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Sample records for sap flux density

  1. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

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    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

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    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  3. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

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    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  4. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data

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    David M. Bell; Eric J. Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Ram Oren; Paul G. Flikkema; James S. Clark; David Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as...

  5. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

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    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  6. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Ward, Eric J; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Flikkema, Paul G; Clark, James S

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as canopy conductance and transpiration. To address this need, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian State-Space Canopy Conductance (StaCC) model linking canopy conductance and transpiration to tree sap flux density from a 4-year experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont, USA. Our model builds on existing ecophysiological knowledge, but explicitly incorporates uncertainty in canopy conductance, internal tree hydraulics and observation error to improve estimation of canopy conductance responses to atmospheric drought (i.e., vapor pressure deficit), soil drought (i.e., soil moisture) and above canopy light. Our statistical framework not only predicted sap flux observations well, but it also allowed us to simultaneously gap-fill missing data as we made inference on canopy processes, marking a substantial advance over traditional methods. The predicted and observed sap flux data were highly correlated (mean sensor-level Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.88). Variations in canopy conductance and transpiration associated with environmental variation across days to years were many times greater than the variation associated with model uncertainties. Because some variables, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture, were correlated at the scale of days to weeks, canopy conductance responses to individual environmental variables were difficult to interpret in isolation. Still, our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty in models of ecophysiological and ecosystem function where the process of interest, canopy conductance in this case, is not observed directly. The StaCC modeling

  7. Responses of Sap Flux Density to Changing Atmospheric Humidity in Three Common Street Tree Species in Bangkok, Thailand

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    Pantana Tor-ngern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient water management in urban landscape is imperative under the projected increases in drought stress under future climate. Because different tree species have different stomatal regulations to prevent water loss under water limitation, comparative study of species-specific responses of water use to changing weather conditions will benefit selective planting of urban trees for sustainable urban greening management. Here, we performed a simple and short-term investigation of water use characteristics of three common street tree species in Bangkok, a major city in Southeast Asia. Species included Pterocarpus indicus (Pi, Swietenia macrophylla (Sm and Lagerstroemia speciosa (Ls. We used self-constructed heat dissipation probes to track water uptake rates, expressed as sap flux density (JS, in stems of potted trees and examined their diurnal variations with changing atmospheric humidity, represented by vapor pressure deficit (D. The results implied that two of the three species: Pi and Sm, may be selected for planting because their Js was less sensitive to changing D compared to Ls. The sap flux density of Ls increased more rapidly with rising D, implying higher sensitivity to drought in Ls, compared to the other two species. Nevertheless, further study on large trees and under longer period of investigation, covering both dry and wet seasons, is required to confirm this finding.

  8. Sap flux density and stomatal conductance of European beech and common oak trees in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003

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    Jonard, F.; André, F.; Ponette, Q.; Vincke, C.; Jonard, M.

    2011-10-01

    SummarySap flux density of European beech and common oak trees was determined from sap flow measurements in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003. Eight trees per species and per stand were equipped with sap flow sensors. Soil water content was monitored in each stand at different depths by using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Leaf area index and vertical root distribution were also investigated during the growing season. From sap flux density ( SFD) data, mean stomatal conductance of individual trees ( G s) was calculated by inverting the Penman-Monteith equation. Linear mixed models were developed to analyse the effects of species and stand type (pure vs. mixed) on SFD and G s and on their sensitivity to environmental variables (vapour pressure deficit ( D), incoming solar radiation ( R G), and relative extractable water ( REW)). For reference environmental conditions, we did not find any tree species or stand type effects on SFD. The sensitivity of SFD to D was higher for oak than for beech in the pure stands ( P sapwood-to-leaf area ratio compared to oak. The sensitivity of G s to REW was higher for beech than for oak and was ascribed to a higher vulnerability of beech to air embolism and to a more sensitive stomatal regulation. The sensitivity of beech G s to REW was lower in the mixed than in the pure stand, which could be explained by a better sharing of the resources in the mixture, by facilitation processes (hydraulic lift), and by a rainfall partitioning in favour of beech.

  9. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

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    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  10. Effects of soil water decline on diurnal and seasonal variations in sap flux density for differently aged Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa trees

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    Kenji Tsuruta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil drought on transpiration are often neglected when predicting transpiration for forests in humid regions under the influence of the Asian monsoon. These effects have indeed been neglected for Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, a major plantation species in Japan and the surrounding area, probably because previous studies have reported no clear effects of soil drought on transpiration for Japanese cypress forests. However, a few studies have reported an apparent reduction in transpiration with soil drought for young Japanese cypress forests. It remains unclear whether such a reduction in transpiration is limited to young Japanese cypress forests or if it is not uncommon for mature Japanese cypress forests, which occupy a large area in Japan. To clarify this point, we conducted sap flux measurements in a year with soil drought on three differently aged Japanese cypress stands including mature (43 years old and relatively young (23 and 26 years old trees. In a diurnal time scale, a cross correlation analysis of sap flux density (Fd and vapor pressure deficit (VPD showed that the time lags between Fd and VPD were 1-3 h in dry soil conditions. These were larger than those of wet soil conditions (<1 h for all sample trees. Fd at a given VPD in dry soil conditions was smaller than that in wet soil conditions for all sample trees; a 28%–63% reduction in the rate of change in Fd was observed under dry soil conditions. Because our results were obtained when the non-exceedance probability of recorded monthly precipitation was 9%–18%, the results suggest the need to consider the effects of soil drought more extensively. Those effects should be considered for not only relatively young but also mature Japanese cypress when predicting diurnal and seasonal patterns of transpiration in years with soil drought, and when predicting inter-annual patterns of transpiration for Japanese cypress despite humid

  11. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

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    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  12. [Sap flux density in response to rainfall pulses for Pinus tabuliformis and Hippophae rhamnoides from mixed plantation in hilly Loess Plateau].

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    Lu, Sen Bao; Chen, Yun Ming; Tang, Ya Kun; Wu, Xu; Wen, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Thermal dissipation probe (TDP) was used to continuously measure the sap flux density (F d ) of Pinus tabuliformis and Hippophae rhamnoides individuals in hilly Loess Plateau, from June to October 2015, and the environmental factors, i.e., photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC), were simultaneously monitored to clarify the difference of rainfall utilization between the two tree species in a mixed plantation. Using the methods of a Threshold-delay model, stepwise multiple regression analyses, and partial correlation analyses, this paper studied the process of F d in these two species in response to the rainfall pulses and then determined the effects of environmental factors on F d . The results showed that, with the increase of rainfall, the response percentages of F d in both P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides increased at first but then decreased; specifically, in the range of 0-1 mm rainfall, the F d of P. tabuliformis (-16.3%) and H. rhamnoides (-6.3%) clearly decreased; in the range of 1-5 mm rainfall, the F d of P. tabuliformis decreased (-0.4%), whereas that of H. rhamnoides significantly increased (9.0%). The lower rainfall thresholds (R L ) of F d for P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides were 6.4 and 1.9 mm, respectively, with a corresponding time-lag (τ) of 1.96 and 1.67 days. In the pre-rainfall period, the peak time of F d of P. tabuliformis converged upon 12:00-12:30 (70%), while the F d of H. rhamnoides peaked twice, between 10:30 and 12:00 (48%) and again between 16:00 and 16:30 (30%). In the post-rainfall period, the peak time of F d of P. tabuliformis converged upon 11:00-13:00 (40%), while that of H. rhamnoides peaked twice, between 12:00 and 13:00 (52%) and again between 16:30 and 17:00 (24%). Among the environmental factors, the rank order of factors associated with the F d of both P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides was PAR>VPD, before rainfall. However, the rank order of factors

  13. Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration

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    Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water

  14. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

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    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  15. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

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    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  16. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

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    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  17. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years

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    Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...

  18. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

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    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  19. An interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

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    Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Sap flux sensors are an important tool for estimating tree-level transpiration in forested and urban ecosystems around the world. Thermal dissipation (TD) or Granier-type sap flux probes are among the most commonly used due to their reliability, simplicity, and low cost.

  20. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

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    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  1. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer look...... at SAP’s strategy, however, revealed a closely connected and coordinated network of strategic decisions and investments for which alignment and finding the right balance were key challenges. Hence, it was crucial to ask: What were the principal challenges for SAP in aligning its innovation and sourcing...

  2. Comparison of sap flux, moisture flux tower and MODIS enhanced vegetation index methods for estimating riparian evapotranspiration

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    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.

  3. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Comparison of ecosystem water flux measured with the Eddy covariance- and the direct xylem sap flux method in a mountainous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G; Geissbuehler, P; Siegwolf, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  5. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  6. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christopher Oishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS. We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or “baseline”, which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  7. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  8. Biotic and Abiotic Drivers of Sap Flux in Mature Green Ash Trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Experiencing Varying Levels of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Douglas J. Lynch; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel A.  Gonzalez-Meler

    2018-01-01

    While the relationship between abiotic drivers of sap flux are well established, the role of biotic disturbances on sap flux remain understudied. The invasion of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) into North America in the 1990s represents a significant threat to ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), which are a...

  9. A novel design for sap flux data acquisition in large research plots using open source components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, D. A.; Oishi, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sap flux sensors are a widely-used tool for estimating in-situ, tree-level transpiration rates. These probes are installed in the stems of multiple trees within a study area and are typically left in place throughout the year. Sensors vary in their design and theory of operation, but all require electrical power for a heating element and produce at least one analog signal that must be digitized for storage. There are two topologies traditionally adopted to energize these sensors and gather the data from them. In one, a single data logger and power source are used. Dedicated cables radiate out from the logger to supply power to each of the probes and retrieve analog signals. In the other layout, a standalone data logger is located at each monitored tree. Batteries must then be distributed throughout the plot to service these loggers. We present a hybrid solution based on industrial control systems that employs a central data logger and battery, but co-locates digitizing hardware with the sensors at each tree. Each hardware node is able to communicate and share power over wire links with neighboring nodes. The resulting network provides a fault-tolerant path between the logger and each sensor. The approach is optimized to limit disturbance of the study plot, protect signal integrity and to enhance system reliability. This open-source implementation is built on the Arduino micro-controller system and employs RS485 and Modbus communications protocols. It is supported by laptop based management software coded in Python. The system is designed to be readily fabricated and programmed by non-experts. It works with a variety of sap-flux measurement techniques and it is able to interface to additional environmental sensors.

  10. Evaluating Uncertainties in Sap Flux Scaled Estimates of Forest Transpiration, Canopy Conductance and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Kim, H.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are a common method for estimating forest transpiration and canopy conductance from sap flux rates in trees, but their implementation is plagued by uncertainties arising from missing data and variability in the diameter and canopy position of trees, as well as sapwood conductivity within individual trees. Uncertainties in estimates of canopy conductance also translate into uncertainties in carbon assimilation in models such as the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation (4CA) model that combine physiological and environmental data to estimate photosynthetic rates. We developed a method to propagate these uncertainties in the scaling and imputation of TDP data to estimates of canopy transpiration and conductance using a state-space Jarvis-type conductance model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. This presentation will focus on the impact of these uncertainties on estimates of water and carbon fluxes using 4CA and data from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) project, which incorporates both elevated carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen treatments. We will also address the response of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit, incident radiation and soil moisture, as well as the effect of treatment-related stand structure differences in scaling TDP measurements. Preliminary results indicate that in 2006, a year of normal precipitation (1127 mm), canopy transpiration increased in elevated carbon dioxide ~8% on a ground area basis. In 2007, a year with a pronounced drought (800 mm precipitation), this increase was only present in the combined carbon dioxide and fertilization treatment. The seasonal dynamics of water and carbon fluxes will be discussed in detail.

  11. Flux, rejection and fouling during microfiltration and ultrafiltration of sugar palm sap using a pilot plant scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanichapichart, P.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a pilot plant scale microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF to clarify and reduce number of bacteria, yeast and mould of sugar palm sap was studied. The membrane used was multi channel tubular ceramic membrane (ZrO2-TiO2 with membrane pore size 0.2 and 0.1 μm and molecular weight cut off (MWCO 300 and 50 kDa for microfiltration and ultrafiltration respectively. The experiment was carried out to investigate the rejection of the components in sugar palm sap, permeate flux and fouling characteristics. The results showed that the turbidity, the total solid, the viscosity and the numbers of bacteria, yeast and mould in the permeate obtained by MF and UF were reduced significantly compared to those of fresh sugar palm sap. The total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar and pH were not affected by MF and UF. The permeate fluxes for all membranes were reduced greatly as the volume concentration ratio (VCR increased due to severe fouling. The irreversible fouling on membrane surface and/or inside the membrane tended to increase with increasing membrane pore size or MWCO. The result also suggested that protein and small particle in the sugar palm sap were probably responsible for the internal fouling of large pore size membrane. According to the physical, chemical and microorganism quality results, both MF and UF showed the potential use for improving the quality of sugar palm sap but flux reduction due to fouling was a major problem affecting the process performance.

  12. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  13. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O3 fluxes in a forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.J.; Cieslik, S.; Metzger, U.; Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal O 3 fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O 3 flux was 33% of the total O 3 flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O 3 flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O 3 exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O 3 flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O 3 risk assessment in forests from O 3 exposure towards flux-based concepts. - Combined tree sap flow and eddy covariance-based methodologies yield stomatal O 3 flux as 33% in total stand flux.

  14. Planck intermediate results - LII. Planet flux densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100–857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates...... of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness time-variability of these planets. The majority of the planet flux density estimates are limited by systematic...... errors, but still yield better than 1% measurements in many cases. Applying data from Planck HFI, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to a model that incorporates contributions from Saturn’s rings to the planet’s total flux density suggests a best...

  15. Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Morino, K.; Bush, S.E.; Burtch, K.G.; Dennison, P.E.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the saltcedar beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has resulted in the periodic defoliation of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along more than 1000 river km in the upper Colorado River Basin and is expected to spread along many other river reaches throughout the upper basin, and possibly into the lower Colorado River Basin. Identifying the impacts of these release programs on tamarisk water use and subsequent water cycling in arid riparian systems are largely unknown, due in part to the difficulty of measuring water fluxes in these systems. We used lab-calibrated, modified heat-dissipation sap flux sensors to monitor tamarisk water use (n=20 trees) before, during and after defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons (May-October) in southeastern Utah. We incorporated a simple model that related mean stem sap flux density (Js) with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (vpd) before the onset of defoliation in 2008. The model was used to calculate differences between predicted Js and Js measured throughout the two growing seasons. Episodic defoliation resulted in a 16% reduction in mean annual rates of Js in both 2008 and 2009, with decreases occurring only during the periods in which the trees were defoliated (about 6-8 weeks per growing season). In other words, rates of Js rebounded to values predicted by the model when the trees produced new leaves after defoliation. Sap flux data were scaled to stand water use by constructing a tamarisk-specific allometric equation to relate conducting sapwood area to stem diameter, and by measuring the size distribution of stems within the stand. Total water use in both years was 0.224m, representing a reduction of about 0.04myr-1. Results showed that repeated defoliation/refoliation cycles did not result in a progressive decrease in either leaf production or water use over the duration of the study. This investigation improves ground-based estimates of tamarisk water use, and will support

  16. Sensors for Metering Heat Flux Area Density and Metrological Equipment for the Heat Flux Density Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, D. O.

    2018-04-01

    The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.

  17. Sap fluxes from different parts of the rootzone modulate xylem ABA concentration during partial rootzone drying and re-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, J G; Dodd, I C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Effects of tree-to-tree variations on sap flux-based transpiration estimates in a forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tomonori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Komatsu, Hikaru; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Higashi, Naoko; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-05-01

    To estimate forest stand-scale water use, we assessed how sample sizes affect confidence of stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates calculated from sap flux (Fd) and sapwood area (AS_tree) measurements of individual trees. In a Japanese cypress plantation, we measured Fd and AS_tree in all trees (n = 58) within a 20 × 20 m study plot, which was divided into four 10 × 10 subplots. We calculated E from stand AS_tree (AS_stand) and mean stand Fd (JS) values. Using Monte Carlo analyses, we examined potential errors associated with sample sizes in E, AS_stand, and JS by using the original AS_tree and Fd data sets. Consequently, we defined optimal sample sizes of 10 and 15 for AS_stand and JS estimates, respectively, in the 20 × 20 m plot. Sample sizes greater than the optimal sample sizes did not decrease potential errors. The optimal sample sizes for JS changed according to plot size (e.g., 10 × 10 m and 10 × 20 m), while the optimal sample sizes for AS_stand did not. As well, the optimal sample sizes for JS did not change in different vapor pressure deficit conditions. In terms of E estimates, these results suggest that the tree-to-tree variations in Fd vary among different plots, and that plot size to capture tree-to-tree variations in Fd is an important factor. This study also discusses planning balanced sampling designs to extrapolate stand-scale estimates to catchment-scale estimates.

  19. Device for measuring neutron-flux distribution density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbljum, N.D.; Mitelman, M.G.; Kononovich, A.A.; Kirsanov, V.S.; Zagadkin, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement is described for measuring the distribution of neutron flux density over the height of a nuclear reactor core and which may be used for monitoring energy release or for detecting deviations of neutron flux from an optimal level so that subsequent balance can be achieved. It avoids mutual interference of detectors. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  20. Stomatal conductance at Duke FACE: Leveraging the lessons from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements for region-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D.; Clark, J. S.; McCarthy, H. R.; Kim, H.; domec, J.; Noormets, A.; McNulty, D.; Sun, G.; Oren, R.

    2013-12-01

    A network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density was used to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (EL) and canopy-averaged stomatal conductance (GS) in Pinus taeda (L.) exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels (eCO2) and nitrogen fertilization as part of the Duke FACE study. Data from scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years indicated that P. taeda in eCO2 intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total EL and mean daytime GS. This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (AH), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which was linearly related to GS at reference conditions (GSR) during the growing season across years (R2=0.67). Overall, AH decreased a mean of 15% with eCO2 over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area. Throughout the southeastern U.S., other P. taeda stands have been monitored with TDPs, such as the US-NC2 Ameriflux site and four fertilizer × throughfall displacement studies recently begun as part of the PINEMAP research network in VA, GA, FL and OK. We will also discuss the challenges and benefits of using a common modeling platform to combine FACE TDP data with that from a diversity of sites and treatments to draw inferences about EL and GS responses to environmental drivers and climate change, as well as their relation to AH, across the range of P. taeda.

  1. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than ∼5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  2. Flux Density through Guides with Microstructured Twisted Clad DB Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baqir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of flux density through a newly proposed twisted clad guide containing DB medium. The inner core and the outer clad sections are usual dielectrics, and the introduced twisted windings at the core-clad interface are treated under DB boundary conditions. The pitch angle of twist is supposed to greatly contribute towards the control over the dispersion characteristics of the guide. The eigenvalue equation for the guiding structure is deduced, and the analytical investigations are made to explore the propagation patterns of flux densities corresponding to the sustained low-order hybrid modes under the situation of varying pitch angles. The emphasis has been put on the effects due to the DB twisted pitch on the propagation of energy flux density through the guide.

  3. Magnetic flux density in the heliosphere through several solar cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdős, G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balogh, A., E-mail: erdos.geza@wigner.mta.hu [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-20

    We studied the magnetic flux density carried by solar wind to various locations in the heliosphere, covering a heliospheric distance range of 0.3-5.4 AU and a heliolatitudinal range from 80° south to 80° north. Distributions of the radial component of the magnetic field, B{sub R} , were determined over long intervals from the Helios, ACE, STEREO, and Ulysses missions, as well as from using the 1 AU OMNI data set. We show that at larger distances from the Sun, the fluctuations of the magnetic field around the average Parker field line distort the distribution of B{sub R} to such an extent that the determination of the unsigned, open solar magnetic flux density from the average (|B{sub R} |) is no longer justified. We analyze in detail two methods for reducing the effect of fluctuations. The two methods are tested using magnetic field and plasma velocity measurements in the OMNI database and in the Ulysses observations, normalized to 1 AU. It is shown that without such corrections for the fluctuations, the magnetic flux density measured by Ulysses around the aphelion phase of the orbit is significantly overestimated. However, the matching between the in-ecliptic magnetic flux density at 1 AU (OMNI data) and the off-ecliptic, more distant, normalized flux density by Ulysses is remarkably good if corrections are made for the fluctuations using either method. The main finding of the analysis is that the magnetic flux density in the heliosphere is fairly uniform, with no significant variations having been observed either in heliocentric distance or heliographic latitude.

  4. A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant-heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. McCulloh; K. Winter; F.C. Meinzer; M. Garcia; J. Aranda; Lachenbruch B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of Granier-style heat dissipation sensors to measure sap flow is common in plant physiology, ecology, and hydrology. There has been concern that any change to the original Granier design invalidates the empirical relationship between sap flux density and the temperature difference between the probes. We compared daily water use estimates from gravimetric...

  5. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  6. 47 CFR 25.208 - Power flux density limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power flux density limits. 25.208 Section 25.208 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE... emissions from all co-frequency space stations of a single non-geostationary-satellite orbit (NGSO) system...

  7. Transport critical current density in flux creep model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Taylor, K.N.R.; Russell, G.J.; Yue, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic flux creep model has been used to derive the temperature dependence of the critical current density in high temperature superconductors. The generally positive curvature of the J c -T diagram is predicted in terms of two interdependent dimensionless fitting parameters. In this paper, the results are compared with both SIS and SNS junction models of these granular materials, neither of which provides a satisfactory prediction of the experimental data. A hybrid model combining the flux creep and SNS mechanisms is shown to be able to account for the linear regions of the J c -T behavior which are observed in some materials

  8. High frequency characterization of Galfenol minor flux density loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Weng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first measurement of ring-shaped Galfenol’s high frequency-dependent minor flux density loops. The frequencies of applied AC magnetic field are 1k, 5k, 10k, 50k, 100k, 200k, 300k, 500 kHz. The measurements show that the cycle area between the flux density and magnetic field curves increase with increasing frequency. High frequency-dependent characterization, including coercivity, specific power loss, residual induction, and maximum relative permeability are discussed. Minor loops for different max induction are also measured and discussed at the same frequency 100 kHz. Minor loops with the same max induction 0.05 T for different frequencies 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kHz are measured and specific power loss are discussed.

  9. A High Torque Density Axial Flux SRM with Modular Stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel structure of switched reluctance motors (SRMs is proposed. The proposed structure uses the benefits of the axial flux path, short flux path, segmental rotor, and flux reversal free stator motors all together to improve the torque density of the SRMs. The main geometrical, electrical and physical specifications are presented. In addition, some features of the proposed structure are compared with those of a state-of-the-art radial flux SRM, considered as a reference motor. Then, the proposed structure is modified by employing a higher number of rotor segments than the stator modules and at the same time, reshaped stator modules tips. Achieved results reveal that, compared with the reference motor, the proposed and the modified proposed motors deliver about the same torque with 36.5% and 46.7% lower active material mass, respectively. The efficiency and torque production capability for the extended current densities are also retained. These make the proposed structures a potentially proper candidate for the electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs as an in-wheel motor.

  10. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  11. Evaluation of neutron flux density and power density with SPN-detectors and micro calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehre, G.; Rindelhardt, U.; Seidenkranz, T.; Hogel, J.; Jirousek, V.; Vazek, J.

    1983-02-01

    During investigations with a special equipped fuel assembly in the Rheinsberg nuclear power station the neutron flux and the power density were evaluated from measurements with SPN-detectors and micro calorimeters. The reliability of both detector types, their measurement accuracy under different physical conditions and the usefulness of the developed calculation models are discussed in detail. The thermal flux and the power density evaluated with SPND's agree well with theoretical results. The values obtained through micro calorimeter measurements are systematic lower by about 18%. This deviation is probably a result of differences in the used calculation models. (author)

  12. Flux density calibration in diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samir Kumar; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Vasu, Ram M

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the forward equation that models the transport of light through a highly scattering tissue material in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using the finite element method gives flux density (Φ) at the nodal points of the mesh. The experimentally measured flux (Umeasured) on the boundary over a finite surface area in a DOT system has to be corrected to account for the system transfer functions (R) of various building blocks of the measurement system. We present two methods to compensate for the perturbations caused by R and estimate true flux density (Φ) from Umeasuredcal. In the first approach, the measurement data with a homogeneous phantom (Umeasuredhomo) is used to calibrate the measurement system. The second scheme estimates the homogeneous phantom measurement using only the measurement from a heterogeneous phantom, thereby eliminating the necessity of a homogeneous phantom. This is done by statistically averaging the data (Umeasuredhetero) and redistributing it to the corresponding detector positions. The experiments carried out on tissue mimicking phantom with single and multiple inhomogeneities, human hand, and a pork tissue phantom demonstrate the robustness of the approach.

  13. Manifestation of solar activity in solar wind particle flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the origin of long-term variations in flux density of solar wind particles (nv) for different velocity regimes. The study revealed a relationship of these variations to the area of the polar coronal holes (CH). It is shown that within the framework of the model under development, the main longterm variations of nv are a result of the latitude redistribution of the solar wind mass flux in the heliosphere and are due to changes in the large-scale geometry of the solar plasma flow in the corona. A study has been made of the variations of nv for high speed solar wind streams. It is found that nv in high speed streams which are formed in CH, decreases from minimum to maximum solar activity. The analysis indicates that this decrease is attributable to the magnetic field strength increase in coronal holes. It has been found that periods of rapid global changes of background magnetic fields on the Sun are accompanied by a reconfiguration of coronal magnetic fields, rapid changes in the length of quiescent filaments, and by an increase in the density of the particle flux of a high speed solar wind. It has been established that these periods precede the formation of CH, corresponding to the increase in solar wind velocity near the Earth and to enhancement of the level of geomagnetic disturbance. (author)

  14. High Torque Density Transverse Flux Machine without the Need to Use SMC Material for 3D Flux Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new transverse flux permanent magnet machine. In a normal transverse flux machine, complicated 3-D flux paths often exist. Such 3-D flux paths would require the use of soft magnetic composites material instead of laminations for construction of the machine stator. In the new...... machine topology proposed in this paper, by advantageously utilizing the magnetic flux path provided by an additional rotor, use of laminations that allow 2-D flux paths only will be sufficient to accomplish the required 3-D flux paths. The machine also has a high torque density and is therefore...

  15. Understanding the Effect of Atmospheric Density on the Cosmic Ray Flux Variations at the Earth Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Dayananda, Mathes; Zhang, Xiaohang; Butler, Carola; He, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    We report in this letter for the first time the numerical simulations of muon and neutron flux variations at the surface of the earth with varying air densities in the troposphere and stratosphere. The simulated neutron and muon flux variations are in very good agreement with the measured neutron flux variation in Oulu and the muon flux variation in Atlanta. We conclude from this study that the stratosphere air density variation dominates the effects on the muon flux changes while the density...

  16. Injection space charge: enlargements of flux density functioning point choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropert, A.

    In Saturne, injection consists of a synchrobetatron filling of the chamber, with the goal of providing a beam with the following characteristics circulating in the machine: horizontal flux density 90 πmm mrd, vertical flux density 210 πmm mrd, dispersion in moments +- 7 x 10 -3 , and number of particles 2 x 10 12 . The determination of the principal injection parameters was made by means of GOC calculation programs. The goal of this study is to show a certain number of phenomena induced by the forces due to space charge and left suspended up to this point: variations in the intensity injectable into the machine extension of the beam occupation zone in the ν/sub x'/ ν/sub z/ diagram, and turn-turn interactions. The effects of the space charge lead to a deterioration of the injected beam for certain functioning points leading to the selection of a zone in the ν/sub x'/ ν/sub z/ diagram that is particularly suitable for beam injection

  17. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  18. Compensating effect of sap velocity for stand density leads to uniform hillslope-scale forest transpiration across a steep valley cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stan; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Roberts (1983) found that forest transpiration is relatively uniform across different climatic conditions and suggested that forest transpiration is a conservative process compensating for environmental heterogeneity. Here we test this hypothesis at a steep valley cross-section composed of European Beech in the Attert basin in Luxemburg. We use sapflow, soil moisture, biometric and meteorological data from 6 sites along a transect to estimate site scale transpiration rates. Despite opposing hillslope orientation, different slope angles and forest stand structures, we estimated relatively similar transpiration responses to atmospheric demand and seasonal transpiration totals. This similarity is related to a negative correlation between sap velocity and site-average sapwood area. At the south facing sites with an old, even-aged stand structure and closed canopy layer, we observe significantly lower sap velocities but similar stand-average transpiration rates compared to the north-facing sites with open canopy structure, tall dominant trees and dense understorey. This suggests that plant hydraulic co-ordination allows for flexible responses to environmental conditions leading to similar transpiration rates close to the water and energy limits despite the apparent heterogeneity in exposition, stand density and soil moisture. References Roberts, J. (1983). Forest transpiration: A conservative hydrological process? Journal of Hydrology 66, 133-141.

  19. Flux Loop Measurements of the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Magnet Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The first attempt is made to measure the magnetic flux density in the steel blocks of the CMS magnet yoke using the standard magnet discharge with the current ramp down speed of 1.5 A/...

