these purposes protein samples were isolated from must and wine samples by ammonium sulphate precipitation and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE. Eleven and nine bands with molecular weights between 11,1 and 64,4 kDa were detected on the electrophoregramms of Roditis and Sauvignon blanc must and wine samples respectively, using Coomassie Brillant Blue R-250 and silver staining methods. Two protein fractions of must and wine samples with molecular weights of 64,4 kDa and 34,4 kDa were identified as being glycoproteins in the profile of the Greek grape variety, according to the Periodic acid - silver staining, while only one must and wine fraction of 64,4 kDa had positively react with this stain, as far as it concerns Sauvignon blanc. None of the low molecular weight protein fractions found to be responsible for haze formation. A modified (Bradford dye - binding procedure was used for the determination of musts and wines soluble proteins. Free amino nitrogen and the contents of neutral and acidic polysaccharides in the protein fractions after chromatography on Sephadex G - 25, were also analyzed.

  5. Measurement of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) dust by ethanol derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul; Lemmo, John S; Macomber, Margaret; Holcomb, Mark L; Lieckfield, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) is an important industrial chemical manufactured primarily as sodium polyacrylate but occasionally as potassium salt. It has many applications owing to its intrinsic physical property of very high water absorption, which can be more than 100 times it own weight. SAP is commonly used in disposable diapers and feminine hygiene products and is known by a number of synonyms-sodium polyacrylate, superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP), polyacrylate absorbent (PA), and superabsorbent material (SAM). Germany and The Netherlands have adopted a nonbinding scientific guideline value 0.05 mg/m³ (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA) as the maximum allowable workplace concentration for the respirable dust of SAP (acrylate was developed and validated for the analysis of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate dust collected on filter cassettes in the workplace environment. This method is an alternative to the commonly used sodium-based method, which is limited owing to potential interference by other sources of sodium from the workplace and laboratory environments. The alcohol derivatization method effectively eliminates sodium interference from several classes of sodium compounds, as shown by their purposeful introduction at two and six times the equivalent amount of SAP present in reference samples. The accuracy of the method, as determined by comparison with sodium analysis of known reference samples, was greater than 80% over the study range of 5-50 μg of SAP dust. The lower reporting limit of the method is 3.0 μg of SAP per sample, which is equivalent to 3 (μg/m³) for an 8-hr sampling period at the recommended flow rate of 2.2 L/min.

  6. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems. Keywords: Food science, Food safety, Materials chemistry

  7. 49 CFR 40.311 - What are the requirements concerning SAP reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements concerning SAP reports... Process § 40.311 What are the requirements concerning SAP reports? (a) As the SAP conducting the required... ensure that you receive SAP written reports directly from the SAP performing the evaluation and that no...

  8. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  9. BCM-95 and (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin reverse autophagy dysfunction and deplete stored lipids in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Massimo; Motta, Marialetizia; Scarpa, Susanna; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Tartaglia, Marco; Salvioli, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Saposin (Sap) C deficiency is a rare variant form of Gaucher disease caused by impaired Sap C expression or accelerated degradation, and associated with accumulation of glucosylceramide and other lipids in the endo/lysosomal compartment. No effective therapies are currently available for the treatment of Sap C deficiency. We previously reported that a reduced amount and enzymatic activity of cathepsin (Cath) B and Cath D, and defective autophagy occur in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts. Here, we explored the use of two compounds, BCM-95, a curcumin derivative, and (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), to improve lysosomal function of Sap C-deficient fibroblasts. Immunofluorescence and biochemical studies documented that each compound promotes an increase of the expression levels and activities of Cath B and Cath D, and efficient clearance of cholesterol (Chol) and ceramide (Cer) in lysosomes. We provide evidence that BCM-95 and HP-β-CD enhance lysosomal function promoting autophagic clearance capacity and lysosome reformation. Our findings suggest a novel pharmacological approach to Sap C deficiency directed to treat major secondary pathological aspects in this disorder. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Pandey, Renu; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14 C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14 CO 2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14 C release by the roots was compared against the 14 C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14 C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  11. Faculty perceptions of the integration of SAP in academic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Khoury

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare students for the workforce, academic programs incorporate a variety of tools that students are likely to use in their future careers. One of these tools employed by business and technology programs is the integration of live software applications such as SAP through the SAP University Alliance (SAP UA program. Since the SAP UA program has been around for only about 10 years and the available literature on the topic is limited, research is needed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the SAP UA program. A collaborative study of SAP UA faculty perceptions of their SAP UAs was conducted in the fall of 2011. Of the faculty invited to participate in the study, 31% completed the online survey. The results indicate that most faculty experienced difficulty implementing SAP into their programs and report that a need exists for more standardized curriculum and training, while a large percentage indicated that they are receiving the support they need from their schools and SAP.

  12. 49 CFR 40.295 - May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? 40.295 Section 40.295 Transportation Office... seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? (a) As an employee...

  13. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, chloride and base cations at Ahtari and Hyytiala, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Seven-year (2003-2009) time series of atmospheric SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}-, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations as well as four-year time series of atmospheric Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations from Ahtari and Hyytiala background stations in southern Finland, located within 85 km of each other were compared. At Ahtari the air sampler was located in a clearing within a young forest, while at Hyytiala it was within dense forest stands. Pearson's correlations between the time series were very strong (r{sub P} {>=} 0.9) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}, strong (r{sub P} > 0.8) for Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} and week (r{sub P} = 0.65) for K{sup +}. The concentrations recorded at Hyytiala were on average 0.8-1.0 times those at Ahtari, although for K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} the ratios were higher. The GLS-ARMA method used takes into account the seasonal behaviour and serial correlation in the air quality time series, which revealed similar seasonal and temporal behaviour for S and N compounds and Cl- at both stations. As a result of the dense seasonalization of the time series, the part of the data heavily influenced by local agricultural sources could be identified. This enables elimination of the minimal part of the data affected and the use of the remaining data for further studies on a more regional level. (orig.)

  14. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical characterization of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, B.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow region of westward directed plasma convection typically observed in the dusk-midnight sector equatorward of the main auroral oval. SAPS plays an important role in mid-latitude space weather dynamics and has a controlling influence on the evolution of large-scale plasma features, such as Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes. In this study, data from North American mid-latitude SuperDARN radars collected between January 2011 and December 2014 have been used to compile a database of SAPS events for statistical analysis. We examine the dependence of SAPS velocity magnitude and direction on geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time. The lowest speed limit and electric fields observed during SAPS are discussed and histograms of SAPS velocities for different Dst bins and MLAT-MLT locations are presented. We find significant differences in SAPS characteristics between periods of low and high geomagnetic activity, suggesting that SAPS are driven by different mechanisms during storm and non-storm conditions. To further explore this possibility, we have characterized the SAPS location and peak speed relative to the ionospheric trough specified by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data from the MIT Haystack Madrigal database. A particular emphasis is placed on identifying the extent to which the location, structure, and depth of the trough may play a controlling influence on SAPS speeds during storm and non-storm periods. The results are interpreted in terms of the current paradigm for active thermosphere-ionosphere feedback being an important component of SAPS physics.

  16. Real-time analysis of nitrogen translocation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen absorbed by roots is transported to the leaves through xylem vessels and then retranslocated to the new leaves, such as root and storage organs through sieve tubes. It is very important to know how this nitrogen movement occurs in the plants and what mechanisms are involved in controlling this movement in order to increase the efficiency of fertilizer. In this experiments, 13 N and 15 N was used to detect the nitrogen circulation in plants, in combination with the technique for positron detection in real time and for collection of sap in sieve tubes and analysis of 15 N in it. By using 13 N, nitrogen movement from root to shoot was analyzed within 10 min after 13 N was applied to the roots. On the other hand, nitrogen retranslocation through sieve tubes was detected by the analysis of 15 N in the phloem sap over 6 hrs. All data suggest the dynamic translocation of nitrogen in rice plants. (author)

  17. Effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under different nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M E; Casati, P; Hsu, T P; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1999-02-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme have been examined in different cultivars of Phaseolous vulgaris L. grown under 1 and 12 mM nitrogen. Low nitrogen nutrition reduces chlorophyll and soluble protein contents in the leaves and thus the photosynthesis rate and dry-matter accumulation. Chlorophyll, soluble protein and Rubisco contents and photosynthesis rate are not significantly altered by ambient levels of UV-B radiation (17 microW m-2, 290-320 nm, 4 h/day for one week). Comparative studies show that under high nitrogen, UV-B radiation slightly enhances leaf expansion and dry-matter accumulation in cultivar Pinto, but inhibits these parameters in Vilmorin. These results suggest that the UV-B effect on growth is mediated through leaf expansion, which is particularly sensitive to UV-B, and that Pinto is more tolerant than Vilmorin. The effect of UV-B radiation on UV-B-absorbing compounds and on NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity is also examined. Both UV-B radiation and low-nitrogen nutrition enhance the content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and among the three cultivars used, Pinto exhibits the highest increases and Arroz the lowest. The same trend is observed for the specific activity and content of NADP-ME. On a leaf-area basis, the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds is highly correlated with the enzyme activity (r2 = 0.83), suggesting that NADP-ME plays a key role in biosynthesis of these compounds. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity of Vilmorin than Pinto to UV-B radiation appears to be related to the activity of NADP-ME and the capacity of the plants to accumulate UV-B-absorbing compounds.

  18. Compound-Specific Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios for Amino Acids in CM and CR Chondrites and their use in Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (oD, 013C, and olSN) of organic compounds can revcal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may indicate the most likely of these pathways. We have applied gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H stable isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites: CM1I2 Allan Hills (ALH) 83100, CM2 Murchison, CM2 Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, CM2 Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101, CRZ Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, CRZ Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. We compare the isotopic compositions of amino acids in these meteorites with predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways. We observe trends of decreasing ODC and increasing oD with increasing carbon number in the aH, (l-NH2 amino acids that correspond to predictions made for formation via Streckercyanohydrin synthesis. We also observe light ODC signatures for -alanine, which may indicate either formation via Michael addition or via a pathway that forms primarily small, straight-chain, amine-terminal amino acids (n-ro-amino acids). Higher deuterium enrichments are observed in amethyl amino acids, indicating formation of these amino acids or their precursors in cold interstellar or nebular environments. Finally, individual amino acids are more enriched in deuterium in CR chondrites than CM chondrites, reflecting different parent-body chemistry.

  19. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  20. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Guo, J.; Zhang, D.; Wang, C. P.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model Author: Yang Lu, Yue Deng, Jiapeng Guo, Donghe Zhang, Chih-Ping Wang, Cheng Sheng Ion velocity in the Sub Aurora region observed by Satellites in storm time often shows a significant westward component. The high speed westward stream is distinguished with convection pattern. These kind of events are called Sub Aurora Polarization Stream (SAPS). In March 17th 2013 storm, DMSP F18 satellite observed several SAPS cases when crossing Sub Aurora region. In this study, Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been coupled to UCLA-RCM model to simulate the impact of SAPS during March 2013 event on the ionosphere/thermosphere. The particle precipitation and electric field from RCM has been used to drive GITM. The conductance calculated from GITM has feedback to RCM to make the coupling to be self-consistent. The comparison of GITM simulations with different SAPS specifications will be conducted. The neutral wind from simulation will be compared with GOCE satellite. The comparison between runs with SAPS and without SAPS will separate the effect of SAPS from others and illustrate the impact on the TIDS/TADS propagating to both poleward and equatorward directions.

  2. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) enhance efficient and eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In arid and semiarid regions of northern China, there is an increasing interest in using reduced rate of chemical fertilizer along with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different rates of SAP (low, 0.75; medium, 11.3 and high, 15.0 kg ha-1) ...

  3. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and dosing simulations of nitrogen-scavenging compounds: disposition of glycerol phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate in adult and pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Jon P R; Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Lichter-Konecki, U; Berry, S A; Lemons, C; Dickinson, K; Coakley, D; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2013-07-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate mediate waste nitrogen excretion in the form of urinary phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired urea synthesis and hyperammonemia. Sodium phenylbutyrate is approved for UCD treatment; the development of glycerol phenylbutyrate afforded the opportunity to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both compounds. A population PK model was developed using data from four Phase II/III trials that collectively enrolled patients ages 2 months to 72 years. Dose simulations were performed with particular attention to phenylacetic acid (PAA), which has been associated with adverse events in non-UCD populations. The final model described metabolite levels in plasma and urine for both drugs and was characterized by (a) partial presystemic metabolism of phenylbutyric acid (PBA) to PAA and/or PAGN, (b) slower PBA absorption and greater presystemic conversion with glycerol phenylbutyrate, (c) similar systemic disposition with saturable conversion of PAA to PAGN for both drugs, and (d) body surface area (BSA) as a significant covariate accounting for age-related PK differences. Dose simulations demonstrated similar PAA exposure following mole-equivalent PBA dosing of both drugs and greater PAA exposure in younger patients based on BSA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the ERP-SAP implementation strategy from cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Syaiful, Bakhri; Sfenrianto; Nurul, Fajar Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Implementing ERP-SAP projects in Indonesian large enterprises frequently create headaches for the consultants, since there are always be a large gap between the outcomes of the SAP with the expected results. Indonesian enterprises have experience with a huge amount of investments and ended up with minor benefits. Despite its unprecedented benefits, the SAP strategy is still considered as a mandatory enterprise system for every enterprise to compete in the marketplaces. The article examines the SAP implementation from cultural perspectives to present new horizon that commonly ignored by major Indonesian enterprises. The article applies the multiple case studies with three large Indonesia enterprises, such as KS, the largest steel producer; GEM, a subsidiary of conglomerate enterprise operates in the mining industry, and HS, a subsidiary of the largest retailer in Asia with more than 700 stores in Indonesia. The outcome of the article is expected to provide a comprehensive analysis from cultural perspectives regarding to common problems faced by SAP consultants.

  6. De-chlorination and solidification of radioactive LiCl waste salt by using SiO_2-Al_2O_3-P_2O_5 (SAP) inorganic composite including B_2O_3 component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Han, Seung Youb; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-01

    SAP (SiO_2-Al_2O_3-P_2O_5) composite has been recently studied in KAERI to deal with the immobilization of radioactive salt waste, one of the most problematic wastes in the pyro-chemical process. Highly unstable salt waste was successfully converted into stable compounds by the dechlorination process with SAPs, and then a durable waste form with a high waste loading was produced when adding glassy materials to dechlorination product. In the present study, U-SAP composite which is SAP bearing glassy component (Boron) was synthesized to remove the adding and mixing steps of glassy materials for a monolithic wasteform. With U-SAPs prepared by a sol-gel process, a series of wasteforms were fabricated to identify a proper reaction condition. Physical and chemical properties of dechlorination products and U-SAP wasteforms were characterized by XRD, DSC, SEM, TGA and PCT-A. A U-SAP wasteform showed suitable properties as a radioactive wasteform such as dense surface morphology, high waste loading, and high durability at the optimized U-SAP/salt ratio 2.

  7. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxu; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang

    2017-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. PMID:28049627

  8. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...

