WorldWideScience

Sample records for sao paulo iea zero power reactor

  1. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  2. Ageing implementation and refurbishment development at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor: a 15 years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Ricci Filho, Walter; Carvalho, Marcos R. de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Marra Neto, Adolfo, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.b, E-mail: wricci@ipen.b, E-mail: carvalho@ipen.b, E-mail: jrretta@ipen.b, E-mail: amneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) is a nuclear research center established into the Secretary of Science and Technology from the government of the state of Sao Paulo, and administered both technically and financially by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), a federal government organization under the Ministry of Science and Technology. The institute is located inside the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo city, Brazil. One of major nuclear facilities at IPEN is the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. It is the unique Brazilian research reactor with substantial power level suitable for application with research in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, as well as radioisotope production for medical and other applications. Designed and built by Babcok-Wilcox, in accordance with technical specifications established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, and financed by the US Atoms for Peace Program, it is a swimming pool type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector elements. The first criticality was achieved on September 16, 1957 and the reactor is currently operating at 4.0 MW on a 64h per week cycle. Since 1996, an IEA-R1 reactor ageing study was established at the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) related with general deterioration of components belonging to some operational systems, as cooling towers from secondary cooling system, piping and pumps, sample irradiation devices, radiation monitoring system, fuel elements, rod drive mechanisms, nuclear and process instrumentation and safety operational system. Although basic structures are almost the same as the original design, several improvements and modifications in components, systems and structures had been made along reactor life. This work aims to show the development of the ageing program in the IEA-R1 reactor and the upgrading (modernization) that was carried out, concerning several equipment and system in the

  3. Beryllium irradiation element analysis in the IEA-R1m reactor; Analise do elemento de irradiacao de berilio no reator IEA-R1m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci Filho, Walter

    1998-07-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-Sao Paulo has undergone a modernization to increase its operating power to 5 MW, in order to allow a more efficient production of the {sup 99} Mo radioisotope. An irradiation element made of Be was acquired for the reactor and studies have been carried out to determine its performance when compared to other irradiators available in the reactor namely, the water and graphite irradiation elements. The results obtained showed some advantages of the Beryllium irradiation element for producing {sup 99} Mo: the epithermal neutron flux in the Be irradiation element is approximately 22% greater than that in the graphite irradiation element and 12% greater than that of the water irradiation element; the neutron reaction rate in molybdenum wires inside in irradiation capsule filled with Mo O{sub 3} 10,6% greater them that in the water irradiation element in the same conditions; the negative reactivity introduced in the reactor by the Be irradiation element it substantially smaller than the those introduced by the other elements: -1636 pcm for the Be irradiator, -2977 for the water irradiator and -2568 pcm for the graphite irradiator. It is possible to conclude that the production of the {sup 99} Mo radioisotope with the Be irradiation element can be increased by 12 to 15% in the IEA-R1m reactor. It also requires less fuel for the reactor operation due to the smaller negative reactivity introduced in the reactor core. (author)

  4. IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor: 58 Years of Operating Experience and Utilization for Research, Teaching and Radioisotopes Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Saxena, Rajendra; Filho, Walter Ricci [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 Cid Universitaria CEP: 05508-000- Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Nuclear and Energy Research Institute) IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 4.5 MWth with a 60-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced {sup 131}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 198}Au, {sup 24}Na, {sup 35}S, {sup 51}Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce {sup 99}Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for several more years, to produce important primary radioisotopes {sup 99}Mo, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 192}Ir. Currently, all aspects of dealing with fuel element fabrication, fuel transportation, isotope processing, and spent fuel storage are handled by IPEN at the site. The reactor modernization program is slated for completion by 2015. This paper describes 58 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. (authors)

  5. Thermoelectric power plant of Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, Planning; Planejamento da central termoeletrica da COSIPA - Companhia Siderurgica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio; Costa, Luiz Orlando; Silva, Clovis Aprigio da; Paiva Borges, Elmar de; Martinez, Francisco Gomes [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1990-02-01

    This paper shows the operational philosophy, control and supervision of the Thermoelectric power plant of the Iron and Steel Company of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, in operations of fuel distribution, steam generation, electric power generation and air flow. 8 tabs.