  20. Effect of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density on Carboxylation Efficiency 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James A.; Tenhunen, John D.; Gates, David M.; Lange, Otto L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on photosynthetic response (A) to CO2 partial pressures between 35 pascals and CO2 compensation point (Γ) was investigated, especially below PPFD saturation. Spinacia oleracea cv `Atlanta,' Glycine max cv `Clark,' and Arbutus unedo were studied in detail. The initial slope of the photosynthetic response to CO2 (∂A/∂C[Γ]) was constant above a PPFD of about 500 to 600 micromoles per square meter per second for all three species; but declined rapidly with PPFD below this critical level. For Γ there was also a critical PPFD (approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second for S. oleracea and G. max; 100 for A. unedo) above which Γ was essentially constant, but below which Γ increased with decreasing PPFD. All three species showed a dependence of ∂A/∂C(Γ) on PPFD at low PPFD. Simulated photosynthetic responses obtained with a biochemically based model of whole-leaf photosynthesis were similar to measured responses. PMID:16665640

  1. SINUPERM N: a new digital neutron flux density monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The new SINUPERM N System is developed for Neutron Monitoring in nuclear power plants. The development was started in 1989 (with the design specification) and will be finished in 1993 (with the qualification). The first built will be the nuclear power plant in Borselle (Netherlands). The design is based on a microprocessor system with a digital signal processor for calculations and signal filtering. The separation between analogue-input signals and digital processing enables for each detector type special input modules and standard output interfaces e.g. field - bus. The wide range of the Neutron Flux Density from 10 -2 cm -2 s -1 up to 10 8 cm -2 s -1 for the out-of-pile instrumentation and up to 10 14 cm -2 s -1 for the in-core-instrumentation will be covered by the SINUPERM N system. The requirements to be met by the SINUPERM N system are the IEEE 323, IEC 987 and the German standard KTA-3503 for safety systems. Other standards for instrumentation and control systems like IEC 801, IEC 1131 and IEC 68 for EMV, climatic and seismic requirements are also included in the hardware type test. The software requirement depends on the IEC 880 standard. (author). 3 figs

  2. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  3. Investigating the impact of uneven magnetic flux density distribution on core loss estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Nymand, Morten; Wang, Yiren

    2017-01-01

    is calculated according to an effective flux density value and the macroscopic dimensions of the cores. However, the flux distribution in the core can alter by core shapes and/or operating conditions due to nonlinear material properties. This paper studies the element-wise estimation of the loss in magnetic......There are several approaches for loss estimation in magnetic cores, and all these approaches highly rely on accurate information about flux density distribution in the cores. It is often assumed that the magnetic flux density evenly distributes throughout the core and the overall core loss...

  4. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K + concentration ([K + ]), electrical conductivity (σ sap ), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (K wb ), leaf blade (K lb ) and petiole hydraulic conductances (K P ) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (T A ) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on K wb K lb , K P , [K + ] and σ sap . Osm varied only with light intensity, while K B varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as T A , VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (Ψ S ) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, Ψ S influenced also [K + ] and σ sap . The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta, E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Temmerman, Greg De [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oost, Guido Van [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Möller, Sören [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10{sup 23} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s and low: 9 · 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10{sup 26} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.

  6. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Temmerman, Greg De; Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker; Oost, Guido Van; Möller, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10 23 D + /m 2 s and low: 9 · 10 21 D + /m 2 s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10 26 D + /m 2 and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion

  7. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents

  8. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high- Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.

  9. Calculation of flux density distribution on irradiation field of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1977-03-01

    The simple equation of flux density distribution in the irradiation field of an ordinary electron accelerator is a function of the physical parameters concerning electron irradiation. Calculation is based on the mean square scattering angle derived from a simple multiple scattering theory, with the correction factors of air scattering, beam scanning and number transmission coefficient. The flux density distribution was measured by charge absorption in a graphite target set in the air. For the calculated mean square scattering angles of 0.089-0.29, the values of calculation agree with those by experiment within about 10% except at large scattering angles. The method is applicable to dose evaluation of ordinary electron accelerators and design of various irradiators for radiation chemical reaction. Applicability of the simple multiple scattering theory in calculation of the scattered flux density and periodical variation of the flux density of scanning beam are also described. (auth.)

  10. Compilation of neutron flux density spectra and reaction rates in different neutron fields. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1980-04-01

    Upon the recommendation of the International Working Group of Reactor Radiation Measurements (IWGRRM) a compilation of documents containing neutron flux density spectra and the reaction rates obtained by activiation and fission foils in different neutron fields is presented

  11. Influence of surface conditions in nucleate boiling--the concept of bubble flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Judd, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the influence of surface conditions in nucleate pool boiling is presented. The surface conditions are represented by the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the size and size distribution of the cavities that constitute the nucleation sites. The heat transfer rate during nucleate boiling is shown to be influenced by the surface condition through its effect on the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the frequency of bubble departure from each of these different size cavities. The concept of bubble flux density, which is a function of both the active site density and frequency of bubble departure, is introduced. A method of evaluating the bubble flux density is proposed and a uniform correlation between the boiling heat flux and the bubble flux density is found to exist for a particular solid-liquid combination irrespective of the surface finish within the region of isolated bubbles

  12. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  13. Monitoring of dose rates and radiation flux density in working rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajtor, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of determining the neutron field characteristics (dose equivalent rate and flux density) in relation to the environmental monitoring by radiation protection services. The measurement devices used for measuring dose equivalent rate and neutron flux density RUS-U8 multi-purpose scintillation radiometer and RUP-1 multi-purpose transportable radiometer as well as measurement technique are described. Recommendations are given for checking measuring devices calibration, registering measurement results [ru

  14. Study of errors in absolute flux density measurements of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, M.

    1975-10-01

    An error analysis for absolute flux density measurements of Cassiopeia A is discussed. The lower-bound quadrature-accumulation error for state-of-the-art measurements of the absolute flux density of Cas A around 7 GHz is estimated to be 1.71% for 3 sigma limits. The corresponding practicable error for the careful but not state-of-the-art measurement is estimated to be 4.46% for 3 sigma limits

  15. The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.

  16. Estimating the amount and distribution of radon flux density from the soil surface in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Weihai; Guo Qiuju; Chen Bo; Cheng Guan

    2008-01-01

    Based on an idealized model, both the annual and the seasonal radon ( 222 Rn) flux densities from the soil surface at 1099 sites in China were estimated by linking a database of soil 226 Ra content and a global ecosystems database. Digital maps of the 222 Rn flux density in China were constructed in a spatial resolution of 25 km x 25 km by interpolation among the estimated data. An area-weighted annual average 222 Rn flux density from the soil surface across China was estimated to be 29.7 ± 9.4 mBq m -2 s -1 . Both regional and seasonal variations in the 222 Rn flux densities are significant in China. Annual average flux densities in the southeastern and northwestern China are generally higher than those in other regions of China, because of high soil 226 Ra content in the southeastern area and high soil aridity in the northwestern one. The seasonal average flux density is generally higher in summer/spring than winter, since relatively higher soil temperature and lower soil water saturation in summer/spring than other seasons are common in China

  17. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A; Curé, B; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Hervé, A; Mulders, M; Loveless, R

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line a...

  18. Measuring neutron flux density in near-vessel space of a commercial WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, G.I.; Eremin, A.N.; Lomakin, S.S.; Morozov, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of neutron flux density in two experimental channels on the reactor vessel external surface and in ionization chamber channel of a commercial WWER-1000 reactor, is measured by the activation detector technique. Azimuthal distributions of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and height distributions of fast neutron flux density within energy range >1.2 and 2.3 MeV are obtained. Conclusion is made, that reactor core state and its structural peculiarities in the measurement range essentially affect space and energy distribution of neutron field near the vessel. It should be taken into account when determining permissible neutron fluence for the reactor vessel

  19. Determination of neutron flux densities in WWR-S reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, F.

    1989-04-01

    The method is described of determining neutron flux densities and neutron fluences using activation detectors. The basic definitions and relations for determining reaction rates, fluence and neutron flux as well as the characteristics of some reactions and of sitable activation detectors are reported. The flux densities were determined of thermal and fast neutrons and of gamma quanta in the WWR-S reactor core. The data measured in the period 1984-1987 are tabulated. Cross sections for the individual reactions were determined from spectra measurements processed using program SAND-II and cross section library ENDF-B IV. Neutron flux densities were also measured for the WWR-S reactor vertical channels. (E.J.). 10 figs., 8 tabs., 111 refs

  20. Flux depression and the absolute measurement of the thermal neutron flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Friedrich.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal neutron flux depression in a diffusing medium by an absorbing foil has been treated in numerous papers. The results are re-examined in an attempt to find a uniform and physically meaningful representation of the 'activation correction'. This quantity can be split up into a combination of probabilities. Thus, it is possible to determine the activation correction for any moderator and foil material. Measurements confirm the utility of the concepts introduced

  1. Expansion Of The Magnetic Flux Density Field In Toroidal Harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2290414; Bottura, Luca; Felcini, Enrico

    CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) is recognized worldwide as the main research laboratory in the field of particle physics. Inevitably, all this requires the use of the most advanced technologies, both from the point of view of the instruments and the analytical descriptive methods. One of the numerous potentials of the work carried out at CERN concerns the possibility of exploiting the aforementioned technologies even in contexts distant from the physics of particles, with the result of influencing the technological advancement of many areas. For example, one of the most widely employed theories at CERN, regarding the analytical description of the magnetic flux density inside solenoidal magnets (or approximable as such under suitable assumptions) for the acceleration of particles, is the so-called multipole expansion. This is a two-dimensional or three-dimensional analysis of the distribution of the magnetic flux density generated by the windings of a magnet. The magnet in question ca...

  2. Surface radiant flux densities inferred from LAC and GAC AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, F.; Klaes, D.

    To infer surface radiant flux densities from current (NOAA-AVHRR, ERS-1/2 ATSR) and future meteorological (Envisat AATSR, MSG, METOP) satellite data, the complex, modular analysis scheme SESAT (Strahlungs- und Energieflüsse aus Satellitendaten) could be developed (Berger, 2001). This scheme allows the determination of cloud types, optical and microphysical cloud properties as well as surface and TOA radiant flux densities. After testing of SESAT in Central Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment (more than 400scenes U including a detailed validation with various surface measurements) it could be applied to a large number of NOAA-16 AVHRR overpasses covering the globe.For the analysis, two different spatial resolutions U local area coverage (LAC) andwere considered. Therefore, all inferred results, like global area coverage (GAC) U cloud cover, cloud properties and radiant properties, could be intercompared. Specific emphasis could be made to the surface radiant flux densities (all radiative balance compoments), where results for different regions, like Southern America, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe, and Indonesia, will be presented. Applying SESAT, energy flux densities, like latent and sensible heat flux densities could also be determined additionally. A statistical analysis of all results including a detailed discussion for the two spatial resolutions will close this study.

  3. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  4. Research and Evaluation of the Energy Flux Density of the Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variations in the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of 10 mobile phones depending on distance. The studies have been conducted using three modes: sending a text message, receiving a text message and connecting a mobile phone to the Internet. When text messages are received or sent from a mobile phone, the values of the energy flux density of the mobile phone electromagnetic field exceed the safe allowable limit and make 10 μW / cm². A distance of 10, 20 and 30 cm from a mobile phone is effective protection against the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field when writing texts, receiving messages or connecting to the mobile Internet.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Minnealloy: a new magnetic material with high saturation flux density and low magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi, Md; Jiang, Yanfeng; Suri, Pranav Kumar; Flannigan, David J.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We are reporting a new soft magnetic material with high saturation magnetic flux density, and low magnetic anisotropy. The new material is a compound of iron, nitrogen and carbon, α‧-Fe8(NC), which has saturation flux density of 2.8  ±  0.15 T and magnetic anisotropy of 46 kJ m-3. The saturation flux density is 27% higher than pure iron, a widely used soft magnetic material. Soft magnetic materials are very important building blocks of motors, generators, inductors, transformers, sensors and write heads of hard disk. The new material will help in the miniaturization and efficiency increment of the next generation of electronic devices.

  6. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  7. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T c superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the measured results of the two-dimensional flux density distribution of a YBCO bulk under applied AC magnetic fields with various frequency. Melt-processed oxide superconductors have been developed in order to obtain strong pinning forces. Various electric mechanical systems or magnetic levitation systems use those superconductors. The major problem is that cracks occur because the bulk superconductors are brittle. The bulk may break in magnetizing process after cracks make superconducting state instable. The trapped flux density and the permanent current characteristics of bulk superconductors have been analyzed, so as to examine the magnetizing processes or superconducting states of the bulk. In those studies, the two-dimensional surface flux density distributions of the bulk in static fields are discussed. On the other hand, the distributions in dynamic fields are little discussed. We attempted to examine the states of the bulk in the dynamic fields, and made a unique experimental device which has movable sensors synchronized with AC applied fields. As a result, the two-dimensional distributions in the dynamic fields are acquired by recombining the one-dimensional distributions. The dynamic states of the flux of the bulk and the influences of directions of cracks are observed from the distributions. In addition, a new method for measuring two-dimensional flux density distribution under dynamic magnetic fields is suggested

  8. Neutron flux density data acquisition system based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanhui; Zhao Xiuliang; Li Zonglun; Liang Fengyan; Liu Liyan

    2011-01-01

    In the LabVIEW software, combined with PCI-6251 data acquisition card, VI of neutron flux density data acquisition is realized by DAQmx data acquisition functions. VI is composed of front panel and block diagram. The data collected can be displayed in the forms of the data curve and the data control, and saved in the form of files. Test results show that the frequency of output signal in NI ELVIS can be accurately measured by the system, realizing neutron flux density data acquisition based on LabVIEW. (authors)

  9. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incidents' refer to 'incidents such as labour disputes and dissatisfaction with service delivery in which violence erupted and SAPS action was required to restore peace and order'.26. It is apparent from both the SAPS statistics and those provided by the Municipal IQ Hotspots. Monitor, that public protests and gatherings are.

  10. Exospheric density and escape fluxes of atomic isotopes on Venus and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic neutrals in dissociative recombinations near or above the exobase provided an important component of exospheric density and escape fluxes. Plasma thermal velocities provide the main contribution to the velocity spread and an exact integral for the escape flux applicable in marginal cases is found for a simple atmosphere and collisional cut-off. Atomic fragments from recombination of diatomic oxygen and nitrogen ions in the Venus and Mars atmospheres are examined and density integrals derived. The oxygen escape flux on Mars is half that previously estimated and there is very little isotope preference supplementing diffusive separation. However, escape of the heavier 15 N isotope is low by a factor two. Reinterpretation of its 75% enrichment as detected by Viking leads to a range 0.4-1.4 mbar for the primeval nitrogen content on Mars. (author)

  11. Comparison of VLBI radio core and X-ray flux densities of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.; Marscher, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory revealed that most quasars, selected in a variety of ways, are strong x-ray emitters. Radio bright quasars are statistically more luminous in the x-ray than their radio-quiet counterparts. It was also found that the 90 GHz to soft x-ray spectral index has a very small dispersion for sources selected by their strong millimeter emission. This implies a close relationship between compact radio flux density and x-ray emission. Strong correlations have been found between the arcsecond scale flux densities and soft x-ray fluxes. It is suggested that the correlation can be explained if the soft x-rays were produced by the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process within the compact radio emitting region. (author)

  12. Current density waves in open mesoscopic rings driven by time-periodic magnetic fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Conghua; Wei Lianfu

    2010-01-01

    Quantum coherent transport through open mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm rings (driven by static fluxes) have been studied extensively. Here, by using quantum waveguide theory and the Floquet theorem we investigate the quantum transport of electrons along an open mesoscopic ring threaded by a time-periodic magnetic flux. We predicate that current density waves could be excited along such an open ring. As a consequence, a net current could be generated along the lead with only one reservoir, if the lead additionally connects to such a normal-metal loop driven by the time-dependent flux. These phenomena could be explained by photon-assisted processes, due to the interaction between the transported electrons and the applied oscillating external fields. We also discuss how the time-average currents (along the ring and the lead) depend on the amplitude and frequency of the applied oscillating fluxes.

  13. Compilation of neutron flux density spectra and reaction rates in different neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1979-07-01

    Upon the recommendation of International Working Group of Reactor Radiation Measurements (IWGRRM), the compilation of neutron flux density spectra and the reaction rates obtained by activation and fission foils in different neutron fields is presented. The neutron fields considered are as follows: 1/E; iron block; LWR core and pressure vessel; LMFBR core and blanket; CTR first wall and blanket; fission spectrum

  14. The neutrons flux density calculations by Monte Carlo code for the double heterogeneity fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, M.I.; Brizgalov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the calculation technique for the fuel elements which consists of the one substance as a matrix and the other substance as the corn embedded in it. This technique can be used in the neutron flux density calculation by the universal Monte Carlo code. The estimation of accuracy is presented too. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  15. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal trends and diurnal patterns of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) were investigated in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California from March through August in 2007 and 2008. During these periods, the daily values of PAR flux density (PFD), energy loading with PAR (PARE), a...

  16. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  17. Effect of Thermospheric Neutral Density upon Inner Trapped-belt Proton Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Lodhi, M. A. K.; Diaz, Abel B.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to point out that a secular change in the Earth's atmospheric neutral density alters charged-particle lifetime in the inner trapped radiation belts, in addition to the changes recently reported as produced by greenhouse gases. Heretofore, changes in neutral density have been of interest primarily because of their effect on the orbital drag of satellites. We extend this to include the orbital lifetime of charged particles in the lower radiation belts. It is known that the charged-belt population is coupled to the neutral density of the atmosphere through changes induced by solar activity, an effect produced by multiple scattering off neutral and ionized atoms along with ionization loss in the thermosphere where charged and neutral populations interact. It will be shown here that trapped-belt flux J is bivariant in energy E and thermospheric neutral density , as J(E,rho). One can conclude that proton lifetimes in these belts are also directly affected by secular changes in the neutral species populating the Earth s thermosphere. This result is a consequence of an intrinsic property of charged-particle flux, that flux is not merely a function of E but is dependent upon density rho when a background of neutrals is present.

  18. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  19. Practical difficulties in determining 222Rn flux density in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon-222 flux density, J, has been determined in a number of locations in an underground U mine. Measurements were conducted using the Two-Point Measurement (2PM) method, consisting of measuring the 222Rn concentration at two different points a distance apart within a given section of the mine. Several mine models were used for determining J by the above method. The 2PM method is sensitive to sources and sinks of 222Rn other than mine walls, as well as mining operations and mining activities of a diverse nature, and to local variations in airflow conditions. Because of this, J obtained by the 2PM method represents an 'apparent' flux density. Significant differences were found in the flux density calculated according to different mine models. In addition, J measurements using the flux 'can' method were also carried out in mine walls and compared with the values obtained by the 2PM method. Wide discrepancies between the two methods were found. The practical and theoretical difficulties in determining J are discussed

  20. Fast Radio Bursts’ Recipes for the Distributions of Dispersion Measures, Flux Densities, and Fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Yuu

    2018-05-01

    We investigate how the statistical properties of dispersion measure (DM) and apparent flux density/fluence of (nonrepeating) fast radio bursts (FRBs) are determined by unknown cosmic rate density history [ρ FRB(z)] and luminosity function (LF) of the transient events. We predict the distributions of DMs, flux densities, and fluences of FRBs taking account of the variation of the receiver efficiency within its beam, using analytical models of ρ FRB(z) and LF. Comparing the predictions with the observations, we show that the cumulative distribution of apparent fluences suggests that FRBs originate at cosmological distances and ρ FRB increases with redshift resembling the cosmic star formation history (CSFH). We also show that an LF model with a bright-end cutoff at log10 L ν (erg s‑1 Hz‑1) ∼ 34 are favored to reproduce the observed DM distribution if ρ FRB(z) ∝ CSFH, although the statistical significance of the constraints obtained with the current size of the observed sample is not high. Finally, we find that the correlation between DM and flux density of FRBs is potentially a powerful tool to distinguish whether FRBs are at cosmological distances or in the local universe more robustly with future observations.

  1. Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density Bz using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In

    2010-01-01

    The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple B z data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for B z data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the B z value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined B z data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data.

  2. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  3. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR BY EDDY CURRENT AND FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MANNA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimized geometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependencies of the field quantities inside the magnetic circuits is necessary. This paper provides the eddy current and core flux density distribution analysis in linear induction motor. Magnetic flux in the air gap of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM is reduced to various losses such as end effects, fringes, effect, skin effects etc. The finite element based software package COMSOL Multiphysics Inc. USA is used to get the reliable and accurate computational results for optimization the performance of Linear Induction Motor (LIM. The geometrical characteristics of LIM are varied to find the optimal point of thrust and minimum flux leakage during static and dynamic conditions.

  4. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  5. Measurement of 2D vector magnetic properties under the distorted flux density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Shinya; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Shimoji, Hiroyasu

    2006-01-01

    Under distorted flux density condition, it is very difficult to evaluate the field intensity, because there is no criterion for the measurement. In the linear approximation, the measured field intensity waveform (MFI) is compared with the linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI) in each frequency, and it is shown that they are not in good agreement at higher induction. In this paper, we examined the 2D vector magnetic properties excited by distorted flux density, which consists of the 1st (fundamental frequency: 50 Hz), 3rd, and 5th harmonics. Improved linear synthesis of the field intensity waveform (ILSFI) is proposed as a new estimation method of the field intensity, instead of the conventional linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI). The usefulness of the proposed ILSFI is demonstrated in the comparison with the measured results

  6. Measurement of 2D vector magnetic properties under the distorted flux density conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Shinya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: urata@mag.eee.oita-u.ac.jp; Todaka, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Enokizono, Masato [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Maeda, Yoshitaka [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Shimoji, Hiroyasu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Under distorted flux density condition, it is very difficult to evaluate the field intensity, because there is no criterion for the measurement. In the linear approximation, the measured field intensity waveform (MFI) is compared with the linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI) in each frequency, and it is shown that they are not in good agreement at higher induction. In this paper, we examined the 2D vector magnetic properties excited by distorted flux density, which consists of the 1st (fundamental frequency: 50 Hz), 3rd, and 5th harmonics. Improved linear synthesis of the field intensity waveform (ILSFI) is proposed as a new estimation method of the field intensity, instead of the conventional linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI). The usefulness of the proposed ILSFI is demonstrated in the comparison with the measured results.

  7. Flux density measurements of radio sources at 2.14 millimeter wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogdell, J.R.; Davis, J.H.; Ulrich, B.T.; Wills, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Flux densities of galactic and extragalactic sources, and planetary temperatures, have been measured at 2.14 mm wavelength (140 GHz). Results are presented for OJ 287; the galactic sources DR 21, W3, and Orion A; the extragalactic sources PKS 0106plus-or-minus01, 3C 84, 3C 120, BL Lac, 3C 216, 3C 273, 3C 279, and NGC 4151; and the Sun, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Also presented is the first measurement of the 2.14-mm temperature of Uranus. The spectra of some of these sources are discussed. The flux density scale was calibrated absolutely. The measurements were made with a new continuum receiver on the 4.88-m radio telescope of The University of Texas

  8. Field-aligned current density versus electric potential characteristics for magnetospheric flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.; Scherer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The field-aligned current density (Jsub(tot)) is a non-linear function of the applied potential difference (phi) between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. This nonlinear function has been calculated for plasma boundary conditions typical in a dayside cusp magnetic flux tube. The J-characteristic of such a flux tube changes when the temperatures of the warm magnetospheric electrons and of the cold ionospheric electrons are modified; it changes also when the relative density of the warm plasma is modified; the presence of trapped secondary electrons changes also the J-characteristic. The partial currents contributed by the warm and cold electrons, and by warm and cold ions are illustrated. The dynamic characteristic of an electric circuit depends on the static characteristic of each component of the sytem: i.e. the resistive ionosphere, the return current region, and the region of particle precipitation whose field-aligned current/voltage characteristics have been studied in this article

  9. Installation for the study of heat transfer with high flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, M.; Schwab, B.

    1957-01-01

    As a result of their very low vapor pressure, metals with a low fusion point (sodium, sodium-potassium alloys, etc.) can be used at high temperature, as heating fluids, in installations whose internal pressure is close to atmospheric pressure. Owing to the very high convection coefficients which can be reached with these fluids and to the large temperature differences utilizable, it is possible to produce through the exchange surfaces considerable heat flux densities, of the order of those which exist through the canning of fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The installation described allowed a flux density of more than 200 W/cm 2 to be obtained, the heating fluid being a Na-K alloy (containing 56 per cent by weight of potassium) brought to a temperature around 550 deg. C. (author) [fr

  10. Precision flux density measurements of the giant planets at 8420 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turegano, J. A.; Klein, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Precision measurements of the 3.56 cm flux densities of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are reported. The results are compared with previously published measurements as a means of: remotely sensing long-term changes in the microwave emission from the atmospheres of these planets and measuring the effects of Saturn's rings on the disk temperature as observed from earth at different ring inclination angles.

  11. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weimin.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence

  12. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  13. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell Non-Nstec Authors: G. Pyles and Jon Carilli

    2007-01-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory

  14. Anomalous B-H behaviour of electrical steels at very low flux density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Stan [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ZurekS@cardiff.ac.uk; Al-Naemi, Faris; Moses, Anthony J.; Marketos, Philip [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The behaviour of ferromagnetic materials under very low magnetic field was investigated more than a century ago by Lord Rayleigh. However, it has been shown since that the so-called Rayleigh law fails for very low magnetic fields, although the explanation for this phenomenon was not given. An anomalous B-H behaviour at very low alternating peak flux density in conventional grain-oriented (GO) and non-oriented (NO) electrical steels is reported. It has been found that the initial permeability is constant for all the measured frequencies (from 20 to 400 Hz) at peak flux density below 0.1 mT, and in this region the magnetisation is almost reversible (for both GO and NO). At higher flux density the B-H loops become visibly irreversible, with a relatively narrow (for GO) or very wide (for NO) transition region. For GO the B-H loop becomes visibly 'distorted' for all frequencies at around 2 mT. The eddy current loss calculated from the so-called 'classical' equation gives values higher than the measured total losses at lower frequencies. Both these measured results are difficult to explain.

  15. The effects of variability on the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources requires a population of sources whose properties evolve with cosmological epoch, at least in models where the redshifts are all taken to be cosmological. In particular, the surveys made at metre wavelengths show, for bright sources, a slope of the log N -log S curve which is steeper than the value -1.5 expected in a static, non-evolving Euclidean universe. Here, N is the number of radio sources brighter than flux density S. Expansion without evolution in conventional geometrical models predicts slopes flatter than -1.5. If the radio survey is carried out at higher frequencies (typically 2.7 or 5 GHz - 11 or 6 cm wavelength), the slope of the log N -log S curve is steeper than -1.5 but not so steep as the slopes found for the low-frequency surveys. Many of the sources found in high-frequency surveys have radio spectra with relatively higher flux-densities in the centimetre range; these sources are frequently variable at high frequencies, with time-scales from a month or two upwards. Some possible effects of the variations on the observed counts of radio sources are considered. (author)

  16. A new empirical model to estimate hourly diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyo-Moreno, I.; Alados, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of the photosynthetic photon flux density (Qp) is critical in different applications dealing with climate change, plant physiology, biomass production, and natural illumination in greenhouses. This is particularly true regarding its diffuse component (Qpd), which can enhance canopy light-use efficiency and thereby boost carbon uptake. Therefore, diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density is a key driving factor of ecosystem-productivity models. In this work, we propose a model to estimate this component, using a previous model to calculate Qp and furthermore divide it into its components. We have used measurements in urban Granada (southern Spain), of global solar radiation (Rs) to study relationships between the ratio Qpd/Rs with different parameters accounting for solar position, water-vapour absorption and sky conditions. The model performance has been validated with experimental measurements from sites having varied climatic conditions. The model provides acceptable results, with the mean bias error and root mean square error varying between - 0.3 and - 8.8% and between 9.6 and 20.4%, respectively. Direct measurements of this flux are very scarce so that modelling simulations are needed, this is particularly true regarding its diffuse component. We propose a new parameterization to estimate this component using only measured data of solar global irradiance, which facilitates its use for the construction of long-term data series of PAR in regions where continuous measurements of PAR are not yet performed.

  17. Spitzer Mid-to-Far-Infrared Flux Densities of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey J.; Rudnick, G.; Le Floc'h, E.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Rieke, G. H.; Taylor, E. N.; Armus, L.; Gawiser, E.; Marcillac, D.; Huang, J.; Franx, M.

    2007-05-01

    We study the 24, 70, and 160 μm properties of high-redshift galaxies. Our primary interest is to improve the constraints on the total infrared (IR) luminosities, L(IR), of these galaxies. We combine Spitzer data in the southern Extended Chandra Deep Field with a Ks-band-selected galaxy sample with photometric redshifts from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We used a stacking analysis to measure the average 70 and 160 μm flux densities of 1.5 250 μJy and 1.5 250 μJy have S(70)/S(24) flux ratios comparable to sources with X-ray detections or red rest-frame IR colors, suggesting that warm dust possibly heated by AGN produces high 24 μm emission. Based on the average 24-160 μm flux densities, 24 μm-selected galaxies at 1.5 rate observed in low redshift galaxies, suggesting that high redshift galaxies have star formation efficiencies and feedback processes comparable to lower redshift analogs. Support for this work was provided by NASA through the Spitzer Space Telescope Fellowship Program, through a contract issued by JPL, Caltech under a contract with NASA.

  18. Magnetic losses at high flux densities in nonoriented Fe-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appino, C.; Fiorillo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino (Italy); Ragusa, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: carlo.ragusa@polito.it; Xie, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    We present and discuss power loss measurements performed in Fe-(3.5 wt%)Si nonoriented laminations up to very high flux densities. The results are obtained on disk samples using a 1D/2D single-sheet tester, where the fieldmetric and the thermometric methods are applied upon overlapping polarization ranges. The power loss in the highest polarization regimes (e.g. J{sub p}>1.8 T) is measured, in particular, by the rate of rise of temperature method, both under controlled and uncontrolled flux density waveform, the latter case emulating the conditions met in practical unsophisticated experiments. Lack of control at such extreme J{sub p} levels is conducive to strong flux distortion, but the correspondingly measured loss figure can eventually be converted to the one pertaining to sinusoidal induction at the same J{sub p} values. This is demonstrated as a specific application of the statistical theory of magnetic losses, where the usual formulation for the energy losses in magnetic sheets under distorted induction is exploited in reverse fashion.