  9. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (T FH ) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in T FH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient T FH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  10. Assessment of the ozone-nitrogen oxide-volatile organic compound sensitivity of Mexico City through an indicator-based approach: measurements and numerical simulations comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; García-Reynoso, J Agustín; Jazcilevich, Arón; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Keener, Tim C

    2009-10-01

    The ozone (O3) sensitivity to nitrogen oxides (NOx, or nitric oxide [NO] + nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) versus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) is a current issue of scientific controversy. To shed light on this issue, we compared measurements of the indicator species O3/NOy (where NOy represents the sum of NO + NO2 + nitric acid [HNO3] + peroxyacetyl nitrate [PAN] + others), NOy, and the semiempirically derived O3/NOz(surrogate) (where NOz(surrogate) is the derived surrogate NOz, and NOz represents NOx reaction products, or NOy - NOx) with results of numerical predictions reproducing the transition regimes between NOx and VOC sensitivities. Ambient air concentrations of O3, NOx, and NOy were measured from April 14 to 25, 2004 in one downwind receptor site of photochemically aged air masses within Mexico City. MCMA-derived transition values for an episode day occurring during the same monitoring period were obtained through a series of photochemical simulations using the Multiscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM). The comparison between the measured indicator species and the simulated spatial distribution of the indicators O3/ NOy, O3/NOz(surrogate), and NOy in MCMA suggest that O3 in this megacity is likely VOC-sensitive. This is in opposition to past studies that, on the basis of the observed morning VOC/NOx ratios, have concluded that O3 in Mexico City is NOx-sensitive. Simulated MCMA-derived sensitive transition values for O3/NOy, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/HNO3, and NOy were found to be in agreement with threshold criteria proposed for other regions in North America and Europe, although the transition crossover for O3/NOz and O3/HNO3 was not consistent with values reported elsewhere. An additional empirical evaluation of weekend/weekday differences in average maximum O3 concentrations and 6:00- to 9:00-a.m. NOx and NO levels registered at the same site in April 2004 indirectly confirmed the above results. A preliminary

  11. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  12. Ada Apa Dengan SAP (AADS Akrual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Findi Tresnawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides anoverview regarding SAP accrual-based and its problems. It compares information content of PP 24/2005’s cash toward accrual and PP 71/2010’s accrual-based toshow the urgency of accrual-based financial reporting requirements. The analysis borrows Abeysekara’s accounting imperialism. Discussion also involves empirical evidence and evaluation of accrual-based implementation probability in Sumenep Regency. Findings show that accrual-based information is not an urgent need and tends to be difficult to be implemented. Reflecting the evidence in Sumenep, local governments are faced with the need of human resources, the question of the use-fulness of accrual information, and technical difficulties on implementation.

  13. Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

  14. Integrated operation of the photorespiratory cycle and cytosolic metabolism in the modulation of primary nitrogen assimilation and export of organic N-transport compounds from leaves: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Jitendra B

    2014-02-15

    Photorespiration is generally considered to be an essentially dissipative process, although it performs some protective and essential functions. A theoretical appraisal indicates that the loss of freshly assimilated CO2 due to photorespiration in well-watered plants may not be as high as generally believed. Even under moderately adverse conditions, these losses may not exceed 10%. The photorespiratory metabolism of the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished crop plants ought to be different from that of other leaves because the fluxes of the export of both carbohydrates and organic N-transport compounds in source leaves is quite high. With a heuristic approach that involved the dovetailing of certain metabolic steps with the photorespiratory cycle (PR-cycle), a novel network is proposed to operate in the source-leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants. This network allows for the diversion of metabolites from their cyclic-routes in sizeable quantities. With the removal of considerable quantities of glycine and serine from the cyclic route, the number of RuBP oxygenation events would be several times those of the formation of hydroxypyruvate. Thus, to an extreme extent, photorespiratory metabolism would become open-ended and involve much less futile recycling of glycine and serine. Conversion of glyoxylate to glycine has been proposed to be a crucial step in the determination of the relative rates of the futile (cyclic) and anabolic (open-ended) routes. Thus, in the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants, the importance of the cyclic route is limited to the salvaging of photorespiratory intermediates for the regeneration of RuBP. The proposed network is resilient enough to coordinate the rates of the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen in accordance with the moisture and N-fertility statuses of the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of total bound nitrogen with the sum of inorganic nitrogen in the present partice in the German Water Regulation Act for monitoring of nitrogen compounds; Ein Vergleich des gesamten gebundenen Stickstoffs mit der Summe des anorganischen Stickstoffs in der derzeitigen Gesetzespraxis zur Ueberwachung auf Stickstoffverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, D.; Seckert-Knopp, W. [Landesamt fuer Wasserwirtschaft Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    The results of the analysis of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total bound nitrogen (TN{sub b}) from 331 samples of municipal and 322 samples of industrial waste water effluents were compiled in the years 1990 to 1994. These data were evaluated due to - the comparison of the sum of inorganic nitrogen ({Sigma} N{sub anorg.}) of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia to TN{sub b} in view of a planned exchange in the German Waste Water Regulation Act - the calculation of organic bound nitrogen (N{sub org.}) - the usefulness to generate sufficient data for balancing the `content of nitrogen` in water systems. The results of our investigations are: The analytical results from the sum of inorganic nitrogen and TN{sub b} are in very good agreement. In most cases the TN{sub b} values were higher than those of {Sigma} N{sub anorg.} This is plausible because most samples contain a certain amount of organic bound nitrogen. Therefore the differences between the results of this two analytical parameters should express the term `organic bound nitrogen` (N{sub org.}). This substraction is an excellent method to estimate this value without a further analytical procedure. The data from our investigation underline this quite clearly. In contrary to the determination of the single compounds ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite the TN{sub b} as a sum parameter is fast, instrument based, can be automated and shows a sufficient limit of determination. This method allows the evaluation of a high data density for water monitoring and balancing the `content of nitrogen` in water systems. A further advantage is the minimizing of errors when applying only one analytical method instead of three. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Analysenergebnisse der Parameter Nitrit, Nitrat, Ammonium sowie die davon abgeleiteten Parameter `Summe anorganischer Stickstoff` ({Sigma} N{sub anorg.}) und `gesamter gebundener Stickstoff` (TN{sub b}) wurden fuer 331 Proben kommunaler und 322 Proben industrieller Abwasseranlagen aus den Jahren

  16. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605... Assessment Plan (SAP)? (a) A SAP describes the activities (e.g., installation of meteorological towers... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your...

  17. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  18. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. The installations maintenance control using SAP R/3; O controle de manutencao de instalacoes utilizando o SAP R/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges; Jorge, Kemal Vieira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A.) began their operations in 1999 and since the beginning the SAP R/3 PM module (Plant Maintenance) is used for the control of the maintenance activities and to manager the Master Maintenance and Inspection Plans. On these five years, a series of reports and SAP functionalities were developed or configured to adapt the system R/3 to the needs of TBG maintenance. Now, the whole management and control of the surface facilities maintenance (compression station, city gate, measurement station, etc) is accomplished by SAP R/3 system. (author)

  20. Map of important transactions and master data in SAP ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This image represents the most important transactions and master data in SAP ERP as a tube map. As such, it covers most of the content of Magal & Word (2012) Integrated Business Processes with ERP Systems. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

  1. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  2. REA analysis of SAP HCM; some initial findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Polovina, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores further the claim that the Transaction-Oriented Architecture (TOA) based on the principles of Resources, Events, Agents (REA) can enhance Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems by providing a principled theoretical basis that can underpin ERP business process implementations. We provide details of some of our initial findings of the REA/TOA analysis which we carried out on the SAP Human Capital Management (HCM) module. Given that SAP is recognized as the dominant ERP s...

  3. Implantación del sistema ERP SAP R/3

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Fernandez, Jorge Juan

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido realizar un estudio de investigación y desarrollo sobre la implantación del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 de una empresa. L'objectiu d'aquest treball final de carrera ha estat realitzar un estudi d'investigació i desenvolupament sobre la implantació del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 d'una empresa.

  4. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  5. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  6. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  7. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose→glucose→cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season. (author)

  8. Molecular nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycle in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, A I

    1952-01-01

    The origin of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is discussed. Evidently only a small proportion of the nitrate-and nitrite-nitrogen found in the precipitation is formed through electric discharges from molecular nitrogen, photochemical nitrogen fixation being probably of greater importance. Formation of nitrate nitrogen through atmospheric oxidation of nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) evaporating from the soil is also considered likely. Determination of nitrogen compounds at different altitudes is indispensable for gaining information of the N/sub 2/-fixation in the atmosphere and, in general, of the origin of nitrogen oxides and their decomposition. International cooperation is needed for this as well as for the quantitative determination of the nitrogen compounds removed from the soil by leaching and brought by waters into the seas.

  9. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Rogers, A E; Treisman, R

    1995-06-01

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of Serum Response Factor (SRF) and Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element (SRE) to growth factors and mitogens. Three Ets domain proteins, Elk-1, SAP-1 and ERP/NET, have been reported to have the properties of TCF. Here we compare Elk-1 and SAP-1a with the human ERP/NET homologue SAP-2. All three TCF RNAs are ubiquitously expressed at similar relative levels. All three proteins contain conserved regions that interact with SRF and the c-fos SRE with comparable efficiency, but in vitro complex formation by SAP-2 is strongly inhibited by its C-terminal sequences. Similarly, only Elk-1 and SAP-1a efficiently bind the c-fos SRE in vivo; ternary complex formation by SAP-2 is weak and is substantially unaffected by serum stimulation or v-ras co-expression. All three TCFs contain C-terminal transcriptional activation domains that are phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Activation requires conserved S/T-P motifs found in all the TCF family members. Each TCF activation domain can be phosphorylated in vitro by partially purified ERK2, and ERK activation in vivo is sufficient to potentiate transcriptional activation.

  10. Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

  11. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  12. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  13. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  14. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  16. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Karunagaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF and carbon microspheres (N-CMS synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  17. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Ramesh; Coghlan, Campbell; Shearer, Cameron; Tran, Diana; Gulati, Karan; Tung, Tran Thanh; Doonan, Christian; Losic, Dusan

    2018-01-28

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas) into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF) and carbon microspheres (N-CMS) synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  18. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compostos organicos do diesel e do petroleo: hidrocarbonetos, sulfurados e nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  19. Analysis of N and K in the sap of petioles and in foliage fabrics of tomato plants under hydropony conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cordero, O. F.

    2001-01-01

    The foliage analyses give information about the nutritional state of the plant in the past, this is that it should have lapsed time enough so that the changes are manifested in the composition of fabrics of the foliage. A nutritional pursuit, based on variations in the concentration of elements in the sap of the plant could indicate that this is nutritionally happening in the plant in the moment. This can be a tool to predict symptoms caused by nutritional anomalies in an immediate form, being able to correct more quickly the problem and to reduce the time of exhibition from the plant to the nutritional tension. The nitrogen (N) and the potassium (K) are two elements that the tomato plants require in big quantities, therefore in search of validating new methodologies, this work had as objectives: 1) To determine the utility of the levels of N and K obtained in sap analysis as a tool for the detection of nutritional lacks and as an indicator of the concentration of N and K in the nutritious solution. 2) To compare the results of analysis of sap of petioles with the routine analyses of fabric to foliate. (Author) [es

  20. Global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Xylella fastidiosa: contribution of the σ54 regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Neto José F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium, grows in the xylem of several plants causing diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis. As the xylem sap contains low concentrations of amino acids and other compounds, X. fastidiosa needs to cope with nitrogen limitation in its natural habitat. Results In this work, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of the X. fastidiosa nitrogen starvation response. A time course experiment (2, 8 and 12 hours of cultures grown in defined medium under nitrogen starvation revealed many differentially expressed genes, such as those related to transport, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, and many genes encoding hypothetical proteins. In addition, a decrease in the expression levels of many genes involved in carbon metabolism and energy generation pathways was also observed. Comparison of gene expression profiles between the wild type strain and the rpoN null mutant allowed the identification of genes directly or indirectly induced by nitrogen starvation in a σ54-dependent manner. A more complete picture of the σ54 regulon was achieved by combining the transcriptome data with an in silico search for potential σ54-dependent promoters, using a position weight matrix approach. One of these σ54-predicted binding sites, located upstream of the glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase, was validated by primer extension assays, confirming that this gene has a σ54-dependent promoter. Conclusions Together, these results show that nitrogen starvation causes intense changes in the X. fastidiosa transcriptome and some of these differentially expressed genes belong to the σ54 regulon.

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of the self-assessment of psoriasis symptoms (SAPS) - clinical trial and the SAPS - real world patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Stokes, Jonathan; Sundaram, Murali; Shields, Alan L

    2017-09-01

    The Self-Assessment of Psoriasis Symptoms - Clinical Trials (SAPS-CT) and SAPS - Real World (SAPS-RW) were simultaneously created to assess the experience of plaque psoriasis in two unique contexts. Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted in four phases namely concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Following concept elicitation, 18 concepts were selected to inform questionnaire construction of the SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW. To accommodate each context of use, the SAPS-CT asks respondents to rate the target symptom 'at its worst' in the 24 h prior to assessment, while the SAPS-RW asks respondents to rate the target symptom "on average" in the 7 days prior to assessment. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that patients could comprehend and provide meaningful responses to both versions and, after minor modifications, resulted in 11-item questionnaires administered in an observational study (N = 200). Results from the observational study informed further item reduction (SAPS-RW to six items and SAPS-CT to nine items) and demonstrated that scores from each were reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.90, test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70), construct valid and able to differentiate among clinically distinct groups. The SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW are content-valid PRO questionnaires capable of producing psychometrically sound scores when administered chronic to plaque psoriasis patients.

  2. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  3. Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers’ operational work. Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers’ work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers’ inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.

  4. Auditoria fiscal previdenciária em ambiente SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre David Viva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca identificar meios para efetuar auditoria fiscal nos bancos de dados do SAP - o mais adotado ERP da atualidade (Bae e Ashcroft, 2004, 1 e 5; Khan, 2005, 5. Pretende-se concentrar no método de acesso às tabelas SAP, um dos cinco métodos de acesso aos bancos de dados de ERP (Neil Raden, 2004, 10. Em um primeiro momento, é necessário o levantamento, por empresa, de uma listagem dos cabeçalhos das tabelas com as quais ela trabalha, em bancos de dados que já alcançam os terabytes (SAP, SAP NetWeaver: 50. Como o SAP é um programa multilíngüe e multiempresarial, suas tabelas são criptografadas, isto é, os nomes das tabelas e de duas colunas não guardam a menor relação com os dados que elas registram (Saphir, 2004, 1. Em um segundo momento, então, por meio do ACL, a listagem de cabeçalhos de tabelas obtida é filtrada. As tabelas que interessam ao Fisco são solicitadas à empresa de uma forma mais precisa, de modo a não sobrecarregar nem a empresa nem do Fisco. Em um terceiro momento, ainda com auxílio do ACL, as tabelas especificadas são analisadas (Primeiros Passos, 2003, 3.