  6. Diagnostic about the use of electric power in Sao Paulo University; Diagnostico sobre o uso da energia eletrica na Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lineu B. dos; Galvao, Luiz C.R.; Saidel, Marco A.; Udaeta, Miguel E.M.; Kanayama, Paulo H. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the Energy Conservation Program in the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, named CONSERVUSP. The objectives of the program are to promote the use of energy efficiently within the University; to offer more energetic services without increasing the energy consumption and to promote the creation of research areas that would be able to graduate professionals aware of the importance of the rational use of energy. It will be also created a data bank with information on how energy is being used presently. This will permit the definition of the potentialities for energy conservation in the future. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  8. Sao Paulo pelletron accelerator: fortieth anniversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Dirceu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This year the 8MV Sao Paulo Pelletron tandem accelerator completes 40 years . This electrostatic accelerator was installed in the Sao Paulo University in 1972 , and it was the first of this model constructed the National Electrostatic Corporation with several innovations particularly with respect to the new concept of accelerator tube and the charge system. In the talk will be discussed the performance of the accelerator during all these years and the main result scientific results. (author)

  9. Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 - A Study of the Preparing for Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Ricci, Walter; Martins, Mauro Onofre; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN - Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n 2242, USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Sao Paulo, according to the assignments given by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), enabled the development of this study, especially operational reports about refurbishing carried out on 2013, involving the production of radioisotopes and research in the areas of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Physics. These reports are made in accordance with established standard procedures to meet the requirements of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission, the regulator the nuclear area activities in Brazil) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This study presents an assessment of the procedures and methods of treatments for decontamination of the refrigeration primary circuit and changes parts, equipment and tubes of the of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, pool type, power between 3,5 and 4,5 MW. In order to have a sequence in the work, the well-known contaminant radioisotopes were evaluated firstly, using Geiger- Muller equipment. In the second phase, the decontamination was done manually together with the ultrasound cleaning and washing equipment. From the several water solutions of citric acid assessment, the concentration with better confidence was obtained; in order to achieve the best results for decontamination. This study intends to define the best process for decontamination with low taxes of waste and without expensive costs. (authors)

  10. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  11. Results of Occupational Monitoring Program in Technologic Navy Center in Sao Paulo; Resultados do programa de monitoracao ocupacional do Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Clarice F.A.; Bitelli, Ricardo D.; Oliveira, Rodemir, E-mail: clarice.acosta@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: bitelli@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rodemir@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The CTMSP, Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, is a nuclear research Center located in the State of Sao Paulo. CTMSP headquarters is placed at the Campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Most of CTMSP nuclear facilities are at the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located 120 km northwest from the Capital city of Sao Paulo. CTMSP has two major nuclear programs. One is the development of a PWR reactor for naval propulsion, and the other is associated with the front end fuel cycle technology comprising enrichment, conversion and reconversion. These activities require an extensive area monitoring program. This paper presents the results of this program covering the years of 2003 to 2011. The results include surface monitoring, dose rates and uranium concentrations in the air. (author)

  12. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  13. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  14. The impacts of a more distributed of revenue in the residence consumption of electric power in the state of Sao Paulo, BR; Os impactos de uma maior distribuicao de renda no consumo residencial de eletricidade do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Conrado Augustus de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: conrado@fem.unicamp.br; Bajay, Sergio V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    To identify how much high taxes of growth of the GNP reflected in improvements of social pointers, in the case, increase of the comfort caused for the addition of the electricity consumption, is a task of great difficulty. In this way, the work uses of two methodologies to project the residential consumption in the state of Sao Paulo: 1) high scene, based mainly on high taxes of growth of the GDP e; 2) bigger electric equipment penetration in the residential sector, as repercussion of one better income distribution. As main result the work enters the impact of the reduction of the participation in 50% of classroom D/E in the total number of domiciles of the State. (author)

  15. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  16. Hot zero power reactor calculations using the Insilico code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven P.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Johnson, Seth R.; Pandya, Tara M.; Godfrey, Andrew T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we describe the reactor physics simulation capabilities of the Insilico code. A description of the various capabilities of the code is provided, including detailed discussion of the geometry, meshing, cross section processing, and neutron transport options. Numerical results demonstrate that Insilico using an SPN solver with pin-homogenized cross section generation is capable of delivering highly accurate full-core simulation of various pressurized water reactor problems. Comparison to both Monte Carlo calculations and measured plant data is provided.

  17. Hot zero power reactor calculations using the Insilico code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov; Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov; Davidson, Gregory G., E-mail: davidsongg@ornl.gov; Johnson, Seth R., E-mail: johnsonsr@ornl.gov; Pandya, Tara M., E-mail: pandyatm@ornl.gov; Godfrey, Andrew T., E-mail: godfreyat@ornl.gov

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we describe the reactor physics simulation capabilities of the Insilico code. A description of the various capabilities of the code is provided, including detailed discussion of the geometry, meshing, cross section processing, and neutron transport options. Numerical results demonstrate that Insilico using an SP{sub N} solver with pin-homogenized cross section generation is capable of delivering highly accurate full-core simulation of various pressurized water reactor problems. Comparison to both Monte Carlo calculations and measured plant data is provided.