  19. Long-term Longitudinal Recurrences of the Open Magnetic Flux Density in the Heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dósa, M.; Erdős, G., E-mail: dosa.melinda@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege Miklós st 29-33 (Hungary)

    2017-04-01

    Open magnetic flux in the heliosphere is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Previous Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux density from heliographic latitude, explained by super-radial expansion of plasma. Here we are investigating whether any longitudinal variation exists in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. The heliographic longitude of origin of the plasma package was determined by applying a correction according to the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux density were observed throughout solar cycle 23, lasting for several years. Similar, long-lasting recurring features were observed in the solar wind velocity, temperature and the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. Each of the recurrent features has a recurrence period slightly differing from the Carrington rotation rate, although they show a common trend in time. Examining the coronal temperature data of ACE leads to the possible explanation that these long-term structures are caused by slow–fast solar wind interaction regions. A comparison with MESSENGER data measured at 0.5 au shows that these longitudinal magnetic modulations do not exist closer to the Sun, but are the result of propagation.

  20. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  1. Interpretation of a correlation between the flux densities of extended hard x-rays and microwave solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.J.; Stewart, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors showed that for extended bursts a good correlation exists between the observed 100 keV X-ray flux density and the 3.75 or 9.4 GHz microwave flux density. They now propose a source model for the extended bursts in which the microwave emission comes from thin shells at increasing heights for decreasing frequencies. This model with reasonable parameter values gives the observed microwave spectral characteristics and also explains why the X-ray and microwave flux densities are so well correlated

  2. Calculation of the flux density of gamma rays above the surface of Venus and the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the authors present the results of calculating the flux density of unscattered gamma rays as a function of height above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth. At each height they calculate the areas which will collect a certain fraction of the gamma rays. The authors calculate the spectra of scattered gamma rays, as well as their integrated fluxes at various heights above the surface of Venus. They consider how the atmosphere will affect the recording of gamma rays. Their results enable them to evaluate the optimal conditions for measuring the gamma-ray fields above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth and to determine the area of the planet which can be investigated in this way. These results are also necessary if they are to determine the elemental composition of the rock from the characteristic recorded spectrum of gamma radiation

  3. Calculation of gamma-ray flux density above the Venus and Earth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculational results of dependence of flux density of nonscattered gamma-quanta on the height above the Venus and Earth planet surfaces are presented in the paper. Areas, where a certain part of gamma quanta is accumulated, are calaculted for each height. Spectra of scattered gamma quanta and their integral fluxes at different heights above the Venera planet surface are calculated. Effect of the atmosphere on gamma radiation recorded is considered. The results obtained allow to estimate optimal conditions for measuring gamma-fields above the Venus and Earth planet surfaces, to determine the area of the planet surface investigated. They are also necessary to determine the elementary composition of the rock according to the characteristic gamma radiation spectrum recorded

  4. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  5. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K

    2004-10-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.

  6. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maple sap. 1437.107 Section 1437.107 Agriculture... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be...

  7. Statistical characterization of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, B.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow region of westward directed plasma convection typically observed in the dusk-midnight sector equatorward of the main auroral oval. SAPS plays an important role in mid-latitude space weather dynamics and has a controlling influence on the evolution of large-scale plasma features, such as Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes. In this study, data from North American mid-latitude SuperDARN radars collected between January 2011 and December 2014 have been used to compile a database of SAPS events for statistical analysis. We examine the dependence of SAPS velocity magnitude and direction on geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time. The lowest speed limit and electric fields observed during SAPS are discussed and histograms of SAPS velocities for different Dst bins and MLAT-MLT locations are presented. We find significant differences in SAPS characteristics between periods of low and high geomagnetic activity, suggesting that SAPS are driven by different mechanisms during storm and non-storm conditions. To further explore this possibility, we have characterized the SAPS location and peak speed relative to the ionospheric trough specified by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data from the MIT Haystack Madrigal database. A particular emphasis is placed on identifying the extent to which the location, structure, and depth of the trough may play a controlling influence on SAPS speeds during storm and non-storm periods. The results are interpreted in terms of the current paradigm for active thermosphere-ionosphere feedback being an important component of SAPS physics.

  8. Calculation of the magnetic flux density distribution in type-II superconductors with finite thickness and well-defined geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkl, A.; Kronmueller, H.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the critical current density j c (r) in hard type-II superconductors depends strongly on their sample geometry. Rules are given for the construction of j c (r). Samples with homogeneous thickness are divided into cakelike regions with a unique current direction. The spatial magnetic flux density distribution and the magnetic polarization of such a cakelike unit cell with homogeneous current density are calculated analytically. The magnetic polarization and magnetic flux density distribution of a superconductor in the mixed state is then given by an adequate superposition of the unit cell solutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with magneto-optically determined magnetic flux density distributions of a quadratic thin superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film. The current density distribution is discussed for several sample geometries

  9. A reference system for the measurement of low-strength magnetic flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorillo, F.; Durin, G.F.; Rocchino, L.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic flux density standards traceable to the SI units have been developed at IEN-INRIM, by which dissemination for general measurement and testing activities can be pursued. The reference system covers a range of values extending from μ 0 H∼1T to μ 0 H∼10μT and is centered on the use of NMR magnetometers, calibrated coils, and stable current sources. The relative measuring uncertainty of the system is shown to increases with decreasing the field strength value and it is estimated to range between a few 10 -6 and some 10 -3

  10. International intercomparison on the neutron flux density spectrum just before the REAL-80 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1981-06-01

    This work briefly presents the results of the international intercomparison on the neutron flux density spectrum just before the REAL-80 intercomparison project. Some of the results of this intercomparison with a smaller number of laboratories will be also reflected in the REAL-80 project, therefore, it has some significant issues. This work is performed within the IAEA programme on standardization of reactor radiation measurements, one of the important objectives of which is the assistance of laboratories in Member States to implement or intercompare the multiple foil activation techniques for different neutron field measurements

  11. The determination of self-powered neutron detector sensitivity on thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.

    1980-01-01

    The coefficients of thermal and epithermal neutron flux density depression and self-shielding for the SPN detectors with vanadium, rhodium, silver and cobalt emitters are presented, (for cobalt SPN detectors the functions describing the absorbtion of neutrons along the emitter cross-section are also shown). Using these coefficients and previously published beta particle escape efficiencies, sensitivities are determined for the principal types of detectors produced by Les Cables de Lyon and SODERN companies. The experiments and their results verifying the validity of the theoretical work are described. (author)

  12. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and…

  13. Effect of magnetic flux-densities of up to 0.1 Tesla on copper electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, L.; Artigas, M.; Riveros, G.; Warczok, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of magnetic flux densities (B) between 0.0 and 0.1 Tesla on cathode and anode over potentials, cell voltage and electro deposit quality was determined fro a lab-scale copper electrowinning cell which operates at industrial current, density values. Cell voltage decreases with increasing B. The cathodic overpotential decreases by 30% when B increases from 0.0 to 0.1 T. The anodic overpotential also decreases with increasing B, but this effect is six times less than the corresponding effect on the cathodic overpotential. Cathodic effects can be predicted by an expression derived from electrochemical kinetics and magnetohydrodynamic theory. Anodic effects cannot be predicted in the same way. The size of grains and intergranular voids decreases and the surface of the electro deposit becomes smoother as B increases, which means that, in the studied conditions, the quality of the produced copper deposits improves. (Author) 26 refs

  14. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  15. The Pressure and Magnetic Flux Density Analysis of Helical-Type DC Electromagnetic Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Hyeong; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    The developed pressure was made by only electromagnetic force eliminating probability of impurities contact, therefore the high reactivity materials such as alkali were best match to electromagnetic pump. The heavy ion accelerator facility by Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea is trying to construct accelerator using liquid lithium for high efficiency of acceleration by decreasing charge state. The helical-type DC electromagnetic pump was employed to make a charge stripper that decrease charge state of heavy ion. The specification of electromagnetic pump was developed pressure of 15 bar with flowrate of 6 cc/s in the condition of 200℃. The pressure of DC electromagnetic pump was analyzed in the aspects of current and number of duct turns. The developed pressure was almost proportional to input current because relatively low flowrate made negligible of the electromotive force and hydraulic pressure drop. The pressure and magnetic flux density of helical-type DC electromagnetic pump were analyzed. The pressure was proportion to input current and number of duct turns, and magnetic flux density was higher when ferromagnet was applied at electromagnetic pump. It seems that number of duct turns could be increase and ferromagnet could be applied in order to increase pressure of DC electromagnetic pump with constant input current

  16. Experimental study of the critical density of heat flux in open channels cooled with helium - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pron'ko, V.G.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Saverin, V.N.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental values of the critical density of a heat flux qsub(cr) in uniformly heated open channels cooled with helium-2 are reported for the first time. The experimental test bench and experimental element are described. Experimental data are obtained in cylindrical channels of 12Kh18N1OT steel with inner diameter d=0.8, 1.8; 2.8 mm and ratio l/d=20.8, 44, 85. The channel orientation has varied from vertical to horizontal position, the immersion depth - from 100, to 600 mm. It has been found that the heat transfer crisis propagation over the whole length of the channel with He-2 occurs practically instantaneously. The qsub(cr) value depends essentially on the bath liquid temperature, angle of inclivnation and relative length (l/d) of the channel with qsub(cr) approximately (l/d)sup(-1.5) being independent of the depth of channel immersion. The obtained values of critical density of a heat flux in channels are papproximately by an order less than those found for a great bulk of He-2. The results presented may be used for designing various types of devices cooled with He-2 and development of heat exchange theory in it [ru

  17. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  18. A study of influence of material properties on magnetic flux density induced in magneto rheological damper through finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurubasavaraju T. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological fluids are smart materials, which are responsive to the external stimulus and changes their rheological properties. The damper performance (damping force is dependent on the magnetic flux density induced at the annular gap. Magnetic flux density developed at fluid flow gap of MR damper due to external applied current is also dependent on materials properties of components of MR damper (such as piston head, outer cylinder and piston rod. The present paper discus about the influence of different materials selected for components of the MR damper on magnetic effect using magnetostatic analysis. Different materials such as magnetic and low carbon steels are considered for piston head of the MR damper and magnetic flux density induced at fluid flow gap (filled with MR fluid is computed for different DC current applied to the electromagnetic coil. Developed magnetic flux is used for calculating the damper force using analytical method for each case. The low carbon steel has higher magnetic permeability hence maximum magnetic flux could pass through the piston head, which leads to higher value of magnetic effect induction at the annular gap. From the analysis results it is observed that the magnetic steel and low carbon steel piston head provided maximum magnetic flux density. Eventually the higher damping force can be observed for same case.

  19. Examinations for the determination of the flux density of sputtered iron using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweer, H.B.

    1983-11-01

    In this work investigations are described to measure the flux density of sputtered iron atoms by means of laser induced fluorescence. In a laboratory experiment an iron target (stainless steel 316, Inconel 600), was bombarded with 10 keV Ar + and 2.5 keV H + and the population distribution of the energy levels of the ground state a 5 D and the metastable state a 5 F was measured. In the plasma wall region in the ISX-B tokamak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) neutral iron atoms were measured the first time by laser induced fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 was found and sputtered iron atoms were observed in the first 15 ms of the discharge. (orig./BRB)

  20. Design of PCB search coils for AC magnetic flux density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvr, Michal

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents single-layer, double-layer and ten-layer planar square search coils designed for AC magnetic flux density amplitude measurement up to 1 T in the low frequency range in a 10 mm air gap. The printed-circuit-board (PCB) method was used for producing the search coils. Special attention is given to a full characterization of the PCB search coils including a comparison between the detailed analytical design method and the finite integration technique method (FIT) on the one hand, and experimental results on the other. The results show very good agreement in the resistance, inductance and search coil constant values (the area turns) and also in the frequency dependence of the search coil constant.

  1. Density profiles and particle fluxes of heavy impurities in the limiter shadow region of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Repp, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the case of low impurity concentration, transport calculations have been performed for heavy impurities, in the scrape-off layer plasma of a tokamak with a poloidal ring limiter. The theory is based on the drift-kinetic equations for the various ionization states of the impurity ions taking due consideration of the convection and collision processes. The background plasma and the impurity sources from the torus wall and the limiter surface enter the theory as input parameters. The theory is developed for the first two orders of the drift approximation. Numerical results are given to zero order drift approximation for the radial profiles of density and particle fluxes parallel to the magnetic field. (orig.)

  2. Effect of stable-density stratification on counter gradient flux of a homogeneous shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lida, Oaki; Nagano, Yasutaka [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow under stable-density stratification to study the buoyancy effects on the heat and momentum transfer. These numerical data were compared with those of a turbulent channel flow to investigate the similarity between the near-wall turbulence and the homogeneous shear flow. We also investigated the generation mechanism of the persistent CGFs (counter gradient fluxes) appearing at the higher wavenumbers of the cospectrum, and lasting over a long time without oscillation. Spatially, the persistent CGFs are associated with the longitudinal vortical structure, which is elongated in the streamwise direction and typically observed in both homogeneous shear flow and near-wall turbulence. The CGFs appear at both the top and bottom of this longitudinal vortical structure, and expand horizontally with an increase in the Richardson number. It was found that the production and turbulent-diffusion terms are responsible for the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress including the persistent CGFs. The buoyancy term, combined with the swirling motion of the vortex, contributes to expand the persistent CGF regions and decrease the down gradient fluxes. (author)

  3. The influence of land surface parameters on energy flux densities derived from remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittebrand, A.; Schwiebus, A. [Inst. for Hydrology und Meteorology, TU Dresden (Germany); Berger, F.H. [Observatory Lindenberg, German Weather Service, Lindenberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Knowledge of the vegetation properties surface reflectance, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) are essential for the determination of the heat and water fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Remote sensing data can be used to derive spatial estimates of the required surface properties. The determination of land surface parameters and their influence on radiant and energy flux densities is investigated with data of different remote sensing systems. Sensitivity studies show the importance of correctly derived land surface properties to estimate the key quantity of the hydrological cycle, the evapotranspiration (L.E), most exactly. In addition to variable parameters like LAI or NDVI there are also parameters which are can not be inferred from satellite data but needed for the Penman-Monteith approach. Fixed values are assumed for these variables because they have little influence on L.E. Data of Landsat-7 ETM+ and NOAA-16 AVHRR are used to show results in different spatial resolution. The satellite derived results are compared with ground truth data provided by the Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service. (orig.)

  4. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data on the effects of release density on release success in hatchery-reared red king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is from an experiment designed to test the viability of using hatchery reared crab to supplement wild stocks and to determine the optimal density for...

  5. Intermittent electron density and temperature fluctuations and associated fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O. E.; Theodorsen, A.; Brunner, D.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Alcator C-Mod mirror Langmuir probe system has been used to sample data time series of fluctuating plasma parameters in the outboard mid-plane far scrape-off layer. We present a statistical analysis of one second long time series of electron density, temperature, radial electric drift velocity and the corresponding particle and electron heat fluxes. These are sampled during stationary plasma conditions in an ohmically heated, lower single null diverted discharge. The electron density and temperature are strongly correlated and feature fluctuation statistics similar to the ion saturation current. Both electron density and temperature time series are dominated by intermittent, large-amplitude burst with an exponential distribution of both burst amplitudes and waiting times between them. The characteristic time scale of the large-amplitude bursts is approximately 15 μ {{s}}. Large-amplitude velocity fluctuations feature a slightly faster characteristic time scale and appear at a faster rate than electron density and temperature fluctuations. Describing these time series as a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses, we find that probability distribution functions, power spectral densities as well as auto-correlation functions of the data time series agree well with predictions from the stochastic model. The electron particle and heat fluxes present large-amplitude fluctuations. For this low-density plasma, the radial electron heat flux is dominated by convection, that is, correlations of fluctuations in the electron density and radial velocity. Hot and dense blobs contribute only a minute fraction of the total fluctuation driven heat flux.

  6. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  7. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  8. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  9. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  10. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 2. Laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W

    2012-07-01

    Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests.

  11. Influence of Sky Conditions on Estimation of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density for Agricultural Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, M.

    2018-04-01

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: µmol m-2 s-1) is indispensable for plant physiology processes in photosynthesis. However, PPFD is seldom measured, so that PPFD has been estimated by using solar radiation (SR: W m-2) measured in world wide. In method using SR, there are two steps: first to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: W m-2) by the fraction of PAR to SR (PF) and second: to convert PAR to PPFD using the ratio of quanta to energy (Q / E: µmol J-1). PF and Q/E usually have been used as the constant values, however, recent studies point out that PF and Q / E would not be constants under various sky conditions. In this study, we use the numeric data of sky-conditions factors such cloud cover, sun appearance/hiding and relative sky brightness derived from whole-sky image processing and examine the influences of sky-conditions factors on PF and Q / E of global and diffuse PAR. Furthermore, we discuss our results by comparing with the existing methods.

  12. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  13. Absorption and Flux Density Measurements in an Iron Plug in R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ragnar; Braun, Josef

    1958-11-15

    Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have been measured in a 60 cm long, 'sliced' iron plug, which has been placed in the lower iron lid of the Swedish reactor R1. Au foils, Cu foils, Mn foils, P packets, Cu wires and small Fe cylinders have been used. The gamma flux has been determined with film dosimeters. The measurements have shown that only in the first centimeters of the iron is the activation determined by the thermal flux, which decreases with a relaxation length {lambda}= (1.51 {+-} 0.02) cm. The epithermal flux is entirely predominant already after 10 cm ( {lambda} = 16 cm). The epithermal neutron flux decreases even more slowly than the fast flux ({lambda} = 6.2 cm)

  14. Absorption and Flux Density Measurements in an Iron Plug in R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ragnar; Braun, Josef

    1958-11-01

    Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have been measured in a 60 cm long, 'sliced' iron plug, which has been placed in the lower iron lid of the Swedish reactor R1. Au foils, Cu foils, Mn foils, P packets, Cu wires and small Fe cylinders have been used. The gamma flux has been determined with film dosimeters. The measurements have shown that only in the first centimeters of the iron is the activation determined by the thermal flux, which decreases with a relaxation length λ= (1.51 ± 0.02) cm. The epithermal flux is entirely predominant already after 10 cm ( λ = 16 cm). The epithermal neutron flux decreases even more slowly than the fast flux (λ = 6.2 cm)

  15. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  16. Installation for the study of heat transfer with high flux density; Installation d'etude de transmission de chaleur a densite de flux elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Schwab, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    As a result of their very low vapor pressure, metals with a low fusion point (sodium, sodium-potassium alloys, etc.) can be used at high temperature, as heating fluids, in installations whose internal pressure is close to atmospheric pressure. Owing to the very high convection coefficients which can be reached with these fluids and to the large temperature differences utilizable, it is possible to produce through the exchange surfaces considerable heat flux densities, of the order of those which exist through the canning of fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The installation described allowed a flux density of more than 200 W/cm{sup 2} to be obtained, the heating fluid being a Na-K alloy (containing 56 per cent by weight of potassium) brought to a temperature around 550 deg. C. (author) [French] Par suite de leur tres faible pression de vapeur, les metaux a bas point de fusion (sodium, alliages sodium-potassium, etc.) peuvent etre utilises a haute temperature, comme fluides de chauffage, dans des installations dont la pression interne est voisine de la pression atmospherique. Grace aux coefficients de convection tres eleves que ces fluides permettent d'atteindre et aux importantes differences de temperature utilisables, il est possible de produire, a travers les surfaces d'echange, des densites de flux de chaleur considerables, de l'ordre de celles qui existent a travers les gaines des elements combustibles des reacteurs nucleaires. L'installation decrite a permis l'obtention d'une densite de flux de plus, de 200 W/cm{sup 2}, le fluide chauffant etant de l'alliage Na-K (a 56 pour cent en poids de potassium) porte a une temperature voisine de 550 deg. C. (auteur)

  17. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (B s ) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe 85.7 Si 0.5 B 9.5 P 3.5 Cu 0.8 ) 99 C 1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (H c )~4.5 A/m, high B s ~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60–100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors - Highlights: • Minor addition of C in FeSiBPCu alloy increases amorphous-forming ability. • The FeSiBPCuC alloy exhibits B s close to Si-steel and Core loss lower than it. • Excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained for 120 mm wide ribbons. • Nanocrystalline FeSiBPCuC alloy can be produced at industrial scale with low cost. • The alloy is suitable for making low energy loss power transformers and motors.

  18. Effect of magnetic flux-densities of up to 0.1 Tesla on copper electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of magnetic flux densities (B between 0.0 and 0.1 Tesla on cathode and anode overpotentials, cell voltage and electrodeposit quality was determined for a lab-scale copper electrowinning cell which operates at industrial current density values. Cell voltage decreases with increasing B. The cathodic overpotential decreases by 30 % when B increases from 0.0 to 0.1 T The anodic overpotential also decreases with increasing B, but this effect is six times less than the corresponding effect on the cathodic overpotential. Cathodic effects can be predicted by an expression derived from electrochemical kinetics and magnetohydrodynamic theory. Anodic effects cannot be predicted in the same way. The size of grains and intergranular voids decreases and the surface of the electrodeposit becomes smoother as B increases, which means that, in the studied conditions, the quality of the produced copper deposits improves.

    Se determinó el efecto de densidades de flujo magnético (B de, hasta 0,1 Tesla, sobre los sobrepotenciales catódico y anódico, la tensión de celda y la calidad del electrodepósito en una celda de electroobtención de cobre que opera a valores industriales de densidad de corriente. La tensión de celda decrece al aumentar B. El sobrepotencial catódico disminuye en 30 % cuando B aumenta de 0,0 a 0,1 T El sobrepotencial anódico también disminuye al crecer B, pero este efecto es seis veces menor que en el caso catódico. Los efectos catódicos pueden predecirse por medio de una expresión deducida de la cinética electroquímica y la magnetohidrodinámica. No es posible realizar una predicción análoga de los efectos anódicos. El tamaño de los granos y de los huecos intergranulares decrece y la superficie del electrodepósito se hace más pareja al aumentar B, lo que implica que, en las condiciones estudiadas, la calidad del depósito de cobre mejora.

  19. Polycrystalline semiconductor probes for monitoring the density distribution of an intense thermal neutron flux in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graul, J.; Mueller, R.G.; Wagner, E.

    1975-05-01

    The applicability of semiconductor detectors for high thermal neutron flux densities is theoretically estimated and experimentally examined. For good thermal stability and low radiation capture rate silicon carbide is used as semiconductor material, produced in polycristalline layers to achieve high radiation resistance. The relations between crystallinity, photoelectric sensitivity and radiation resistance are shown. The radiation resistance of polycrystalline SiC-probes is approximately 100 times greater than that of conventional single crystal radiation detectors. For thermal neutron measurement they can be used in the flux range of approx. 10 10 13 (cm -2 sec -1 ) with operation times of 1.6 a >= tsub(b,max) >= 30 d, resp. (orig.) [de

  20. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  1. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  2. Effect of density distribution of cathode emission on the flux character in a strong-current electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matora, I.M.; Merkulov, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect is considered of two kinds of a dependence of the emission density from the electric field voltage on the emitter surface of a strong-current electron gun (the Schottky law and the ''3/2'' law) upon the choice of a form for the meridional cross section of this emitter at the condition of electron flux laminarity. A calculation example is given for electron gun with close to laminar flow assuming the validity of the Schottky law. The results of calculation of varying the laminar flux character are given which appears when varying parameters of the gun at the voltage 500 kV and current 250 A

  3. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  4. Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density B{sub z} using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple B{sub z} data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for B{sub z} data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the B{sub z} value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined B{sub z} data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data.

  5. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  6. Effects of magnetic flux densities on microstructure evolution and magnetic properties of molecular-beam-vapor-deposited nanocrystalline Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yongze; Wang, Qiang; Li, Guojian; Ma, Yonghui; Du, Jiaojiao; He, Jicheng

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 (in atomic %) thin films were prepared by molecular-beam-vapor deposition in magnetic fields with different magnetic flux densities. The microstructure evolution of these thin films was studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy; the soft magnetic properties were examined by vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The results show that all our Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 thin films feature an fcc single-phase structure. With increasing magnetic flux density, surface roughness, average particle size and grain size of the thin films decreased, and the short-range ordered clusters (embryos) of thin films increased. Additionally, the magnetic anisotropy in the in-plane and the coercive forces of the thin films gradually reduced with increasing magnetic flux density. - Highlights: • With increasing magnetic flux density, average particle size of films decreased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, surface roughness of thin films decreased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, short-range ordered clusters increased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, the coercive forces of thin films reduced. • With increasing magnetic flux density, soft magnetic properties are improved.

  7. American specialists and SAP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Within the past days of November the project teams of SAP Nuclear in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. incorporated the specialists from PSEG from New Jersey, U.S.A. The goal of their stay here was to pass on the professional experience and good practice from the implementation of quite demanding project in the nuclear power plants. We have learned more about the company and the objectives from an interview with Clay Warren, SAP Nuclear Project Manager in SE. (author)

  8. Boiling transition and the possibility of spontaneous nucleation under high subcooling and high mass flux density flow in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Hirata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling transition and inverted annular heat transfer for R-113 have been investigated experimentally in a horizontal tube of 1.2 X 10/sup -3/ meter inner diameter with heating length over inner diameter ratio of 50. Experiments cover a high mass flux density range, a high local subcooling range and a wide local pressure range. Heat transfer characteristics were obtained by using heat flux control steady-state apparatus. Film boiling treated here is limited to the case of inverted annular heat transfer with very thin vapor film, on the order of 10/sup -6/ meter. Moreover, film boiling region is always limited to a certain downstream part, since the system has a pressure gradient along the flow direction. Discussions are presented on the parametric trends of boiling heat transfer characteristic curves and characteristic points. The possible existence is suggested of a spontaneous nucleation control surface boiling phenomena. And boiling transition heat flux and inverted annular heat transfer were correlated

  9. The relationship between sap-flow rate and sap volume in dormant sugar maples

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Gabriel; Russell S. Walters; Donald W. Seegrist

    1972-01-01

    Sap-flow rate is closely correlated with the sap volume produced by dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and could be used in making phenotypic selections of trees for superior sap production.

  10. Placed in a steady magnetic field, the flux density inside a permalloy-shielded volume decreases over hours and days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Benedict; Gould, Harvey

    2018-03-01

    Following the application of an external magnetic field to a thin-walled demagnetized Permalloy cylinder, the magnetic flux density at the center of the shielded volume decreases by roughly 20% over periods of hours to days. We measured this effect for applied magnetic fields from 0.48 A/m to 16 A/m, the latter being comparable to the Earths magnetic field at its weakest point. Delayed changes in magnetic flux density are also observed following alternating current demagnetization. We attribute these effects to delayed changes in magnetization, which have previously been observed in thin Permalloy films and small bulk samples of ferromagnetic materials. Phenomenological models of thermal activation are discussed. Some possible effects on experiments that rely on static shielding are noted.

  11. Effects of water salinity on the correlation scale of Root density and Evapotranspiration fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeel, Ali; Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spatial pattern and the correlation of different soil and plant parameters were examined in a green bean field experiment carried out at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy. The experiment aimed to evaluate the role of local processes of salt accumulation and transport which mainly influences the evapotranspiration (and thus the root uptake) processes under different water salinity levels. The experiment consisted of three transects of 30m length and 4.2 m width, irrigated with three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). Soil measurements (electrical conductivity and soil water content) were monitored along transects in 24 sites, 1 m apart by using TDR probes and Diviner 2000. Water storage measured by TDR and Diviner sensor were coupled for calculating directly the evapotranspiration fluxes along the whole soil profile under the different salinity levels imposed during the experiment. In the same sites, crop monitoring involved measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI), Osmotic Potential (OP), Leaf Water Potential (LWP), and Root length Density (RlD). Soil and plant properties were analyzed by classical statistics, geostatistics methods and spectral analysis. Results indicated moderate to large spatial variability across the field for soil and plant parameters under all salinity treatments. Furthermore, cross-semivariograms exhibited a strong positive spatial interdependence between electrical conductivity of soil solution ECw with ET and RlD in transect treated with 3dSm-1 as well as with LAI in transect treated with 6dSm-1 at all 24 monitoring sites. Spectral analysis enabled to identify the observation window to sample the soil salinity information responsible for a given plant response (ET, OP, RlD). It is also allowed a clear identification of the spatial scale at which the soil water salinity level and distribution and the crop response in terms of actual evapotranspiration ET, RlD and OP, are actually correlated. Additionally

  12. Magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting cylinders of arbitrary cross section subjected to an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, G.

    1982-07-01

    We show here how the application of the critical state model allows one to determine the magnetic flux density B⃗ in each point of a superconducting cylinder with an arbitrary cross section subjected to axial magnetic fields Hz; the B = 0 boundaries of the regions occupied by the vortices are so defined. We successively consider the cases where the critical current density Jc is either isotropic (constant or an arbitrary function of B) or tensorial, which means, for our problem, the use of two components Jcx and Jcy (either constant or depending on B but Jcx/Jcy remaining constant).

  13. Optimizing Power Density and Efficiency of a Double-Halbach Array Permanent-Magnet Ironless Axial-Flux Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. This effort aims to identify design parameters that affect power density and efficiency for a double-Halbach array permanent-magnet ironless axial flux motor configuration. These parameters include both geometrical and higher-order parameters, including pole count, rotor speed, current density, and geometries of the magnets, windings, and air gap.

  14. On the use of phloem sap δ13C to estimate canopy carbon discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, Katherine; Máguas, Cristina; Werner, Christiane

    2010-05-01

    along the canopy to trunk continuum. We further hypothesize that pronounced depletion along the basipetal transport pathway in A. longifolia (more than 6 per mil from leaf water soluble organic matter to trunk phloem sap) may be due to high stem photosynthesis rates in this green-barked legume. Regardless of these fractionation effects, phloem sap d13C correlated well with environmental parameters driving photosynthesis (photosynthetic photon flux density, soil moisture, vapor pressure deficit) for both species indicating that phloem sap d13C is a good integrative tracer of changes in canopy-level carbon discrimination once species-specific differences in post-photosynthetic fractionation are accounted for. Furthermore, we illustrate that combining sap flow estimated canopy stomatal conductance (gs) with measurements of phloem sap d13C (adjusted for post-photosynthetic fractionation) has significant potential as a relatively non-intensive method for estimating canopy-level carbon assimilation rates in field studies.