  5. Influence of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen on changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaves of trees and bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prysedskyj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The productive activity of man results in contamination of the environment which causes substantial damage to ecosystems, upsetting their balance, species composition, etc. Within industrial areas, plants suffer significant harm. At the same time, plant organisms play an important role in optimization of the environment, performing sanitary-hygienic, landscaping and aesthetic functions. In this context, we investigated the influence of industrial contamination of air by fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in ten types of arboreal and shrub plants which differ in their resistance to air pollution. Our research was conducted on the basis of a full multivariate experiment with two levels of factors. Peroxidase activity was determined by a colorimetric method according to the duration of oxidization of benzidine. For determination of polyphenoloxidase activity we determined the duration of oxidization of p-phenilendiamin according to the change in optical density of the solution. Pollutants have a significant influence on activity of the investigated enzymes in the leaves of the plant species studied, which depends on the resistance of the plants to contamination, and also the composition and concentrations of pollutants. With resistant species (Ligustrum vulgare L., Quercus robur L., Lonicera tatarica L., Eleagnus angustifolia L., Philadelphus coronaria L. peroxidase activity either did not change or rose by 11.2–64.1% compared to the control, depending on the composition of pollutants, their concentrations and the duration of their activity. Polyphenoloxidase activity in these plants did not significantly change in most variants of the experiment, although high concentrations of pollutants resulted in suppression of the activity of this enzyme by 26.1–37.6%. In species with variable tolerance which did not experience damage, peroxidase function did not change. Species sensitive to

  6. Comparison of Nitrogen Tolerance of PdMo/Al2O3 and CoMo/Al2O3 Catalysts in Hydrodesulfurization of Model Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Zdeněk; Kaluža, Luděk; Gulková, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, MAR (2014), s. 86-90 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0751; GA ČR GAP106/11/0902 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrodesulfurization * nitrogen inhibition * PdMo catalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  7. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  8. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  9. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  10. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  11. The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study: Masdar ... administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying the contribution of ... Keywords: SAP, human resources management, Masdar Building Materials Company ...

  12. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry.......In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...

  13. Sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition of these compounds are reported on. Characteristics of air pollutant exposure dynamics are described. Environmental responses to the deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, as well as to other pollutants, are detailed

  14. 49 CFR 40.281 - Who is qualified to act as a SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is qualified to act as a SAP? 40.281 Section... § 40.281 Who is qualified to act as a SAP? To be permitted to act as a SAP in the DOT drug and alcohol.... (2) You must be knowledgeable about the SAP function as it relates to employer interests in safety...

  15. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  16. Five years' experience of the new SAPs: overview and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the five years' experience gained in applying the new safety assessment principles (SAPs). Beginning with a brief history of SAPs, it goes on to discuss their structure and their relevance to safety matters. It develops some of the more basic issues which users have to bear in mind and also considers how SAPs are used by NII. Finally, there is a look forward to future developments in SAPs usage and application. (author)

  17. De-chlorination and solidification of radioactive LiCl waste salt by using SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (SAP) inorganic composite including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Han, Seung Youb; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) composite has been recently studied in KAERI to deal with the immobilization of radioactive salt waste, one of the most problematic wastes in the pyro-chemical process. Highly unstable salt waste was successfully converted into stable compounds by the dechlorination process with SAPs, and then a durable waste form with a high waste loading was produced when adding glassy materials to dechlorination product. In the present study, U-SAP composite which is SAP bearing glassy component (Boron) was synthesized to remove the adding and mixing steps of glassy materials for a monolithic wasteform. With U-SAPs prepared by a sol-gel process, a series of wasteforms were fabricated to identify a proper reaction condition. Physical and chemical properties of dechlorination products and U-SAP wasteforms were characterized by XRD, DSC, SEM, TGA and PCT-A. A U-SAP wasteform showed suitable properties as a radioactive wasteform such as dense surface morphology, high waste loading, and high durability at the optimized U-SAP/salt ratio 2.

  18. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage “salchichón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I–converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage “salchichón” was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34, separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  19. 49 CFR 40.285 - When is a SAP evaluation required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a SAP evaluation required? 40.285 Section... § 40.285 When is a SAP evaluation required? (a) As an employee, when you have violated DOT drug and... unless you complete the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in this...

  20. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted SAP, and additional information provided pursuant to § 285.611, to determine if it...

  1. 30 CFR 285.606 - What must I demonstrate in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I demonstrate in my SAP? 285.606 Section 285.606 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... demonstrate in my SAP? (a) Your SAP must demonstrate that you have planned and are prepared to conduct the...

  2. 49 CFR 40.289 - Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are employers required to provide SAP and... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.289 Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees? (a) As an employer, you are not required to provide a SAP evaluation or any...

  3. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.297 Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial... managed-care provider, any service agent) may change in any way the SAP's evaluation or recommendations...

  4. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  5. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  6. Determining sap sweetness in small sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. Koelling

    1967-01-01

    Describes a technique based on the use of a hypodermic needle for determining sap-sugar concentrations in small trees. The technique is applicable to pot cultures in greenhouses and also, with the use of a movable shelter, to seedlings in nursery beds.

  7. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  8. SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards 4.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with a good command and knowledge of creating dashboards, but are not yet an advanced user of SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards, then this is the perfect book for you. Prerequisites include a good working knowledge of Microsoft Excel as well as knowledge of basic dashboard practices.

  9. Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in Concrete Construction State-of-the-Art Report Prepared by Technical Committee 225-SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This is the state-of-the-art report prepared by the RILEM TC “Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in concrete construction”. It gives a comprehensive overview of the properties of SAP, specific water absorption and desorption behaviour of SAP in fresh and hardening concrete, effects of the SAP addition on rheological properties of fresh concrete, changes of cement paste microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. Furthermore, the key advantages of using SAP are described in detail: the ability of this material to act as an internal curing agent to mitigate autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete, the possibility to use SAP as an alternative to air-entrainment agents in order to increase the frost resistance of concrete, and finally, the benefit of steering the rheology of fresh cement-based materials. The final chapter describes the first existing and numerous prospective applications for this new concrete additive.

  10. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, Tamiris; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Cortez, Cristian; Almeida, Igor C; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco

    2013-01-01

    To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP) comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD) responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP) and polyclonal (anti-SAP) antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs). Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE) that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP proteins and proposes a triggering role for extracellular SAP

  11. Water relations in silver birch during springtime: How is sap pressurised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Dominguez Carrasco, M D R; Salmon, Y; Aalto, J; Vanhatalo, A; Bäck, J; Lintunen, A

    2018-05-06

    Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurisation period. The diurnal dynamics of xylem sap pressure and sap flow during the sap pressurisation period varied, but were more often opposite to the diurnal pattern after bud burst, i.e. sap pressure increased and sap flow rate mostly decreased when temperature increased. Net conversion of soluble sugars to starch in the stem and roots occurred during the sap pressurisation period. Xylem sap osmotic pressure was small in comparison to total sap pressure, and it did not follow changes in environmental conditions or tree water relations. Based on these findings, we suggest that xylem sap pressurisation and embolism refilling occur gradually over a few weeks through water transfer from parenchyma cells to xylem vessels during daytime, and then the parenchyma are refilled mostly during nighttime by water uptake from soil. Possible drivers for water transfer from parenchyma cells to vessels are discussed. Also the functioning of thermal dissipation probes in conditions of changing stem water content is discussed. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GROWTH RATE OF MAIZE PRODUCTION IN THE PRE - SAP, SAP AND POST - SAP PERIODS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinbo Oyakhilomen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide empirical evidence on the growth rates of maize production in three sub - periods in Nigeria namely pre - Structural Adjustment Programme period, Structural Adjustment Program period and post - Structural Adjustment Programme period. Secondary data on maize production in Nigeria during the Pre - Structural Adjustment Programme period (1970 to 1985, Structural Adjustment period (1986 to 1994 and post - Structural Adjustment Programme period (1995 to 2007 were employed in this study. A growth rate model was used to estimate the growth rates of maize in the three sub - periods. The results of the analysis showed that the instantaneous growth rates of maize production are - 0.1%, 5.7% and 2.4% and the compound rates of growth of maize production are - 0.001%, 0.059% and 0.024% for the pre - Structural Adjustment Programme, Structural Adjustment Programme and post - Structural Adjustment Programme periods respectively. The higher compound growth rate of maize production in the Structural Adjustment Programme period implies that the policy reforms in the period was more effective in ensuring increased growth of maize production over that of other periods in Nigeria. Therefore, despite the myriads of problems associated with the programme in Nigeria, it was beneficial to maize production in Nigeria.

  13. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.C.; Engel, L.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion. 88 refs

  14. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  15. Spectra of soft X-ray excitation potentials of titanium and vanadium compounds with carbon and nitrogen of a variable composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytov, I.A.; Bleher, B. Eh.; Neshpor, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Lsub(3,2) spectra of excitation potentials (SEP) of a soft X-ray radiation of titanium and vanadium carbides and titanium nitrides in their homogeneity range, as well as solid solutions of nitrogen in α-titanium, are studied. The binding energies of electrons of the exciting levels relatively to the Fermi level are determined, adequacy of different quantomechanical calculations is experimentally proved. The observed changes in SEP at the variation of the metalloid concentration are explained by a quantitative transformation model of valent state energetic spectra when metalloid vacancies and connected with them local levels form

  16. Forest fuel reduces the nitrogen load - calculations of nitrogen flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstroem, F.; Johansson, Jan.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition in Sweden has increased strongly during recent decades, particularly in southern Sweden. Nitrogen appears to be largely accumulated in biomass and in the soil. It is therefore desirable to check the accumulation of nitrogen in the forest. The most suitable way of doing this is to remove more nitrogen-rich biomass from the forest, i.e., increase the removal of felling residues from final fellings and cleanings. An ecological condition for intensive removal of fuel is that the ashes are returned. The critical load for nitrogen, CL(N), indicates the level of nitrogen deposition that the forest can withstand without leading to ecological changes. Today, nitrogen deposition is higher than the CL(N) in almost all of Sweden. CL(N) is calculated in such a manner that nitrogen deposition should largely be balanced by nitrogen losses through harvesting during a forest rotation. The value of CL(N) thus largely depends on how much nitrogen is removed with the harvested biomass. When both stems and felling residues are harvested, the CL(N) is about three times higher than in conventional forestry. The increase is directly related to the amount of nitrogen in the removed biofuel. Use of biofuel also causes a certain amount of nitrogen emissions. From the environmental viewpoint there is no difference between the sources of the nitrogen compounds. An analysis of the entire fuel chain shows that, compared with the amount of nitrogen removed from the forest with the fuel, about 5 % will be emitted as nitrogen oxides or ammonia during combustion, and a further ca 5 % during handling and transports. A net amount of about 90 % of biomass nitrogen is removed from the system and becomes inert nitrogen (N 2 ). 60 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs, 11 appendices

  17. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  18. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  20. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and Their Ions. 7; Phenazine, a Dual Substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The matrix-isolation technique has been employed to measure the mid-infrared spectra of phenazine (C12H8N2), a dual substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycle (PANH), in the neutral, cationic and anionic forms. The experimentally measured band frequencies and intensities are tabulated and compared with their calculated values as well as those of the non-substituted parent molecule, anthracene. The theoretical band positions and intensities were calculated using both the 3-31 G as well as the larger 6-3lG* Basis Sets. A comparison of the results can be found in the tables. The spectroscopic properties of phenazine and its cation are similar to those observed in mono-substituted PANHs, with one exception. The presence of a second nitrogen atom results in an additional enhancement of the cation's total integrated intensity, for the 1500-1000 cm(sup -1) (6.7 to 10 micron) region, over that observed for a mono-substituted PANH cation. The significance of this enhancement and the astrobiological implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Development of a quantitative multi-compound method for the detection of 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants by LC-MS/MS in food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nancy; Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The increasing number of food frauds using exogenous nitrogen-rich adulterants to artificially raise the protein content for economically motivated adulteration has demonstrated the need for a robust analytical methodology. This method should be applicable for quality control in operations covering a wide range of analyte concentrations to be able to analyse high levels as usually found in adulteration, as well as low levels due to contamination. The paper describes a LC-MS/MS method covering 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants using a simple and fast sample preparation based on dilution and clean-up by dispersive SPE. Quantification is carried out by isotopic dilution reaching LOQs of 0.05-0.20 mg/kg in a broad range of food matrices (infant formula, liquid milk, dairy ingredient, high protein meal, cereal, infant cereal, and meat/fish powder). Validation of seven commodity groups was performed according to SANCO 12571/2013, giving satisfactory results demonstrating the method's fitness for purpose at the validated range at contamination level. Method ruggedness was further assessed by transferring the developed method into another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control. Next to the method description, emphasis is placed on challenges and problems appearing during method development as well as validation. They are discussed in detail and solutions are provided.

  3. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca 2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  4. Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) Duration as Determined From Van Allen Probe Successive Electric Drift Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a characteristic feature of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, namely, the persistent and latitudinally narrow bands of rapid westward ion drifts called the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS). Despite countless works on SAPS, information relative to their durations is lacking. Here we report on the first statistical analysis of more than 200 near-equatorial SAPS observations based on more than 2 years of Van Allen Probe electric drift measurements. First, we present results relative to SAPS radial locations and amplitudes. Then, we introduce two different ways to estimate SAPS durations. In both cases, SAPS activity is estimated to last for about 9 h on average. However, our estimates for SAPS duration are limited either by the relatively long orbital periods of the spacecraft or by the relatively small number of observations involved. Fifty percent of the events fit within the time interval [0;18] hours.

  5. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  6. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  8. A sensitive and efficient method for trace analysis of some phenolic compounds using simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction from human urine and plasma samples followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    In present study, a simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection has been developed for the determination of some phenolic compounds in biological samples. The analytes are derivatized and extracted simultaneously by a fast reaction with 1-flouro-2,4-dinitrobenzene under mild conditions. Under optimal conditions low limits of detection in the range of 0.05-0.34 ng mL(-1) are achievable. The obtained extraction recoveries are between 84 and 97% and the relative standard deviations are less than 7.2% for intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 4) precisions. The proposed method was demonstrated to be a simple and efficient method for the analysis of phenols in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Compound-specific amino acid δ15N patterns in marine algae: Tracer potential for cyanobacterial vs. eukaryotic organic nitrogen sources in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew D.; Lehman, Jennifer; Kudela, Raphael

    2013-02-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (δ15N-AA) has unique potential to elucidate the complexities of food webs, track heterotrophic transformations, and understand diagenesis of organic nitrogen (ON). While δ15N-AA patterns of autotrophs have been shown to be generally similar, prior work has also suggested that differences may exist between cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. However, δ15N-AA patterns in differing oceanic algal groups have never been closely examined. The overarching goals of this study were first to establish a more quantitative understanding of algal δ15N-AA patterns, and second to examine whether δ15N-AA patterns have potential as a new tracer for distinguishing prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic N sources. We measured δ15N-AA from prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures and used a complementary set of statistical approaches (simple normalization, regression-derived fractionation factors, and multivariate analyses) to test for variations. A generally similar δ15N-AA pattern was confirmed for all algae, however significant AA-specific variation was also consistently identified between the two groups. The relative δ15N fractionation of Glx (glutamine + glutamic acid combined) vs. total proteinaceous N appeared substantially different, which we hypothesize could be related to differing enzymatic forms. In addition, the several other AA (most notably glycine and leucine) appeared to have strong biomarker potential. Finally, we observed that overall patterns of δ15N values in algae correspond well with the Trophic vs. Source-AA division now commonly used to describe variable AA δ15N changes with trophic transfer, suggesting a common mechanistic basis. Overall, these results show that autotrophic δ15N-AA patterns can differ between major algal evolutionary groupings for many AA. The statistically significant multivariate results represent a first approach for testing ideas about relative eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic

  10. Transition metal-catalyzed carbocyclization of nitrogen and oxygen-tethered 1,n-enynes and diynes: synthesis of five or six-membered heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-Han; Zhang, Zhen; Shi, Min

    2012-10-25

    Cycloisomerization of 1,n-enynes and diynes is a powerful method in organic synthesis to access heterocyclic compounds and has drawn increasing attention from organic chemists. In this paper, we attempted to summarize our recent results on the transition metal-catalyzed cycloisomerization to synthesize five or six-membered heterocyclic compounds using 1,n-enynes and diynes having a propargylic ester moiety. First, we will describe the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted 3-pyrrolines via gold catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-diynes. In addition, we will also disclose a novel silver catalyzed tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/Mannich-type addition/elimination of the sulfonyl group of N-sulfonylhydrazone-propargylic esters to 5,6-dihydropyridazin-4-one derivatives. Furthermore, we will introduce three interesting examples of the synthesis of bicyclic compounds via titanium or rhodium catalyzed carbocyclization of enynes. In this context, we have presented that 1,n-enynes and diynes containing propargylic esters are highly reactive and useful starting materials for the cycloisomerization catalyzed by a transition metal catalyst.