  18. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  19. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  20. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  1. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  2. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  3. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  4. Characteristics and Trends of Luxury Commerce in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Costa Da Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the consolidation of consumption as prime stage of the production process and the diffusion of new forms of commerce in the city, as foundations for analyzing the urban space reproduction process in the contemporary period. Having as research place the metropolis of Sao Paulo - Brazil, we conducted an analysis and some thoughts on the place of commerce and consumption of luxury goods in the urban space reproduction process, analyzed from the perspective of the exten...

  5. Crime in Sao Paulo's metro system : sexual crimes against women

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato, Vania; Paz, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates personal safety conditions in the Sao Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is...

  6. Core calculations for the upgrading of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Perrotta, Jose A.; Bastos, Jose Luis F.; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: asantos@net.ipen.br; perrotta@net.ipen.br; mitsuo@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    The IEA-R1 Research Reactor is a multipurpose reactor. It has been used for basic and applied research in the nuclear area, training and radioisotopes production since 1957. In 1995, the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) took the decision to modernize and upgrade the power from 2 to 5 MW and increase the operational cycle. This work presents the design requirements and the calculations effectuated to reach this goal. (author)

  7. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  8. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

    2010-12-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  9. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  10. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  11. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data; Comparacao da concentracao de selenio em soro sanguineo da populacao de idosos da cidade de Sao Paulo com os dados da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-07-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -}'2 s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of {sup 75}Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92{+-}0.07) {mu}mol L{sup -1} was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 {mu}mol L-1. (author)

  12. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em robalo (Centropomus sp.) e pescada (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumidos na cidade de Sao Paulo por analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: karen.fabiano@usp.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1.

  13. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  14. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  16. The awareness of the functional and near population with the relation to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanni, Silvia R.; Martins, Maria da Penha S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    After the natural accident that hit Japan in the beginning of March of 2011, and that ended into an accident of great proportions in the nuclear installations of Fukushima, it has now the debate over the lack of information that the population in general has over the nuclear energy. The dissemination of information, about the operation and security of the nuclear reactors, has the purpose of softening the effect that the pessimistic atmosphere has over its using. This study was reinforced by the memories of serious consequences due to other nuclear accidents that have already happened (Chernobyl, Three-Mile and Hiroshima/Nagasaki event), bringing insecurity, fear and even revenge from part of the public. Over all, people are not sufficiently informed about the positives and negatives aspects of the nuclear energy. It is necessary the adoption of a clear and aware policy with the population, about the pacific use of nuclear energy. Today, the international and national organizations of control of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), have respectively, published information about this subject using a more professional way and of hard access for the public in general. This work has the goal of checking the level of information that the population of workers and individuals of the close public to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1, located in the Institute of Nuclear Research (IPEN), University City, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has over it. The way used for this study, involved questionnaires with straight questions and of simple language over the subject, to people of all different social, economic and cultural classes, from 12 to 80 years old. From the results found after this work, it was verified the necessity to elaborate a project of awareness of information and clarification about the nuclear energy, using ways of communication that exist and that are easy for the public to understand. (author)

  17. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: dcpuerta@hotmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2013-07-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  18. Current Mode Neutron Noise Measurements in the Zero Power Reactor CROCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakari, O.; Lamirand, V.; Perret, G.; Braun, L.; Frajtag, P.; Pautz, A.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an overview of developments and results regarding neutron noise measurements in current mode at the CROCUS zero power facility. Neutron noise measurements offer a non-invasive method to determine kinetic reactor parameters such as the prompt decay constant at criticality α = βeff / λ, the effective delayed neutron fraction βeff, and the mean generation time λ for code validation efforts. At higher detection rates, i.e. above 2×104 cps in the used configuration at 0.1 W, the previously employed pulse charge amplification electronics with BF3 detectors yielded erroneous results due to dead time effects. Future experimental needs call for higher sensitivity in detectors, higher detection rates or higher reactor powers, and thus a generally more versatile measurement system. We, therefore, explored detectors operated with current mode acquisition electronics to accommodate the need. We approached the matter in two ways: 1) By using the two compensated 10B-coated ionization chambers available in CROCUS as operational monitors. The compensated current signal of these chambers was extracted from coremonitoring output channels. 2) By developing a new current mode amplification station to be used with other available detectors in core. Characteristics and first noise measurements of the new current system are presented. We implemented post-processing of the current signals from 1)and 2) with the APSD/CPSD method to determine α. At two critical states (0.5 and 1.5 W), using the 10B ionization chambers and their CPSD estimate, the prompt decay constant was measured after 1.5 hours to be α=(156.9 ± 4.3) s-1 (1σ). This result is within 1σ of statistical uncertainties of previous experiments and MCNPv5-1.6 predictions using the ENDF/B-7.1 library. The newsystem connected to a CFUL01 fission chamber using the APSDestimate at 100 mW after 33 min yielded α = (160.8 ± 6.3) s-1, also within 1σ agreement. The improvements to previous neutron noise