  15. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  16. [Sap flow characteristics of Quercus liaotungensis in response to sapwood area and soil moisture in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jin Lin; He, Qiu Yue; Yan, Mei Jie; Li, Guo Qing; Du, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    To examine the characteristics of sap flow in Quercus liaotungensis and their response to environmental factors under different soil moisture conditions, Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flow of trees with different sapwood area in a natural Q. liaotungensis forest in the loess hilly region. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation, and soil moisture were monitored during the study period. The results showed that sap flux of Q. liaotungensis reached daily peaks earlier than solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The diurnal dynamics of sap flux showed a similar pattern to those of the environmental factors. Trees had larger sap flux during the period with higher soil moisture. Under the same soil moisture conditions, trees with larger diameter and sapwood areas had significantly higher sap flux than those with smaller diameter and sapwood areas. Sap flux could be fitted with vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, and the integrated index of the two factors using exponential saturation function. Differences in the fitted curves and parameters suggested that sap flux tended to reach saturation faster under higher soil moisture. Furthermore, trees in the smaller diameter class were more sensitive to the changes of soil moisture. The ratio of daily sap flux per unit vapor pressure deficit under lower soil moisture condition to that under higher soil moisture condition was linearly correlated to sapwood area. The regressive slope in smaller diameter class was larger than that in bigger diameter class, which further indicated the higher sensitivity of trees with smaller diameter class to soil moisture. These results indicated that wider sapwood of larger diameter class provided a buffer against drought stress.

  17. An Auroral Boundary-Oriented Model of Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, R. G.; Anderson, P. C.

    2018-04-01

    An empirical model of subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric fields has been developed using measurements of ion drifts and particle precipitation made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1987 to 2012 and Dynamics Explorer 2 as functions of magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude, the auroral electrojet index (AE), hemisphere, and day of year. Over 500,000 subauroral passes are used. This model is oriented in degree magnetic latitude equatorward of the aurora and takes median values instead of the mean to avoid the contribution of low occurrence frequency subauroral ion drifts so that the model is representative of the much more common, latitudinally broad, low-amplitude SAPS field. The SAPS model is in broad agreement with previous statistical efforts in the variation of the SAPS field with MLT and magnetic activity level, although the median field is weaker. Furthermore, we find that the median SAPS field is roughly conjugate in both hemispheres for all seasons, with a maximum in SAPS amplitude and width found for 1800-2000 MLT. The SAPS amplitude is found to vary seasonally only from about 1800-2000 MLT, maximizing in both hemispheres during equinox months. Because this feature exists despite controlling for the AE index, it is suggested that this is due to a seasonal variation in the flux tube averaged ionospheric conductance at MLT sectors where it is more likely that one flux tube footprint is in darkness while the other is in daylight.

  18. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2012-12-01

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by using the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system to infer the velocity of water through a porous medium. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale and subsequently to upscale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for sampling and simultaneously estimating the tree's thermal diffusivity and probe spacing from in situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio measurement device. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require knowledge of probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential for obtaining reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests can be obtained in different seasons and can be automated using the existing data logging system. Empirical factors are introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology may be tested for its applicability to realistic field conditions, with an ultimate goal of calibrating heat ratio sap flow systems in practical applications.

  19. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dong; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo; Zhang, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  20. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  1. Estimation of transient heat flux density during the heat supply of a catalytic wall steam methane reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settar, Abdelhakim; Abboudi, Saïd; Madani, Brahim; Nebbali, Rachid

    2018-02-01

    Due to the endothermic nature of the steam methane reforming reaction, the process is often limited by the heat transfer behavior in the reactors. Poor thermal behavior sometimes leads to slow reaction kinetics, which is characterized by the presence of cold spots in the catalytic zones. Within this framework, the present work consists on a numerical investigation, in conjunction with an experimental one, on the one-dimensional heat transfer phenomenon during the heat supply of a catalytic-wall reactor, which is designed for hydrogen production. The studied reactor is inserted in an electric furnace where the heat requirement of the endothermic reaction is supplied by electric heating system. During the heat supply, an unknown heat flux density, received by the reactive flow, is estimated using inverse methods. In the basis of the catalytic-wall reactor model, an experimental setup is engineered in situ to measure the temperature distribution. Then after, the measurements are injected in the numerical heat flux estimation procedure, which is based on the Function Specification Method (FSM). The measured and estimated temperatures are confronted and the heat flux density which crosses the reactor wall is determined.

  2. Comparison of different tree sap flow up-scaling procedures using Monte-Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Fyodor; Preisler, Yakir; Roahtyn, Shani; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    An important task in determining forest ecosystem water balance is the estimation of stand transpiration, allowing separating evapotranspiration into transpiration and soil evaporation. This can be based on up-scaling measurements of sap flow in representative trees (SF), which can be done by different mathematical algorithms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the error associated with different up-scaling algorithms under different conditions. Other types of errors (such as, measurement error, within tree SF variability, choice of sample plot etc.) were not considered here. A set of simulation experiments using Monte-Carlo technique was carried out and three up-scaling procedures were tested. (1) Multiplying mean stand sap flux density based on unit sapwood cross-section area (SFD) by total sapwood area (Klein et al, 2014); (2) deriving of linear dependence of tree sap flow on tree DBH and calculating SFstand using predicted SF by DBH classes and stand DBH distribution (Cermak et al., 2004); (3) same as method 2 but using non-linear dependency. Simulations were performed under different SFD(DBH) slope (bs, positive, negative, zero); different DBH and SFD standard deviations (Δd and Δs, respectively) and DBH class size. It was assumed that all trees in a unit area are measured and the total SF of all trees in the experimental plot was taken as the reference SFstand value. Under negative bs all models tend to overestimate SFstand and the error increases exponentially with decreasing bs. Under bs >0 all models tend to underestimate SFstand, but the error is much smaller than for bs

  3. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  4. Physicochemical changes of raffia sap (Raphia mambillensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galax-07

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... on fermentation on the raffia sap property, its physico-chemical and .... transformed organic nitrogen of the dried sap into mineral nitrogen ..... International Congress on Engineering and Food. March ... uses in vignification.

  5. Errors in the SAP reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dongen, van B.F.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The SAP Reference Model is a set of information models that is utilized to guide the configuration of SAP systems. A big part of these models are business process models represented in the Eventdriven Process Chains (EPC) notation. These EPC models provide a easy to comprehend overview of SAP

  6. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  7. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  8. Turbulent mass flux closure modeling for variable density turbulence in the wake of an air-entraining transom stern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelli; Yue, Dick

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the development and a priori testing of closure models for the incompressible highly-variable density turbulent (IHVDT) flow in the near wake region of a transom stern. This complex, three-dimensional flow includes three regions with distinctly different flow behavior: (i) the convergent corner waves that originate from the body and collide on the ship center plane; (ii) the "rooster tail" that forms from the collision; and (iii) the diverging wave train. The characteristics of these regions involve violent free-surface flows and breaking waves with significant turbulent mass flux (TMF) at Atwood number At = (ρ2 -ρ1) / (ρ2 +ρ1) 1 for which there is little guidance in turbulence closure modeling for the momentum and scalar transport along the wake. Utilizing datasets from high-resolution simulations of the near wake of a canonical three-dimensional transom stern using conservative Volume-of-Fluid (cVOF), implicit Large Eddy Simulation (iLES), and Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM), we develop explicit algebraic turbulent mass flux closure models that incorporate the most relevant physical processes. Performance of these models in predicting the turbulent mass flux in all three regions of the wake will be presented. Office of Naval Research.

  9. Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%-25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at www.qualikiz.com.

  10. A DETERMINATION OF THE FLUX DENSITY IN CORE OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, WHAT BUILT WITH THE COMMON USING OF GRAIN AND NON GRAIN ORIENTED MAGNETIC STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pentegov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of calculation method to determinate the flux densities in different parts of the magnetic cores of distribution transformers, what built from different types magnetic steel (mixed core. Methodology. The method is based on the scientific positions of Theoretical Electrical Engineering – the theory of the electromagnetic field in nonlinear mediums to determine the distribution of magnetic flux in mixed core of transformer, what are using different types of steel what have the different magnetic properties. Results. The developed method gives possible to make calculation of the flux density and influence of skin effect in different parts of the magnetic cores of distribution transformer, where are used mix of grain oriented (GO and non grain oriented (NGO steels. Was determinate the general basic conditions for the calculation of flux density in the laminations from grain and non grain oriented steels of the magnetic core: the strength of magnetic field for the laminations of particular part of mixed core is the same; the sum of the magnetic fluxes in GO and NGO steels in particular part of mixed core is equal with the designed magnetic flux in this part of mixed core. Discover, the magnetic flux in mixed core of the transformer has specific distribution between magnetic steels. The flux density is higher in laminations from GO steel and smaller in laminations from the NGO steel. That is happened because for magnetic flux is easier pass through laminations from GO steel, what has better magnetic conductance than laminations from NGO steel. Originality. The common using of different types of magnetic steels in cores for distribution transformers gives possibility to make design of transformer with low level of no load losses, high efficiency and with optimal cost. Practical value. The determination of the flux density in different parts of magnetic core with GO and NGO steels gives possibility make accurate calculation of

  11. Far scrape-off layer particle and heat fluxes in high density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H. W.; Bernert, M.; Carralero, D.

    2014-01-01

    The far scrape-off layer transport is studied in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges with high divertor neutral density N0,div, high power across the separatrix Psep and nitrogen seeding to control the divertor temperature. Such conditions are expected for ITER but usually not investigated in terms...

  12. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  13. Comparison between measured and computed magnetic flux density distribution of simulated transformer core joints assembled from grain-oriented and non-oriented electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shahrouzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The flux distribution in an overlapped linear joint constructed in the central region of an Epstein Square was studied experimentally and results compared with those obtained using a computational magnetic field solver. High permeability grain-oriented (GO and low permeability non-oriented (NO electrical steels were compared at a nominal core flux density of 1.60 T at 50 Hz. It was found that the experimental results only agreed well at flux densities at which the reluctance of different paths of the flux are similar. Also it was revealed that the flux becomes more uniform when the working point of the electrical steel is close to the knee point of the B-H curve of the steel.

  14. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochao; Vanderborght, Jan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Schnepf, Andrea; Hüging, Hubert; Vereecken, Harry

    2018-04-01

    How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU) models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes-Jarvis (FJ) model and the physically based Couvreur (C) model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC), water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities. The impact of differences in

  15. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes–Jarvis (FJ model and the physically based Couvreur (C model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC, water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities

  16. The density of states for the Bi-dimensional Anderson model in the presence of a magnetic field with quantum plaque flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The regularity properties of the integrated density of states and the state density of the Anderson bidimensional tight-binding model, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field, perpendicular to the plane of the system by means of quantum flux with plaques, are studied. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  18. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  19. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy with low-energy flux density inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Bo-Ru; Hong, Lei; Shi, Kai; Wu, Wei-Wei; Yu, Jia-Ao

    2018-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar is characterized by excessive deposits of collagen during skin wound healing, which could become a challenge to clinicians. This study assessed the effects of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on hypertrophic scar formation and the underlying gene regu-lation. A rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was generated and randomly divided into three groups: L-ESWT group to receive L-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.1 mJ/mm2), H-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.2 mJ/mm2) and sham ESWT group (S-ESWT). Hypertrophic scar tissues were then collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively, to assess scar elevation index (SEI), fibroblast density and collagen fiber arrangement. Expression of cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in hypertrophic scar tissues. H&E staining sections showed significant reduction of SEI and fibroblast density in both ESWT treatment groups compared to S-ESWT, but there was no dramatic difference between L-ESWT and H-ESWT groups. Masson's trichrome staining showed that collagen fibers were more slender and broader and oriented in parallel to skin surface after administration of ESWT compared to control tissues. At the gene level, PCNA‑positive fibroblasts and α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were significantly decreased after L-ESWT or H-ESWT compared to the controls. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in expression of PCNA mRNA between L-ESWT or H-ESWT and S-ESWT, whereas expression of α-SMA mRNA significantly decreased in L-ESWT compared to that of H-ESWT and S-ESWT (P=0.002 and P=0.030, respectively). In conclusion, L-ESWT could be effective on suppression of hypertrophic scar formation by inhibition of scar elevation index and fibroblast density as well as α-SMA expression in hypertrophic scar tissues of the rabbit model.

  20. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  1. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  2. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  3. The Study of Radio Flux Density Variations of the Quasar OJ 287 by the Wavelet and the Singular Spectrum Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskykh Ganna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux density variations of the extragalactic radio source OJ 287 are studied by applying the wavelet and the singular spectrum methods to the long-term monitoring data at 14.5, 8.0 and 4.8 GHz acquired at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory during 40 years. This monitoring significantly supplements the episodic VLBI data. The wavelet analysis at all three frequencies revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6.0–7.4 and 1.2–1.8 years. The singular spectrum analysis revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6–10 and 1.6–4.0 years. For each quasiperiod the time interval of its existence was determined.

  4. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B; Sanglard, D; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M; Schäfer, W; Brown, A J; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  5. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  6. Architecture of SAP ERP understand how successful software works

    CERN Document Server

    Boeder, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This book - compiled by software architects from SAP - is a must for consultants, developers, IT managers, and students working with SAP ERP, but also users who want to know the world behind their SAP user interface.

  7. A novel approach to calculate inductance and analyze magnetic flux density of helical toroidal coil applicable to Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems (SMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Pahlavani, M.R.; Shoulaie, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, formulas are proposed for the self and mutual inductance calculations of the helical toroidal coil (HTC) by the direct and indirect methods at superconductivity conditions. The direct method is based on the Neumann's equation and the indirect approach is based on the toroidal and the poloidal components of the magnetic flux density. Numerical calculations show that the direct method is more accurate than the indirect approach at the expense of its longer computational time. Implementation of some engineering assumptions in the indirect method is shown to reduce the computational time without loss of accuracy. Comparison between the experimental measurements and simulated results for inductance, using the direct and the indirect methods indicates that the proposed formulas have high reliability. It is also shown that the self inductance and the mutual inductance could be calculated in the same way, provided that the radius of curvature is >0.4 of the minor radius, and that the definition of the geometric mean radius in the superconductivity conditions is used. Plotting contours for the magnetic flux density and the inductance show that the inductance formulas of helical toroidal coil could be used as the basis for coil optimal design. Optimization target functions such as maximization of the ratio of stored magnetic energy with respect to the volume of the toroid or the conductor's mass, the elimination or the balance of stress in some coordinate directions, and the attenuation of leakage flux could be considered. The finite element (FE) approach is employed to present an algorithm to study the three-dimensional leakage flux distribution pattern of the coil and to draw the magnetic flux density lines of the HTC. The presented algorithm, due to its simplicity in analysis and ease of implementation of the non-symmetrical and three-dimensional objects, is advantageous to the commercial software such as ANSYS, MAXWELL, and FLUX. Finally, using the

  8. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  9. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  10. Stormtime Simulations of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present simulation results from the self-consistently coupled SAMI3/RCM code on the impact of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system with an emphasis on the development of sub-auroral plasma streams (SAPS). We consider the following storm events: March 31, 2001, March 17, 2013, March 17, 2015, September 3, 2012, and June 23, 2015. We compare and contrast the development of SAPS for these storms. The main results are the development of sub-auroral (< 60 degrees) low-density, high-speed flows (1 - 2 km/s). Additionally, we discuss the impact on plasmaspheric dynamics. We compare our model results to data (e.g., Millstone Hill radar, GPS TEC).

  11. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  12. Real-time visualization of magnetic flux densities for transcranial magnetic stimulation on commodity and fully immersive VR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivarapu, Vijay K.; Serrate, Ciro; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator ("TMS coil") produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and magnetic fields are governed by laws of electromagnetism, it is possible to numerically simulate and visualize these fields to accurately determine the site of maximum stimulation and also to develop TMS coils that can focus the fields on the targeted regions. However, current software to compute and visualize these fields are not real-time and can work for only one position/orientation of TMS coil, severely limiting their usage. This paper describes the development of an application that computes magnetic flux densities (h-fields) and visualizes their distribution for different TMS coil position/orientations in real-time using GPU shaders. The application is developed for desktop, commodity VR (HTC Vive), and fully immersive VR CAVETM systems, for use by researchers, scientists, and medical professionals to quickly and effectively view the distribution of h-fields from MRI brain scans.

  13. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-01-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm 3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable. (paper)

  14. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-11-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable.

  15. Neutron metrology in the L.F.R. Neutron flux density spectrum in the inner graphite reflector of the L.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsolnay, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron spectrum in the vertical central plug of the Low Flux Reactor has been determined experimentally. Sets of activation and fission detectors have been irradiated, and the neutron spectrum has been unfolded with aid of 3 special computer programs SAND-II, RFSP-JUEL and CRYSTAL BALL. Using these 3 programs calculations are made on the improvement ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the variance of the input flux density to that of the output flux density. A Monte Carlo error analysis is made to examine the quality of the 3 solution spectra. The results obtained with the different computer codes were compared, and showed a general agreement. The experiment confirmed that the shape of the spectrum in the intermediate energy region is near the 1/E pattern. (author)

  16. User's guide for SLWDN9, a code for calculating flux-surfaced-averaging of alpha densities, currents, and heating in non-circular tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Miley, G.M.

    1980-03-01

    The code calculates flux-surfaced-averaged values of alpha density, current, and electron/ion heating profiles in realistic, non-circular tokamak plasmas. The code is written in FORTRAN and execute on the CRAY-1 machine at the Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center

  17. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  18. Study of the sap-flow and related quantities of oak trees in field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanalas, P.; Olah, V.; Szoelloesi, E.; Meszaros, I.; Ander, I.; Fenyvesi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Climatology model calculations for the next decades in the Carpathian Basin predict more frequent occurrence of meteorological extremes and, especially, longer droughts with elevated average temperatures during the growing season. A drift of the transition zone between the wooden steppe and the forest regions is predicted, too, resulting in significant reduction and alteration of the climazonal forest communities in the mountainous regions. The aim of our project is obtaining information on the climatic sensitivity of the tree species in the sessile oak - Austrian oak forest stand of the Sikfoekut Project Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) area (Buekk Mountains, NE Hungary). 'Campaign-like' complex field measurements have been performed in contrasting vegetation seasons of 2007 and 2008. As a function of time, stomatal conductance and intensity of sap-flow and stem diameter of Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris trees were measured simultaneously with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) of air, precipitation and soil moisture. It was found that the two oak species of forest stand exhibit similar daily course of stomatal conductance in rainy periods. However, during drought stomatal conductance of Quercus cerris was higher, and after a transitional decrease around midday it exhibited a second maximum in late afternoon. In dry days after a maximum of stomatal conductance at early morning the stomatal closure of Quercus petraea was permanent which might result in 'carbon starvation' of trees if drought is too long. During rainy periods, sap-flow of both species changed in correlation with VPD. In dry period this correlation weakened especially in case of Quercus petraea but a stronger correlation of sap-flow maximum appeared with the decreasing soil moisture content. Quercus cerris showed smaller stem radial variation, than Quercus

  19. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  20. Influence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M P; Wéra, L; Fagnard, J-F; Vanderheyden, B; Vanderbemden, P; Ainslie, M D; Dennis, A R; Shi, Y-H; Cardwell, D A

    2015-01-01

    Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y–Ba–Cu–O high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. (paper)

  1. Helium implantation effects in SAP and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Thomas, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A series of 300 keV He implantations of Al and SAP 930 have been conducted at temperatures between 150 and 773K. The He re-emission was monitored during implantation and the samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope after implantation. Both Al and SAP 930 were found to blister after a critical He dose was reached at temperatures above 473K, both underwent flaking below that temperature, with blistering re-appearing in SAP 930 at an implantation temperature of 150K. The surface deformation and He re-emission are strongly dependent on microstructural effects in the intermediate temperature regime

  2. 46 CFR 16.203 - Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. 16.203 Section... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. (a) Employers...) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements...

  3. X-ray computed microtomography characterizes the wound effect that causes sap flow underestimation by thermal dissipation sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S; Van den Bulcke, J; Piayda, A; Van Acker, J; Cuntz, M; Rebmann, C; Steppe, K

    2018-02-01

    Insertion of thermal dissipation (TD) sap flow sensors in living tree stems causes damage of the wood tissue, as is the case with other invasive methods. The subsequent wound formation is one of the main causes of underestimation of tree water-use measured by TD sensors. However, the specific alterations in wood anatomy in response to inserted sensors have not yet been characterized, and the linked dysfunctions in xylem conductance and sensor accuracy are still unknown. In this study, we investigate the anatomical mechanisms prompting sap flow underestimation and the dynamic process of wound formation. Successive sets of TD sensors were installed in the early, mid and end stage of the growing season in diffuse- and ring-porous trees, Fagus sylvatica (Linnaeus) and Quercus petraea ((Mattuschka) Lieblein), respectively. The trees were cut in autumn and additional sensors were installed in the cut stem segments as controls without wound formation. The wounded area and volume surrounding each sensor was then visually determined by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray microCT). This technique allowed the characterization of vessel anatomical transformations such as tyloses formation, their spatial distribution and quantification of reduction in conductive area. MicroCT scans showed considerable formation of tyloses that reduced the conductive area of vessels surrounding the inserted TD probes, thus causing an underestimation in sap flux density (SFD) in both beech and oak. Discolored wood tissue was ellipsoidal, larger in the radial plane, more extensive in beech than in oak, and also for sensors installed for longer times. However, the severity of anatomical transformations did not always follow this pattern. Increased wound size with time, for example, did not result in larger SFD underestimation. This information helps us to better understand the mechanisms involved in wound effects with TD sensors and allows the provision of practical recommendations to reduce

  4. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO 3 SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  5. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  6. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  7. FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldocchi, D.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2001-01-01

    FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement site's that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes...... of annual ecosystem carbon and water balances, to quantify the response of stand-scale carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities to controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and to validate a hierarchy of soil-plant-atmosphere trace gas exchange models. Findings so far include 1) net CO2 exchange......, it provides infrastructure for compiling, archiving, and distributing carbon, water, and energy flux measurement, and meteorological, plant, and soil data to the science community. (Data and site information are available online at the FLUXNET Web site, http://www-eosdis.oml.gov/FLUXNTET/.) Second...

  8. Small compression modulus of the flux line lattice and large density fluctuations at high fields may explain peak effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic properties of the flux line lattice in Type II superconductors as calculated from the Ginsburg-Landau theory are discussed. They are non-local on a length scale much larger than the flux line distance and divergent at Hsub(c2). The compression modulus may become much smaller than its long-wavelength limit, B 2 /4π, and if the deformation is not homogeneous, at Hsub(c2) the modulus vanishes as (Hsub(c2) - B) 2 . At arbitrary induction the compression modulus of strain waves with wavelengths of several flux line distances is of the order of the (small) shear modulus. (author)

  9. Two new methods used to simulate the circumferential solar flux density concentrated on the absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Sun, Feihu

    2016-05-01

    The optical efficiencies of a solar trough concentrator are important to the whole thermal performance of the solar collector, and the outer surface of the tube absorber is a key interface of energy flux. So it is necessary to simulate and analyze the concentrated solar flux density distributions on the tube absorber of a parabolic trough solar collector for various sun beam incident angles, with main optical errors considered. Since the solar trough concentrators are linear focusing, it is much of interest to investigate the solar flux density distribution on the cross-section profile of the tube absorber, rather than the flux density distribution along the focal line direction. Although a few integral approaches based on the "solar cone" concept were developed to compute the concentrated flux density for some simple trough concentrator geometries, all those integral approaches needed special integration routines, meanwhile, the optical parameters and geometrical properties of collectors also couldn't be changed conveniently. Flexible Monte Carlo ray trace (MCRT) methods are widely used to simulate the more accurate concentrated flux density distribution for compound parabolic solar trough concentrators, while generally they are quite time consuming. In this paper, we first mainly introduce a new backward ray tracing (BRT) method combined with the lumped effective solar cone, to simulate the cross-section flux density on the region of interest of the tube absorber. For BRT, bundles of rays are launched at absorber-surface points of interest, directly go through the glass cover of the absorber, strike on the uniformly sampled mirror segment centers in the close-related surface region of the parabolic reflector, and then direct to the effective solar cone around the incident sun beam direction after the virtual backward reflection. All the optical errors are convoluted into the effective solar cone. The brightness distribution of the effective solar cone is supposed

  10. Critical current density, irreversibility line, and flux creep activation energy in silver-sheathed Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D.; Wang, Z.; Sengupta, S.; Smith, M.; Goodrich, L.F.; Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C.

    1992-08-01

    Transport data, magnetic hysteresis and flux creep activation energy experimental results are presented for silver-sheathed high-T c Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x superconducting tapes. The 110 K superconducting phase was formed by lead doping in a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 system. The transport critical current density was measured at 4.0 K to be 0.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 (the corresponding critical current is 74 A) at zero field and 1.6 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 12 T for H parallel ab. Excellent grain alignment in the a-b plane was achieved by a short-melting method, which considerably improved the critical current density and irreversibility line. Flux creep activation energy as a function of current is obtained based on the magnetic relaxation measurements

  11. Sap flux of dominant trees under low soil water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Šalanská, Petra

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2001), s. 99-106. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1561; GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:-(BE) EVK2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : competition * Picea abies * transpiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. POLAMI: Polarimetric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei at Millimetre Wavelengths - III. Characterization of total flux density and polarization variability of relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Iván; Thum, Clemens; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Molina, Sol N.; Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first results of the POLAMI (Polarimetric Monitoring of AGNs with Millimetre Wavelengths) programme, a simultaneous 3.5 and 1.3 mm full-Stokes-polarization monitoring of a sample of 36 of the brightest active galactic nuclei in the northern sky with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Through a systematic statistical study of data taken from 2006 October (from 2009 December for the case of the 1.3 mm observations) to 2014 August, we characterize the variability of the total flux density and linear polarization. We find that all sources in the sample are highly variable in total flux density at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm, as well as in spectral index, which (except in particularly prominent flares) is found to be optically thin between these two wavelengths. The total flux-density variability at 1.3 mm is found, in general, to be faster, and to have larger fractional amplitude and flatter power-spectral-density slopes than at 3.5 mm. The polarization degree is on average larger at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm, by a factor of 2.6. The variability of linear polarization degree is faster and has higher fractional amplitude than for total flux density, with the typical time-scales during prominent polarization peaks being significantly faster at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm. The polarization angle at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm is highly variable. Most of the sources show one or two excursions of >180° on time-scales from a few weeks to about a year during the course of our observations. The 3.5 and 1.3 mm polarization angle evolution follows each other rather well, although the 1.3 mm data show a clear preference to more prominent variability on the short time-scales, i.e. weeks. The data are compatible with multizone models of conical jets involving smaller emission regions for the shortest-wavelength emitting sites. Such smaller emitting regions should also be more efficient in energising particle populations, as implied by the coherent evolution of the spectral index and the total flux

  13. Influence of near-ultraviolet light enhancement and photosynthetic photon flux density during photoperiod extension on the morphology and lignin content of black spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, H.; Vezina, L.P.; Bellefleur, P.

    1991-01-01

    When containerized black spruce seedlings (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) are grown rapidly in greenhouse culture, they sometimes bend over, grow horizontally and become deformed. This phenomenon has been known to affect between 5% and 10% of a winter greenhouse crop. In this study, near-ultraviolet lamps were used to supplement the artificial light received from high-pressure sodium lamps and the effects on seedling morphology and lignin contents were examined. Neither height to diameter ratios nor lignin concentrations were significantly affected by UV radiation flux density. However, seedling biomass, height, root collar diameter, lignin content, and lignin to cellulose ratios of stems were significantly correlated with total photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) received during photoperiod extension. Height to diameter ratios were negatively correlated with PPFD during photoperiod enhancement because of a greater relative increase in diameter growth compared with height growth. Neither UV nor PAR flux density affected the percentage of black spruce seedlings having stem deformations greater than 30 ° from the vertical [fr

  14. Effect of texture and grain size on magnetic flux density and core loss in non-oriented electrical steel containing 3.15% Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.M.; Park, S.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, M.Y., E-mail: myhuh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.S. [Electrical Steel Sheet Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Goedong-dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Engler, O. [Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, R and D Center Bonn, P.O. Box 2468, D-53014 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In an attempt to differentiate the impact of grain size and crystallographic texture on magnetic properties of non-oriented (NO) electrical steel sheets, samples with different grain sizes and textures were produced and analyzed regarding magnetic flux density B and core loss W. The textures of the NO electrical steel samples could be precisely quantified with the help of elliptical Gaussian distributions. In samples with identical textures, small grain sizes resulted in about 15% higher core loss W than larger grains, whereas grain size only moderately affected the magnetic flux density B. In samples having nearly the same grain size, a correlation of the magneto-crystalline anisotropic properties of B and W with texture was obtained via the anisotropy parameter A(h{sup →}). With increasing A(h{sup →}) a linear decrease of B and a linear increase of W were observed. - Highlights: • We produced electrical steel sheets having different grain size and texture. • Magnetic flux density B and core loss W were varied with grain size and texture. • Correlation of B and W with texture was established via anisotropy parameter A(h{sup →}). • With increasing A(h{sup →}) a linear decrease of B and a linear increase of W were observed. • Grain size mainly affected W with only minor impact on B.