  11. The nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  13. Implantación de SAP ERP en una distribuidora

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Costales, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende reflejar en qué consistiría un proyecto de implantación de un ERP, en nuestro caso SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribución alimenticia. Para llevarlo a cabo se empleará la metodología ASAP, pretendiendo ser el resultado final del proyecto el análisis y diseño del mismo. En aquest treball es pretén reflectir en què consistiria un projecte d'implantació d'un ERP, en el nostre cas SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribució alimentària. Per f...

  14. Stormtime Simulations of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present simulation results from the self-consistently coupled SAMI3/RCM code on the impact of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system with an emphasis on the development of sub-auroral plasma streams (SAPS). We consider the following storm events: March 31, 2001, March 17, 2013, March 17, 2015, September 3, 2012, and June 23, 2015. We compare and contrast the development of SAPS for these storms. The main results are the development of sub-auroral (< 60 degrees) low-density, high-speed flows (1 - 2 km/s). Additionally, we discuss the impact on plasmaspheric dynamics. We compare our model results to data (e.g., Millstone Hill radar, GPS TEC).

  15. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    Saponins (SAPs) are a diverse family of plant secondary metabolites and due to their biological activities, SAPs can be utilised as biopesticides and as therapeutic compounds. Given their widespread industrial use, a search for alternative sources of SAPs is a priority. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd) is a valuable food source that is gaining importance worldwide for its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. SAPs from quinoa seed coats could represent a new sustainable source to obtain these compounds in high quantities due to the increasing production and worldwide expansion of the crop....... This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis...

  16. Cost of Maple Sap Production for Various Size Tubing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel K. Huyler

    2000-01-01

    Reports sap production costs for small (500 to 1,000 taps), medium (1,000 to 5,000), and large (5,000 to 15,000) maple syrup operations that use plastic tubing with vacuum pumping. The average annual operating cost per tap ranged from $4.64 for a 500-tap sugarbush operation to $1.84 for a sugarbush with 10,000 taps. The weighted average was $2.87 per tap or $11.48 per...

  17. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  18. Metabolic and improved organ scan studies. II. Nitrogen-13 labeled compounds used as in-vivo probes for enzyme therapy and as tumor localizing and organ imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A number of 13 N-labeled compounds have been enzymatically synthesized and are being evaluated as tumor and/or organ localizing agents. 13 N-Ammonia, produced after cyclotron generation of 13 N-nitrate and subsequent reduction was used to enzymatically aminate the appropriate substrate to yield 13 N-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-asparagine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-alanine. The use of 13 N-asparagine as a myocardial scanning agent and as a tumor localizing agent in asparaginase-sensitive tumors is discussed. Two imaging devices were used to study the effectiveness of the compounds as localizing agents. For static whole body distribution studies, a dual-detector high energy gamma ray (HEG) rectilinear scanner, equipped with constant response collimators was employed. The uniformity of response of this system permits quantitative determination of the amount of 13 N activity present in the organ or tumor of interest. The total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system was used for dynamic studies covering smaller areas of the subject's body

  19. The chemistry of subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived lignin and lignin model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Bembenic, Meredith A.

    Biofuels, like cellulosic ethanol, may only be cost effective if the lignin byproduct is upgraded to value-added products. However, lignin's inherent aromatic structure and interunit crosslinkages hinder effective conversion. High temperature H2O is considered for lignin conversion, because H2O exhibits unusual properties at higher temperatures (particularly at its supercritical point of 374°C and 3205 psi) including a decreased ion product and a decreased static dielectric constant (similar to those of polar organic solvents at room temperature) such that there is a high solubility for organic compounds, like lignin. Much of the research concerning lignin and supercritical H2O has focused on further decomposition to gases (e.g., H2, CH4, and CO2) where nearly no char formation is expected in the presence of a catalyst. However, the conditions required for supercritical H2O are difficult to maintain, catalysts can be expensive, and gases are not favorable to the current liquid fuel infrastructure. Reactions using Organosolv lignin, subcritical H2O (365°C) and various industrial gases (N2, H2, CO, and CO2 at an initial pressure of 500 psi) for 30 min. were examined to determine both lignin's potential to generate value-added products (e.g., monomer compounds and methanol) and the role (if any) of the H2O and the gases during the reactions. The behavior of H2O at reaction temperature and pressure is expected to be similar to the behavior of supercritical H 2O without the need to maintain supercritical conditions. Different characterization techniques were used for the products collected including primarily GC/FID-TCD of the evolved gases, GC/MS analysis of the organic liquids, solid phase microextraction analysis of the water, and solid state 13C-NMR analysis of the residues. The reactor pressure at temperature was shown to influence the reactivity of the H2O and lignin, and the highest conversions (≈54--62%) were obtained when adding a gas. However, the

  20. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  1. Is nitrogen the next carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, William; Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-09-01

    Just as carbon fueled the Industrial Revolution, nitrogen has fueled an Agricultural Revolution. The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and the cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops both expanded exponentially during the last century, with most of the increase occurring after 1960. As a result, the current flux of reactive, or fixed, nitrogen compounds to the biosphere due to human activities is roughly equivalent to the total flux of fixed nitrogen from all natural sources, both on land masses and in the world's oceans. Natural fluxes of fixed nitrogen are subject to very large uncertainties, but anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen has increased almost fivefold in the last 60 years, and this rapid increase in anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has removed any uncertainty on the relative importance of anthropogenic fluxes to the natural budget. The increased use of nitrogen has been critical for increased crop yields and protein production needed to keep pace with the growing world population. However, similar to carbon, the release of fixed nitrogen into the natural environment is linked to adverse consequences at local, regional, and global scales. Anthropogenic contributions of fixed nitrogen continue to grow relative to the natural budget, with uncertain consequences.

  2. pH-dependent equilibrium isotope fractionation associated with the compound specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of substituted anilines by SPME-GC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Turgeon, Aurora; Garr, Ashley N; Arnold, William A; Cramer, Christopher J; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2011-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was used to elucidate the effects of N-atom protonation on the analysis of N and C isotope signatures of selected aromatic amines. Precise and accurate isotope ratios were measured using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) as the SPME fiber material at solution pH-values that exceeded the pK(a) of the substituted aniline's conjugate acid by two pH-units. Deviations of δ(15)N and δ(13)C-values from reference measurements by elemental analyzer IRMS were small (IRMS. Under these conditions, the detection limits for accurate isotope ratio measurements were between 0.64 and 2.1 mg L(-1) for δ(15)N and between 0.13 and 0.54 mg L(-1) for δ(13)C, respectively. Substantial inverse N isotope fractionation was observed by SPME-GC/IRMS as the fraction of protonated species increased with decreasing pH leading to deviations of -20‰ while the corresponding δ(13)C-values were largely invariant. From isotope ratio analysis at different solution pHs and theoretical calculations by density functional theory, we derived equilibrium isotope effects, EIEs, pertinent to aromatic amine protonation of 0.980 and 1.001 for N and C, respectively, which were very similar for all compounds investigated. Our work shows that N-atom protonation can compromise accurate compound-specific N isotope analysis of aromatic amines.

  3. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Ko, E-mail: etoko@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sonoda, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Jin, Yuji [School of Basic Medicine, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013 (China); Abe, Shin-ichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  4. SAPS effects on thermospheric winds during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, C.; Lu, G.; Wang, W.; Doornbos, E.; Talaat, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Strong subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) were observed by DMSP satellites during the main phase of the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm. Both DMSP F18 and GOCE satellites sampled at 19 MLT during this period, providing near-simultaneous measurements of ion drifts and neutral winds near dusk. The fortuitous satellite conjunction allows us to directly examine the SAPS effects on thermospheric winds. In addition, two sets of model runs were carried out for this event: (1) the standard TIEGCM run with high-latitude forcing; (2) the SAPS-TIEGCM run by incoporating an empirical model of SAPS in the subauroral zone. The difference between these two runs represents the influence of SAPS forcing. In particular, we examine ion-neutral coupling at subauroral latitudes through detailed forcing term analysis to determine how the SAPS-related strong westward ion drifts alter thermospheric winds.

  5. Groundwater sapping channels: Summary of effects of experiments with varied stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Simmons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments in the recirculating flume sapping box have modeled valley formation by groundwater sapping processes in a number of settings. The effects of the following parameters on sapping channel morphology were examined: surface slope; stratigraphic variations in permeability cohesion and dip; and structure of joints and dikes. These kinds of modeling experiments are particularly good for: testing concepts; developing a suite of distinctive morphologies and morphometries indicative of sapping; helping to relate process to morphology; and providing data necessary to assess the relative importance of runoff, sapping, and mass wasting processes on channel development. The observations from the flume systems can be used to help interpret features observed in terrestrial and Martian settings where sapping processes are thought to have played an important role in the development of valley networks.

  6. The Effect of Sowing Date and Nitrogen fertilizer on Growth, Essential Oil and Essential Oil Compounds of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare under Shoushtar Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Farhoudi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, the phytochemical constituents of medicinal plants have received much attention due to their potential use in nutraceuticals and drug industries. Spices and herbs are part of daily food intake across many regions of the world. They have been used as natural sources of flavorings and preservatives. Recently the use of medicinal plants and their derived products in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry has seen rapid development in recent years. As the other crops, the increase in seed and active ingredient yield of medicinal herbs is influenced by genetic and environmental parameters. Although genetic factors play a significant role in the development of the essential oil of medicinal plants, should also be aware of the role of climatic factors and crops in the field. Therefore, medicinal plants dry matter production and its essential oils are controlled by environmental factors, conditions, sowing date, planting? fertilizing and harvesting time. Researches indicated stated that nitrogenous fertilization and sowing time increased yield by increasing hydrocarbon production owing to the development of shoots and the expansion of carbon-absorbing surface. Therefore to determine the effective N-fertilization level and plant sowing date for Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare an experiment was carried out to increase the yield of anthodium flowers and content of essential oil. Materials and Methods Field experiment was carried out at the research farm of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch (Shoushtar located in the north of Khouzestan, in Iran during 2010-2011. The experiment was conducted on a split plot design based on randomized completely block design with three replications. The plant sowing date (November, 6 and 22 and UreaTM fertilizer (%46 (100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 allocated to main plot and sub plot, respectively. For identification of components, Agilent gas chromatography model 6890 N, equipped with MSD model 5973 N

  7. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Ranitović, P.; Tepić, G.; Matić, B.; Sremac, S.; Vukadinović, V.

    2013-01-01

    MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services) has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics securit...

  8. Pengaruh Pemahaman Standar Akuntansi Pemerintahan (SAP, Pelatihan, Akuntabilitas, Transparansi Terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan SKPD Kota Padangsidimpuan

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Putri Bunga Meiliana

    2016-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, tranparancy (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy. ...

  9. Characterization and vaccine potential of Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (SAP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Waseewiwat, Pinkamon; Thanasinpaiboon, Thanaporn; Cheukamud, Werachon; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-01-15

    The recombinant Fasciola gigantica Saposin-like protien-1 (rFgSAP-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from NEJ cDNA, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rFgSAP-1). By immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit IgG anti-rFgSAP-1 reacted with rFgSAP-1 at a molecular weight 12kDa, but not with rFgSAP-2. The rFgSAP-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after infection. The FgSAP-1 protein was expressed at a high level in the caecal epithelium of metacercariae and NEJs. The vaccination was performed in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSAP-1 combined with Alum adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae per mouse by the oral route. The percents protection of rFgSAP-1 vaccine were estimated to be 73.2% and 74.3% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a specific to rFgSAP-1 in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, were inversely and significantly correlated with the numbers of worm recoveries. The rFgSAP-1-vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver damage. These indicated that rFgSAP-1 has strong potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in large economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  11. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section 285.607... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ...

  12. The finite element structural analysis code SAP IV conversion from CDC to IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1977-02-01

    SAP IV is a general three dimensional, linear, static and dynamic finite element structural analysis program. The program which was obtained from the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, was written in FORTRAM for a CDC 6400. Its main use was anticipated to be the seismic analysis of reactor structures. SAP IV may also prove useful for fracture mechanics studies as well as the usual elastic stress analysis of structures. A brief description of SAP IV and a more detailed account of the FORTRAN conversion required to make SAP IV run successfully on the UKAEA Harwell IBM 370/168 are given. (author)

  13. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  14. Remarkable adsorptive removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from a model fuel by a graphene oxide/MIL-101 composite through a combined effect of improved porosity and hydrogen bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa, E-mail: sung@knu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Metal-organic frameworks (MIL-101) were composed with graphene oxide (GnO). • GnO/MIL-101 showed the highest adsorption capacity for indole and quinoline. • Adsorption mechanism was clearly shown based on adsorption results and FTIR. • GnO/MIL-101 might be applied commercially considering capacity and reusability. - Abstract: A composite was prepared by combining a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101 (Cr-benzenedicarboxylate), and graphene oxide (GnO). The porosity of the composite increased appreciably by the addition of GnO up to a specific amount in the MOF, though further increases in the quantity of GnO was detrimental to porosity. The improved porosity of the GnO/MIL-101 composite was utilized for adsorptive denitrogenation (ADN) of a model fuel where indole (IND) and quinoline (QUI) were used as nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). It was found that both IND and QUI showed improved adsorption on the composite compared with pristine MIL-101 or GnO due to the improved porosity of the composite. Interestingly, the improvement in adsorption of IND was much higher than the quantity estimated for the porosity. Importantly, GnO/MIL-101 showed the highest adsorption capacities for NCCs. Irrespective of the studied solvents and co-presence of IND and QUI, the composite adsorbent performed ADN most effectively. This remarkable improvement is explained by the additional mechanism of hydrogen bonding between the surface functional groups of GnO and the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen atom of IND. This hydrogen bonding mechanism is also supported by the results of the adsorption of pyrrole and methylpyrrole. On the other hand, QUI does not show hydrogen-bonding capability, and therefore, its enhanced adsorption originates from only the increased porosity of the adsorbents.