  19. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  20. Dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Weber, Rolf Roland [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A monitoring programme at Sao Sebastiao Channel, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was conducted in terms of dissolved/dispersed petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (DDPAH) in water analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The study was done in order to establish a baseline data for this area and verify the petroleum hydrocarbon influence from the oil terminal (DTCS) and other human activities over the channel. The DDPAH concentrations on subsurface waters were low and only one station presented a chronic local contribution. An oil spill occurred in May 1994 and it was followed-up to verify its influence in this area. The obtained data were important to verity the influence of the oil spill along the channel. The oil spill reached the majority of the sampling stations, and the highest mean concentration found was close to the accident point (49.6 {mu}g I{sup -1}). Due to the intense wind driven currents of the Channel area, however, the elevation of the hydrocarbons levels in the surface waters was only temporary. (Author)

  1. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  2. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT)

  3. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  4. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  5. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Taricco, Mario Augusto; Plese, José Píndaro P; Flores, Camila; Teixeira, Saulo A; Luzio, José

    2014-03-01

    The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time) organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  6. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2012. Ano base 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  7. Water usage in bio ethanol production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de M.; Gomes, Rodolfo D.M.; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F.; Mosqueira-Salazar, Klever Joao; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the water availability, water use legislation, charges and taxes in the state of Sao Paulo, legislation regarding water disposal, potential for reducing water consumption, demand water streams, reusing water streams, and closing water circuits.

  8. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  9. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  10. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  11. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  12. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  13. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  14. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  15. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  16. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  17. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  18. State of the art on nuclear heating measurement methods and expected improvements in zero power research reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Guillou Mael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the recent methodological advances suitable for nuclear heating measurements in zero power research reactors. This bibliographical work is part of an experimental approach currently in progress at CEA Cadarache, aiming at optimizing photon heating measurements in low-power research reactors. It provides an overview of the application fields of the most widely used detectors, namely thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters. Starting from the methodology currently implemented at CEA, the expected improvements relate to the experimental determination of the neutron component, which is a key point conditioning the accuracy of photon heating measurements in mixed n–γ field. A recently developed methodology based on the use of 7Li and 6Li-enriched TLDs, precalibrated both in photon and neutron fields, is a promising approach to deconvolute the two components of nuclear heating. We also investigate the different methods of optical fiber dosimetry, with a view to assess the feasibility of online photon heating measurements, whose primary benefit is to overcome constraints related to the withdrawal of dosimeters from the reactor immediately after irradiation. Moreover, a fibered setup could allow measuring the instantaneous dose rate during irradiation, as well as the delayed photon dose after reactor shutdown. Some insights from potential further developments are given. Obviously, any improvement of the technique has to lead to a measurement uncertainty at least equal to that of the currently used methodology (∼5% at 1σ.

  19. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  1. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  2. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  3. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  4. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  5. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  6. Reengineering Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Laboratories at Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Antonio C.; Consonni, Denise

    Brazilian engineering schools are under a strict program to reengineer their courses with the financial support of the federal agencies. At the electronic engineering department at the University of Sao Paulo, this process started by modifying the Basic Electricity and Electronic Laboratories. This paper describes the new structure of these labs…

  7. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  8. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  9. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  10. The new IEA Wind Task 36 on Wind Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind...... Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, …), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement...... of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power...

  11. Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus - Spectral indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970's to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices - including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.7±2.1% and 6.5±2.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.4±2.4%).