  15. The efficiency of mechanisms driving Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the seasonal and diurnal variation of SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams occurrence based on 3663 SAPS events identified in DMSP ion drift observations in the Northern Hemisphere during July 2001 and June 2003. Their relationships with high latitude convection electric field, substorm, and ionospheric conductivity have been addressed. SAPS occurrences show a clear seasonal and diurnal variation with the occurrence rates varying by a factor of 5. It is found that the convection electric field might play a dominant role in association with SAPS occurrence. Peak convection electric fields mark the occurrence maximum of SAPS. Substorm might play a secondary role related to SAPS occurrence. It account for the secondary maximum in SAPS occurrence rate during December solstice. Our work demonstrates that the substorm induced electric field can develop SAPS during relatively low global convection. Somewhat low fluxtube-integrated conductivity is favorable for SAPS to develop. Another topic is the temporal relationship between SAPS and substorm phases. SAPS can occur at substorm onset, substorm expansion and recovery phases. Most probably SAPS tend to occur 60 min/45 min after substorm onset during quiet/more disturbed geomagnetic activity, respectively. This indicates that enhanced global convection helps SAPS to develop quicker during substorms. The peak plasma velocity of SAPS is increased on average only by 5–10 % by the substorm process.

  16. Genome-wide identification and characterization of stress-associated protein (SAP gene family encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress associated proteins (SAPs play important roles in developmental processes, responses to various stresses and hormone stimulation in plants. However, little is known about the SAP gene family in Medicago truncatula. In this study, a total of 17 MtSAP genes encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins were characterized. Out of these 17 genes, 15 were distributed over all 8 chromosomes at different densities, and two segmental duplication events were detected. The phylogenetic analysis of these proteins and their orthologs from Arabidopsis and rice suggested that they could be classified into five out of the seven groups of SAP family genes, with genes in the same group showing similar structures and conserved domains. The cis-elements of the MtSAP promoters were studied, and many cis-elements related to stress and plant hormone responses were identified. We also investigated the stress-responsive expression patterns of the MtSAP genes under various stresses, including drought, exposure to NaCl and cold. The qRT-PCR results showed that numerous MtSAP genes exhibited transcriptional responses to multiple abiotic stresses. These results lay the foundation for further functional characterization of SAP genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the SAP gene family in M. truncatula.

  17. Implementation of SAP Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, M.L.; LaBorde, C.M.; Nichols, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) assumed responsibility for newly generated waste on October 1, 2005. To ensure effective management and accountability of newly generated waste, Y-12 has opted to utilize SAP, Y-12's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) tool, to track low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), hazardous waste, and non-regulated waste from generation through acceptance and disposal. SAP Waste will include the functionality of the current waste tracking system and integrate with the applicable modules of SAP already in use. The functionality of two legacy systems, the Generator Entry System (GES) and the Waste Information Tracking System (WITS), and peripheral spreadsheets, databases, and e-mail/fax communications will be replaced by SAP Waste. Fundamentally, SAP Waste will promote waste acceptance for certification and disposal, not storage. SAP Waste will provide a one-time data entry location where waste generators can enter waste container information, track the status of their waste, and maintain documentation. A benefit of the new system is that it will provide a single data repository where Y-12's Waste Management organization can establish waste profiles, verify and validate data, maintain inventory control utilizing hand-held data transfer devices, schedule and ship waste, manage project accounting, and report on waste handling activities. This single data repository will facilitate the production of detailed waste generation reports for use in forecasting and budgeting, provide the data for required regulatory reports, and generate metrics to evaluate the performance of the Waste Management organization and its subcontractors. SAP Waste will replace the outdated and expensive legacy system, establish tools the site needs to manage newly generated waste, and optimize the use of the site's ERP tool for integration with related business processes while promoting disposition of waste. (authors)

  18. Analysis list: SAP30 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAP30 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP...30.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SAP30.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP...30.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SAP30.Pluripote

  19. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  20. Uncertainty in sap flow-based transpiration due to xylem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, N. T.; Hu, J.; Martin, J. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from plants through their stomata, is a key component of the terrestrial water balance, influencing streamflow as well as regional convective systems. From a plant physiological perspective, transpiration is both a means of avoiding destructive leaf temperatures through evaporative cooling and a consequence of water loss through stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide. Despite its hydrologic and ecological significance, transpiration remains a notoriously challenging process to measure in heterogeneous landscapes. Sap flow methods, which estimate transpiration by tracking the velocity of a heat pulse emitted into the tree sap stream, have proven effective for relating transpiration dynamics to climatic variables. To scale sap flow-based transpiration from the measured domain (often area) to the whole-tree level, researchers generally assume constancy of scale factors (e.g., wood thermal diffusivity (k), radial and azimuthal distributions of sap velocity, and conducting sapwood area (As)) through time, across space, and within species. For the widely used heat-ratio sap flow method (HRM), we assessed the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to uncertainty in k (a function of wood moisture content and density) and As. A sensitivity analysis informed by distributions of wood moisture content, wood density and As sampled across a gradient of water availability indicates that uncertainty in these variables can impart substantial error when scaling sap flow measurements to the whole tree. For species with variable wood properties, the application of the HRM assuming a spatially constant k or As may systematically over- or underestimate whole-tree transpiration rates, resulting in compounded error in ecosystem-scale estimates of transpiration.

  1. The influence of a spatial displacement of hydrogen on the reactivity and neutron flux density distribution in a ZrH-moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, J.; Bartsch, G.

    1975-08-01

    The effect of changes of the hydrogen concentration in uranium zirconium hydride resulting from spatially varying temperatures on the reactivity and neutron flux distribution of the BER-II core (power 2.2 MW) are shown. Furthermore, in general, the influence of the hydrogen concentration on important reactor parameters of a fuel cell of BER-II is calculated and presented. A comparison of the diffusion calculation with spatially constant hydrogen concentrations shows a decrease of the thermal neutron flux density in regions with a low hydrogen content (high temperature) and inversely an increase for high hydrogen concentrations. Furthermore, a change of the effective multiplication factor by 0.6% was found in the case of a spatially varying hydrogen concentration as compared with the calculation for a constant concentration. (orig.) [de

  2. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  3. Simulation of electron density disturbances of the ionospheric D region produced by high-energy particle fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the large-scale tim expansion analytical solutions of electron concentration balance equation in D-region of the ionosphere for pulsed and periodic changes in the rate of ion formatin under the effect of fluxes of precipitating high-energy particles are obtained. Possible effect of disturbances of temperature of nutrals is taken into account. On the basis of model representations the space-time structure of emerging ionospheric disturbances is discussed

  4. Regions of existence of two forms of the critical void fraction dependence on heat flux density at burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, V.N.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the available experimental data considered is the burnout during the movement of steam-water flow in vertical heated tubes with internal diameter from 8 to 40 mm. Critical steam content Xsub(cr) dependences on the critical heat flux qsub(cr) in different tubes and under different pressure are analyzed. Two main regions of the weak and strong dependences Xsub(cr)=f(qsub(cr)) at burnout are found out [ru

  5. Sap flow is Underestimated by Thermal Dissipation Sensors due to Alterations of Wood Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Wiedemann, A.; van den Bulcke, J.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.; Steppe, K.

    2014-12-01

    impeded the observation of differences in the extension or density of tyloses among 5, 11 and 22 weeks old wounds. This was also consistent with sap flow measured with the corresponding sensors. These results will help to improve the accuracy of sap flow measurements with thermal dissipation TD probes.

  6. Can Sap Flow Help Us to Better Understand Transpiration Patterns in Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Blume, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions and for improving the parameterisation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. At the tree scale, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status, stand-specific characteristics such as basal area or stand density and site-specific characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect control sap flow of individual trees. However, little is known about the relative importance or the dynamic interplay of these controls. We studied these influences with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites spread over a 290 km²-catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we applied linear models to the daily spatial pattern of sap velocity and determined the importance of the different predictors. By upscaling sap velocities to the tree level with the help of species-dependent empirical estimates for sapwood area we also examined patterns of sap flow as a more direct representation of transpiration. Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in this landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow, the site-specific predictors provided the largest contribution to the explained variance, however, in contrast to the sap velocity analysis, geology was more important than aspect. Spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explained only a small fraction of the variance. However, the temporal dynamics of the explanatory power of the tree-specific characteristics, especially species, were

  7. SAP ERP financial accounting and controlling configuration and use management

    CERN Document Server

    Okungbowa, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SAP ERP modules are notoriously hard to configure and use effectively without a lot of practice and experience. But as SAP ERP Financial Accounting and Controlling: Configuration and Use Management shows, it doesn't have to be so difficult. The book takes a systematic approach that leads SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling (FICO) users step by step through configuring and using all the program's facets. This approach makes configuration complexities manageable. The book's author-SAP expert, trainer, and accountant Andrew Okun

  8. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  9. [Responses of sap flow to natural rainfall and continuous drought of tree species growing on bedrock outcrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Ding, Ya Li; Chen, Hong Song; Wang, Ke Lin; Nie, Yun Peng

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on bedrock outcrops, a very common habitat in karst region of southwest China. To reveal the responses of plant transpiration to natural rainfall and continuous drought, two tree species typical to this habitat, Radermachera sinica and Triadica rotundifolia, were selected as test materials. A rainout shelter was used to simulate continuous drought. The sap flow dynamics were monitored using the method of Granier's thermal dissipation probe (TDP). Our results showed that sap flow density increased to different degrees after rain in different stages of the growing season. Sap flow density of the deciduous species T. rotundifolia was always higher than that of the semi-deciduous species R. sinica. After two months without rainfall input, both species exhibited no obvious decrease in sap flow density, indicating that rainfall was not the dominant source for their water uptake, at least in the short-term. Based on the regression relationships between sap flow density and meteorological factors before and after rainfall, as well as at different stages of continuous drought, we found that the dynamics of meteorological factors contributed little to plant transpiration. The basic transpiration characteristics of both species were not changed in the circumstance of natural rainfall and short-term continuous drought, which would be closely related to the special water storage environments of bedrock outcrops and the reliance on deep water sources by tree species.

  10. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  11. [Rainfall effects on the sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Zha, Than Shan; Jia, Xin; Qin, Shu Gao; Qian, Duo; Guo, Xiao Nan; Chen, Guo Peng

    2016-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, plant physiological responses to water availability depend largely on the intensity and frequency of rain events. Knowledge on the responses of xerophytic plants to rain events is important for predicting the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems under changing climate. The sap flow of Hedysarum scoparium in the Mu Us Sand Land was continuously measured during the growing season of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to quantify the dynamics of sap flow under different weather conditions, and to examine the responses of sap flow to rain events of different sizes. The results showed that the daily sap flow rates of H. scoparium were lower on rainy days than on clear days. On clear days, the sap flow of H. scoparium showed a midday plateau, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and relative humidity. On rainy days, the sap flow fluctuated at low levels, and was positively correlated with solar radiation and air temperature. Rain events not only affected the sap flow on rainy days through variations in climatic factors (e.g., solar radiation and air temperature), but also affected post-rainfall sap flow velocities though changes in soil moisture. Small rain events (sap flow, whereas large rain events (>20 mm) significantly increased the sap flow on days following rainfall. Rain-wetted soil conditions not only resulted in higher sap flow velocities, but also enhanced the sensitivity of sap flow to solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and air temperature.

  12. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  13. Effect of vertically aligned carbon nanotube density on the water flux and salt rejection in desalination membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Samarth; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) membranes of different densities are developed and their performances are investigated. VACNT arrays of densities 5 × 10(9), 10(10), 5 × 10(10) and 10(11) tubes cm(-2), are initially grown on 1 cm × 1 cm silicon substrates using chemical vapour deposition. A VACNT membrane is realised by attaching a 300 μm-thick 1 cm × 1 cm VACNT array on silicon to a 4″ glass substrate, applying polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through spin coating to fill the gaps between the VACNTs, and using a microtome to slice the VACNT-PDMS composite into 25-μm-thick membranes. Experimental results show that the permeability of the developed VACNT membranes increases with the density of the VACNTs, while the salt rejection is almost independent of the VACNT density. The best measured permeance is attained with a VACNT membrane having a CNT density of 10(11) tubes cm(-2) is 1203 LMH at 1 bar.

  14. Investigation of the properties of the flux and interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays by the method of local-muon-density spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.

  15. Proposal of C-core Type Transverse Flux Motor for Ship Propulsion – Increasing Torque Density by Dense Stator Configuration –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yamamoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric ship propulsion system has been drawing attention as a solution for savings in energy and maintenance costs. The system is mainly composed of motor, converter and gearbox and required for high torque at low speed. In this situation, transverse flux motors (TFMs have been proposed to fulfill the low-speed high-torque characteristic due to suitable for short pole pitch and large number of poles to increase torque output. In this trend, we have proposed C-core type motors taking advantage of TFMs’ structure. In this manuscript, a simple design method based on the magnetic-circuit theory and simple modeling of the motor is proposed to search a design parameter for maximizing torque as a pre-process of numerical study. The method takes into consideration the effects of magnetic leakage flux, magnetic saturation and pole-core combination in accordance with the systematic theory. The simple modeling is conducted based on a dense armature structure in previous axial flux motors (AFMs applied to the new motor design. The validity of the method is verified by 3-D finite element analysis (FEA and relative error is at most 20%. The minimalist design is shown to be advantageous for effective use in 3-D FEA. As a detailed design by the FEA, high torque density and low cogging to output ratio can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed machine.

  16. Poloidal density variation of impurities in a rotating tokamak plasma - flux surface coordinates and effect on transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, M.

    1999-09-01

    The poloidal variation of impurity densities over magnetic surfaces brings about an enhancement of neoclassical transport coefficients, as shown by Romanelli and Ottaviani for impurities in the Pfirsch Schlueter regime and by Helander for particles in the banana-plateau regime, both in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The same effect will occur in a finite aspect ratio tokamak and therefore it is considered to be relevant for inclusion in transport codes for comparison with the experimental measurements of impurity transport. Here an expression for the impurity-density poloidal-variation generated by the fast toroidal rotation of the plasma column is presented in general coordinates. (author)

  17. Vapor Pressure Deficit and Sap Velocity Dynamic Coupling in Canopy Dominant Trees in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Gimenez, B.; Jardine, K.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Cobello, L. O.; Fontes, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Higuchi, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial water fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, especially in tropical forests which recycle large fluxes of water to the atmosphere. This need has become more relevant due to observed records in global temperature. In this study we show a strong temporal correlation between sap velocity and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As VPDs in the upper canopy (20-30 m) varied throughout the day and night, basal sap velocity (1.5 m) responded rapidly without an observable delay (< 15 min). Sap velocity showed a sigmoidal dependence on VPDs including an exponential increase, an inflection point, and a plateau, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential was evident with morning periods showing higher sensitivities to VPD than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf gas exchange observations revealed a morning to midday peak in stomatal conductance, but midday to afternoon peak in transpiration and VPD. Thus, our study confirms that the temporal lag between the Gs peak and VPD peak are the major regulators of the hysteresis phenomenon as previously described by other studies. Moreover, out study provide direct evidence for the role of decreased stomatal conductance in the warm afternoon periods to reduce transpiration and allow for the partial recovery of leaf water potential to less negative values. Our results suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes from ecosystem to regional scales using remote sensing of vegetation temperature from, for example, thermal images of satellites and drones.

  18. A global database of sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET) to link plant and ecosystem physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Flo, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Regional and global networks of ecosystem CO2 and water flux monitoring have dramatically increased our understanding of ecosystem functioning in the last 20 years. More recently, analyses of ecosystem-level fluxes have successfully incorporated data streams at coarser (remote sensing) and finer (plant traits) organisational scales. However, there are few data sources that capture the diel to seasonal dynamics of whole-plant physiology and that can provide a link between organism- and ecosystem-level function. Sap flow measured in plant stems reveals the temporal patterns in plant water transport, as mediated by stomatal regulation and hydraulic architecture. The widespread use of thermometric methods of sap flow measurement since the 1990s has resulted in numerous data sets for hundreds of species and sites worldwide, but these data have remained fragmentary and generally unavailable for syntheses of regional to global scope. We are compiling the first global database of sub-daily sap flow measurements in individual plants (SAPFLUXNET), aimed at unravelling the environmental and biotic drivers of plant transpiration regulation globally. I will present the SAPFLUXNET data infrastructure and workflow, which is built upon flexible, open-source computing tools within the R environment (dedicated R packages and classes, interactive documents and apps with Rmarkdown and Shiny). Data collection started in mid-2016, we have already incorporated > 50 datasets representing > 40 species and > 350 individual plants, globally distributed, and the number of contributed data sets is increasing rapidly. I will provide a general overview of the distribution of available data sets according to climate, measurement method, species, functional groups and plant size attributes. In parallel to the sap flow data compilation, we have also collated published results from calibrations of sap flow methods, to provide a first quantification on the variability associated with different sap

  19. The influence of the number of activation detectors on the Seibersdorf - Milano intercomparison of neutron flux density spectra by WINDOWS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1981-02-01

    This work is a continuation of the work performed within the IAEA programme on standardization of reactor radiation measurements, one of the important objectives of which is the assistance to laboratories in Member States to implement or intercompare the multiple foil activation techniques for different neutron field measurements. The importance of these techniques is well recognized. In CESNEF-FERMI Politecnico di Milano, Italy, they have installed near the core of a water boiler of 50kW, a neutron filter made of B 4 C in order to obtain a neutron flux density spectrum that could be of utility in intercalibration problems connected with irradiation in fast assemblies. Dr. V. Sangiust from CESNEF kindly sent the input guess neutron flux density spectrum and a series of measured reaction rates to be treated by the IAEA Seibersdorf laboratory using the SAND-II and the WINDOWS unfolding codes. The meaningful comparison using partly the same ENDF/B IV cross section data is performed. In the present work we extended the investiga tion using WINDOWS unfolding code for different numbers of activation fo ils or reaction rates

  20. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracer kinetic studies of the low density lipoprotein metabolism in the fetal rat: An example for estimation of flux rates in the nonsteady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonne, D.; Schlag, B.; Winkler, L.; Dargel, R.

    1990-01-01

    To get insight into the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB flux in the rat fetus near term and in the early postnatal period, homologous apoE-free 125I-labeled LDL was injected into the umbilical vein of the rat fetus immediately after Caesarean section. Since the serum LDL-apoB spontaneously declined after birth, a time-dependent two-pool model was used to calculate the flux rates in the neonate from the specific activities of LDL-apoB up to 15 h post partum. An approximate value of LDL-apoB flux in the fetus at birth was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic data to the time of injection of the tracer. The data revealed that the turnover of LDL-apoB in the fetus (18.6 micrograms LDL-apoB/h per g body weight) exceeded that in the adult rat (0.4 microgram/h per g body weight) by at least one order of magnitude. Even 15 h after delivery, the LDL-apoB influx amounted to 2.5 micrograms/h per g body weight. The fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apoB in the fetus at term (0.39, h-1) slightly exceeded that in the adult animal (0.15, h-1) and reached the adult level within the first 3 h after birth and remained constant thereafter. In the rat fetus, LDL-apoB flux greatly exceeds that of VLDL-apoB. The data support the view of a direct synthesis and secretion of LDL, most probably by the fetal membranes

  2. [Validity of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales in obstetric patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskikh, I B; Musaeva, T S; Denisova, E A

    2012-01-01

    to estimate efficiency of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA scales for obstetric patients with heavy sepsis. 186 medical cards retrospective analysis of pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis, 40 women with urosepsis and puerperas with abdominal sepsis--66 was performed. Middle age of women was 26.7 (22.4-34.5). In population of puerperas with abdominal sepsis APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA scales showed to good calibration, however, high resolution was observed only in APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA (AUROC 0.95; 0.93; 0.92 respectively). APACHE III and SOFA scales provided qualitative prognosis in pregnant women with urosepsis; resolution ratio of these scales considerably exceeds APACHE II, SAPS 2 and SAPS 3 (AUROC 0.73; 0.74; 0.79 respectively). APACHE II scale is inapplicable because of a lack of calibration (X2 = 13.1; p < 0.01), and at other scales (APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA) was observed the insufficient resolution (AUROC < 0.9) in pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis. Prognostic possibilities assessment of score scales showed that APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales can be used for a lethality prognosis for puerperas with abdominal sepsis, in population of pregnant women with urosepsis--only APACHE III and SOFA, and with pulmonary sepsis--SAPS 3 and APACHE III only in case of additional clinical information.

  3. Conductivity of ion dielectrics during the mean flux-density electron- and X-ray pulse radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajsburd, D.I.; Mesyats, G.A.; Naminov, V.L.; Tavanov, Eh.G.

    1982-01-01

    Conductivity of ion dielectrics under electron and X-ray pulse radiation is investigated. Investigations have been conducted in the range of average beam densities in which extinction of low-energy conductivity takes place. Thin plates of alkali-halogen crystals have been used as samples. Small-dimensional accelerator with controlled beam parameters: 1-20 ns, 0.1-2000 A/cm 2 , 0.3-0.5 MeV has been used for radiation. Temperature dependence of conductivity current pulse is determined. Time resolution of 10 - 10 s is achieved. In the 70-300 K range it practically coincides with radiation pulse. An essential inertial constituent is observed below 300 K. It is shown that at average beam densities a comparable contribution into fast conductivity is made by intracentre conductivity independent of temperature and high-temperature conductivity which decreases with temperature with activation energy equal to the energy of short-wave background. That is why amplitude of fast constituent decreases with temperature slower than high-energy conductivity

  4. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  5. Comparison between nano-diamond and carbon nanotube doping effects on critical current density and flux pinning in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C H; Yang, Y; Munroe, P; Zhao, Y

    2007-01-01

    Doping effects of nano-diamond and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on critical current density of bulk MgB 2 have been studied. CNTs are found prone to be doped into the MgB 2 lattice whereas nano-diamond tends to form second-phase inclusions in the MgB 2 matrix, leading to a more significant improvement of J c (H) by doping by nano-diamond than by CNTs in MgB 2 . TEM reveals tightly packed MgB 2 nanograins (50-100 nm) with a dense distribution of diamond nanoparticles (10-20 nm) inside MgB 2 grains in nano-diamond-doped samples. Such a unique microstructure leads to a flux pinning behaviour different from that in CNTs-doped MgB 2

  6. 49 CFR 40.311 - What are the requirements concerning SAP reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements concerning SAP reports... Process § 40.311 What are the requirements concerning SAP reports? (a) As the SAP conducting the required... ensure that you receive SAP written reports directly from the SAP performing the evaluation and that no...

  7. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  8. Faculty perceptions of the integration of SAP in academic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Khoury

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare students for the workforce, academic programs incorporate a variety of tools that students are likely to use in their future careers. One of these tools employed by business and technology programs is the integration of live software applications such as SAP through the SAP University Alliance (SAP UA program. Since the SAP UA program has been around for only about 10 years and the available literature on the topic is limited, research is needed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the SAP UA program. A collaborative study of SAP UA faculty perceptions of their SAP UAs was conducted in the fall of 2011. Of the faculty invited to participate in the study, 31% completed the online survey. The results indicate that most faculty experienced difficulty implementing SAP into their programs and report that a need exists for more standardized curriculum and training, while a large percentage indicated that they are receiving the support they need from their schools and SAP.

  9. 49 CFR 40.295 - May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? 40.295 Section 40.295 Transportation Office... seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's recommendations? (a) As an employee...

  10. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  12. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Guo, J.; Zhang, D.; Wang, C. P.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model Author: Yang Lu, Yue Deng, Jiapeng Guo, Donghe Zhang, Chih-Ping Wang, Cheng Sheng Ion velocity in the Sub Aurora region observed by Satellites in storm time often shows a significant westward component. The high speed westward stream is distinguished with convection pattern. These kind of events are called Sub Aurora Polarization Stream (SAPS). In March 17th 2013 storm, DMSP F18 satellite observed several SAPS cases when crossing Sub Aurora region. In this study, Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been coupled to UCLA-RCM model to simulate the impact of SAPS during March 2013 event on the ionosphere/thermosphere. The particle precipitation and electric field from RCM has been used to drive GITM. The conductance calculated from GITM has feedback to RCM to make the coupling to be self-consistent. The comparison of GITM simulations with different SAPS specifications will be conducted. The neutral wind from simulation will be compared with GOCE satellite. The comparison between runs with SAPS and without SAPS will separate the effect of SAPS from others and illustrate the impact on the TIDS/TADS propagating to both poleward and equatorward directions.

  14. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) enhance efficient and eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In arid and semiarid regions of northern China, there is an increasing interest in using reduced rate of chemical fertilizer along with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different rates of SAP (low, 0.75; medium, 11.3 and high, 15.0 kg ha-1) ...

  15. Assessing the ERP-SAP implementation strategy from cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Syaiful, Bakhri; Sfenrianto; Nurul, Fajar Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Implementing ERP-SAP projects in Indonesian large enterprises frequently create headaches for the consultants, since there are always be a large gap between the outcomes of the SAP with the expected results. Indonesian enterprises have experience with a huge amount of investments and ended up with minor benefits. Despite its unprecedented benefits, the SAP strategy is still considered as a mandatory enterprise system for every enterprise to compete in the marketplaces. The article examines the SAP implementation from cultural perspectives to present new horizon that commonly ignored by major Indonesian enterprises. The article applies the multiple case studies with three large Indonesia enterprises, such as KS, the largest steel producer; GEM, a subsidiary of conglomerate enterprise operates in the mining industry, and HS, a subsidiary of the largest retailer in Asia with more than 700 stores in Indonesia. The outcome of the article is expected to provide a comprehensive analysis from cultural perspectives regarding to common problems faced by SAP consultants.

  16. Roles of coercivity and remanent flux density of permanent magnet in interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) performance for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hoyun; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lee, Woncheol; Choi, Minyeong

    2018-05-01

    We used four rotor topologies of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) to investigate the effects of remanent flux density (Br) and coercivity (Hc) of permanent magnet on motor performance. Commercial strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19: energy product, (BH)max, of 4.62 MGOe) and Nd-Fe-B ((BH)max of 38.2 MGOe) magnets were used for the rotor designs. The same machine specifications and magnet volume keep constant, while the Hc and Br vary to calculate torque and energy efficiency with the finite-element analysis. A combination of high Hc and low Br more effectively increased maximum torque of IPMSM when the hexaferrite magnet was used. For Nd-Fe-B magnet, the same combination did not affect maximum torque, but increased energy efficiency at high speed. Therefore, the Hc value of a permanent magnet is more effective than the Br in producing high maximum torque for SrM-magnet based IPMSM and high energy efficiency at high speed for Nd-Fe-B magnet based IPMSM.

  17. Generating an AC amplitude magnetic flux density value up to 150 μT at a frequency up to 100 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvr, Michal; Polonský, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    AC magnetic field analyzers with a triaxial coil probe are widely used by health and safety professionals, in manufacturing, and in service industries. For traceable calibration of these analyzers, it is important to be able to generate a stable, homogeneous reference AC magnetic flux density (MFD). In this paper, the generating of AC amplitude MFD value of 150 μT by single-layer Helmholtz type solenoid, described in previous work, was expanded up to a frequency of 100 kHz using the effect of serial resonance. A programmable capacitor array has been developed with a range of adjustable values from 50 pF to 51225 pF. In addition, the multi-layer search coil with a nominal area turns value of 1.3m2, used for adjusting AC MFD in the solenoid, has been modified by a transimpedance amplifier for use in a wider frequency range than up to 3 kHz. The possibility of using the programmable capacitor array up to 150 kHz has also been tested. An AC amplitude MFD value of 150 μT can be generated with expanded uncertainty better than 0.6% up to 100 kHz.

  18. Superconductivity, critical current density, and flux pinning in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductor after SiC nanoparticle doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Pan, A. V.; Zhou, S.; Ionescu, M.; Wang, X. L.; Horvat, J.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of SiC nanoparticle doping on the crystal lattice structure, critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, and flux pinning in MgB2 superconductor. A series of MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 samples with x=0-1.0 were fabricated using an in situ reaction process. The contraction of the lattice and depression of Tc with increasing SiC doping level remained rather small most likely due to the counterbalancing effect of Si and C co-doping. The high level Si and C co-doping allowed the creation of intragrain defects and highly dispersed nanoinclusions within the grains which can act as effective pinning centers for vortices, improving Jc behavior as a function of the applied magnetic field. The enhanced pinning is mainly attributable to the substitution-induced defects and local structure fluctuations within grains. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for different contributions of different defects in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductors.

  19. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxu; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang

    2017-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. PMID:28049627

  20. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (T FH ) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in T FH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient T FH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  1. Why size matters: the interactive influences of tree diameter distribution and sap flow parameters on upscaled transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Looker, Nathaniel; Holwerda, Friso; Gómez Aguilar, León Rodrigo; Ortiz Colin, Perla; González Martínez, Teresa; Asbjornsen, Heidi

    2018-02-01

    In stands with a broad range of diameters, a small number of very large trees can disproportionately influence stand basal area and transpiration (Et). Sap flow-based Et estimates may be particularly sensitive to large trees due to nonlinear relationships between tree-level water use (Q) and tree diameter at breast height (DBH). Because Q is typically predicted on the basis of DBH and sap flow rates measured in a subset of trees and then summed to obtain Et, we assessed the relative importance of DBH and sap flow variables (sap velocity, Vs, and sapwood depth, Rs) in determining the magnitude of Et and its dependence on large trees in a tropical montane forest ecosystem. Specifically, we developed a data-driven simulation framework to vary the relationship between DBH and Vs and stand DBH distribution and then calculate Q, Et and the proportion of Et contributed by the largest tree in each stand. Our results demonstrate that variation in how Rs is determined in the largest trees can alter estimates up to 26% of Et while variation in how Vs is determined can vary results by up to 132%. Taken together, these results highlight a great need to expand our understanding of water transport in large trees as this hinders our ability to predict water fluxes accurately from stand to catchment scales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 1. Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubczynski, Maciek W; Chavarro-Rincon, Diana; Roy, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Natural temperature gradient (NTG) can be a significant problem in thermal sap flow measurements, particularly in dry environments with sparse vegetation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel correction method called cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) in its thermal dissipation probe (TDP) application. The CHD method is based on cyclic, switching ON/OFF power schema measurements and a three-exponential model, extrapolating measured signal to steady state thermal equilibrium. The extrapolated signal OFF represents NTG, whereas the extrapolated signal ON represents standard TDP signal, biased by NTG. Therefore, subtraction of the OFF signal from the ON signal allows defining the unbiased TDP signal, finally processed according to standard Granier calibration. The in vivo Kalahari measurements were carried out in three steps on four different tree species, first as NTG, then as standard TDP and finally in CHD mode, each step for ∼1-2 days. Afterwards, each tree was separated from its stem following modified Roberts' (1977) procedure, and CHD verification was applied. The typical NTG varying from ∼0.5 °C during night-time to -1 °C during day-time, after CHD correction, resulted in significant reduction of sap flux densities (J(p)) as compared with the standard TDP, particularly distinct for low J(p). The verification of the CHD method indicated ∼20% agreement with the reference method, largely dependent on the sapwood area estimate. The proposed CHD method offers the following advantages: (i) in contrast to any other NTG correction method, it removes NTG bias from the measured signal by using in situ, extrapolated to thermal equilibrium signal; (ii) it does not need any specific calibration making use of the standard Granier calibration; (iii) it provides a physical background to the proposed NTG correction; (iv) it allows for power savings; (v) it is not tied to TDP, and so can be adapted to other thermal methods. In its current state, the CHD data

  3. Ada Apa Dengan SAP (AADS Akrual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Findi Tresnawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides anoverview regarding SAP accrual-based and its problems. It compares information content of PP 24/2005’s cash toward accrual and PP 71/2010’s accrual-based toshow the urgency of accrual-based financial reporting requirements. The analysis borrows Abeysekara’s accounting imperialism. Discussion also involves empirical evidence and evaluation of accrual-based implementation probability in Sumenep Regency. Findings show that accrual-based information is not an urgent need and tends to be difficult to be implemented. Reflecting the evidence in Sumenep, local governments are faced with the need of human resources, the question of the use-fulness of accrual information, and technical difficulties on implementation.