  15. Remarkable adsorptive removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from a model fuel by a graphene oxide/MIL-101 composite through a combined effect of improved porosity and hydrogen bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-organic frameworks (MIL-101) were composed with graphene oxide (GnO). • GnO/MIL-101 showed the highest adsorption capacity for indole and quinoline. • Adsorption mechanism was clearly shown based on adsorption results and FTIR. • GnO/MIL-101 might be applied commercially considering capacity and reusability. - Abstract: A composite was prepared by combining a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101 (Cr-benzenedicarboxylate), and graphene oxide (GnO). The porosity of the composite increased appreciably by the addition of GnO up to a specific amount in the MOF, though further increases in the quantity of GnO was detrimental to porosity. The improved porosity of the GnO/MIL-101 composite was utilized for adsorptive denitrogenation (ADN) of a model fuel where indole (IND) and quinoline (QUI) were used as nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). It was found that both IND and QUI showed improved adsorption on the composite compared with pristine MIL-101 or GnO due to the improved porosity of the composite. Interestingly, the improvement in adsorption of IND was much higher than the quantity estimated for the porosity. Importantly, GnO/MIL-101 showed the highest adsorption capacities for NCCs. Irrespective of the studied solvents and co-presence of IND and QUI, the composite adsorbent performed ADN most effectively. This remarkable improvement is explained by the additional mechanism of hydrogen bonding between the surface functional groups of GnO and the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen atom of IND. This hydrogen bonding mechanism is also supported by the results of the adsorption of pyrrole and methylpyrrole. On the other hand, QUI does not show hydrogen-bonding capability, and therefore, its enhanced adsorption originates from only the increased porosity of the adsorbents.

  16. Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 2. Compostos nitrogenados Evaluation of ammonia sources to tropical grasses hays treatment. 2. Nitrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para se avaliarem as alterações nos conteúdos de compostos nitrogenados dos fenos de braquiária decumbens (Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U - 5,4% da MS, uréia (UL - 5,4% da MS mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS ou amônia anidra (NH3 -3,0% da MS. A aplicação de amônia anidra ou de uréia aumentou os teores de N total, N insolúvel em detergente neutro, N insolúvel em detergente ácido, N não-protéico e N amoniacal. A amonização diminuiu as relações N insolúvel em detergente neutro/N total e N insolúvel em detergente ácido/N total e aumentou as relações N não-protéico/N total, N amoniacal/N total e os teores de PB. O N aplicado foi retido, principalmente, nas formas de NNP e N amoniacal.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes on the nitrogen compounds of the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf grasses hay, untreated, treated with urea (5.4% DM, urea plus lab-lab (UL-5.4% DM plus Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3.0% DM and anhydrous ammonia (NH3 - 3.0% DM. The chemical treatment with urea or NH3 increased the total N, neutral detergent insoluble N 9NDIN, acid detergent insoluble N (ADIN, non nitrogen protein (NNP, and the ammonical nitrogen (AN contents. Ammoniation decreased the NDIN/TN and ADIN/TN ratios. The chemical treatment increased the NNP/TN and NA/TN ratios, and the crude protein contents. The N applied as urea or NH3 was retained as NNP and in the ammoniacal form.

  17. Investigation of the impact of extraterrestrial energetic particles on stratospheric nitrogen compounds and ozone on the basis of three dimensional model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieters, Nadine

    2013-06-17

    As a result of solar events like Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, highly energetic charged particles including protons and electrons can precipitate in the direction of the Earth. Having sufficient energies, these particles can penetrate down to the middle atmosphere and lead to a change in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. In particular during strong events, these charged particles induce an ionisation in the atmosphere that can reach down to the lower stratosphere. This ionisation is followed by a fast positive ion chemistry that causes a strong increase in reactive HO{sub x} (H,OH,HO{sub 2}) an NO{sub x} (N,NO,NO{sub 2}). HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} constituents eventually destroy O{sub 3} in catalytical reaction cycles. Furthermore, NO{sub x} is long-lived during polar winter and can be transported into the middle and lower stratosphere, where it can contribute to the O{sub 3} depletion. The increase in NO{sub x} in the upper and middle atmosphere due to solar events and the consequential depletion of O{sub 3} has been observed as during the Solar Proton Event (SPE) in October/November 2003 by satellite instruments. In atmospheric models, the generation of HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} can be well described by parametrisations to include in neutral models. Whereas other changes, for instance in chlorine compounds, can not be described sufficiently by this parametrisation. The purpose of this PhD thesis is, to investigate the impact of strong solar particle events on the abundance in NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} in the stratosphere and mesosphere on the basis of three-dimensional model studies. For this purpose a three-dimensional Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM) has been extended to the upper atmosphere (lower thermosphere). To include the processes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere a new meteorological data set has been implemented to the model. To describe the ionising effect of energetic particle on the atmosphere, three

  18. Health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future climatic change environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-01-30

    The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased N fertilisation regimes (NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2 ] under non-saline (0 mmol L(-1) NaCl) and saline (80 mmol L(-1) NaCl) conditions. Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. In NH4(+) -fed broccoli plants, a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4(+) toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] - ameliorating adverse effects of salinity--was only observed when N was supplied as NO3(-). Under reduced N fertilisation, the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3(-)/NH4 (+) ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3(-)/NH4(+) (50:50) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4(+) toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolate content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Ecophysiology of the internal cycling of nitrogen in deciduous fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, P.

    2005-01-01

    In EU Countries, society’s expectations and political decisions have pushed the adoption of ecologically sustainable ways to manage orchards. Nitrogen (N) nutrition is a powerful means of controlling growth and fruiting of trees and guidelines for N management now aim to limit fertiliser applications below threshold values in order to reduce N losses. Increasing the effectiveness of the recycling of N pools available in the orchard is a basic step to reduce external N inputs. The availability of the stable isotope 15N as experimental tool has made possible significant advancements in the knowledge of the fluxes of N in the soil-tree system. Within-tree N sources for vegetative tree growth and reproduction include remobilization of winter stored N (within the tree and between the years) and root-shoot-root N recycling (within the tree and within each year). Nitrogen remobilization from storage is the major source of N in spring, until root uptake becomes predominant. As trees age, relatively more N in new growth is derived from storage and trees become relatively less dependent on root N uptake. Specific amino acids and amides have been identified in the xylem sap of several trees, including apple and cherry, that are considered responsible for remobilization of N compounds in spring. Most evidence has been obtained with relatively young trees grown in pot so there is a need for developing new approaches for quantifying N storage by adult trees in the field. Shoot-root transport of N and subsequent xylem reloading at the root level is a normal feature of vascular plants. While qualitative evidence of this phenomenon are based on detailed analysis of phloem and xylem sap, quantifying reloading N in the xylem was approached by comparing the N fluxes in the xylem with the accumulation of N in tree canopy. Results indicate that recycling of N in the xylem is a mechanism by which plants might regulate N uptake by roots. The adoption of stable isotope techniques in tree

  20. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  1. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved atmospheric aerosols in Iasi, north-eastern Romania: nitrogen-containing inorganic compounds control aerosol chemistry in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiana Galon-Negru, Alina; Iulian Olariu, Romeo; Arsene, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the effects of particle size and season on the content of the major inorganic and organic aerosol ionic components in the Iasi urban area, north-eastern Romania. Continuous measurements were carried out over 2016 using a cascade Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) performing aerosol size classification in 13 specific fractions over the 0.0276-9.94 µm size range. Fine-particulate Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, and K+ exhibited clear minima during the warm season and clear maxima over the cold season, mainly due to trends in emission sources, changes in the mixing layer depth and specific meteorological conditions. Fine-particulate SO42- did not show much variation with respect to seasons. Particulate NH4+ and NO3- ions were identified as critical parameters controlling aerosol chemistry in the area, and their measured concentrations in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols were found to be in reasonable good agreement with modelled values for winter but not for summer. The likely reason is that NH4NO3 aerosols are lost due to volatility over the warm season. We found that NH4+ in PM2.5 is primarily associated with SO42- and NO3- but not with Cl-. Actually, indirect ISORROPIA-II estimations showed that the atmosphere in the Iasi area might be ammonia rich during both the cold and warm seasons, enabling enough NH3 to be present to neutralize H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl acidic components and to generate fine-particulate ammonium salts, in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. ISORROPIA-II runs allowed us to estimate that over the warm season ˜ 35 % of the total analysed samples had very strongly acidic pH (0-3), a fraction that rose to ˜ 43 % over the cold season. Moreover, while in the cold season the acidity is mainly accounted for by inorganic acids, in the warm ones there is an important contribution by other compounds, possibly organic. Indeed, changes in aerosol acidity would most likely impact the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Overall, we

  2. Resolution and chemical formula identification of aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen in petroleum distillates and refinery streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S; Marshall, A G; Scheppele, S E

    1996-01-01

    that FT-ICR is the mass analysis of choice for differentiating hydrocarbons from heteroatom-containing compounds in petroleum distillates and refinery streams.

  3. Microscopic insight into thermodynamics of conformational changes of SAP-SLAM complex in signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-04-01

    The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, associate with SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-related molecules, composed of single SH2 domain architecture. SAP activates Src-family kinase Fyn after SLAM ligation, resulting in a SLAM-SAP-Fyn complex, where, SAP binds the Fyn SH3 domain that does not involve canonical SH3 or SH2 interactions. This demands insight into this SAP mediated signalling cascade. Thermodynamics of the conformational changes are extracted from the histograms of dihedral angles obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this structurally well characterized SAP-SLAM complex. The results incorporate the binding induced thermodynamic changes of individual amino acid as well as the secondary structural elements of the protein and the solvent. Stabilization of the peptide partially comes through a strong hydrogen bonding network with the protein, while hydrophobic interactions also play a significant role where the peptide inserts itself into a hydrophobic cavity of the protein. SLAM binding widens SAP's second binding site for Fyn, which is the next step in the signal transduction cascade. The higher stabilization and less fluctuation of specific residues of SAP in the Fyn binding site, induced by SAP-SLAM complexation, emerge as the key structural elements to trigger the recognition of SAP by the SH3 domain of Fyn. The thermodynamic quantification of the protein due to complexation not only throws deeper understanding in the established mode of SAP-SLAM interaction but also assists in the recognition of the relevant residues of the protein responsible for alterations in its activity.

  4. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against spectral modifications in hemoglobin of x-irradiated mice; Proprietes radioprotectrices de certains composes heterocycliques azotes sur les modifications spectrales de l'hemoglobine de souris irradiee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H; Pierotti, T; Polverelli, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Imidazole and benzimidazole are known for their radioprotective action. In this work, authors have studied the radioprotective action of these compounds on visible and ultra-violet hemoglobin absorption spectra obtained from mice after in vivo X-irradiation. Results compared to those obtained with cysteamine show: 1- a possible pharmacological action of the heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds on the {alpha} and {beta} bands (540 and 580 m{mu}). 2 - a significative variation of the ratio of the optical densities (580/540) after irradiation with hemoglobin of non and radio-protected mice. However, following a real drop of absorption maxima, the twenty-fifth day after irradiation, normal optical densities of each band are found again. A physico-chemical study would be necessary to understand the hemoglobin transformation after irradiation and perhaps, its possible radioprotection. (authors) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole et du benzimidazole etant deja connues, les auteurs ont etudie l'action de ces produits sur les spectres d'absorption de l'hemoglobine dans le visible et le proche ultra-violet apres une irradiation in vivo de souris a dose letale. L'action de ces produits comparee a celle de la cysteamine utilisee dans les memes conditions a permis de constater: 1- l'action pharmacologique probable des heterocycles azotes sur les bandes {alpha} et {beta} situees a 540 et 580 m{mu}; 2 - qu'avec et sans radioprotecteurs, les modifications spectrales se traduisaient par des variations du rapport d'intensite d'absorption existant entre les bandes a 540 et 580 m{mu}. Toutefois, apres une chute des maxima d'absorption, ceux-ci retournent aux valeurs normales le vingt-cinquieme jour apres irradiation. Une etude physicochimique complementaire de l'hemoglobine permettrait de definir la nature exacte du changement apres irradiation et peut-etre son eventuelle radioprotection. (auteurs)

  5. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 2: forensic inter-laboratory trial: bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in a range of chemical compounds (Australia and New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Neal, Ken; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hope, Janet; Walker, G Stewart; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Comparability of data over time and between laboratories is a key issue for consideration in the development of global databases, and more broadly for quality assurance in general. One mechanism that can be utilized for evaluating traceability is an inter-laboratory trial. This paper addresses an inter-laboratory trial conducted across a number of Australian and New Zealand isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) laboratories. The main objective of this trial was to determine whether IRMS laboratories in these countries would record comparable values for the distributed samples. Four carbon containing and four nitrogen containing compounds were distributed to seven laboratories in Australia and one in New Zealand. The laboratories were requested to analyze the samples using their standard procedures. The data from each laboratory was evaluated collectively using International Standard ISO 13528 (Statistical methods for use in proficiency testing by inter-laboratory comparisons). "Warning signals" were raised against one participant in this trial. "Action signals" requiring corrective action were raised against four participants. These participants reviewed the data and possible sources for the discrepancies. This inter-laboratory trial was successful in providing an initial snapshot of the potential for traceability between the participating laboratories. The statistical methods described in this article could be used as a model for others needing to evaluate stable isotope results derived from multiple laboratories, e.g., inter-laboratory trials/proficiency testing. Ongoing trials will be conducted to improve traceability across the Australian and New Zealand IRMS community.

  6. The Efficiency of SAP in improving the HR Performance Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... operations at the operational, administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying ... Key Words- SAP, human resources management, Masdar. Building ... There are thousands of companies around the world using the SAP ... results indicate that managers have a fairly positive view of the impact of the ...

  7. SAP: structure, function, and its roles in immune-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dan; Luo, TianTian; Xiong, Haowei; Liu, Jichen; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Hou, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), also known as pentraxin-2, is a member of the pentraxin protein family with an established relationship to the immune response. In the last century, SAP has been used as a diagnostic marker in amyloidosis diagnosis and patient follow-up. SAP has been thought to have potential for treating and curing amyloidosis and fibrosis diseases. More recently, it has been shown that SAP may serve as both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for many immune-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, nephritic, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In the cardiovascular system, SAP has been defined as the culprit in amyloidosis in the heart. SAP may also exert a protective role during the early stage of atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. In noncardiovascular system diseases, SAP is being developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize SAP history, structure, and its roles in immune-related diseases in different systems with emphasis on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  9. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  10. An interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Sap flux sensors are an important tool for estimating tree-level transpiration in forested and urban ecosystems around the world. Thermal dissipation (TD) or Granier-type sap flux probes are among the most commonly used due to their reliability, simplicity, and low cost.

  11. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  12. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  13. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  14. Handling of the demilitarized zone using service providers in SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, A.; Robu, R.

    2016-02-01

    External collaboration needs to allow data access from the Internet. In a trusted Internet collaboration scenario where the external user works on the same data like the internal user direct access to the data in the Intranet is required. The paper presents a solution to get access to certain data in the Enterprise Resource Planning system, having the User Interface on a system in the Demilitarized Zone and the database on a system which is located in the trusted area. Using the Service Provider Interface framework, connections between separate systems can be created in different areas of the network. The paper demonstrates how to connect the two systems, one in the Demilitarized Zone and one in the trusted area, using SAP ERP 6.0 with Enhancement Package 7. In order to use the Service Provider Interface SAP Business Suite Foundation component must be installed in both systems. The advantage of using the Service Provider Interface framework is that the external user works on the same data like the internal user (and not on copies). This assures data consistency and less overhead for backup and security systems.

  15. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  16. Evaluasi Implementasi SAP Modul Material Management: Studi Kasus pada PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is a necessity for a company to help solve problems in business transactions management. SAP application is an application that is able to provide solutions to such problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the running business processes on the Material Management module;evaluate the performance of the running SAP systems associated with the implementation and maintenance of SAP applications as well as to give sugestions based on the development of evaluation results obtained, in terms of business processes, performance, and financial. Utilized for analysis is IT Balanced Scorecard method, while ASAP (Accelerated SAP method is used for the system development. This study produced an analysis of the evaluation of the enterprise business processes in implementing the SAP development of ERP system modulesMaterial Management.