  12. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  13. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  15. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  16. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area; Demanda do radiofarmaco fluor 18-FDG nas regioes metropolitanas do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Planejamento e Inovacao Tecnologica]. E-mail: renato.sato@uol.com.br; dmzouain@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  17. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  19. Reanalysis of the Gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility Proteus – Spectral indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardin G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PROTEUS is a zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute which has been employed during the 1970’s to study experimentally the physics of the gas-cooled fast reactor. Reaction rate distributions, flux spectrum and reactivity effects have been measured in several configurations featuring PuO2/UO2 fuel, absorbers, large iron shields, and thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasihomogeneously in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. This papers focus on the spectral indices – including fission and capture in 232Th and 237Np - measured in the reference PuO2/UO2 lattices and their predictions with an MCNPX model specially developed for the PROTEUS-GCFR core. Predictions were obtained with JEFF-3.1 and -3.11, ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, and JENDL-3.3 and -4.0. A general good agreement was demonstrated. The ratio of 232Th fission to 239Pu fission, however, was under-predicted by 8.7±2.1% and 6.5±2.1% using ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1, respectively. Finally, the capture rates in 237Np tended to be underpredicted by the JEFF and JENDL libraries, although the new cross section in JEFF-3.1.1 slightly improved the 237Np capture to 239Pu fission results (3.4±2.4%.

  20. Development of An Embedded FPGA-Based Data Acquisition System Dedicated to Zero Power Reactor Noise Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkani Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An embedded time interval data acquisition system (DAS is developed for zero power reactor (ZPR noise experiments. The system is capable of measuring the correlation or probability distribution of a random process. The design is totally implemented on a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The architecture is tested on different FPGA platforms with different speed grades and hardware resources. Generic experimental values for time resolution and inter-event dead time of the system are 2.22 ns and 6.67 ns respectively. The DAS can record around 48-bit x 790 kS/s utilizing its built-in fast memory. The system can measure very long time intervals due to its 48-bit timing structure design. As the architecture can work on a typical FPGA, this is a low cost experimental tool and needs little time to be established. In addition, revisions are easily possible through its reprogramming capability. The performance of the system is checked and verified experimentally.

  1. La experiencia del partido dos trabalhadores en la alcadía de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio KOWARICK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, Lucio Kowarick y André Singer analizan la gestión del Partido dos Trabalhadores en la Alcaldía de Sao Paulo encabezada por Luiza Erundina. Con esta evaluación pretenden conocer la acción del PT a través de uno de sus principales elementos de construcción del PT, el gobierno de las ciudades, que complementa a los otros dos, la vinculación con los movimientos sindicales y populares y la acción parlamentaria.ABSTRACT: In this article, Lucio Kowarick and Andre Singer analyses the government of Sao Paulo by Partido dos Trabalhadores, with Luiza Erundina. With this evaluation, they try to know the action of PT through one of the main elements of contruction of PT, the government of cities. The other are links with trade unions and popular movements and parliamentarian action.

  2. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  3. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  4. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, V.M.; Faga, M.T.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    In the decision-making process for the construction and expansion of natural gas infrastructure, different factors must be considered to prioritize areas with high market potential for the given service. The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic model that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the distribution network, taking the advance of natural gas in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) as a specific case study. (author)

  5. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg{sup -1} and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  6. Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, Sao Sebastiao Island, state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantelatto, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium is distributed globally in most biogeographical regions, and contains species with interestingmechanisms of evolution. We conducted an exhaustive survey on São Sebastião Island, the largest coastal island of the stateof São Paulo. Here we provide a list of species (M. acanthurus, M. carcinus, M. heterochirus, M. olfersi, M. potiuna togetherwith the diagnosis, distribution, and remarks on each species, and a key for their identification. We compare our findingswith available information on the genus. The high diversity of freshwater shrimps on the island is interesting in terms ofbiogeographical and evolutionary processes.

  7. Financing structure for the hydroelectric sector: the Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP case; Estrutura de financiamento do setor hidreletrico: o caso da CESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Thomaz Garcez

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the financial resources made use by Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP - for its implantation and later expansion, during the period of 1967 to 1980. The motivation in developing this subject originated of CESP`s importance in the Brazilian electric power sector. The dissertation is divided into three chapters. The first chapter describes the power sector in the state of Sao Paulo before CESP`s creation and after its consolidation. The second chapter studies some matter that shows the importance of company in the Brazilian power sector. In the third chapter, we study the performance of own resources and the third resources in CESP`s financing. At the end of the study the most important conclusion is that the own resources, more than third resources, were the prime motive liable in CESP`s financing during the period. (author) 102 refs., 23 figs.