  4. Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

  5. Quantifying ozone uptake at the canopy level of spruce, pine and larch trees at the alpine timberline: an approach based on sap flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.; Koestner, B.; Oberhuber, W.

    2003-01-01

    Sap-flow based measurements can be used to estimate ozone uptake at whole-tree and stand levels. - Micro-climatic and ambient ozone data were combined with measurements of sap flow through tree trunks in order to estimate whole-tree ozone uptake of adult Norway spruce (Picea abies), cembran pine (Pinus cembra), and European larch (Larix decidua) trees. Sap flow was monitored by means of the heat balance approach in two trees of each species during the growing season of 1998. In trees making up the stand canopy, the ozone uptake by evergreen foliages was significantly higher than by deciduous ones, when scaled to the ground area. However, if expressed per unit of whole-tree foliage area, ozone flux through the stomata into the needle mesophyll was 1.09, 1.18 and 1.40 nmol m -2 s -1 in Picea abies, Pinus cembra and Larix decidua, respectively. These fluxes are consistent with findings from measurements of needle gas exchange, published from the same species at the study site. It is concluded that the sap flow-based approach offers an inexpensive, spatially and temporally integrating way for estimating ozone uptake at the whole-tree and stand level, intrinsically covering the effect of boundary layers on ozone flux

  6. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-04-01

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Growth and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Perilla as Affected by Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density and Electrical Conductivity of the Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for medicinal plants is increasing. The quality of plants grown outdoors, however, is difficult to control. Myriad environmental factors influence plant growth and directly impact biosynthetic pathways, thus affecting the secondary metabolism of bioactive compounds. Plant factories use artificial lighting to increase the quality of medicinal plants and stabilize production. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD and electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solutions are two important factors that substantially influence perilla (Perilla frutescens, Labiatae plant growth and quality. To identify suitable levels of PPFD and EC for perilla plants grown in a plant factory, the growth, photosynthesis, and accumulation of secondary metabolites in red and green perilla plants were measured at PPFD values of 100, 200, and 300 μmol m-2 s-1 in nutrient solutions with EC values of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 dS m-1. The results showed significant interactive effects between PPFD and EC for both the fresh and dry weights of green perilla, but not for red perilla. The fresh and dry weights of shoots and leafy areas were affected more by EC than by PPFD in green perilla, whereas they were affected more by PPFD than by EC in red perilla. Leaf net photosynthetic rates were increased as PPFD increased in both perilla varieties, regardless of EC. The perillaldehyde concentration (mg g-1 in red perilla was unaffected by the treatments, but accumulation in plants (mg per plant was significantly enhanced as the weight of dry leaves increased. Perillaldehyde concentrations in green perilla showed significant differences between combinations of the highest PPFD with the highest EC and the lowest PPFD with the lowest EC. Rosmarinic acid concentration (mg g-1 was increased in a combination of low EC and high PPFD conditions. Optimal cultivation conditions of red and green perilla in plant factory will be discussed in terms of plant growth and contents of

  8. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605... Assessment Plan (SAP)? (a) A SAP describes the activities (e.g., installation of meteorological towers... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your...

  9. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  10. Radial variation in sap velocity as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness in yellow-poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; King, Anthony W.

    2000-04-01

    Canopy transpiration and forest water use are frequently estimated as the product of sap velocity and cross-sectional sapwood area. Few studies, however, have considered whether radial variation in sap velocity and the proportion of sapwood active in water transport are significant sources of uncertainty in the extrapolation process. Therefore, radial profiles of sap velocity were examined as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness for yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees growing on two adjacent watersheds in eastern Tennessee. The compensation heat pulse velocity technique was used to quantify sap velocity at four equal-area depths in 20 trees that ranged in stem diameter from 15 to 69 cm, and in sapwood thickness from 2.1 to 14.8 cm. Sap velocity was highly dependent on the depth of probe insertion into the sapwood. Rates of sap velocity were greatest for probes located in the two outer sapwood annuli (P1 and P2) and lowest for probes in closest proximity to the heartwood (P3 and P4). Relative sap velocities averaged 0.98 at P1, 0.66 at P2, 0.41 at P3 and 0.35 at P4. Tree-specific sap velocities measured at each of the four probe positions, divided by the maximum sap velocity measured (usually at P1 or P2), indicated that the fraction of sapwood functional in water transport (f(S)) varied between 0.49 and 0.96. There was no relationship between f(S) and sapwood thickness, or between f(S) and stem diameter. The fraction of functional sapwood averaged 0.66 +/- 0.13 for trees on which radial profiles were determined. No significant depth-related differences were observed for sapwood density, which averaged 469 kg m(-3) across all four probe positions. There was, however, a significant decline in sapwood water content between the two outer probe positions (1.04 versus 0.89 kg kg(-1)). This difference was not sufficient to account for the observed radial variation in sap velocity. A Monte-Carlo analysis indicated that the standard error in

  11. The installations maintenance control using SAP R/3; O controle de manutencao de instalacoes utilizando o SAP R/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges; Jorge, Kemal Vieira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A.) began their operations in 1999 and since the beginning the SAP R/3 PM module (Plant Maintenance) is used for the control of the maintenance activities and to manager the Master Maintenance and Inspection Plans. On these five years, a series of reports and SAP functionalities were developed or configured to adapt the system R/3 to the needs of TBG maintenance. Now, the whole management and control of the surface facilities maintenance (compression station, city gate, measurement station, etc) is accomplished by SAP R/3 system. (author)

  12. Map of important transactions and master data in SAP ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This image represents the most important transactions and master data in SAP ERP as a tube map. As such, it covers most of the content of Magal & Word (2012) Integrated Business Processes with ERP Systems. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

  13. REA analysis of SAP HCM; some initial findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Polovina, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores further the claim that the Transaction-Oriented Architecture (TOA) based on the principles of Resources, Events, Agents (REA) can enhance Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems by providing a principled theoretical basis that can underpin ERP business process implementations. We provide details of some of our initial findings of the REA/TOA analysis which we carried out on the SAP Human Capital Management (HCM) module. Given that SAP is recognized as the dominant ERP s...

  14. Implantación del sistema ERP SAP R/3

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Fernandez, Jorge Juan

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido realizar un estudio de investigación y desarrollo sobre la implantación del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 de una empresa. L'objectiu d'aquest treball final de carrera ha estat realitzar un estudi d'investigació i desenvolupament sobre la implantació del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 d'una empresa.

  15. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  16. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  17. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose→glucose→cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season. (author)

  18. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-12-09

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension.

  19. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Rogers, A E; Treisman, R

    1995-06-01

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of Serum Response Factor (SRF) and Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element (SRE) to growth factors and mitogens. Three Ets domain proteins, Elk-1, SAP-1 and ERP/NET, have been reported to have the properties of TCF. Here we compare Elk-1 and SAP-1a with the human ERP/NET homologue SAP-2. All three TCF RNAs are ubiquitously expressed at similar relative levels. All three proteins contain conserved regions that interact with SRF and the c-fos SRE with comparable efficiency, but in vitro complex formation by SAP-2 is strongly inhibited by its C-terminal sequences. Similarly, only Elk-1 and SAP-1a efficiently bind the c-fos SRE in vivo; ternary complex formation by SAP-2 is weak and is substantially unaffected by serum stimulation or v-ras co-expression. All three TCFs contain C-terminal transcriptional activation domains that are phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Activation requires conserved S/T-P motifs found in all the TCF family members. Each TCF activation domain can be phosphorylated in vitro by partially purified ERK2, and ERK activation in vivo is sufficient to potentiate transcriptional activation.

  20. Testing joint inversion techniques of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux at a well-characterized site for use in the detection of subsurface density structures beneath volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosburn, K.; Roy, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining accurate static and time-dependent shallow subsurface density structure beneath volcanic, hydrogeologic, and tectonic targets can help illuminate active processes of fluid flow and magma transport. A limitation of using surface gravity measurements for such imaging is that these observations are vastly underdetermined and non-unique. In order to hone in on a more accurate solution, other data sets are needed to provide constraints, typically seismic or borehole observations. The spatial resolution of these techniques, however, is relatively poor, and a novel solution to this problem in recent years has been to use attenuation of the cosmic ray muon flux, which provides an independent constraint on density. In this study we present a joint inversion of gravity and cosmic ray muon flux observations to infer the density structure of a target rock volume at a well-characterized site near Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. We investigate the shallow structure of a mesa formed by the Quaternary ash-flow tuffs on the Pajarito Plateau, flanking the Jemez volcano in New Mexico. Gravity measurements were made using a Lacoste and Romberg D meter on the surface of the mesa and inside a tunnel beneath the mesa. Muon flux measurements were also made at the mesa surface and at various points within the same tunnel using a muon detector having an acceptance region of 45 degrees from the vertical and a track resolution of several milliradians. We expect the combination of muon and gravity data to provide us with enhanced resolution as well as the ability to sense deeper structures in our region of interest. We use Bayesian joint inversion techniques on the gravity-muon dataset to test these ideas, building upon previous work using gravity inversion alone to resolve density structure in our study area. Both the regional geology and geometry of our study area is well-known and we assess the inferred density structure from our gravity-muon joint inversion within this known

  1. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  2. Enhancement of Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning in Acetone and La2O3 Codoped MgB2 Tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhao-Shun; Ma Yan-Wei; Wang Dong-Liang; Zhang Xian-Ping; Awaji Satoshi; Watanabe Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    MgB 2 tape samples with simultaneous additions of acetone and La 2 O 3 were prepared by an in-situ processed powder-in-tube method. Compared to the pure and single doped tapes, both transport J c and fluxing pinning are greatly improved by acetone and La 2 O 3 codoping. Acetone supplies carbon into the MgB 2 crystal lattice and increases the upper critical field, while the La 2 O 3 reacts with B to form LaB 6 nanoparticles as effective flux pining centers. The improvement of the superconducting properties in codoped tapes can be attributed to the combined effects of improvement in H c2 and flux pinning. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. A technique for determining fast and thermal neutron flux densities in intense high-energy (8-30 MeV) photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.W.; Holeman, G.R.; Nath, R.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for measuring fast and thermal neutron fluxes in intense high-energy photon fields has been developed. Samples of phorphorous pentoxide are exposed to a mixed photon-neutron field. The irradiated samples are then dissolved in distilled water and their activation products are counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer at 95-97% efficiency. The radioactive decay characteristics of the samples are then analyzed to determine fast and thermal neutron fluxes. Sensitivity of this neutron detector to high energy photons has been measured and found to be small. (author)

  4. Development and psychometric evaluation of the self-assessment of psoriasis symptoms (SAPS) - clinical trial and the SAPS - real world patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Stokes, Jonathan; Sundaram, Murali; Shields, Alan L

    2017-09-01

    The Self-Assessment of Psoriasis Symptoms - Clinical Trials (SAPS-CT) and SAPS - Real World (SAPS-RW) were simultaneously created to assess the experience of plaque psoriasis in two unique contexts. Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted in four phases namely concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Following concept elicitation, 18 concepts were selected to inform questionnaire construction of the SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW. To accommodate each context of use, the SAPS-CT asks respondents to rate the target symptom 'at its worst' in the 24 h prior to assessment, while the SAPS-RW asks respondents to rate the target symptom "on average" in the 7 days prior to assessment. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that patients could comprehend and provide meaningful responses to both versions and, after minor modifications, resulted in 11-item questionnaires administered in an observational study (N = 200). Results from the observational study informed further item reduction (SAPS-RW to six items and SAPS-CT to nine items) and demonstrated that scores from each were reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.90, test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70), construct valid and able to differentiate among clinically distinct groups. The SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW are content-valid PRO questionnaires capable of producing psychometrically sound scores when administered chronic to plaque psoriasis patients.

  5. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  6. Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers’ operational work. Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers’ work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers’ inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.

  7. Auditoria fiscal previdenciária em ambiente SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre David Viva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca identificar meios para efetuar auditoria fiscal nos bancos de dados do SAP - o mais adotado ERP da atualidade (Bae e Ashcroft, 2004, 1 e 5; Khan, 2005, 5. Pretende-se concentrar no método de acesso às tabelas SAP, um dos cinco métodos de acesso aos bancos de dados de ERP (Neil Raden, 2004, 10. Em um primeiro momento, é necessário o levantamento, por empresa, de uma listagem dos cabeçalhos das tabelas com as quais ela trabalha, em bancos de dados que já alcançam os terabytes (SAP, SAP NetWeaver: 50. Como o SAP é um programa multilíngüe e multiempresarial, suas tabelas são criptografadas, isto é, os nomes das tabelas e de duas colunas não guardam a menor relação com os dados que elas registram (Saphir, 2004, 1. Em um segundo momento, então, por meio do ACL, a listagem de cabeçalhos de tabelas obtida é filtrada. As tabelas que interessam ao Fisco são solicitadas à empresa de uma forma mais precisa, de modo a não sobrecarregar nem a empresa nem do Fisco. Em um terceiro momento, ainda com auxílio do ACL, as tabelas especificadas são analisadas (Primeiros Passos, 2003, 3.

  8. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix melichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gaschromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of potassium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  9. Analysis of bleeding saps and radioactive measurements of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomernik-Besser, E.

    1993-07-01

    Samples of bleeding sap of Betula pendula Roth, Betula lutea L., Betula papyrifera L., Betula mandshuria L., Salix mielichoferi Saut., Cornus florida L., Evodea velutina L., Vitis amurensis L., Acer tartaricum L., Aesculus parviflora L., and Juglans regia L. in the botanical garden in Graz have been collected during springs of 1987, 1988, and 1989. After a special treatment (ion-exchange and freeze-drying) the bleeding saps have been searched for the compounds of sugars, amino acids and organic acids by gas-chromatrography. LAMMA-spectra showed the ion composition, and radioactivity measurements on leaves of the trees have also been made. In all bleeding saps sugars could be identified in various concentrations, mainly glucose and fructose. All trees showed nearly the same acid spectrum, and the most common ingredient was malic acid. In the bleeding saps of the Betulaceae and Juglans regia the major constituent was citrulline. In Acer tartaricum allantoine was present in large concentration. In Evodea velutina, Aesculus parviflora, Vitis amurensis and Cornus florida glutamin could be identified in large concentration. After the reactor accident of Tschernobyl in April 1986 the number of synthetic radionuclides increased and they could be identified. The LAMMA-spectra showed high contents of kalium and calcium in the bleeding saps. (author)

  10. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.

    2012-12-01

    Femtocells are promising techniques employed in cellular systems to enhance the indoor coverage, especially in areas with high density and high traffic rates. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource utilization protocol, named shared access protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed system model, we obtain, in closed-form, the main signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) characteristics, including the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF). In addition, these expressions are further used to derive several performance metrics in closed-form, such as, the average bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and the average channel capacity for the proposed SAP herein. Furthermore, Monte-carlo simulations as well as numerical results are provided showing a good match that ensures and confirms the correctness of the derived expressions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Root Hydraulics and Root Sap Flow in a Panamanian Low-Land Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretfeld, M.; Ewers, B. E.; Hall, J. S.; Ogden, F. L.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, trees are subjected to increasingly frequent and severe droughts driven by climate change. Given the hydrological benefits associated with tropical forests, such as reduced peak runoff during high precipitation events and increased base flow during drought periods ("sponge-effect"), the underlying plant-hydrological processes at the soil-plant interface have become the focus of recent research efforts. In Panama, the 2015/16 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event ranks amongst the driest and hottest periods on record, thus providing an excellent opportunity to study the effects of drought on tropical forests. Starting in 2015, we instrumented 76 trees with heat-ratio sap flow sensors in regrowing secondary forest (8-, 25-, and 80-year old stands) in the 15 km2 Agua Salud study area, located in central Panama. Of those trees, 16 individuals were instrumented with additional sap flow sensors on three roots each. Data were logged every 30 minutes and soil moisture was measured at 10, 30, 50, and 100 cm depth. Meteorological data were taken from a nearby met-station. Rooting depth and root density were assessed in eight 2×2×2 m soil pits. In April 2017, we measured hydraulic conductance and vulnerability to cavitation of eight species using the centrifuge technique. Trees in 8-year old forest limited transpiration during the drought whereas no such limitation was evident in trees of the 80-year old forest. Root sap flow data show seasonal shifts in water uptake between individual roots of a given tree, with sap flow decreasing in some roots while simultaneously increasing in other roots during the wet-dry season transition. Roots followed a typical log distribution along the profile, with overall root densities of 46, 43, and 52 roots m-2 in the 8-, 25-, and 80-yo stand, respectively. Roots were found up to 200 cm depth in all forests, with roots >5 cm occurring at lower depths (>125 cm) only in 25- and 80-year old forests. Maximum hydraulic

  12. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  13. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  14. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  15. The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study: Masdar ... administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying the contribution of ... Keywords: SAP, human resources management, Masdar Building Materials Company ...

  16. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry.......In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...

  17. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Anderson, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS), characterized by large subauroral E x B velocities that span from dusk to the early morning sector for high magnetic activity, result from strong magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We investigate how electron and ion precipitation and the ionospheric conductance affect the simulated development of the SAPS electric field for the 17 March 2013 storm. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the SAPS. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. Ions are scattered at a fraction of strong pitch-angle scattering where the fraction is scaled by epsilon, the ratio of the gyroradius to the field-line radius of curvature, when epsilon is greater than 0.1. The electron and proton contributions to the auroral conductance in the RCM-E are calculated using the empirical Robinson et al. [JGR, 1987] and Galand and Richmond [JGR, 2001] equations, respectively. The "background" ionospheric conductance is based on parameters from the International Reference Ionosphere [Bilitza and Reinisch, JASR, 2008] but modified to include the effect of specified ionospheric troughs. Parameterized simulations will aid in understanding the underlying physical process. We compare simulated precipitating particle energy flux and E x B velocities with DMSP observations where SAPS are observed during the 17 March 2013 storm. Analysis of discerpancies between the simulation results and data will aid us in assessing needed improvements in the model.

  18. Ozone uptake by adult urban trees based on sap flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Zhou Weiqi; Wang Xiaoke; Gao Fuyuan; Zheng Hua; Tong Lei; Ouyang Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    The O 3 uptake in 17 adult trees of six urban species was evaluated by the sap flow-based approach under free atmospheric conditions. The results showed very large species differences in ground area scaled whole-tree ozone uptake (F O 3 ), with estimates ranging from 0.61 ± 0.07 nmol m −2 s −1 in Robinia pseudoacacia to 4.80 ± 1.04 nmol m −2 s −1 in Magnolia liliiflora. However, average F O 3 by deciduous foliages was not significantly higher than that by evergreen ones (3.13 vs 2.21 nmol m −2 s −1 , p = 0.160). Species of high canopy conductance for O 3 (G O 3 ) took up more O 3 than those of low G O 3 , but that their sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (D) were also higher, and their F O 3 decreased faster with increasing D, regardless of species. The responses of F O 3 to D and total radiation led to the relative high flux of O 3 uptake, indicating high ozone risk for urban tree species. - Highlights: ► O 3 uptake by urban trees varied considering contrasting species and study period. ►The responses of G O 3 to microclimate lead to relative high O 3 uptake by urban trees. ►Many urban species are susceptible to O 3 damage. ►The annual O 3 uptake in our study is greatly less than that from modeling approaches. ►The difference suggests considering the species-specific flux in O 3 risk assessment. - Sap flow-based O 3 uptake among urban species suggests high capacity and variation of ozone uptake, as well as potentially detrimental effects to urban species.

  19. 49 CFR 40.281 - Who is qualified to act as a SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is qualified to act as a SAP? 40.281 Section... § 40.281 Who is qualified to act as a SAP? To be permitted to act as a SAP in the DOT drug and alcohol.... (2) You must be knowledgeable about the SAP function as it relates to employer interests in safety...

  20. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  1. Five years' experience of the new SAPs: overview and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the five years' experience gained in applying the new safety assessment principles (SAPs). Beginning with a brief history of SAPs, it goes on to discuss their structure and their relevance to safety matters. It develops some of the more basic issues which users have to bear in mind and also considers how SAPs are used by NII. Finally, there is a look forward to future developments in SAPs usage and application. (author)

  2. 49 CFR 40.285 - When is a SAP evaluation required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a SAP evaluation required? 40.285 Section... § 40.285 When is a SAP evaluation required? (a) As an employee, when you have violated DOT drug and... unless you complete the SAP evaluation, referral, and education/treatment process set forth in this...

  3. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted SAP, and additional information provided pursuant to § 285.611, to determine if it...

  4. 30 CFR 285.606 - What must I demonstrate in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I demonstrate in my SAP? 285.606 Section 285.606 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... demonstrate in my SAP? (a) Your SAP must demonstrate that you have planned and are prepared to conduct the...

  5. 49 CFR 40.289 - Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are employers required to provide SAP and... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.289 Are employers required to provide SAP and treatment services to employees? (a) As an employer, you are not required to provide a SAP evaluation or any...

  6. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.297 Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial... managed-care provider, any service agent) may change in any way the SAP's evaluation or recommendations...

  7. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  8. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  9. Determining sap sweetness in small sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. Koelling

    1967-01-01

    Describes a technique based on the use of a hypodermic needle for determining sap-sugar concentrations in small trees. The technique is applicable to pot cultures in greenhouses and also, with the use of a movable shelter, to seedlings in nursery beds.

  10. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  11. SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards 4.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with a good command and knowledge of creating dashboards, but are not yet an advanced user of SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards, then this is the perfect book for you. Prerequisites include a good working knowledge of Microsoft Excel as well as knowledge of basic dashboard practices.

  12. Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in Concrete Construction State-of-the-Art Report Prepared by Technical Committee 225-SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This is the state-of-the-art report prepared by the RILEM TC “Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in concrete construction”. It gives a comprehensive overview of the properties of SAP, specific water absorption and desorption behaviour of SAP in fresh and hardening concrete, effects of the SAP addition on rheological properties of fresh concrete, changes of cement paste microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. Furthermore, the key advantages of using SAP are described in detail: the ability of this material to act as an internal curing agent to mitigate autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete, the possibility to use SAP as an alternative to air-entrainment agents in order to increase the frost resistance of concrete, and finally, the benefit of steering the rheology of fresh cement-based materials. The final chapter describes the first existing and numerous prospective applications for this new concrete additive.

  13. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, Tamiris; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Cortez, Cristian; Almeida, Igor C; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco

    2013-01-01

    To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP) comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD) responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP) and polyclonal (anti-SAP) antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs). Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE) that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP proteins and proposes a triggering role for extracellular SAP

  14. Water relations in silver birch during springtime: How is sap pressurised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Dominguez Carrasco, M D R; Salmon, Y; Aalto, J; Vanhatalo, A; Bäck, J; Lintunen, A

    2018-05-06

    Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurisation period. The diurnal dynamics of xylem sap pressure and sap flow during the sap pressurisation period varied, but were more often opposite to the diurnal pattern after bud burst, i.e. sap pressure increased and sap flow rate mostly decreased when temperature increased. Net conversion of soluble sugars to starch in the stem and roots occurred during the sap pressurisation period. Xylem sap osmotic pressure was small in comparison to total sap pressure, and it did not follow changes in environmental conditions or tree water relations. Based on these findings, we suggest that xylem sap pressurisation and embolism refilling occur gradually over a few weeks through water transfer from parenchyma cells to xylem vessels during daytime, and then the parenchyma are refilled mostly during nighttime by water uptake from soil. Possible drivers for water transfer from parenchyma cells to vessels are discussed. Also the functioning of thermal dissipation probes in conditions of changing stem water content is discussed. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  16. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  17. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  18. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  20. Serum Amyloid P Component (SAP) Interactome in Human Plasma Containing Physiological Calcium Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Pedersen, Kata Wolff; Marzeda, Anna Maria; Enghild, Jan J

    2017-02-14

    The pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) is secreted by the liver and found in plasma at a concentration of approximately 30 mg/L. SAP is a 25 kDa homopentamer known to bind both protein and nonprotein ligands, all in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of SAP is unclear but likely involves the humoral innate immune system spanning the complement system, inflammation, and coagulation. Also, SAP is known to bind to the generic structure of amyloid deposits and possibly to protect them against proteolysis. In this study, we have characterized the SAP interactome in human plasma containing the physiological Ca 2+ concentration using SAP affinity pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry analyses. The analyses resulted in the identification of 33 proteins, of which 24 were direct or indirect interaction partners not previously reported. The SAP interactome can be divided into categories that include apolipoproteins, the complement system, coagulation, and proteolytic regulation.

  1. Subauroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) Duration as Determined From Van Allen Probe Successive Electric Drift Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a characteristic feature of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, namely, the persistent and latitudinally narrow bands of rapid westward ion drifts called the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS). Despite countless works on SAPS, information relative to their durations is lacking. Here we report on the first statistical analysis of more than 200 near-equatorial SAPS observations based on more than 2 years of Van Allen Probe electric drift measurements. First, we present results relative to SAPS radial locations and amplitudes. Then, we introduce two different ways to estimate SAPS durations. In both cases, SAPS activity is estimated to last for about 9 h on average. However, our estimates for SAPS duration are limited either by the relatively long orbital periods of the spacecraft or by the relatively small number of observations involved. Fifty percent of the events fit within the time interval [0;18] hours.

  2. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  3. Critical current densities and flux creep rate in Co-doped BaFe2As2 with columnar defects introduced by heavy-Ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Taen, T.; Yagyuda, H.; Tamegai, T.; Okayasu, S.; Sasase, M.; Kitamura, H.; Murakami, T.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of columnar defects in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 single crystals with different heavy-ion irradiations. The formation of columnar defects by 200 MeV Au ion irradiation is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their density is about 40% of the irradiation dose. Magneto-optical imaging and bulk magnetization measurements reveal that the critical current density J c is enhanced in the 200 MeV Au and 800 MeV Xe ion irradiated samples while J c is unchanged in the 200 MeV Ni ion irradiated sample. We also find that vortex creep rates are strongly suppressed by the columnar defects. We compare the effect of heavy-ion irradiation into Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 and cuprate superconductors.

  4. Continuous magnetic flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A method and means for altering the intensity of a magnetic field by transposing flux from one location to the location desired fro the magnetic field are examined. The device described includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, is dimensioned to be insertable into one of the cavities and to substantially fill the cavity. Magnetic flux is first trapped in the cavities by establishing a magnetic field while the superconducting material is above the critical temperature at which it goes superconducting. Thereafter, the temperature of the material is reduced below the critical value, and then the exciting magnetic field may be removed. By varying the ratios of the areas of the two cavities, it is possible to produce a field having much greater flux density in the second, smaller cavity, into which the flux transposed.

  5. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  6. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  7. Co-current Doping Effect of Nanoscale Carbon and Aluminum Nitride on Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning Properties of Bulk MgB2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoscale aluminum nitride (n-AlN) and carbon (n-C) co-doping on superconducting properties of polycrystalline bulk MgB2 superconductor has been investigated. Polycrystalline pellets of MgB2, MgB2 + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano), MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} and MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano) have been synthesized by a solid reaction process under inert atmosphere. The transition temperature (TC) estimated from resistivity measurement indicates only a small decrease for C (nano) and co-doped MgB2 samples. The magnetic field response of investigated samples has been measured at 4, 10, and 20 K in the field range ± 6 T. MgB2 pellets co-doped with 0.5 wt% n-AlN and 1 wt% n-C display appreciable enhancement in critical current density (J_C) of MgB2 in both low (≥ 3 times), as well as, high-field region (≥ 15 times). J_C versus H behavior of both pristine and doped MgB2 pellets is well explained in the light of the collective pinning model. Further, the normalized pinning force density f_p(= F_p/F_{pmax}) displays a fair correspondence with the scaling procedure proposed by Eisterer et al. Moreover, the scaled data of the pinning force density (i.e., f_p{-}h data) of the investigated pellets at different temperature are well interpreted by a modified Dew-Hughes expression reported by Sandu and Chee.