  17. Revaluasi Inventory dengan Menu Standard pada SAP-B1 Sesuaikah dengan IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Novianti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Some available standard modules in SAP-B1 can be adapted for changes in accounting rules and regulations. One is the Inventory Revaluation menu of Inventory module. Users can use the menu to make Inventory value adjustments of value in SAP-B1, to be consistent with the values that must be presented in the financial statements. Based on the flexibility provided by SAP-B1menu, should not be too difficult for users of SAP-B1 to manage accounting transactions based on accounting rules that apply today, IFRS. IFRS requirements on inventory adjustment transactions with a value of SAP-B1 could be done more easily.

  18. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol D. von Dohlen; Usha Spaulding; Kistie B. Patch; Kathryn M. Weglarz; Robert G. Foottit; Nathan P. Havill; Gaelen R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce...

  19. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  20. 49 CFR 40.307 - What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in prescribing the... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.307 What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests? (a) As a SAP, for each employee who has committed a DOT drug or alcohol regulation violation, and...

  1. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...: BOEM-2012-0077] RIN 1010-AD77 Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or... would amend the timing requirements for submitting a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities... and grants will have a preliminary term of 12 months in which a lessee or grantee must submit a SAP or...

  2. 49 CFR 40.293 - What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in conducting the... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.293 What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee? As a SAP, for every employee who comes to you following a DOT drug and alcohol...

  3. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  4. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  5. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...

  6. Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Fractionation of Concentrated Agave (Agave salmiana) Sap to Obtain Saponins with Apoptotic Effect on Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Romo-López, Irasema; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-03-01

    Separation of potentially bioactive components from foods and plant extracts is one of the main challenges for their study. Centrifugal partition chromatography has been a successful technique for the screening and identification of molecules with bioactive potential, such as steroidal saponins. Agave is a source of steroidal saponins with anticancer potential, though the activity of these compounds in concentrated agave sap has not been yet explored. In this study, fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) was used coupled with in vitro tests on HT-29 cells as a screening procedure to identify apoptotic saponins from an acetonic extract of concentrated agave sap. The three most bioactive fractions obtained by FCPC at partition coefficients between 0.23 and 0.4 contained steroidal saponins, predominantly magueyoside b. Flow cytometry analysis determined that the fraction rich in kammogenin and manogenin glycosides induced apoptosis, but when gentrogenin and hecogenin glycosides were also found in the fraction, a necrotic effect was observed. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that steroidal saponins in concentrated agave sap were potential inductors of apoptosis and that it was possible to separate them using fast centrifugal partition chromatography.

  7. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e

  8. Fractions of carbohydrates and of nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses at different cutting ages Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated by the Cornell System carbohidrates fractions and nitrogenous compounds of the following grasses at the cutting ages of 14, 28, 42, and 56 days: nilo grass (Acroceras macrum, angola grass (Brachiaria purpurascens, aleman grass (Echinochloa polystachya, limpo grass (Hemarthria altíssima, setaria grass (Setaria anceps, tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta, and tifton-85 grass (Cynodon spp. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, in a split plot arrangement in a way that the grasses were evaluated in the plots and the ages of cut in the split-plots. The age of cutting had an effect on the composition of the studied grasses. In most of the grasses, total carbohydrate levels, non-fibrous carbohydrates and A+B1 fraction carbohydrates increased linearly according to the age of cutting. The potentially degradable fraction of carbohydrates (fraction B2 showed a quadratic behavior according to the cutting ages for all grasses. The C fraction of the carbohydrates in tifton-85 grass linearly increased with the age but it did not increase significantly for the other grasses. In setaria grass, the intermediate levels of B2 and B3 nitrogenous fractions were high, which might represent a potential source of protein for ruminal degradation and for the small intestine. Except for setaria grass, all studied grasses show similar values of the A, B1, B2 and B3 nitrogenous fractions.Avaliaram-se pelo Sistema Cornell as frações de carboidratos e os compostos nitrogenados dos capins acroceres (Acroceras macrum, angola, (Brachiaria purpurascens, canarana (Echinochloa polystachya, hemarthria (Hemarthria altíssima, setária (Setaria anceps, tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta e tifton 85 (Cynodon spp nas idades de corte de 14, 28, 42 e 56 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas de modo que as gramíneas foram avaliadas nas parcelas e as idades de corte, nas subparcelas. Houve

  9. Radiolysis of other organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of radiolysis of organic halogen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen (including amines, amides, nitriles et al.) compounds in liquid phase are discussed. Intermediate and stable finish products of radiolysis of the given compounds, properties and radiochemical yields of these products are considered

  10. Phosphorus–nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    a. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100, Turkey b ... Nuran Asmafılız et al. 364 ...... W, Weynand U, Gschwind R M and Niecke E 2006. Angew. .... Cremer D and Pople J A 1975 J. Am. Chem.

  11. Support of the EMEP-project: European wide depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds as a consequence of sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions; Unterstuetzung der EMEP-Modellrechnungen: Europaweite Deposition schwefel- und stickstoffhaltiger Verbindungen als Folge der Emissionen von Schwefel, Stickoxiden und Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1994-01-01

    For the European long range transport model EMEP the parametrisations of dry and wet deposition were improved. The dry deposition of sulphur and ammonia was improved in the source grid element with a high resolution Eulerian model. The wet deposition was improved over sea areas. With satellite measurements of the SSM/I it was demonstrated, that a detailed treatment of precipitation processes in the norwegian weather forecast model LAM50 with a prognostic equation for the cloud water content, in contrast to the routine version, provides more realistic precipitation fields for air pollution modelling. The agreement between modelled and observed concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation is within a range of 40 to 70%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden beim europaweiten Ausbreitungsmodell EMEP die Parametrisierungen der Trocken- und Nassdeposition verbessert. Bei der Trockendeposition wurde die Ablagerung von Schwefeldioxid und Ammoniak im Quellgitterelement mit einem hochaufloesenden Eulerschen Modell verbessert. Die Nassdeposition wurde ueber Seegebieten verbessert. Es konnte mit Satellitenmessungen des SSM/I nachgewiesen werden, dass sie ausfuehrlichere Behandlung der Niederschlagsprozesse im Norwegischen Wetterdienstmodell LAM50, anders als in seiner Routineversion, mit einer prognostischen Gleichung fuer den Wolkenwassergehalt realistischere Niederschlagshoehen fuer die Stofftransportmodellierung liefert. Vergleiche von Modellrechnungen und Messdaten zeigen fuer Schwefel- und Stickstoffverbindungen fuer Konzentrationen in der Luft und im Niederschlag Abweichungen von 40 bis 70%. (orig.)

  12. Support of the EMEP-project: European wide depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds as a consequence of sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions; Unterstuetzung der EMEP-Modellrechnungen: Europaweite Deposition schwefel- und stickstoffhaltiger Verbindungen als Folge der Emissionen von Schwefel, Stickoxiden und Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1994-11-01

    For the European long range transport model EMEP the parametrisations of dry and wet deposition were improved. The dry deposition of sulphur and ammonia was improved in the source grid element with a high resolution Eulerian model. The wet deposition was improved over sea areas. With satellite measurements of the SSM/I it was demonstrated, that a detailled treatment of precipitation processes in the Norwegian weather forecast model LAM50 with a prognostic equation for the cloud water content, in contrast to the routine version, provides more realistic precipitation fields for air pollution modeling. The agreement between modelled and observed concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation is within a range of 40 to 70%. The project was carried out at the Meteorological Institute in Oslo and at the GKSS-Research Centre Geesthacht. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden beim europaweiten Ausbreitungsmodell EMEP die Parametrisierungen der Trocken- und Nassdeposition verbessert. Bei der Trockendeposition wurde die Ablagerung von Schwefeldioxid und Ammoniak im Quellgitterelement mit einem hochaufloesenden Eulerschen Modell verbessert. Die Nassdeposition wurde ueber Seegebieten verbessert. Es konnte mit Satellitenmessungen des SSM/I nachgewiesen werden, dass die ausfuehrlichere Behandlung der Niederschlagsprozesse im norwegischen Wetterdienstmodell LAM50, anders als in seiner Routineversion, mit einer prognostischen Gleichung fuer den Wolkenwassergehalt realistischere Niederschlagshoehen fuer die Stofftransportmodellierung liefert. Vergleiche von Modellrechnungen und Messdaten zeigen fuer Schwefel- und Stickstoffverbindungen fuer Konzentrationen in der Luft und im Niederschlag Abweichungen von 40 bis 70%. Die Projektarbeiten wurden am Meteorologischen Institut in Oslo und am GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  13. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing supplemented with nitrogenous compounds during dry season Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco recebendo suplementação com compostos nitrogenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janderson Florencio Figueiras

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during dry season. It was used five Holstein × Zebu steers with average initial live weight of 236 kg, kept in five Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. paddocks (0.34 ha. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five supplementation levels and five experimental periods. The supplementation levels were the following: 0; 0.35; 0.70; 1.05, and 1.40 g of crude protein/kg live weight. A mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively was used as nitrogen supplement. The average crude protein levels in the diet were 7.39; 8.92; 10.98; 12.55; and 13.62%, as dry matter basis, for the respective supplementation levels. Linear-response-plateau relationships were observed between intake estimates and diet crude protein levels. The linear-response-plateau pattern showed that intake was increased up to crude protein levels close to 9%, as dry matter basis. The estimates became unchangeable from this level. The total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and diet level of total digestible nutrients presented a positive linear pattern according to diet crude protein levels. The rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration was linearly increased by diet crude protein levels. This variable assumed the value of 8.00 mg/dL when the intake estimates reached the maximum values. Supplementation with nitrogen compounds in quantities that raise the crude protein content in the diet to levels close to 9% optimizes the use of low-quality forage by cattle under grazing.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com compostos nitrogenados sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco do ano. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de

  14. Isotope investigation of nitrogen in the hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Compounds of nitrogen are essential, often limiting nutrients, and the nitrogen cycle is therefore one of the most important of the earth's major elements cycles. Of all the cycles, however, the nitrogen cycle is also probably the one most influenced by human activity. This activity has resulted in the increase in reactive nitrogen compounds to such an extent that they now present major forms of pollution. Any strategies aimed at counteracting these disturbances require a better understanding of the sources and reaction processes for nitrogen compounds, and studies of natural variations in 15 N/ 14 N ratio are now being used for this purpose in all parts of the hydrosphere. This paper reviews the isotopic method for tracing sources of nitrate in ground and surface waters

  15. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  17. Biosynthesis of higher alcohol flavour compounds by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impact of oxygen availability and responses to glucose pulse in minimal growth medium with leucine as sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Vidal, Esteban; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; François, Jean Marie; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M

    2015-01-01

    Higher alcohol formation by yeast is of great interest in the field of fermented beverages. Among them, medium-chain alcohols impact greatly the final flavour profile of alcoholic beverages, even at low concentrations. It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the catabolism of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. However, it is not clear how the availability of oxygen and glucose metabolism influence the final higher alcohol levels in fermented beverages. Here, using an industrial Brazilian cachaça strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we investigated the effect of oxygen limitation and glucose pulse on the accumulation of higher alcohol compounds in batch cultures, with glucose (20 g/l) and leucine (9.8 g/l) as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Fermentative metabolites and CO2 /O2 balance were analysed in order to correlate the results with physiological data. Our results show that the accumulation of isoamyl alcohol by yeast is independent of oxygen availability in the medium, depending mainly on leucine, α-keto-acids and/or NADH pools. High-availability leucine experiments showed a novel and unexpected accumulation of isobutanol, active amyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, which could be attributed to de novo biosynthesis of valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine and subsequent outflow of these pathways. In carbon-exhausted conditions, our results also describe, for the first time, the metabolization of isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, active amyl alcohol but not of 2-phenylethanol, by yeast strains in stationary phase, suggesting a role for these higher alcohols as carbon source for cell maintenance and/or redox homeostasis during this physiological phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An Auroral Boundary-Oriented Model of Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, R. G.; Anderson, P. C.

    2018-04-01

    An empirical model of subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric fields has been developed using measurements of ion drifts and particle precipitation made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1987 to 2012 and Dynamics Explorer 2 as functions of magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude, the auroral electrojet index (AE), hemisphere, and day of year. Over 500,000 subauroral passes are used. This model is oriented in degree magnetic latitude equatorward of the aurora and takes median values instead of the mean to avoid the contribution of low occurrence frequency subauroral ion drifts so that the model is representative of the much more common, latitudinally broad, low-amplitude SAPS field. The SAPS model is in broad agreement with previous statistical efforts in the variation of the SAPS field with MLT and magnetic activity level, although the median field is weaker. Furthermore, we find that the median SAPS field is roughly conjugate in both hemispheres for all seasons, with a maximum in SAPS amplitude and width found for 1800-2000 MLT. The SAPS amplitude is found to vary seasonally only from about 1800-2000 MLT, maximizing in both hemispheres during equinox months. Because this feature exists despite controlling for the AE index, it is suggested that this is due to a seasonal variation in the flux tube averaged ionospheric conductance at MLT sectors where it is more likely that one flux tube footprint is in darkness while the other is in daylight.

  19. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  20. The performance and customization of SAPS 3 admission score in a Thai medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) admission scores, both the original and a customized version, in mixed medical critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Thailand. The probability of hospital mortality of the original SAPS 3 was calculated using the general and customized Australasia version (SAPS 3-AUS). The patients were randomly divided into equal calibration and validation groups for customization. A total of 1,873 patients were enrolled. The hospital mortality rate was 28.6%. The general equation of SAPS 3 had excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.933, but poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H = 106.7 and C = 101.2 (P customized SAPS 3 showed a good calibration of all patients in the validation group (H = 14, P = 0.17 and C = 11.3, P = 0.33) and all subgroups according to main diagnosis, age, gender and co-morbidities. The SAPS 3 provided excellent discrimination but poor calibration in our MICU. A first level customization of the SAPS 3 improved the calibration and could be used to predict mortality and quality assessment in our ICU or other ICUs with a similar case mix.

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  2. Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water

  3. Enhanced production and purification of recombinant surface array protein (Sap) for use in detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Nidhi; Tripathi, N K; Pal, V; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively. The protein purity and its reactivity were confirmed employing SDS-PAGE and Western blot, respectively. The antibodies raised against purified Sap were evaluated by Western blotting for detection of Sap released by B. anthracis . Our results showed that the Sap could be a novel marker for detection and confirmation of B. anthracis .

  4. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  5. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittäminen Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulussa

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia, millä toimin Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulun liiketalouden ja tekniikan keskuksen opetushenkilöstön ERP SAP-osaamista on kehitetty ja vastaako osaaminen ulkoisten asiakkaiden tarpeisiin. Tutkimustavoitteena oli selvittää myös ne menetelmät, jotka opetushenkilöstö kokee parhaimpina ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisen keinoina. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisessä huomioitiin ulkoisten asiakkuuksien näkemykset. Tutkimustulosten osalta tuli esille, että ty...