  8. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  9. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  10. Study of molybdenum-99 production in IEA-R1m reactor using a beryllium irradiator; Estudos sobre a producao de molibdenio no reator IEA-R1m utilizando um irradiador de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci Filho, Walter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Joao M.L. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor has undergone a modernization to increase its operating power to 5 MW, in order to allow a more efficient production of the {sup 99} Mo radioisotope. An irradiation element made of Be was acquired for the reactor and studies were initiated for determining its performance when compared to other irradiators available in the reactor, the water and graphite types. The results obtained showed some advantages of the Be irradiation element for producing {sup 99} Mo: the epithermal neutron flux in the irradiation element is approximately 15% greater than in the water and in the graphite irradiation elements; the negative reactivity introduced in the reactor by the Be irradiation element is substantially smaller than the those introduced by the other elements: - 1636 pcm for the Be irradiator, -2568 for the graphite irradiator and -2977 pcm for the water irradiator. It is concluded that the production of the {sup 99M}o radioisotope with the Be irradiation element can be increased by 15% in the IEA-R1m reactor. It also requires less fuel for the reactor operation due to the smaller negative reactivity introduced in the reactor core. (author) 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  13. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  14. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  15. Tackling investment challenges in power generation - in IEA countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In most IEA countries a new investment cycle in power generation is looming. A window of opportunity now exists to push for a cleaner and more efficient generation portfolio that could transform the power sector and help to build a more sustainable infrastructure lasting over the next 40-50 years. What are the recent trends and prospects for investment in power generation? What are the main drivers and barriers? This book assesses these issues and gives special emphasis to the question of how uncertainties may affect investment decisions. Uncertainties on CO{sub 2} constraints, on power plant licensing, on acceptability of nuclear power, on local opposition to any new energy infrastructure, on government support for specific generation technologies and on government policies on energy efficiency are particularly disturbing. Market liberalisation can also be a key uncertainty, but this may be greatly reduced and deliver considerable benefits if liberalisation is implemented whole-heartedly and backed by on-going government commitment. Government action is urgently needed: to reduce regulatory uncertainty for investors, to establish effective competitive markets and to give firm policy directions in those areas where markets fall short, such as in taking environmental costs and security of supply into account.

  16. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  17. Analysis of Photovoltaic Applications in Zero Energy Building Cases of IEA SHC/EBC Task 40/Annex 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB considerably reduces the building energy load through high efficiency equipment and passive elements such as building orientation, high insulation, natural daylighting, and ventilation in order to achieve zero energy balance with on-site energy production from renewable energy systems applied to the building. For a Zero Energy Building (ZEB, the heating energy demand can be significantly reduced with high insulation and air tightness, while the cooling energy demand can be curtailed by applying shading device, cross ventilation, etc. As such, the electrical energy demand for a ZEB is relatively higher than its heat energy demand. Therefore, the application of a Renewable Energy System (RES to produce electricity is necessary for a ZEB. In particular, Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV systems that generate electricity can play an important role for achieving zero energy balance in buildings; BIPVs are multi-functional and there are many ways to apply them into buildings. This study comprehensively analyzes photovoltaic (PV applications in ZEB cases through the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC/Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (EBC Task 40/Annex 52 activities, which include PV installation methods, PV cell type, and electricity generation. The most widely applied RES is the PV system, corresponding to 29 out of a total of 30 cases. Among the roof type PV systems, 71% were non-integrated. In addition, 14 of the 27 cases in which PV systems were applied, satisfied over 100% of the electricity energy demand from the PV system and were found to generate surplus electrical power.

  18. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  19. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  20. Descriptive analysis of narrative photojournalism in two digital newspapers: Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López Del Ramo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the paucity of studies in this field, this paper seeks to develop an analysis of new products in the digital news media’s narrative photojournalism, its components and substantive aspects, focusing on digital newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian. The sample consists of 35 pieces with a total of 899 photographs, of which 351 (39.1% correspond to Folha de Sao Paulo and 548 (60.9% to The Guardian. Drawing on a content analysis methodology, a self-designed record is used with indicators that are seldom referred to in studies on photography, such as structural design, functionality or integration of multimedia content. The results indicate that these products have different formats and configurations, possess a clear structure, are of a medium-high length, and contain simple functionality. A good hierarchical organization, variety, large size and high-quality images provide a strong visual impact. The textual elements complement and clarify the logical meaning of the story. The inclusion of audiovisual content and links is discreet but well contextualized. All this represents a significant aesthetic-communicative advance as compared to the conventional treatment of photography in the digital press.