  8. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Sperry, John S; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Voelker, Steven L; Woodruff, David R; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within mature individuals. While it is well established that wood density (WD) tends to be lower in early versus late successional tree species, and that WD can influence other aspects of PHA, the interaction of WD, successional stage and the consequent implications for PHA have not been sufficiently explored. Here, we studied differences in PHA at the scales of wood anatomy to whole-tree hydraulic conductance in species in early versus late successional Panamanian tropical forests. Although the trunk WD was indistinguishable between the successional groups, the branch WD was lower in the early successional species. Across all species, WD correlated negatively with vessel diameter and positively with vessel packing density. The ratio of branch:trunk vessel diameter, branch sap flux and whole-tree leaf-specific conductance scaled negatively with branch WD across species. Pioneer species showed greater sap flux in branches than in trunks and a greater leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, suggesting that pioneer species can move greater quantities of water at a given tension gradient. In combination with the greater water storage capacitance associated with lower WD, these results suggest these pioneer species can save on the carbon expenditure needed to build safer xylem and instead allow more carbon to be allocated to rapid growth.

  9. The Sap Flow Dynamics and Response of Hedysarum scoparium to Environmental Factors in Semiarid Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Deng

    Full Text Available Hedysarum scoparium is an important, fast-growing and drought-resistant shrub that has been extensively used for grassland restoration and preventing desertification in semiarid regions of northwestern China. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in stem sap flow (Js and its relation to environmental factors. The stem heat balance method was applied to plants that were approximately 17 years old (with diameters of 25, 16, 13, and 9 mm at ground level and heights of 3.1, 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4 m and growing under natural conditions. The vertical soil temperature profile (ST, soil surface heat flux (SoilG, volumetric soil moisture content (SWC and meteorological variables such as solar radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta, vapour pressure deficit (VPD, wind speed (Ws relative humidity (RH and precipitation (P were simultaneously measured at a meteorological station on site. Results indicated that Js varied regularly during the diurnal and seasonal term. The nocturnal Js was substantial, with a seasonal variation similar to the patterns of daytime Js. The magnitude of Js changed considerably between sunny and rainy days. Redundancy (RDA and Kendall's tau analysis suggested that daily Js in large plants was more sensitive to environmental factors, and the variation in daily Js during the growing season could be described by a multiple linear regression against environmental variables including Ta, VPD, Ws, RH, ST, and SoilG. While the nocturnal Js in smaller plants was more sensitive to meteorological factors. Ta, VPD, and Ws were significantly correlated with nighttime Js. The hourly nighttime sap flow rate of H. scoparium corresponded closely to Ta and VPD following a non-linear pattern. The results of this study can be used to estimate the transpiration of H. scoparium.

  10. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  11. 光温条件和pH对浮萍生长及磷吸收的影响%Effect of Photon Flux Density and pH on Growth Ability and Phosphorus Removal Efficiency of Two Duckweed Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡树美; 张震; 辛静; 周雄飞; 钱晓晴

    2011-01-01

    试验以长江三角洲地区常见的稀脉浮萍和少根紫萍为研究对象.在Hoagland's E-Medium营养液进行实验室模拟培养的基础上,研究了光温条件以及pH对两种浮萍生长和磷去除能力的影响.结果表明,在1500-6000 1x光照强度范围内,光照越强,两种浮萍的生长和磷去除能力越强;在10-35℃温度范围内,两种浮萍生长和磷去除的最佳气温为25℃,高温和低温对浮萍的生长都有一定的抑制作用,且低温的抑制作用更明显;在pH5~9范围内,稀脉浮萍和少根紫萍生长和磷去除的最佳pH值分别为6.0和5.0,越偏离最佳生长pH值,pH对浮萍生长和磷去除的抑制效果越明显.%Effect of photon flux density,temperature and pH on growth ability and phosphorus removal efficiency of Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela oligorrhiza, which are common species in Yangtze Delta region,was assessed with laboratory artificial culture experiments using Hoagland's E-Medium. Results indicated that the stronger photon flux density was,higher growth ability and phosphorus removal efficiency of duckweeds would become in photon flux density range of 1 500~6 000tx.The optimal temperature condition for duckweeds growth and phosphorus removal was 25 ℃ among temperature from 10 ℃ to 35 ℃. Either low or high temperature would lead to reduce the growth rate of duckweed,and restrain effect of low temperature was more significant. Among pH fora 5 to 9,the optimal pH condition for Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela oligorrhiza was pH 6.0 and 5.0 respectively. Deviation from the optimal pH value caused a distinct restrain of both growth ability and phosphorus removal efficiency.

  12. Implantación de SAP ERP en una distribuidora

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Costales, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende reflejar en qué consistiría un proyecto de implantación de un ERP, en nuestro caso SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribución alimenticia. Para llevarlo a cabo se empleará la metodología ASAP, pretendiendo ser el resultado final del proyecto el análisis y diseño del mismo. En aquest treball es pretén reflectir en què consistiria un projecte d'implantació d'un ERP, en el nostre cas SAP ERP, en una empresa del sector de la distribució alimentària. Per f...

  13. Time lags between crown and basal sap flows in tropical lianas and co-occurring trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Bongers, Frans; Tomlinson, Kyle; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zheng, Yu-Long; Li, Yang-Ping; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Water storage in the stems of woody plants contributes to their responses to short-term water shortages. To estimate the contribution of water storage to the daily water budget of trees, time lags of sap flow between different positions of trunk are used as a proxy of stem water storage. In lianas, another large group of woody species, it has rarely been studied whether stored water functions in their daily water use, despite their increasing roles in the carbon and water dynamics of tropical forests caused by their increasing abundance. We hypothesized that lianas would exhibit large time lags due to their extremely long stems, wide vessels and large volume of parenchyma in the stem. We examined time lags in sap flow, diel changes of stem volumetric water content (VWC) and biophysical properties of sapwood of 19 lianas and 26 co-occurring trees from 27 species in 4 forests (karst, tropical seasonal, flood plain and savanna) during a wet season. The plants varied in height/length from 60 m. The results showed that lianas had significantly higher saturated water content (SWC) and much lower wood density than trees. Seven of 19 liana individuals had no time lags; in contrast, only 3 of 26 tree individuals had no time lags. In general, lianas had shorter time lags than trees in our data set, but this difference was not significant for our most conservative analyses. Across trees and lianas, time lag duration increased with diurnal maximum changeable VWC but was independent of the body size, path length, wood density and SWC. The results suggest that in most lianas, internal stem water storage contributes little to daily water budget, while trees may rely more on stored water in the stem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cost of Maple Sap Production for Various Size Tubing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel K. Huyler

    2000-01-01

    Reports sap production costs for small (500 to 1,000 taps), medium (1,000 to 5,000), and large (5,000 to 15,000) maple syrup operations that use plastic tubing with vacuum pumping. The average annual operating cost per tap ranged from $4.64 for a 500-tap sugarbush operation to $1.84 for a sugarbush with 10,000 taps. The weighted average was $2.87 per tap or $11.48 per...

  15. Enhancement of the critical current density and flux pinning of MgB2 superconductor by nanoparticle SiC doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, S. H.; Ionescu, M.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P.; Tomsic, M.

    2002-10-01

    Doping of MgB2 by nano-SiC and its potential for the improvement of flux pinning were studied for MgB2-x)(SiCx/2 with x=0, 0.2, and 0.3 and for 10 wt % nano-SiC-doped MgB2 samples. Cosubstitution of B by Si and C counterbalanced the effects of single-element doping, decreasing Tc by only 1.5 K, introducing intragrain pinning centers effective at high fields and temperatures, and significantly enhancing Jc and Hirr. Compared to the undoped sample, Jc for the 10 wt % doped sample increased by a factor of 32 at 5 K and 8 T, 42 at 20 K and 5 T, and 14 at 30 K and 2 T. At 20 K and 2 T, the Jc for the doped sample was 2.4 x105 A/cm2, which is comparable to Jc values for the best Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. At 20 K and 4 T, Jc was twice as high as for the best MgB2 thin films and an order of magnitude higher than for the best Fe/MgB2 tapes. The magnetic Jc is consistent with the transport Jc which remains at 20 000 A/cm2 even at 10 T and 5 K for the doped sample, an order of magnitude higher than the undoped one. Because of such high performance, it is anticipated that the future MgB2 conductors will be made using a formula of MgBxSiyCz instead of pure MgB2.

  16. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  17. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  18. Critical current density and flux pinning in superconducting wires and coils of silver-clad Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Apperley, M.H.; Song, K.H.; Sorrell, C.C.; Guo, S.J.; Loberg, B.; Easterling, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    The critical current density (J c ) of Ag-clad of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O has been measured to be about 12,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K in zero field. This wire was rolled into a tape of thickness 0.1 mm and width of 2 to 3 mm, and a coil of 35 mm diameter was formed. The J c of this coil was measured to be about 2,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K over the full length (1.00 meter) of the coil. In this paper compositions, heat treatment parameters, and cold-deformation for enhancement of J c are presented. The microstructure is characterized and pinning interactions as well as possible weak links are emphasised. (orig.)

  19. Flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films containing a high density of nanoprecipitates: A comparative study to reveal size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Temperature dependence of critical current density Jc(H, T) was measured in moderate magnetic fields (H ⊥ film) in two thermally co-evaporated YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films (A, B) and two YBCO films (C, D) deposited using a pulsed-laser deposition method. All sample films were grown epitaxially with the c-axis perpendicular to the surface of a single-crystalline substrate. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that these four films contained a high density of nanoprecipitates with typical sizes of 3.6 - 5.0 nm (A), 5.0 - 7.1 nm (B), 7.0 - 10.1 nm (C) and 8.7 - 14.3 nm (D). Films A and B contained very fine nanoprecipitates, whose typical diameters Dtyp are smaller than double the estimated Ginzburg-Landau coherence length 2ξab at T = 77 K, and exhibited a steep increase of Jc with decreasing temperature. Whereas, film D, which contained relatively large nanoprecipitates (Dtyp > 2ξab at T ≤ 70 K), exhibited a gradual increase in Jc. This led to a remarkable crossing of the Jc(T) curves. The temperature dependence of Jc(H//c) under a fixed magnetic field is approximated by Jc ∼ (1 - T/Tc)m(1 + T/Tc)2 where the index m is larger for films containing finer precipitates; that is, m(A) > m(B) > m(C) > m(D). This means that finer nanoprecipitates generally cause steeper Jc increase at low temperatures, which is the origin of the observed crossing phenomenon. The experimental results are reasonably explained by several theoretical models based on the direct summation of elementary pinning forces fp calculated by core pinning interactions.

  20. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  1. Water Level Controls on Sap Flux of Canopy Species in Black Ash Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Shannon; Matthew Van Grinsven; Joshua Davis; Nicholas Bolton; Nam Noh; Thomas Pypker; Randall Kolka

    2018-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) exhibits canopy dominance in regularly inundated wetlands, suggesting advantageous adaptation. Black ash mortality due to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) will alter canopy composition and site hydrology. Retention of these forested wetlands requires understanding black ash...

  2. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Ko, E-mail: etoko@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sonoda, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Jin, Yuji [School of Basic Medicine, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013 (China); Abe, Shin-ichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  3. Collection of pure phloem sap from wheat and its chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, H.; Chino, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat Phloem sap was collected without contamination from the stylets of small brown planthopper severed by a YAG laser beam. The sugar, amino acid and inorganic ion composition was determined using only one μl of the sap. The sap had a high sucrose level (251 mM), and also a high K+ level (299 mM). Total amino acid compounds in the sap reached 262 mM. The dominant amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine, while r-amino butylic acid was absent. The major anion in the sap was Cl− and its concentration was 25.1 mM. Nitrate was also present at a concentration of 8.1 mM. These results suggested that the sap obtained from the cut end of the stylets of the small brown planthopper was a phloem origin of wheat. (author)

  4. SAPS effects on thermospheric winds during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, C.; Lu, G.; Wang, W.; Doornbos, E.; Talaat, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Strong subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) were observed by DMSP satellites during the main phase of the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm. Both DMSP F18 and GOCE satellites sampled at 19 MLT during this period, providing near-simultaneous measurements of ion drifts and neutral winds near dusk. The fortuitous satellite conjunction allows us to directly examine the SAPS effects on thermospheric winds. In addition, two sets of model runs were carried out for this event: (1) the standard TIEGCM run with high-latitude forcing; (2) the SAPS-TIEGCM run by incoporating an empirical model of SAPS in the subauroral zone. The difference between these two runs represents the influence of SAPS forcing. In particular, we examine ion-neutral coupling at subauroral latitudes through detailed forcing term analysis to determine how the SAPS-related strong westward ion drifts alter thermospheric winds.

  5. Groundwater sapping channels: Summary of effects of experiments with varied stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Simmons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments in the recirculating flume sapping box have modeled valley formation by groundwater sapping processes in a number of settings. The effects of the following parameters on sapping channel morphology were examined: surface slope; stratigraphic variations in permeability cohesion and dip; and structure of joints and dikes. These kinds of modeling experiments are particularly good for: testing concepts; developing a suite of distinctive morphologies and morphometries indicative of sapping; helping to relate process to morphology; and providing data necessary to assess the relative importance of runoff, sapping, and mass wasting processes on channel development. The observations from the flume systems can be used to help interpret features observed in terrestrial and Martian settings where sapping processes are thought to have played an important role in the development of valley networks.

  6. Commissioning and modification of the low temperature scanning polarization microscope (TTSPM) and imaging of the local magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting niobium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenzweig, Matthias Sebastian Peter

    2014-01-01

    possible to image the magnetization reversal process and thus the formation (or destruction) and the migration of an ''Interfacial Domain Wall'' (IDW) in such a Fe 1-x Tb x / vertical stroke Co/Pt vertical stroke n -heterostructure. Part II of the dissertation is about the magneto-optical imaging of superconducting Niobium coplanar microwave resonators as well as of a Niobium single crystal. By means of the magneto-optical images of the resonators, important findings about magnetic hysteresis effects in such coplanar microwave resonators could be achieved. It was also possible to confirm the results of transmission spectroscopy experiments on those coplanar resonators, which were performed in a previous dissertation of Daniel Bothner. Additionally, it was possible to show that initially inserted Abrikosov vortices can be almost completely removed from the coplanar resonators again by properly cycling the magnetic field. On the basis of magneto-optical images of a 2 mm thick Niobium single crystal, it was possible to observe dendritic avalanches in a superconducting bulk material for the first time. Here, the dendritic avalanches only appear in a very narrow temperature interval of about a tenth of a Kelvin below the critical temperature T c of the Niobium single crystal. Below this threshold temperature the magnetic flux penetrates nearly homogeneously into the single crystal. The observed dendritic avalanches in the bulk single crystal near T c have features which are identical to those seen in thin films at low temperatures caused by thermomagnetic instability. Therefore, one can conclude that the dendritic avalanches in the single crystal are formed in a thin superconducting layer at the surface of the single crystal, which can be formed under certain conditions near T c .

  7. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Ranitović, P.; Tepić, G.; Matić, B.; Sremac, S.; Vukadinović, V.

    2013-01-01

    MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services) has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics securit...

  8. Pengaruh Pemahaman Standar Akuntansi Pemerintahan (SAP, Pelatihan, Akuntabilitas, Transparansi Terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan SKPD Kota Padangsidimpuan

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Putri Bunga Meiliana

    2016-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, tranparancy (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training, accountability, transparancy. ...

  9. Characterization and vaccine potential of Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (SAP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Waseewiwat, Pinkamon; Thanasinpaiboon, Thanaporn; Cheukamud, Werachon; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-01-15

    The recombinant Fasciola gigantica Saposin-like protien-1 (rFgSAP-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from NEJ cDNA, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rFgSAP-1). By immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit IgG anti-rFgSAP-1 reacted with rFgSAP-1 at a molecular weight 12kDa, but not with rFgSAP-2. The rFgSAP-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after infection. The FgSAP-1 protein was expressed at a high level in the caecal epithelium of metacercariae and NEJs. The vaccination was performed in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSAP-1 combined with Alum adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae per mouse by the oral route. The percents protection of rFgSAP-1 vaccine were estimated to be 73.2% and 74.3% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a specific to rFgSAP-1 in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, were inversely and significantly correlated with the numbers of worm recoveries. The rFgSAP-1-vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver damage. These indicated that rFgSAP-1 has strong potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in large economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  12. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section 285.607... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ...

  13. On the coupled use of eddy covariance, sap flow sensors and remote sensing information for Evapotranspiration estimates in a typical heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.

    2017-12-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are typically heterogeneous, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT, woody vegetation and grass) that compete for water use. Due to the complexity of these ecosystems there is still uncertainty on the estimate of the evapotranspiration (ET). Micrometerological measurements (e.g. eddy covariance method based, EC ) are widely used for ET estimate, but in heterogeneous systems one of the main assumption (surface homogeneity) is not preserved and the method may become less robust. In this sense, the coupled use of sap flow sensors for tree transpiration estimate, surface temperature sensors, remote sensing information for land surface characterization allow to estimate the ET components and the energy balances of the three main land surface components (woody vegetation, grass and bare soil), overtaking the EC method uncertainties. The experimental site of Orroli, in Sardinia (Italy), is a typical Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem, monitored from the University of Cagliari since 2003. With the intent to perform an intensive field campaign for the ET estimation, we verified the potentiality of coupling eddy covariance (EC) method, infrared sensors and thermal dissipation methods (i.e. sap flow technique) for tree transpiration estimate. As a first step 3 commercial sap flux sensors were installed in a wild olive clump where the skin temperature of one tree in the clump was monitored with an infrared transducer. Then, other 54 handmade sensors were installed in 14 clumps in the EC footprint. Measurements of diameter were recorded in all the clumps and the sapwood depth was derived from measurements in several trees. The field ET estimation from the 4 commercial sensors was obtained assuming 4 different relationship between the monitored sap flux and the diameter of the species in the footprint. Instead for the 54 handmade sensors a scaling procedure was applied based on the allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and

  14. On the estimate of the transpiration in Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystems with the coupled use of eddy covariance and sap flow techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Roberto; Curreli, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity due to the dry climate conditions. In semi-arid regions evapotranspiration (ET) is the leading loss term of the root-zone water budget with a yearly magnitude that may be roughly equal to the precipitation. Despite the attention these ecosystems are receiving, a general lack of knowledge persists about the estimate of ET and the relationship between ET and the plant survival strategies for the different PFTs under water stress. During the dry summers these water-limited heterogeneous ecosystems are mainly characterized by a simple dual PFT-landscapes with strong-resistant woody vegetation and bare soil since grass died. In these conditions due to the low signal of the land surface fluxes captured by the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer the widely used eddy covariance may fail and its ET estimate is not robust enough. In these conditions the use of the sap flow technique may have a key role, because theoretically it provides a direct estimate of the woody vegetation transpiration. Through the coupled use of the sap flow sensor observations, a 2D foot print model of the eddy covariance tower and high resolution satellite images for the estimate of the foot print land cover map, the eddy covariance measurements can be correctly interpreted, and ET components (bare soil evaporation and woody vegetation transpiration) can be separated. The case study is at the Orroli site in Sardinia (Italy). The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in 2004. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water

  15. The finite element structural analysis code SAP IV conversion from CDC to IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1977-02-01

    SAP IV is a general three dimensional, linear, static and dynamic finite element structural analysis program. The program which was obtained from the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, was written in FORTRAM for a CDC 6400. Its main use was anticipated to be the seismic analysis of reactor structures. SAP IV may also prove useful for fracture mechanics studies as well as the usual elastic stress analysis of structures. A brief description of SAP IV and a more detailed account of the FORTRAN conversion required to make SAP IV run successfully on the UKAEA Harwell IBM 370/168 are given. (author)

  16. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  17. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  18. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  19. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  20. Microscopic insight into thermodynamics of conformational changes of SAP-SLAM complex in signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-04-01

    The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, associate with SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-related molecules, composed of single SH2 domain architecture. SAP activates Src-family kinase Fyn after SLAM ligation, resulting in a SLAM-SAP-Fyn complex, where, SAP binds the Fyn SH3 domain that does not involve canonical SH3 or SH2 interactions. This demands insight into this SAP mediated signalling cascade. Thermodynamics of the conformational changes are extracted from the histograms of dihedral angles obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this structurally well characterized SAP-SLAM complex. The results incorporate the binding induced thermodynamic changes of individual amino acid as well as the secondary structural elements of the protein and the solvent. Stabilization of the peptide partially comes through a strong hydrogen bonding network with the protein, while hydrophobic interactions also play a significant role where the peptide inserts itself into a hydrophobic cavity of the protein. SLAM binding widens SAP's second binding site for Fyn, which is the next step in the signal transduction cascade. The higher stabilization and less fluctuation of specific residues of SAP in the Fyn binding site, induced by SAP-SLAM complexation, emerge as the key structural elements to trigger the recognition of SAP by the SH3 domain of Fyn. The thermodynamic quantification of the protein due to complexation not only throws deeper understanding in the established mode of SAP-SLAM interaction but also assists in the recognition of the relevant residues of the protein responsible for alterations in its activity.

  1. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al

  2. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  3. The Efficiency of SAP in improving the HR Performance Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... operations at the operational, administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying ... Key Words- SAP, human resources management, Masdar. Building ... There are thousands of companies around the world using the SAP ... results indicate that managers have a fairly positive view of the impact of the ...

  4. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  5. SAP: structure, function, and its roles in immune-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dan; Luo, TianTian; Xiong, Haowei; Liu, Jichen; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Hou, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), also known as pentraxin-2, is a member of the pentraxin protein family with an established relationship to the immune response. In the last century, SAP has been used as a diagnostic marker in amyloidosis diagnosis and patient follow-up. SAP has been thought to have potential for treating and curing amyloidosis and fibrosis diseases. More recently, it has been shown that SAP may serve as both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for many immune-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, nephritic, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In the cardiovascular system, SAP has been defined as the culprit in amyloidosis in the heart. SAP may also exert a protective role during the early stage of atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. In noncardiovascular system diseases, SAP is being developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize SAP history, structure, and its roles in immune-related diseases in different systems with emphasis on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  7. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  8. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  9. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  10. Handling of the demilitarized zone using service providers in SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, A.; Robu, R.

    2016-02-01

    External collaboration needs to allow data access from the Internet. In a trusted Internet collaboration scenario where the external user works on the same data like the internal user direct access to the data in the Intranet is required. The paper presents a solution to get access to certain data in the Enterprise Resource Planning system, having the User Interface on a system in the Demilitarized Zone and the database on a system which is located in the trusted area. Using the Service Provider Interface framework, connections between separate systems can be created in different areas of the network. The paper demonstrates how to connect the two systems, one in the Demilitarized Zone and one in the trusted area, using SAP ERP 6.0 with Enhancement Package 7. In order to use the Service Provider Interface SAP Business Suite Foundation component must be installed in both systems. The advantage of using the Service Provider Interface framework is that the external user works on the same data like the internal user (and not on copies). This assures data consistency and less overhead for backup and security systems.

  11. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  12. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...... increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na+ content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups...... to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family....

  13. Evaluasi Implementasi SAP Modul Material Management: Studi Kasus pada PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is a necessity for a company to help solve problems in business transactions management. SAP application is an application that is able to provide solutions to such problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the running business processes on the Material Management module;evaluate the performance of the running SAP systems associated with the implementation and maintenance of SAP applications as well as to give sugestions based on the development of evaluation results obtained, in terms of business processes, performance, and financial. Utilized for analysis is IT Balanced Scorecard method, while ASAP (Accelerated SAP method is used for the system development. This study produced an analysis of the evaluation of the enterprise business processes in implementing the SAP development of ERP system modulesMaterial Management.

  14. Revaluasi Inventory dengan Menu Standard pada SAP-B1 Sesuaikah dengan IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Novianti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Some available standard modules in SAP-B1 can be adapted for changes in accounting rules and regulations. One is the Inventory Revaluation menu of Inventory module. Users can use the menu to make Inventory value adjustments of value in SAP-B1, to be consistent with the values that must be presented in the financial statements. Based on the flexibility provided by SAP-B1menu, should not be too difficult for users of SAP-B1 to manage accounting transactions based on accounting rules that apply today, IFRS. IFRS requirements on inventory adjustment transactions with a value of SAP-B1 could be done more easily.

  15. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  16. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol D. von Dohlen; Usha Spaulding; Kistie B. Patch; Kathryn M. Weglarz; Robert G. Foottit; Nathan P. Havill; Gaelen R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce...

  17. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  18. 49 CFR 40.307 - What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in prescribing the... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.307 What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests? (a) As a SAP, for each employee who has committed a DOT drug or alcohol regulation violation, and...

  19. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...: BOEM-2012-0077] RIN 1010-AD77 Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or... would amend the timing requirements for submitting a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities... and grants will have a preliminary term of 12 months in which a lessee or grantee must submit a SAP or...

  20. 49 CFR 40.293 - What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in conducting the... Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.293 What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee? As a SAP, for every employee who comes to you following a DOT drug and alcohol...

  1. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  2. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  3. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...

  4. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  5. The performance and customization of SAPS 3 admission score in a Thai medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) admission scores, both the original and a customized version, in mixed medical critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Thailand. The probability of hospital mortality of the original SAPS 3 was calculated using the general and customized Australasia version (SAPS 3-AUS). The patients were randomly divided into equal calibration and validation groups for customization. A total of 1,873 patients were enrolled. The hospital mortality rate was 28.6%. The general equation of SAPS 3 had excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.933, but poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H = 106.7 and C = 101.2 (P customized SAPS 3 showed a good calibration of all patients in the validation group (H = 14, P = 0.17 and C = 11.3, P = 0.33) and all subgroups according to main diagnosis, age, gender and co-morbidities. The SAPS 3 provided excellent discrimination but poor calibration in our MICU. A first level customization of the SAPS 3 improved the calibration and could be used to predict mortality and quality assessment in our ICU or other ICUs with a similar case mix.

  6. SAP buran injury management of mangoes (mangifera indica L.) in sri lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapillai, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - Willard, Karuthakolumban, Chembaddan and Ambalavi - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 and 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 and 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in Karuthakolumban. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in Willard, Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. (author)

  7. Growing Season Stem Water Status Assessment of Qinghai Spruce through the Sap Flow and Stem Radial Variations in the Qilian Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyan Tian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is likely to change precipitation patterns with consequences for tree water use and growth in semi-arid areas. However, little is known about the effects of variability in precipitation on growth- and water-related physiological processes of native trees in dry areas of northwestern China. In this study, sap flow and stem radial variability in four Qinghai spruce trees (Picea crassifolia were monitored in the Qilian Mountains, China. Tree water deficit (ΔW and basal area increment (BAI were calculated using stem radial variation; water-use efficiency (WUE was then estimated as the ratio of BAI and sap flow (Jt. The results showed that sap flow density (Js increased logarithmically with increasing ΔW when ΔW < 50 μm, and then gradually stabilized. Multiple factor generalized additive models (GAM showed that Js was closely related to all measured environmental variables except for daily mean temperature and relative air humidity. ΔW was related to the minimum daily temperature and soil water content. WUE exhibited higher values in early July. Low WUE was observed under conditions of prolonged dry weather, but it quickly increased during rainy days. WUE decreased after precipitation events due to high transpiration. We concluded that, in these semi-arid areas, precipitation is the most important controlling factor in tree growth and transpiration.

  8. Enhanced production and purification of recombinant surface array protein (Sap) for use in detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Nidhi; Tripathi, N K; Pal, V; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively. The protein purity and its reactivity were confirmed employing SDS-PAGE and Western blot, respectively. The antibodies raised against purified Sap were evaluated by Western blotting for detection of Sap released by B. anthracis . Our results showed that the Sap could be a novel marker for detection and confirmation of B. anthracis .

  9. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  10. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittäminen Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulussa

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia, millä toimin Pohjois-Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulun liiketalouden ja tekniikan keskuksen opetushenkilöstön ERP SAP-osaamista on kehitetty ja vastaako osaaminen ulkoisten asiakkaiden tarpeisiin. Tutkimustavoitteena oli selvittää myös ne menetelmät, jotka opetushenkilöstö kokee parhaimpina ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisen keinoina. ERP SAP-osaamisen kehittämisessä huomioitiin ulkoisten asiakkuuksien näkemykset. Tutkimustulosten osalta tuli esille, että ty...

  11. Management of setpoint information using SAP-PM; Gerenciamento das informacoes de setpoints usando o SAP-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is always a challenge to assure that the set points of field instruments and valves (e.g., transmitters, regulator valves, shut off valves, safety valves, etc) are adjusted in conformity either to the originally designed values or the ones established by the operations team, specially when multiple teams are involved in the activity. In such circumstances, keeping these values updated on proper data sheets is also a defying task. The correct information is essential to the Control Room operators and its accuracy is a step ahead towards operational availability and safety. TBG, through CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) - SAP R/3, PM Module, developed a set of automated tools to integrate data from different environments (reports, handhelds, workflows and procedures), thus allowing allow a better control over the set point adjustment process. (author)

  12. Observation of Intravascular Changes of Superabsorbent Polymer Microsphere (SAP-MS) with Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Daigo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sone, Teruki; Kobatake, Makito; Tamada, Tsutomu; Umetani, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the intravascular transformation behavior of superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) in vivo macroscopically by using monochromatic X-ray imaging and to quantitatively compare the expansion rate of SAP-MS among different kinds of mixtures. Fifteen rabbits were used for our study and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed for their auricular arteries using monochromatic X-ray imaging. We used three kinds of SAP-MS (particle diameter 100-150 μm) mixture as embolic spherical particles: SAP-MS(H) absorbed with sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix 320), SAP-MS(V) absorbed with isosmolar contrast medium (Visipaque 270), and SAP-MS(S) absorbed with 0.9% sodium saline. The initial volume of SAP-MS particles just after TAE and its final volume 10 minutes after TAE in the vessel were measured to calculate the expansion rate (ER) (n = 30). Intravascular behavior of SAP-MS particles was clearly observed in real time at monochromatic X-ray imaging. Averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (H) (1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ) were significantly smaller (p 7 μm 3 ) and SAP-MS (S) (5.85 x 10 7 μm 3 ). Averaged final volumes of SAP-MS (H) were significantly larger than averaged initial volumes (4.41 x 10 7 μm 3 vs. 1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ; p < 0.0001, ER = 3.55). There were no significant difference between averaged final volumes and averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (V) and SAP-MS (S). SAP-MS (H), which first travels distally, reaches to small arteries, and then expands to adapt to the vessel lumen, is an effective particle as an embolic agent, causing effective embolization.

