Wilkinson, Nicholas M; Van Duc, Luong
There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. Although it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. However, an expert's knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. Combining (or aggregating) experts' assessments of relative abundance is difficult when each expert only knows a part of the area of interest. We used Google's PageRank algorithm to aggregate ranked abundance scores elicited from local experts through a rapid rural-appraisal method. We applied this technique to conservation planning for the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a poorly known bovid. Near a priority landscape for the species, composed of 3 contiguous protected areas, we asked groups of local people to indicate relative abundances of saola and other species by placing beans on community maps. For each village, we used this information to rank areas within the knowledge area of that village for saola abundance. We used simulations to compare alternative methods to aggregate the rankings from the different villages. The best-performing method was then used to produce a single map of relative abundance across the entire landscape, an area larger than that known to any one village. This map has informed prioritization of surveys and conservation action in the continued absence of direct information about the saola. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Wang, H. W.; Kuo, W. C.
The Chijiawan creek, located in the mountains of Central Taiwan with a strongly seasonal hydrology, high discharge and sediment yields, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The 13-m-high No. 1 Check Dam was the largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek built in 1972. After forty years, the dam had 4-m scouring holes below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. Due to the safety concern and habitat restoration, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. This paper documents the channel evolution after its removal by focusing on understanding the geomorphic responses to sediment processes and complexities of hydrological processes. We collected the hourly discharge data of a Taipower gaging station located 6.8 km from the dam from 2010 to 2013 and conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. One month after dam removal, a one-year event (Typhoon Meari) excavated a wedge of sediment from the impoundment. The knickpoint migrated to 200 m upstream from the dam and about 20,000 m3 of sediment had eroded from the reservoir. The profile remained pretty much unchanged until a year after in June 2012. Following a 20-year event (Typhoon Saola) in August 2012, the highest flow after dam removal to present, the channel significantly changed and the knickpoint migrated to 800 m upstream to the dam. The cumulative eroded amount increased to 150,000 m3, about three-thirds of the former impounded sediment. After a 5-year event (Typhoon Soulik) later on in July 2013, the knickpoint did not show much difference and the eroded amount of impounded sediment only increased 10,000 m3. However, the surveyed cross-sections showed obvious channel form changes and thalweg migration. It is likely that the entire bed was mobilized during the earlier high flows (Typhoon Saola), resulting in more easily mobilized bed material. As many
许冬梅; 黄向宇; 于洪利; 闵锦忠
The impacts of AMSU-A and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) radiances assimila-tion on the prediction of typhoons Vicente and Saola (2012) are studied by using the ensemble transform Kalman fi lter/three-dimensional variational (ETKF/3DVAR) Hybrid system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The experiment without assimilating radiance data in 3DVAR is compared with two experiments using the 3DVAR and ETKF/3DVAR hybrid systems to assimilate AMSU-A radiance, respectively. The results show that AMSU-A radiance data have slight positive impacts on track forecasts of the 3DVAR system. When the ETKF/3DVAR hybrid system is employed, typhoon track forecast skills are greatly improved. For 36-h forecasts, the hybrid system has a lower root-mean-square error for wind and temperature at most levels, and specifi c humidity at low levels, compared to 3DVAR. It is also found that, on average, the use of the IASI radiance data along with AMSU-A radiance data in the hybrid system further increases the track, wind, and specifi c humidity forecast accuracy compared to the experiment without IASI radiance assimilation.