  1. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  2. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  3. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  4. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  5. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  6. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  8. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  10. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  11. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  12. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  13. Feasibility study for the implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source facility in Sao Paulo

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda-Neto, J D T

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source is proposed here, using the forthcoming 30 MeV electron CW-Microtron under construction in Sao Paulo. A method to estimate photoneutron fluxes, based on thin target bremsstrahlung approximation, has been developed. The versatility and possible broad range of applications associated with such a facility are addressed.

  14. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  15. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  16. Electric power production from the biogas resulting of the sewer treatment: pilot project of the Sewer Treatment Station (ETE) in the Barueri city in the Great Sao Paulo; Producao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas resultante do tratamento de esgoto: projeto piloto na E.T.E. de Barueri na Grande Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Guardabassi, Patricia; Costa, David Freire da; Avellar, Luiz Henrique Nobre [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br; Krovosac, Antonio Carlos Bacic [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acbacic@sabesp.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a system for biogas conversion to electric power and heat by using a micro turbine and three Otto cycle engines. The benefit of the energy from a treatment process residue aims the improvement of the global performance of the system, reducing the the emission of the greenhouse gases and contributing to the global energetic efficiency of the sewage treatment station and the basic sanitation in Brazil.

  17. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dbenites@ipen.br, e-mail: amgordon@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and

  18. [Risk factors associated with overweight among adolescents from western Sao Paulo state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rômulo Aráujo; Conterato, Igor; Messias, Kelly Patrícia; Christofaro, Diego Giuliano Destro; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between being overweight and family risk factors in adolescents from Western Sao Paulo state. This cross-sectional study involved 1779 adolescents of both genders and with ages ranging between 11 and 17 years. The participants' body mass index was calculated, and the family risk factors were analyzed through a questionnaire. Excessive weight was associated with the male gender (CR = 1.55 [1.22-1.97]), studying in a private school (CR = 2.14 [1.56-2.94]) and mother's higher education (CR = 0.52 [0.33-0.83]). There is a need to implement initiatives to fight obesity in the school environment and reach the whole family structure, taking gender-related specificities into consideration.

  19. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  20. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  1. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  4. Cash Transfers and Mayoral Elections: The Case of Sao Paulo's Renda Mínima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanches Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies analyze the effects of national conditional cash transfer (CCT programs, such as the Brazilian Bolsa Família and the Mexican Oportunidades, on presidential elections. Most of them show that these programs boost incumbents' electoral support among the poor. This research note is the first scholarly attempt to investigate this phenomenon at a lower-level unit of a federal state, by assessing the impact of a municipal cash transfer program on a mayoral election. Specifically, it investigates whether Renda Mínima, the cash transfer program of the city of Sao Paulo, affected beneficiaries' electoral behavior in favor of the incumbent candidate in the 2004 mayoral election. This note analyzes survey data from CEBRAP/IBOPE and shows that cash transfers did, indeed, affect beneficiaries' behavior in the predicted direction, but only in cases where they did not benefit from any other CCT program, such as the federal Bolsa Família or the São Paulo state Renda Cidadã. These results suggest that the pro-incumbent effect of CCT programs may be diluted by similar programs launched by governments at other tiers of a federation, even if they are led by the same party.

  5. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  6. Elaboration, publication and implementation of a technical regulation of radiological protection at the State of Sao Paulo; Elaboracao, publicacao e implementacao de uma norma tecnica de protecao radiologica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Furnari, Laura [Associacao Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Technological improvements of new equipment and some new topics of the international recommendations from ICRP 60 (1990) are considered in a meeting of radiation protection experts and representatives of professionals involved with the use of ionizing radiation in health care services. As a result a new regulation is proposed to the Sao Paulo State Health Department (Brazil). The importance of performing a quality assurance program is emphasized 2 refs., 2 tab.

  7. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  8. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  9. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05 with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99 after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance, use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use

  10. Electrical efficiency: case study of electric motors at machines room of a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo; Eficiencia eletrica: estudo de caso dos motores eletricos da sala de maquinas de um frigorifico no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Conselho Integrado de Infraestrutura Rural], E-mail: rossi@agri.unicamp.br; Silva, Roberto P.B. da; Barros, Regiane S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the potential for energy saving in cold compressor motor of a food industry, a study was conducted in a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo. It was analyzed only the engine room of the company because according to measurements this one corresponds approximately 97% of all electricity consumption of the unit. It was found that the electrical efficiency indices were low, demonstrating the possibilities for adoption of conservation measures and the rationalization of electric energy. It was evident that the establishment of an efficiency study to change the electrical equipment used was feasible and, therefore, was demonstrated and proposed a new arrangement for the current system. Soon after the diagnosis of the use of electricity was found that from the six Machinery, five were oversized. Then it was suggested to replace these machines by others with lower power and greater efficiency, as well as conducted an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of the project, demonstrating the possibilities for the rational use of energy and the optimization of financial resources company (author)