  13. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP

  14. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbakel, Werner; Carmeliet, Geert; Engelborghs, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. → This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. → NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. → The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP-chromatin interaction

  15. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  16. Studi Kelayakan Implementasi SAP dengan Metode Fit/Gap Analysis dan CBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlina Nurlina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An application system is required by a company to meet the needs of enterprise business processes so as to provide information quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is necessary to study the feasibility status of plan of enterprise system implementation. SAP R/3 contains various modules which is deserved to be considered as a company's information system solution. Results of the feasibility study through the analysis of fit/ gap analysis state that the implementation of SAP R/3 sales module is feasible and able to meet all the needs of the system.Results of cost and benefit analysis state that the strategy implementation of SAP R/3 module is feasible. Based on the analysis and research using the two methods above, a decision can be taken whether the SAP R/3 is worth to be implemented or not.

  17. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  18. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  19. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. (Auth.)

  20. Mechanical properties of Concrete with SAP. Part I: Development of compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    The development of mechanical properties has been studied in a test program comprising 15 different concrete mixes with 3 different w/c ratios and different additions of superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The degree of hydration is followed for 15 corresponding paste mixes. This paper concerns...... compressive strength. It shows that results agree well with a model based on the following: 1. Concrete compressive strength is proportional to compressive strength of the paste phase 2. Paste strength depends on gel space ratio, as suggested by Powers 3. The influence of air voids created by SAP...... on compressive strength can be accounted for in the same way as when taking the air content into account in Bolomeys formula. The implication of the model is that at low w/c ratios (w/c SAP additions, SAP increases the compressive strength at later ages (from 3 days after casting and onwards...

  1. Shared access protocol (SAP) in femtocell channel resources for cellular coverage enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Magableh, Amer M.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    protocol (SAP), that enables the unlicensed macro-cell user equipments (MC-UE) to communicate with partially closed access femtocell base stations and hence, improves and enhances the overall system performance in closed environments. For the proposed

  2. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  4. Assessing ERP SAP implementation in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes; Gunawan, W.; Ikhsan, R. B.; Aries

    2018-03-01

    The consistent growth of Indonesian SMEs has received attention of global IT vendors. One of major ERP player in Indonesian market such as SAP, has introduced ERP solutions for SMEs through SAP Business One. Due to its fast growth, unfortunately, there are still very few articles can be found to understand the ERP implementation in Indonesian SMEs. The article addressed the common factors that affect the successful of the ERP implementation at SMEs. They are: identifying vendor quality, opening balance data migration, and A-SAP methodology. The article applied case study method to examine the fast growth companies owned by same owners, such as: GRK, MMM, and KM25; with the objectives to identify the practical pattern of ERP implementation in SMEs that will be useful for SAP project manager and consultants.

  5. Study of iron solubility in aluminium and SAP-type materials by the method of nuclear gamma resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, Yu.S.; Edigarov, V.S.; Pustov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of studying equilibrium solubility of iron (FeAl 3 ) in aluminium crystals with a conventional density of dislocations (rhosub(perpendicular) approximately 10 6 cm -2 ), and in crystals of the SAP type with rhosub(perpendicular) approximately 10 9 cm -2 . The method of gamma-resonance spectroscopy, chemical analysis were used as well as measurements of residual electric resistivity. Changes in entropy and enthalpy are determined while dissolving a FeAl 3 mole in aluminium lattice. The analysis of the data obtained allows one to suppose the presence of regions with high local concentrations of iron atoms near dislocations, the atoms being in two different states which provide respectively a doublet and a singlet in the Moessbauer spectrum

  6. ANALIZA PODPORE KADROVSKIH PROCESOV S SISTEMOM SAP V PODJETJU AVTENTA.SI D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Vehovec, David

    2011-01-01

    V okviru diplomskega dela so z metodo prenove poslovnih procesov predstavljeni procesi zaposlovanja in razporejanja, upravljanja kadrovskih podatkov in prenehanja delovnega razmerja v podjetju Avtenta.si d.o.o. Na podlagi popisanih procesov je narejena analiza njihove podprtosti s sistemom SAP in predlog prenove. Le-ta vključuje modele prenovljenih procesov in prilagoditev sistema SAP do nivoja delujočega prototipa. V teoretičnem delu so opisana področja prenove poslovnih procesov, upravl...

  7. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1 G93A ), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1 G93A rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; pSAP: 64±10%, n=10 vs. 60±13; n=8; p>0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-Scale Structure and Dynamics of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Nishitani, N.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow channel of high-speed westward ionospheric convection which appears equatorward of the duskside auroral oval during geomagnetically active periods. SAPS is generally thought to occur when the partial ring current intensifies and enhanced region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) are forced to close across the low conductance region of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. However, recent studies have suggested SAPS can also occur during non-storm periods, perhaps associated with substorm activity. In this study, we used measurements from mid-latitude SuperDARN radars to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of SAPS during several geomagnetically active days. Linear correlation analysis applied across all events suggests intensifications of the partial ring current (ASYM-H index) and auroral activity (AL index) are both important driving influences for controlling the SAPS speed. Specifically, SAPS flows increase, on average, by 20-40 m/s per 10 nT of ASYM-H and 10-30 m/s per 100 nT of AL. These dependencies tend to be stronger during the storm recovery phase. There is also a strong local time dependence such that the strength of SAPS flows decrease by 70-80 m/s for each hour of local time moving from dusk to midnight. By contrast, the evidence for direct solar wind control of SAPS speed is much less consistent, with some storms showing strong correlations with the interplanetary electric field components and/or solar wind dynamic pressure, while others do not. These results are discussed in the context of recent simulation results from the Rice Convection Model (RCM).

  10. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  11. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  12. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  13. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  15. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  16. Biochemical characterization of sap (latex) of a few Indian mango varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K Saby; Bhat, S G; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2003-01-01

    Mango sap (latex) from four Indian varieties was studied for its composition. Sap was separated into non-aqueous and aqueous phases. Earlier, we reported that the non-aqueous phase contained mainly mono-terpenes having raw mango aroma (Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 891). In the present study biochemical composition of the aqueous phase was studied. Aqueous phase contained little amount of protein (2.0-3.5 mg/ml) but showed high polyphenol oxidase (147-214 U/mg protein) and peroxidase (401-561 U/mg protein) activities. It contained low amounts of polyphenols and protease activities. On native PAGE, all the major protein bands exhibited both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities. Both polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were found to be stable in the aqueous phase of sap at 4 degrees C. Sap contained large amount of non-dialyzable and non-starchy carbohydrate (260-343 mg/ml sap) which may be responsible for maintaining a considerable pressure of fluid in the ducts. Thus, the mango sap could be a valuable by-product in the mango industry as it contains some of the valuable enzymes and aroma components.

  17. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Michael; Tocheva, Anna S; Sandigursky, Sabina; Nayak, Shruti; Philips, Elliot A; Nichols, Kim E; Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Askenazi, Manor; Neel, Benjamin G; Pelzek, Adam J; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Mor, Adam

    2018-01-16

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an essential inhibitory receptor in T cells. Antibodies targeting PD-1 elicit durable clinical responses in patients with multiple tumor indications. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1 treatment, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways downstream of PD-1 could provide biomarkers for those whose tumors respond and new therapeutic approaches for those whose tumors do not. We used affinity purification mass spectrometry to uncover multiple proteins associated with PD-1. Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses. Silencing of SAP augmented and overexpression blocked PD-1 function. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), who lack functional SAP, were hyperresponsive to PD-1 signaling, confirming its inhibitory role downstream of PD-1. Strikingly, signaling downstream of PD-1 in purified T cell subsets did not correlate with PD-1 surface expression but was inversely correlated with intracellular SAP levels. Mechanistically, SAP opposed PD-1 function by acting as a molecular shield of key tyrosine residues that are targets for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates PD-1 inhibitory properties. Our results identify SAP as an inhibitor of PD-1 function and SHP2 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with XLP.

  18. Modeling radon flux from the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We report development of a 222 Rn flux density model and its use to estimate the 222 Rn flux density over the earth's land surface. The resulting maps are generated on a grid spacing of 1 0 x 1 0 using as input global data for soil radium, soil moisture, and surface temperature. While only a first approximation, the maps suggest a significant regional variation (a factor of three is not uncommon) and a significant seasonal variation (a factor of two is not uncommon) in 222 Rn flux density over the earth's surface. The estimated average global flux density from ice-free land is 34 ± 9 mBq m -2 s -1 . (author)

  19. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  20. SAPS and SAID: Differences and implications on modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. C.; Landry, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subauroral electric fields/ion drifts associated with geomagnetic activity and known as Polarization Jets [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1978] have been reported by a number of researchers over the years starting in the early 1970s. They are latitudinally narrow ( 1 - 3°), are primarily located between the late afternoon and early morning sectors, are extended several hours in magnetic local time, and have westward drifts that can exceed 5000 m/s. Foster et al., [2002] used Millstone Hill radar data to derive a statistical model of the subauroral ion drifts and coined the term SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams) to identify the sometimes broad region of subauroral drifts that the SAID are embedded within. While both are located in the subauroral region and closely associated with ionospheric conductivity and the region 2 field-aligned currents, they are in reality separate phenomena. We investigate this difference, their production mechanisms, and the implications for modeling them.

  1. iSAP: Interactive Sparse Astronomical Data Analysis Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourt, O.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.; Moudden, Y.; Abrial, P.; Schmitt, J.

    2013-03-01

    iSAP consists of three programs, written in IDL, which together are useful for spherical data analysis. MR/S (MultiResolution on the Sphere) contains routines for wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and Independent Component Analysis on the Sphere. MR/S has been designed for the PLANCK project, but can be used for many other applications. SparsePol (Polarized Spherical Wavelets and Curvelets) has routines for polarized wavelet, polarized ridgelet and polarized curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and blind source separation on the Sphere. SparsePol has been designed for the PLANCK project. MS-VSTS (Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on the Sphere), designed initially for the FERMI project, is useful for spherical mono-channel and multi-channel data analysis when the data are contaminated by a Poisson noise. It contains routines for wavelet/curvelet denoising, wavelet deconvolution, multichannel wavelet denoising and deconvolution.

  2. Stabilization/Solidification of Radioactive LiCl-KCl Waste Salt by Using SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5(SAP) Inorganic Composite: Part 2. The Effect of SAP Composition on Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Soo Na; Park, Hwan Seo; Cho, In Hak; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Yong Zun

    2012-01-01

    Metal chloride waste is generated as a main waste streams in a series of electrolytic processes of a pyrochemical process. Different from carbonate or nitrate salt, metal chloride is not decomposed into oxide and chlorine but it is just vaporized. Also, it has low compatibility with conventional silicate glasses. Our research group adapted the dechlorination approach for the immobilization of waste salt. In this study, the composition of SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) was adjusted to enhance the reactivity and to simplify the solidification process as a subsequent research. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 into the basic SAP decreased the SAP/Salt ratio in weight from 3 for SAP 1071 to 2.25 for M-SAP(Fe=0.1). The experimental results indicated that the addition of Fe 2 O 3 increased the reactivity of M-SAP with LiCl-KCl but the reactivity gradually decreased above Fe=0.1. Also, introducing B 2 O 3 into M-SAP requires no glass binder for the consolidation of reaction products. U-SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) could effectively dechlorinate the LiCl-KCl waste and its reaction product could be consolidated as a monolithic form without a glass binder. The leaching test result indicated that U-SAP 1071 was more durable than other SAPs wasteform. By using U-SAP, 1 g of waste salt could generated 3 - 4 g of wasteform for final disposal. The final volume would be about 3 - 4 times lower than the glass-bonded sodalite. From these results, it could be concluded that the dechlorination approach using U-SAP would be one of prospective methods to manage the volatile waste salt.

  3. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  4. Pengaruh Pemahaman SAP, Pendidikan dan Pelatihan, serta Latar Belakang Pendidikan terhadap Penyusunan Laporan Keuangan Daerah pada Pemerintah Kota Medan.

    OpenAIRE

    Enho, Yohanes

    2011-01-01

    This skripsi is intended to (a) get a clear view about the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background, (b) calculate the effect of understanding SAP, training and workshop, also educational background to the way of making financial statement, (c) give some advices which may assist the City Government in solving its problems especially the discussed problem, that is the way of making financial statement which is affected by understanding SAP, training and w...

  5. 49 CFR 40.301 - What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in the follow-up... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.301 What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee? (a) As a SAP, after you have prescribed assistance under § 40.293, you must re-evaluate the...

  6. Influence of Auroral Streamers on Rapid Evolution of Ionospheric SAPS Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Mishin, E. V.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nishitani, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) often show large, rapid enhancements above their slowly varying component. We present simultaneous observations from ground-based all-sky imagers and flows from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars to investigate the relationship between auroral phenomena and flow enhancement. We first identified auroral streamers approaching the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval to examine how often the subauroral flow increased. We also performed the reverse query starting with subauroral flow enhancements and then evaluated the auroral conditions. In the forward study, 98% of the streamers approaching the equatorward boundary were associated with SAPS flow enhancements reaching 700 m/s and typically hundreds of m/s above background speeds. The reverse study reveals that flow enhancements associated with streamers (60%) and enhanced larger-scale convection (37%) contribute to SAPS flow enhancements. The strong correlation of auroral streamers with rapid evolution (approximately minutes) of SAPS flows suggests that transient fast earthward plasma sheet flows can often lead to westward SAPS flow enhancements in the subauroral region and that such enhancements are far more common than only during substorms because of the much more frequent occurrences of streamers under various geomagnetic conditions. We also found a strong correlation between flow duration and streamer duration and a weak correlation between SAPS flow velocity and streamer intensity. This result suggests that intense flow bursts in the plasma sheet (which correlate with intense streamers) are associated with intense SAPS ionospheric flows perhaps by enhancing the ring current pressure and localized pressure gradients when they are able to penetrate close enough to Earth.

  7. Reconstructing dust fluxes and paleoproductivity at the southern Agulhas Plateau since MIS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, M. M.; Anderson, R. F.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying glacial-interglacial cycles requires characterizing the role of oceanic feedbacks in climatic changes. For example, increased aeolian iron fluxes to Fe-limited regions of the ocean and corresponding changes in marine productivity could have improved biological pump efficiency and resulted in CO2 drawdown. Here we explore these feedbacks using marine sediment core MDO2-2588 collected from the southern Agulhas Plateau (SAP; 41°S, 26°E), located beneath the modern subtropical front. Today, diatom productivity in this region is Si-limited because high Si utilization south of the polar front (PF) means that water advected northward to our study site is Si-depleted. However, previous work has suggested that extended sea ice cover during glacial periods may have limited diatom productivity south of the PF while frontal systems shifted northward, allowing more Si to reach thermocline of the SAP. Meanwhile, increased glacial dust flux to the SAP may have simultaneously supplied more Fe, contributing to higher glacial productivity. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of higher LGM and MIS-6 productivity at MD02-2588 using bulk biogenic content and diatom assemblages (Romero et al., Paleoceanography, 30 (2015) 118-132). Gradients in d13C between benthic and planktic foraminifera have also been used to support Fe fertilization at this site on millennial timescales (Ziegler et al., Nature Geoscience, 6 (2013) 457-461). Yet, studies have yet to produce coordinated records of dust flux and export production for the SAP. Here, we present records of dust, based on 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes, and export production using 230Th-normalized excess-Ba and opal fluxes and authigenic U through MIS-6. Preliminary results show that lithogenic fluxes to MD02-2588 were approximately twice as high during MIS-6 as MIS-5e and were concurrent with a two-fold increase in excess-Ba flux. However, this relative increase in lithogenic flux

  8. Anatomical explanations for acute depressions in radial pattern of axial sap flow in two diffuse-porous mangrove species: implications for water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yang, Shengchang; Guo, Xudong; Peng, Congjiao; Gu, Xiaoxuan; Deng, Chuanyuan; Chen, Luzhen

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove species have developed uniquely efficient water-use strategies in order to survive in highly saline and anaerobic environments. Herein, we estimated the stand water use of two diffuse-porous mangrove species of the same age, Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl., growing in a similar intertidal environment. Specifically, to investigate the radial patterns of axial sap flow density (Js) and understand the anatomical traits associated with them, we measured axial sap flow density in situ together with micromorphological observations. A significant decrease of Js was observed for both species. This result was accompanied by the corresponding observations of wood structure and blockages in xylem sapwood, which appeared to influence and, hence, explained the acute radial reductions of axial sap flow in the stems of both species. However, higher radial resistance in sapwood of S. caseolaris caused a steeper decline of Js radially when compared with S. apetala, thus explaining the latter's more efficient use of water. Without first considering acute reductions in Js into the sapwood from the outer bark, a total of ~55% and 51% of water use would have been overestimated, corresponding to average discrepancies in stand water use of 5.6 mm day-1 for S. apetala trees and 2.5 mm day-1 for S. caseolaris trees. This suggests that measuring radial pattern of Js is a critical factor in determining whole-tree or stand water use. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  10. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-07-05

    One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.

  11. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  12. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  13. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  14. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was performed approximately yearly; FDT every other year. First and last visit had to contain both tests. Using linear regression, progression velocities were calculated for SAP (Humphrey Field Analyzer) mean deviation (MD) and FDT MD and the number of test locations with a total deviation probability below p glaucoma progression in patients who cannot perform SAP reliably. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  17. [Stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Yan, Hai-Long; Yao, Shi-Jun

    2007-04-01

    From April to November 2005, the stem sap flow and water consumption of Tamarix ramosissima in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert was measured by Flow-32 System. The results showed that, in the extremely arid hinterland of Taklimakan Desert and under enough water supply, the average daily water consumption of T. ramosissima with a stem diameter of 3.5 cm and 2.0 cm was 6.322 kg and 1.179 kg, respectively in one growth season. The stem sap flow of T. ramosissima presented a single-peaked curve, with an obvious day and night variation rhythm and fluctuated with environment factors. Under enough water supply, the environmenal factors such as total radiation, wind speed and air temperature were the main factors affecting the stem sap flow, and the dynamics of stem sap flow could be predicted by the liner regression model based on total radiation and wind speed. Because of the extremely arid environment and enough water supply, T. ramosissima had a relatively higher stem sap flow rate and a great water consumption.

  18. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  19. Dissolved atmospheric gas in xylem sap measured with membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K

    2016-04-01

    A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  1. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  2. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  3. The study of Cr(III) complexation in the xylem sap using ion exchange and radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Shikha; Prakash, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Radiotracer was employed to carry out ion exchange experiments to study the chromium speciation in the in vitro samples of xylem sap of maize stem of 60 days old plants. Cr(III) radiolabelled with its radioactive isotope ( 51 Cr) was mixed with both the ion exchange fraction of the sap which represented the carboxylic acids, as well as the whole sap and was analysed for complexation after 10 and 30 days at 25 degC. Prior to this, the ion exchange elution chromatography of Cr(III), and the Cr(III) complexes with oxalic and citric acid were used to compare the complexes being formed in the in vitro studies. The in vitro Cr(III) complexation results indicated that Cr(III) was vitally present as anionic species. The elution curve trend was similar to that of citric acid complexation. Citric acid was also found to be the major complexing acid in the xylem sap as determined by HPLC. The results indicate the transportation of Cr(III) as a citrate complex in the xylem sap of maize plants. (author)

  4. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods.

  5. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The term `thermal flux' implies a Maxwellian distribution of velocity and energy corresponding to the most probable velocity of 2200 ms-1 at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of ...

  6. A statistical model for horizontal mass flux of erodible soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, A.G.A.G.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-11-01

    It is shown that the mass flux of erodible soil transported horizontally by a statistically distributed wind flow has a statistical distribution. Explicit expression for the probability density function, p.d.f., of the flux is derived for the case in which the wind speed has a Weibull distribution. The statistical distribution for a mass flux characterized by a generalized Bagnold formula is found to be Weibull for the case of zero threshold speed. Analytic and numerical values for the average horizontal mass flux of soil are obtained for various values of wind parameters, by evaluating the first moment of the flux density function. (author)

  7. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  8. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  9. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  10. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  11. Logistic Core Operations with SAP Inventory Management, Warehousing, Transportation, and Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Kappauf, Jens; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    “Logistic Core Operations with SAP” not only provides an overview of core logistics processes and functionality—it also shows how SAP’s Business Suite covers logistic core operations, what features are supported, and which systems can be used to implement end-to-end processes in the following logistic core disciplines: Procurement, Distribution, Transportation, Warehouse Logistics and Inventory Management, and Compliance and Reporting. In this context the authors not only explain their integration, the organizational set-up, and master data, but also which solution fits best for a particular business need.   This book serves as a solid foundation for understanding SAP software. No matter whether you are a student or a manager involved in an SAP implementation, the authors go far beyond traditional function and feature descriptions, helping you ask the right questions, providing answers, and making recommendations. The book assists you in understanding SAP terminology, concepts and technological compo...

  12. Phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device for monitoring photosynthates transportation in plant shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuya; Ono, Akihito; Terao, Kyohei; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Ikuo; Shimokawa, Fusao

    2018-06-01

    We propose a microscale phloem-sap-dynamics sensor device to obtain the index of an internal plant condition regarding the transportation of primary photosynthates in phloem, which is an essential indicator of stable crop production under controlled-growth environments. In detail, we integrated a conventional Granier sensor with a thermal-flow sensor and devised an improved sensor device to quantify such index, including the information on velocity and direction of the phloem-sap flow using the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The experimental results showed that although the proposed sensor device was approximately only 1/10 the size of the conventional Granier sensor, it could generate an output nearly equal to that of the conventional sensor. Furthermore, experiments using mimicked plants demonstrated that the proposed device could measure minute flow velocities in the range of 0–200 µm/s, which are generally known as the phloem-sap flow velocity, and simultaneously detect the flow direction.

  13. SAPS-Associated Explosive Brightening on the Duskside: A New Type of Onset-Like Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S. K.; Kepko, L. E.

    2018-01-01

    Quasiperiodic energetic particle injections have been observed at geosynchronous orbit on the duskside during a steady magnetospheric convection event. We examine high-resolution auroral imager data and ground magnetometer data associated with the first of these injections and conclude that it was not associated with classical substorm signatures. It is proposed that these injections are caused by the explosive nonlinear growth of a shear flow-ballooning instability in the region where subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) also occur. It is suggested that interchange will occur preferentially in the low-conductivity SAPS region since the magnetic Richardson number is lowest there and the "line-tying" effect will also be least stabilizing there. We propose that the observed particle injection signatures and auroral morphology constitute a new type of SAPS-associated explosive "onset-like" disturbance that can occur during intervals of strong convection.

  14. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  15. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  16. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. SAP-IV was installed on a Data General NOVA 32K memory disc operating system which utilizes various input-output peripherals and a single 1.2 megaword disc. The entire theoretical analysis-vibration test-data analysis-parameter identification-model modification system required such additional components as analog/digital converters, computer-driven electro-mechanical vibrators, a maximum of 512 transducers, and special-purpose software for test planning, execution, data processing, and matrix manipulation. The software system capabilities which allowed implementation of SAP-IV on the minicomputer were: (1) the availability of double precision; (2) the ability to use multiple OVERLAYs; (3) the ability to read and write programs from the disc to memory without destroying the programs (SWAP); (4) the ability to CHAIN a series of connected programs into the memory and execute them sequentially; and (5) the ability to utilize random access disc files

  17. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  18. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  19. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  20. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  2. Genetic variability of the phloem sap metabolite content of maize (Zea mays L.) during the kernel-filling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Dinant, Sylvie; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Quilleré, Isabelle; Armengaud, Patrick; Monfalet, Priscilla; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Using a metabolomic approach, we have quantified the metabolite composition of the phloem sap exudate of seventeen European and American lines of maize that had been previously classified into five main groups on the basis of molecular marker polymorphisms. In addition to sucrose, glutamate and aspartate, which are abundant in the phloem sap of many plant species, large quantities of aconitate and alanine were also found in the phloem sap exudates of maize. Genetic variability of the phloem sap composition was observed in the different maize lines, although there was no obvious relationship between the phloem sap composition and the five previously classified groups. However, following hierarchical clustering analysis there was a clear relationship between two of the subclusters of lines defined on the basis of the composition of the phloem sap exudate and the earliness of silking date. A comparison between the metabolite contents of the ear leaves and the phloem sap exudates of each genotype, revealed that the relative content of most of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing metabolites was similar. Correlation studies performed between the metabolite content of the phloem sap exudates and yield-related traits also revealed that for some carbohydrates such as arabitol and sucrose there was a negative or positive correlation with kernel yield and kernel weight respectively. A posititive correlation was also found between kernel number and soluble histidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Double strand RNA oral delivery methods to induce RNA interference in phloem and plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phloem and plant sap feeding insect pests invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients in the process damaging food productivity. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. Halyomorpha hal...

  4. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply with the Clean Air Act...

  5. Sap flow for beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a natural and a managed forest-effect of spatial heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    -aged 80-year old stand (MAN), with a height of 25 m, and a total of 283 stems ha(-1) with diameters averaging 38 cm. Stem sap flow, J(s) (g m(-2) s(-1)), was continuously measured in 12 (MAN) and 13 (NAT) trees using 20-mm long heat dissipation sensors. Individual tree measures of sap flow were correlated...

  6. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  7. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  8. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended services. You may also make use of SAP and employee assistance program (EAP) services in assisting... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support group services even after the employee returns to...

  9. Control objectives design for the human and resources module of SAP

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Antón, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Català: En aquest projecte trobem la definició d'objectius de control i d'activitats de control per al módul de recursos humans de SAP, donant especial importància a l'adecuada segregació de funcions dins el módul. Castellano: En este proyecto de encuentra la definición de objetivos de control i actividades de control para el módulo de recursos humanos de SAP, dando especial importancia a la adecuada segregación de funciones dentro de éste módulo. English: In this project we can find th...

  10. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...

  11. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  12. Phloem sap collection from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Methodology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, M; Tjallingii, W F; van Beek, T A

    1994-12-01

    Three methods to collect phloem sap on different lettuce lines were optimized and are described in detail. The success ratio for stylectomy of aphids was over 80% through the combination of a specially designed setup and electrical penetration graphs to monitor phloem sap ingestion. For unknown reasons on some lettuce lines stylets never showed sustained exudation. There were clear differences in stylet exudation between two aphid species on the same lettuce line. Honeydew collection in hexadecane made accurate quantitative analysis possible; samples were large and clean, but biotransformed. The EDTA chelation method produced large samples, but dilution, oxidation, and impurities from the wound surface reduced the reliability.

  13. Correção da acidez do solo e controle do capim-sapé Soil acidity correction and control of sapé-grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Mesquita Carvalho

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Um experimento de campo foi realizado para verificar o efeito da correção da acidez do solo sobre o controle do capim-sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, gramínea invasora de pastagens. Pastagem de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com intensa infestação de capim-sapé foi usada. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 1, 2, 4 e 6 t/ha, incorporado ao solo manualmente com auxílio de enxada, à profundidade de 20 cm, após gradagem das parcelas. Um tratamento extra, sem calcário e gradagem foi adotado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. No período de 33 meses de duração do experimento, foram feitos três cortes da vegetação aérea e duas amostragens de solo. Não houve efeito das doses de calcário sobre a produção de matéria seca do capim-sapé e das outras espécies (capim-gordura, Brachiaria decumbens e invasoras de folhas largas, apesar de terem ocorrido alterações nas características químicas do solo. A correção da acidez do solo, quando associada às correções das principais deficiências nutricionais, pode controlar o capim-sapé, ao estimular o crescimento das forrageiras.ABSTRACT - A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acid soil correction, on the control of the sapé (Imperata brasiliensis, a grass type weed of pasture. A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora pasture in a red-yellow latosol, having a high proportion of "sapé" was used. Treatments consisted of five levels of dolomite limestone (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 t/ha incorporated by hand using a garden tool to the top 20 cm of soil following a mechanical tillage of the plots (disking. An additional treatment without disking and without lime was adopted. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. During the 33 months of the experimental period, three harvests and two soil samplings were performed. There were no

  14. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  15. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yicun Wang; Xiang Gao; J U Zhi gang; Jingyuan Liu; Shuai Dong; Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. Aim: In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods: Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1...

  16. Analysis of the Tonle Sap Flood Pulse Based on Remote Sensing: how much does Tonle Sap Lake Affect the Mekong River Flood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W.; Hu, N.; Fu, J.; Lu, J.; Lu, H.; Lei, T.; Pang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, L.

    2018-04-01

    The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. The flow of Mekong River is the primary factor affecting the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain. The Tonle Sap Lake also plays a very important role in regulating the downstream flood of Mekong River. Hence, it is necessary to understand its temporal changes of lake surface and water storage and to analyse its relation with the flood processes of Mekong River. Monthly lake surface and water storage from July 2013 to May 2014 were first monitored based on remote sensing data. The relationship between water surface and accumulative water storage change was then established. In combination with hydrological modelling results of Mekong River Basin, the relation between the lake's water storage and the runoff of Mekong River was analysed. It is found that the water storage has a sharp increase from September to December and, after reaching its maximum in December, water storage quickly decreases with a 38.8 billion m3 of drop in only half month time from December to January, while it keeps rather stable at a lower level in other months. There is a two months' time lag between the maximum lake water storage and the Mekong River peak flood, which shows the lake's huge flood regulation role to downstream Mekong River. It shows that this remote sensing approach is feasible and reliable in quantitative monitoring of data scarce lakes.

  17. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform safety...

  19. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  20. 30 CFR 285.700 - What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.700 Section 285.700 Mineral Resources... § 285.700 What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP... in your approved COP (§ 285.632(a)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (§ 285.614(b)) or GAP...