  6. Management of setpoint information using SAP-PM; Gerenciamento das informacoes de setpoints usando o SAP-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is always a challenge to assure that the set points of field instruments and valves (e.g., transmitters, regulator valves, shut off valves, safety valves, etc) are adjusted in conformity either to the originally designed values or the ones established by the operations team, specially when multiple teams are involved in the activity. In such circumstances, keeping these values updated on proper data sheets is also a defying task. The correct information is essential to the Control Room operators and its accuracy is a step ahead towards operational availability and safety. TBG, through CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) - SAP R/3, PM Module, developed a set of automated tools to integrate data from different environments (reports, handhelds, workflows and procedures), thus allowing allow a better control over the set point adjustment process. (author)

  7. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    that for nitrate [2.8 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] and urea [0.37 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1]. Half-saturation constants for uptake of the three nitrogen compounds were in the range of 10-15 mu mol.l/1. Generally, uptake of any one nitrogen substrate appears to be inhibit...

  8. Production of nitrogen containing chemicals from cyanophycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.

    2011-01-01


    Currently nitrogen containing bulk chemicals are produced from naphtha. However, as explained in Chapter 1 it would be more energy efficient, less capital intensive and eventually more economical to start from functionalized compounds that already have nitrogen incorporated, such as amino

  9. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  10. Observation of Intravascular Changes of Superabsorbent Polymer Microsphere (SAP-MS) with Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Daigo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sone, Teruki; Kobatake, Makito; Tamada, Tsutomu; Umetani, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the intravascular transformation behavior of superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) in vivo macroscopically by using monochromatic X-ray imaging and to quantitatively compare the expansion rate of SAP-MS among different kinds of mixtures. Fifteen rabbits were used for our study and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed for their auricular arteries using monochromatic X-ray imaging. We used three kinds of SAP-MS (particle diameter 100-150 μm) mixture as embolic spherical particles: SAP-MS(H) absorbed with sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix 320), SAP-MS(V) absorbed with isosmolar contrast medium (Visipaque 270), and SAP-MS(S) absorbed with 0.9% sodium saline. The initial volume of SAP-MS particles just after TAE and its final volume 10 minutes after TAE in the vessel were measured to calculate the expansion rate (ER) (n = 30). Intravascular behavior of SAP-MS particles was clearly observed in real time at monochromatic X-ray imaging. Averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (H) (1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ) were significantly smaller (p 7 μm 3 ) and SAP-MS (S) (5.85 x 10 7 μm 3 ). Averaged final volumes of SAP-MS (H) were significantly larger than averaged initial volumes (4.41 x 10 7 μm 3 vs. 1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ; p < 0.0001, ER = 3.55). There were no significant difference between averaged final volumes and averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (V) and SAP-MS (S). SAP-MS (H), which first travels distally, reaches to small arteries, and then expands to adapt to the vessel lumen, is an effective particle as an embolic agent, causing effective embolization.

  11. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP

  12. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbakel, Werner; Carmeliet, Geert; Engelborghs, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. → This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. → NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. → The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP-chromatin interaction

  13. Evaluating Uncertainties in Sap Flux Scaled Estimates of Forest Transpiration, Canopy Conductance and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Kim, H.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are a common method for estimating forest transpiration and canopy conductance from sap flux rates in trees, but their implementation is plagued by uncertainties arising from missing data and variability in the diameter and canopy position of trees, as well as sapwood conductivity within individual trees. Uncertainties in estimates of canopy conductance also translate into uncertainties in carbon assimilation in models such as the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation (4CA) model that combine physiological and environmental data to estimate photosynthetic rates. We developed a method to propagate these uncertainties in the scaling and imputation of TDP data to estimates of canopy transpiration and conductance using a state-space Jarvis-type conductance model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. This presentation will focus on the impact of these uncertainties on estimates of water and carbon fluxes using 4CA and data from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) project, which incorporates both elevated carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen treatments. We will also address the response of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit, incident radiation and soil moisture, as well as the effect of treatment-related stand structure differences in scaling TDP measurements. Preliminary results indicate that in 2006, a year of normal precipitation (1127 mm), canopy transpiration increased in elevated carbon dioxide ~8% on a ground area basis. In 2007, a year with a pronounced drought (800 mm precipitation), this increase was only present in the combined carbon dioxide and fertilization treatment. The seasonal dynamics of water and carbon fluxes will be discussed in detail.

  14. Studi Kelayakan Implementasi SAP dengan Metode Fit/Gap Analysis dan CBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlina Nurlina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An application system is required by a company to meet the needs of enterprise business processes so as to provide information quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is necessary to study the feasibility status of plan of enterprise system implementation. SAP R/3 contains various modules which is deserved to be considered as a company's information system solution. Results of the feasibility study through the analysis of fit/ gap analysis state that the implementation of SAP R/3 sales module is feasible and able to meet all the needs of the system.Results of cost and benefit analysis state that the strategy implementation of SAP R/3 module is feasible. Based on the analysis and research using the two methods above, a decision can be taken whether the SAP R/3 is worth to be implemented or not.

  15. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  16. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  17. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. (Auth.)

  18. Mechanical properties of Concrete with SAP. Part I: Development of compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    The development of mechanical properties has been studied in a test program comprising 15 different concrete mixes with 3 different w/c ratios and different additions of superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The degree of hydration is followed for 15 corresponding paste mixes. This paper concerns...... compressive strength. It shows that results agree well with a model based on the following: 1. Concrete compressive strength is proportional to compressive strength of the paste phase 2. Paste strength depends on gel space ratio, as suggested by Powers 3. The influence of air voids created by SAP...... on compressive strength can be accounted for in the same way as when taking the air content into account in Bolomeys formula. The implication of the model is that at low w/c ratios (w/c SAP additions, SAP increases the compressive strength at later ages (from 3 days after casting and onwards...

  19. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed

  20. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  2. Assessing ERP SAP implementation in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes; Gunawan, W.; Ikhsan, R. B.; Aries

    2018-03-01

    The consistent growth of Indonesian SMEs has received attention of global IT vendors. One of major ERP player in Indonesian market such as SAP, has introduced ERP solutions for SMEs through SAP Business One. Due to its fast growth, unfortunately, there are still very few articles can be found to understand the ERP implementation in Indonesian SMEs. The article addressed the common factors that affect the successful of the ERP implementation at SMEs. They are: identifying vendor quality, opening balance data migration, and A-SAP methodology. The article applied case study method to examine the fast growth companies owned by same owners, such as: GRK, MMM, and KM25; with the objectives to identify the practical pattern of ERP implementation in SMEs that will be useful for SAP project manager and consultants.

  3. ANALIZA PODPORE KADROVSKIH PROCESOV S SISTEMOM SAP V PODJETJU AVTENTA.SI D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Vehovec, David

    2011-01-01

    V okviru diplomskega dela so z metodo prenove poslovnih procesov predstavljeni procesi zaposlovanja in razporejanja, upravljanja kadrovskih podatkov in prenehanja delovnega razmerja v podjetju Avtenta.si d.o.o. Na podlagi popisanih procesov je narejena analiza njihove podprtosti s sistemom SAP in predlog prenove. Le-ta vključuje modele prenovljenih procesov in prilagoditev sistema SAP do nivoja delujočega prototipa. V teoretičnem delu so opisana področja prenove poslovnih procesov, upravl...

  4. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  6. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1 G93A ), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1 G93A rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; pSAP: 64±10%, n=10 vs. 60±13; n=8; p>0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  8. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K + concentration ([K + ]), electrical conductivity (σ sap ), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (K wb ), leaf blade (K lb ) and petiole hydraulic conductances (K P ) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (T A ) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on K wb K lb , K P , [K + ] and σ sap . Osm varied only with light intensity, while K B varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as T A , VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (Ψ S ) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, Ψ S influenced also [K + ] and σ sap . The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-Scale Structure and Dynamics of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Nishitani, N.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow channel of high-speed westward ionospheric convection which appears equatorward of the duskside auroral oval during geomagnetically active periods. SAPS is generally thought to occur when the partial ring current intensifies and enhanced region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) are forced to close across the low conductance region of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. However, recent studies have suggested SAPS can also occur during non-storm periods, perhaps associated with substorm activity. In this study, we used measurements from mid-latitude SuperDARN radars to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of SAPS during several geomagnetically active days. Linear correlation analysis applied across all events suggests intensifications of the partial ring current (ASYM-H index) and auroral activity (AL index) are both important driving influences for controlling the SAPS speed. Specifically, SAPS flows increase, on average, by 20-40 m/s per 10 nT of ASYM-H and 10-30 m/s per 100 nT of AL. These dependencies tend to be stronger during the storm recovery phase. There is also a strong local time dependence such that the strength of SAPS flows decrease by 70-80 m/s for each hour of local time moving from dusk to midnight. By contrast, the evidence for direct solar wind control of SAPS speed is much less consistent, with some storms showing strong correlations with the interplanetary electric field components and/or solar wind dynamic pressure, while others do not. These results are discussed in the context of recent simulation results from the Rice Convection Model (RCM).

  10. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  11. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  12. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dong; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo; Zhang, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  13. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  15. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  16. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  17. Biochemical characterization of sap (latex) of a few Indian mango varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K Saby; Bhat, S G; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2003-01-01

    Mango sap (latex) from four Indian varieties was studied for its composition. Sap was separated into non-aqueous and aqueous phases. Earlier, we reported that the non-aqueous phase contained mainly mono-terpenes having raw mango aroma (Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 891). In the present study biochemical composition of the aqueous phase was studied. Aqueous phase contained little amount of protein (2.0-3.5 mg/ml) but showed high polyphenol oxidase (147-214 U/mg protein) and peroxidase (401-561 U/mg protein) activities. It contained low amounts of polyphenols and protease activities. On native PAGE, all the major protein bands exhibited both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities. Both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were found to be stable in the aqueous phase of sap at 4 degrees C. Sap contained large amount of non-dialyzable and non-starchy carbohydrate (260-343 mg/ml sap) which may be responsible for maintaining a considerable pressure of fluid in the ducts. Thus, the mango sap could be a valuable by-product in the mango industry as it contains some of the valuable enzymes and aroma components.

  18. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Michael; Tocheva, Anna S; Sandigursky, Sabina; Nayak, Shruti; Philips, Elliot A; Nichols, Kim E; Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Askenazi, Manor; Neel, Benjamin G; Pelzek, Adam J; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Mor, Adam

    2018-01-16

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an essential inhibitory receptor in T cells. Antibodies targeting PD-1 elicit durable clinical responses in patients with multiple tumor indications. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1 treatment, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways downstream of PD-1 could provide biomarkers for those whose tumors respond and new therapeutic approaches for those whose tumors do not. We used affinity purification mass spectrometry to uncover multiple proteins associated with PD-1. Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses. Silencing of SAP augmented and overexpression blocked PD-1 function. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), who lack functional SAP, were hyperresponsive to PD-1 signaling, confirming its inhibitory role downstream of PD-1. Strikingly, signaling downstream of PD-1 in purified T cell subsets did not correlate with PD-1 surface expression but was inversely correlated with intracellular SAP levels. Mechanistically, SAP opposed PD-1 function by acting as a molecular shield of key tyrosine residues that are targets for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates PD-1 inhibitory properties. Our results identify SAP as an inhibitor of PD-1 function and SHP2 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with XLP.

  19. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Harris, G.J.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process wastewaters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment procsses designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential.

  20. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  1. SAPS and SAID: Differences and implications on modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. C.; Landry, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subauroral electric fields/ion drifts associated with geomagnetic activity and known as Polarization Jets [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1978] have been reported by a number of researchers over the years starting in the early 1970s. They are latitudinally narrow ( 1 - 3°), are primarily located between the late afternoon and early morning sectors, are extended several hours in magnetic local time, and have westward drifts that can exceed 5000 m/s. Foster et al., [2002] used Millstone Hill radar data to derive a statistical model of the subauroral ion drifts and coined the term SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams) to identify the sometimes broad region of subauroral drifts that the SAID are embedded within. While both are located in the subauroral region and closely associated with ionospheric conductivity and the region 2 field-aligned currents, they are in reality separate phenomena. We investigate this difference, their production mechanisms, and the implications for modeling them.

  2. iSAP: Interactive Sparse Astronomical Data Analysis Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourt, O.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.; Moudden, Y.; Abrial, P.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-03-01

    iSAP consists of three programs, written in IDL, which together are useful for spherical data analysis. MR/S (MultiResolution on the Sphere) contains routines for wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and Independent Component Analysis on the Sphere. MR/S has been designed for the PLANCK project, but can be used for many other applications. SparsePol (Polarized Spherical Wavelets and Curvelets) has routines for polarized wavelet, polarized ridgelet and polarized curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and blind source separation on the Sphere. SparsePol has been designed for the PLANCK project. MS-VSTS (Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on the Sphere), designed initially for the FERMI project, is useful for spherical mono-channel and multi-channel data analysis when the data are contaminated by a Poisson noise. It contains routines for wavelet/curvelet denoising, wavelet deconvolution, multichannel wavelet denoising and deconvolution.

  3. Nitrogenous air pollutants: Chemical and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the health effects and chemistry of gaseous and particulate nitrogenous air pollutants are presented. Specific topics include Fourier transform infrared studies of nitrogenous compounds, the mechanism of peroxynitric acid formation, N-nitroso compounds in the air, the chemical transformations of nitrogen oxides during the sampling of combustion products, the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy nitrates, and the effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung metabolism. Attention is also given to the interaction of nitrogen oxides and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions, the characterization of particulate amines, the role of ammonia in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, the relationship between sulfates and nitrates and tropospheric measurements of nitric acid vapor and particulate nitrates

  4. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3...... and Harwich/Newcastle. These measurements provided data for sensitivity studies of a variety of problems associated with the coastal region that are not easily evaluated with larger scale models, to constrain models and to test model results. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds over the North Sea...... on experimental results and small-scale model studies. In particular, effects of the aerosol size distribution on the nitrogen deposition are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  6. Stabilization/Solidification of Radioactive LiCl-KCl Waste Salt by Using SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5(SAP) Inorganic Composite: Part 2. The Effect of SAP Composition on Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Soo Na; Park, Hwan Seo; Cho, In Hak; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Yong Zun

    2012-01-01

    Metal chloride waste is generated as a main waste streams in a series of electrolytic processes of a pyrochemical process. Different from carbonate or nitrate salt, metal chloride is not decomposed into oxide and chlorine but it is just vaporized. Also, it has low compatibility with conventional silicate glasses. Our research group adapted the dechlorination approach for the immobilization of waste salt. In this study, the composition of SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) was adjusted to enhance the reactivity and to simplify the solidification process as a subsequent research. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 into the basic SAP decreased the SAP/Salt ratio in weight from 3 for SAP 1071 to 2.25 for M-SAP(Fe=0.1). The experimental results indicated that the addition of Fe 2 O 3 increased the reactivity of M-SAP with LiCl-KCl but the reactivity gradually decreased above Fe=0.1. Also, introducing B 2 O 3 into M-SAP requires no glass binder for the consolidation of reaction products. U-SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) could effectively dechlorinate the LiCl-KCl waste and its reaction product could be consolidated as a monolithic form without a glass binder. The leaching test result indicated that U-SAP 1071 was more durable than other SAPs wasteform. By using U-SAP, 1 g of waste salt could generated 3 - 4 g of wasteform for final disposal. The final volume would be about 3 - 4 times lower than the glass-bonded sodalite. From these results, it could be concluded that the dechlorination approach using U-SAP would be one of prospective methods to manage the volatile waste salt.

  7. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  8. Sample preservation for determination of organic compounds: microwave versus freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Lied, W.; Meyer, A.J.; Richter, A.; Schiller, P.; Schwitte, H.

    1996-01-01

    In search of a reliable drying method, which might be used even under field conditions, microwave drying was compared to freeze-drying of plant material. Leaves of Ananas comosus and Avicennia germinans as well as buds and phloem of Acer pseudoplatanus were used and checked for one or more of the following substances: sugars, sugar alcohols, organic and amino acids, total nitrogen, and glycinebetaine. With most samples good agreement was achieved between the two drying methods. Only in the case of the Ananas comosus leaves, which exhibited low pH and high water content, did appreciable differences occur in organic and amino acids. Besides that, sucrose was the compound most susceptible to alterations, which was especially evident when leaves of Sambucus nigra were dried in the two different compartments (condenser compartment, drying bell jar) of the freeze-dryer in use. For Ananas comosus leaf samples it was shown that microwaving can also be used prior to extraction of tissue sap. (author)

  9. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  10. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    transfer depended on the reactivity of the emitted material. At the lower extreme of reactivity are the noble gases, neon and argon. Most neon and argon emitted during the degassing of the newly formed Earth is still in the atmosphere, and essentially none has been transferred to the hydrosphere or crust. At the other extreme are carbon and sulfur. Over 99% of the carbon and sulfur emitted during degassing are no longer in the atmosphere, but reside in the hydrosphere or the crust. Nitrogen is intermediate. Of the ˜6×106 TgN in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and crust, ˜2/3 is in the atmosphere as N2 with most of the remainder in the crust. The atmosphere is a large nitrogen reservoir primarily, because the triple bond of the N2 molecule requires a significant amount of energy to break. In the early atmosphere, the only sources of such energy were solar radiation and electrical discharges.At this point we had an earth with mostly N2 and devoid of life. How did we get to an earth with mostly N2 and teeming with life? First, N2 had to be converted into reactive N (Nr). (The term reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes all biologically active, photochemically reactive, and radiatively active nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth. Thus, Nr includes inorganic reduced forms of nitrogen (e.g., NH3 and NH4+), inorganic oxidized forms (e.g., NOx, HNO3, N2O, and NO3-), and organic compounds (e.g., urea, amines, and proteins).) The early atmosphere was reducing and had limited NH3. However, NH3 was a necessary ingredient in forming early organic matter. One possibility for NH3 generation was the cycling of seawater through volcanics (Holland, 1984). Under such a process, NH3 could then be released to the atmosphere where, when combined with CH4, H2, H2O, and electrical energy, organic molecules including amino acids could be formed (Miller, 1953). In essence, electrical discharges and UV radiation can convert mixtures of reduced gases into mixtures of organic

  11. Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: An asynchronous symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2007-01-01

    The extensive development of the ruminant forestomach sets apart their nitrogen (N) economy from that of nonruminants in a number of respects. Extensive pre-gastric fermentation alters the profile of protein reaching the small intestine, largely through the transformation of nitrogenous compounds...

  12. Pengaruh Pemahaman SAP, Pendidikan dan Pelatihan, serta Latar Belakang Pendidikan terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Daerah pada Pemerintah Kota Medan.

    OpenAIRE

    Enho, Yohanes

    2011-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background, (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training and w...

  13. 49 CFR 40.301 - What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in the follow-up... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.301 What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee? (a) As a SAP, after you have prescribed assistance under § 40.293, you must re-evaluate the...

  14. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  15. Influence of Auroral Streamers on Rapid Evolution of Ionospheric SAPS Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Mishin, E. V.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nishitani, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) often show large, rapid enhancements above their slowly varying component. We present simultaneous observations from ground-based all-sky imagers and flows from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars to investigate the relationship between auroral phenomena and flow enhancement. We first identified auroral streamers approaching the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval to examine how often the subauroral flow increased. We also performed the reverse query starting with subauroral flow enhancements and then evaluated the auroral conditions. In the forward study, 98% of the streamers approaching the equatorward boundary were associated with SAPS flow enhancements reaching 700 m/s and typically hundreds of m/s above background speeds. The reverse study reveals that flow enhancements associated with streamers (60%) and enhanced larger-scale convection (37%) contribute to SAPS flow enhancements. The strong correlation of auroral streamers with rapid evolution (approximately minutes) of SAPS flows suggests that transient fast earthward plasma sheet flows can often lead to westward SAPS flow enhancements in the subauroral region and that such enhancements are far more common than only during substorms because of the much more frequent occurrences of streamers under various geomagnetic conditions. We also found a strong correlation between flow duration and streamer duration and a weak correlation between SAPS flow velocity and streamer intensity. This result suggests that intense flow bursts in the plasma sheet (which correlate with intense streamers) are associated with intense SAPS ionospheric flows perhaps by enhancing the ring current pressure and localized pressure gradients when they are able to penetrate close enough to Earth.

  16. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  17. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-07-05

    One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.

  18. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  19. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  20. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was performed approximately yearly; FDT every other year. First and last visit had to contain both tests. Using linear regression, progression velocities were calculated for SAP (Humphrey Field Analyzer) mean deviation (MD) and FDT MD and the number of test locations with a total deviation probability below p glaucoma progression in patients who cannot perform SAP reliably. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  3. Sap flow is Underestimated by Thermal Dissipation Sensors due to Alterations of Wood Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Wiedemann, A.; van den Bulcke, J.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.; Steppe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal dissipation technique (TD) is one of the most commonly adopted methods for sap flow measurements. However, underestimations of up to 60% of the tree transpiration have been reported with this technique, although the causes are not certainly known. The insertion of TD sensors within the stems causes damage of the wood tissue and subsequent healing reactions, changing wood anatomy and likely the sap flow path. However, the anatomical changes in response to the insertion of sap flow sensors and the effects on the measured flow have not been assessed yet. In this study, we investigate the alteration of vessel anatomy on wounds formed around TD sensors. Our main objectives were to elucidate the anatomical causes of sap flow underestimation for ring-porous and diffuse-porous species, and relate these changes to sap flow underestimations. Successive sets of TD probes were installed in early, mid and end of the growing season in Fagus sylvatica (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea (ring-porous) trees. They were logged after the growing season and additional sets of sensors were installed in the logged stems with presumably no healing reaction. The wood tissue surrounding each sensor was then excised and analysed by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray micro CT). This technique allowed the quantification of vessel anatomical characteristics and the reconstruction of the 3-D internal microstructure of the xylem vessels so that extension and shape of the altered area could be determined. Gels and tyloses clogged the conductive vessels around the sensors in both beech and oak. The extension of the affected area was larger for beech although these anatomical changes led to similar sap flow underestimations in both species. The higher vessel size in oak may explain this result and, therefore, larger sap flow underestimation per area of affected conductive tissue. The wound healing reaction likely occurred within the first weeks after sensor installation, which

  4. Can Sap Flow Help Us to Better Understand Transpiration Patterns in Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Blume, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions and for improving the parameterisation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. At the tree scale, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status, stand-specific characteristics such as basal area or stand density and site-specific characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect control sap flow of individual trees. However, little is known about the relative importance or the dynamic interplay of these controls. We studied these influences with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites spread over a 290 km²-catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we applied linear models to the daily spatial pattern of sap velocity and determined the importance of the different predictors. By upscaling sap velocities to the tree level with the help of species-dependent empirical estimates for sapwood area we also examined patterns of sap flow as a more direct representation of transpiration. Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in this landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow, the site-specific predictors provided the largest contribution to the explained variance, however, in contrast to the sap velocity analysis, geology was more important than aspect. Spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explained only a small fraction of the variance. However, the temporal dynamics of the explanatory power of the tree-specific characteristics, especially species, were

  5. The nitrogen cycle on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1989-01-01

    Nirtogen is an essential element for the evolution of life, because it is found in a variety of biologically important molecules. Therefore, N is an important element to study from a exobiological perspective. In particular, fixed nitrogen is the biologically useful form of nitrogen. Fixed nitrogen is generally defines as NH3, NH4(+), NO(x), or N that is chemically bound to either inorganic or organic molecules, and releasable by hydrolysis to NH3 or NH4(+). On Earth, the vast majority of nitrogen exists as N2 in the atmosphere, and not in the fixes form. On early Mars the same situations probably existed. The partial pressure of N2 on early Mars was thought to be 18 mb, significantly less than that of Earth. Dinitrogen can be fixed abiotically by several mechanisms. These mechanisms include thernal shock from meteoritic infall and lightning, as well as the interaction of light and sand containing TiO2 which produces NH3 that would be rapidly destroyed by photolysis and reaction with OH radicals. These mechanisms could have been operative on primitive Mars.The chemical processes effecting these compounds and possible ways of fixing or burying N in the Martian environment are described. Data gathered in this laboratory suggest that the low abundance of nitrogen along (compared to primitive Earth) may not significantly deter the origin and early evolution of a nitrogen utilizing organisms. However, the conditions on current Mars with respect to nitrogen are quite different, and organisms may not be able to utilize all of the available nitrogen.

  6. [Stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Yan, Hai-Long; Yao, Shi-Jun

    2007-04-01

    From April to November 2005, the stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert was measured by Flow-32 System. The results showed that, in the extremely arid hinterland of Taklimakan Desert and under enough water supply, the average daily water consumption of T. ramosissima with a stem diameter of 3.5 cm and 2.0 cm was 6.322 kg and 1.179 kg, respectively in one growth season. The stem sap flow of T. ramosissima presented a single-peaked curve, with an obvious day and night variation rhythm and fluctuated with environment factors. Under enough water supply, the environmenal factors such as total radiation, wind speed and air temperature were the main factors affecting the stem sap flow, and the dynamics of stem sap flow could be predicted by the liner regression model based on total radiation and wind speed. Because of the extremely arid environment and enough water supply, T. ramosissima had a relatively higher stem sap flow rate and a great water consumption.

  7. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  8. Dissolved atmospheric gas in xylem sap measured with membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K

    2016-04-01

    A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  10. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  11. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  12. The study of Cr(III) complexation in the xylem sap using ion exchange and radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Shikha; Prakash, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Radiotracer was employed to carry out ion exchange experiments to study the chromium speciation in the in vitro samples of xylem sap of maize stem of 60 days old plants. Cr(III) radiolabelled with its radioactive isotope ( 51 Cr) was mixed with both the ion exchange fraction of the sap which represented the carboxylic acids, as well as the whole sap and was analysed for complexation after 10 and 30 days at 25 degC. Prior to this, the ion exchange elution chromatography of Cr(III), and the Cr(III) complexes with oxalic and citric acid were used to compare the complexes being formed in the in vitro studies. The in vitro Cr(III) complexation results indicated that Cr(III) was vitally present as anionic species. The elution curve trend was similar to that of citric acid complexation. Citric acid was also found to be the major complexing acid in the xylem sap as determined by HPLC. The results indicate the transportation of Cr(III) as a citrate complex in the xylem sap of maize plants. (author)

  13. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods.

  14. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Variations in Composition in Protein and Non-Protein Compounds in the Aerial Parts of Dactylis Glomerata L; Influence de la Fertilisation Azotee sur les Variations de la Composition en Composes Proteiques et Non Proteiques des Parties Aeriennes de Dactylis Glomerata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, J. M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d' Agronomie, Dijon (France)

    1968-07-01

    A knowledge of the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on plant quality would appear to be of prime importance in the study of plant-animal relations. Th e author examined, at a test facility in the east-central part of France, variations in the composition of the aerial parts of ''Floreal'' cocksfoot treated with nitrogen fertilizer at different supply rates. Enrichment in soluble organic nitrogen, amino acids, amides, simple peptides and protein compounds is fairly proportional to the nitrogen dose supplied at different vegetative cycles. Free mineral nitrogen, consisting almost exclusively of nitrates, shows elevated values, particularly during the first vegetative cycles which take place at a time when low temperatures are not favourable to a rapid reduction. The values found increase with the amounts of nitrogen supplied to the plants. If the fertilizer is applied to the grass 15 days after ablation of the aerial parts and not immediately, as in common farming practice, a complete modification of the various phenomena accompanying protein synthesis will be noted. In this case nitrate production is very swift and metabolization into soluble organic compounds and condensates is extensive. As a result, temporarily large accumulations of nitrates are not observed in the summer and autumn vegetative cycles. In addition, and of great importance for the nutritional quality of the harvested produce, the gross protein contents are much higher (around 50%) at the end of the cycle for an equal quantity of nitrogen supplied during fertilization. Soluble organic nitrogen compounds, amino acids and amides, are also found in greater quantities. (author) [French] La connaissance des repercussions de la fertilisation azotee sur la qualite vegetale semble primordiale dans l'etude des liaisons plante-animal. L'auteur a examine sur un dispositif experimental situe dans le Centre-Est de la France les variations de la composition des parties aeriennes d'un Dactyle Floreal soumis a des

  15. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  16. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  17. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  18. Logistic Core Operations with SAP Inventory Management, Warehousing, Transportation, and Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Kappauf, Jens; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    “Logistic Core Operations with SAP” not only provides an overview of core logistics processes and functionality—it also shows how SAP’s Business Suite covers logistic core operations, what features are supported, and which systems can be used to implement end-to-end processes in the following logistic core disciplines: Procurement, Distribution, Transportation, Warehouse Logistics and Inventory Management, and Compliance and Reporting. In this context the authors not only explain their integration, the organizational set-up, and master data, but also which solution fits best for a particular business need.   This book serves as a solid foundation for understanding SAP software. No matter whether you are a student or a manager involved in an SAP implementation, the authors go far beyond traditional function and feature descriptions, helping you ask the right questions, providing answers, and making recommendations. The book assists you in understanding SAP terminology, concepts and technological compo...

  19. Phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device for monitoring photosynthates transportation in plant shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuya; Ono, Akihito; Terao, Kyohei; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Ikuo; Shimokawa, Fusao

    2018-06-01

    We propose a microscale phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device to obtain the index of an internal plant condition regarding the transportation of primary photosynthates in phloem, which is an essential indicator of stable crop production under controlled-growth environments. In detail, we integrated a conventional Granier sensor with a thermal-flow sensor and devised an improved sensor device to quantify such index, including the information on velocity and direction of the phloem-sap flow using the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The experimental results showed that although the proposed sensor device was approximately only 1/10 the size of the conventional Granier sensor, it could generate an output nearly equal to that of the conventional sensor. Furthermore, experiments using mimicked plants demonstrated that the proposed device could measure minute flow velocities in the range of 0–200 µm/s, which are generally known as the phloem-sap flow velocity, and simultaneously detect the flow direction.

  20. SAPS-Associated Explosive Brightening on the Duskside: A New Type of Onset-Like Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S. K.; Kepko, L. E.

    2018-01-01

    Quasiperiodic energetic particle injections have been observed at geosynchronous orbit on the duskside during a steady magnetospheric convection event. We examine high-resolution auroral imager data and ground magnetometer data associated with the first of these injections and conclude that it was not associated with classical substorm signatures. It is proposed that these injections are caused by the explosive nonlinear growth of a shear flow-ballooning instability in the region where subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) also occur. It is suggested that interchange will occur preferentially in the low-conductivity SAPS region since the magnetic Richardson number is lowest there and the "line-tying" effect will also be least stabilizing there. We propose that the observed particle injection signatures and auroral morphology constitute a new type of SAPS-associated explosive "onset-like" disturbance that can occur during intervals of strong convection.