  11. How the nuclear safety team conducts emergency exercises at the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Antonio C.A.; Silva, Davilson G.; Toyoda, Eduardo Y.; Santia, Paulo S.; Conti, Thadeu N.; Semmler, Renato; Carvalho, Ricardo N., E-mail: acavaz@ipen.br, E-mail: dgsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: eytoyoda@ipen.br, E-mail: psantia@ipen.br, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.b, E-mail: rncarval@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work introduces the Diagram of Emergency Exercise Coordination designed by the Nuclear Safety Team for better Emergency Exercise coordination. The Nuclear Safety Team was created with the mission of avoiding, preventing and mitigating the causes and effects of accidents at the IEA-R1. The facility where we conduct our work is located in an area of a huge population, what increases the responsibility of our mission: conducting exercises and training are part of our daily activities. During the Emergency Exercise, accidents ranked 0-4 on INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) are simulated and involve: Police Department, Fire Department, workers, people from the community, and others. In the last exercise held in June 2014, the scenario contemplated a terrorist organization action that infiltrated in a group of students who were visiting the IEA-R1, tried to steal fresh fuel element to fabricate a dirty bomb. Emergency procedures and plans, timeline and metrics of the actions were applied to the Emergency Exercise evaluation. The next exercise will be held in November, with the simulation of the piping of the primary cooling circuit rupture, causing the emptying of the pool and the lack of cooling of the fuel elements in the reactor core: this will be the scenario. The skills acquired and the systems improvement have been very important tools for the reactor operation safety and the Nuclear Safety Team is making technical efforts so that these Emergency Exercises may be applied to other nuclear and radiological facilities. Equally important for the process of improving nuclear safety is the emphasis placed on implementing quality improvements to the human factor in the nuclear safety area, a crucial element that is often not considered by those outside the nuclear sector. Surely, the Diagram of Emergency Exercise Coordination application will improve and facilitate the organization, coordination and evaluation tasks. (author)

  12. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  13. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  14. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  15. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  16. [Clinical relationships and ethical problems in primary care, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes

    2010-08-01

    to identify ethical problems in primary care according to nurses' and doctors' perceptions. to know ethical issues of patient-professional relationships in primary care. Synthesis to integrate and reinterpret primary results of qualitative studies. Primary healthcare centers, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS AND/OR CONTEXT: Incidental sample of 34 nurses and 36 medical doctors working in primary healthcare centers selected by convenience. Individual, semi-structured interviews to identity situations considered as sources of ethical problems. The sample is socially representative of primary care health centers and professionals. Data collection assured discourse saturation. Hermeneutic-dialectical discourse analysis was used to study the results. Patient-professional relationships and team work were the main sources of ethical problems. The most important problems were patient information, privacy, confidentiality, interpersonal relationship, linkage and patient autonomy. These issues reflect the recent changes in clinical relation ships and show the peculiarities of primary care with its continuous care which lasts a long time. Healthcare involves multiprofessional team work in the midst of the patient claims for autonomy. Good care of patients needs requires a relationship based on communication and cooperation, and includes feelings and values, with communication skills. Ethical problems in primary care are common situations. For quality and humane primary care the relationship should consist of dialogue, trust and cooperation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  18. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  19. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  20. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (Southern Brazilian upper margin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H.; Silveira, Ilson C.A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Soutelino, Rafael G.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon dating obtained from sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon dating from materials collected using different sampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr{sup -1}. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ria type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Rio de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian coastal current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl). (author)

  1. [Relationship between low birthweight and air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa; Gouveia, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. We analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. We estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. Only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. For the evaluation of the effects of air pollution, we excluded preterm and multiple deliveries. Pollutants analyzed were ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), suspended particles (PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO). The effect of maternal exposure to air pollution on birthweight was evaluated using linear and logistic regression. A total of 4.6% of newborns weighed less than 2,500 g at birth. Maternal exposure to CO, PM10, and NO2 during the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased birthweight. Our results reinforce the notion that maternal exposure to air pollution during the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to lesser weight gain in the fetus.

  2. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  4. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  5. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, J.; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2016-01-01

    , MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users.The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely...... the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD...

  6. Environmental license process complexity in natural protected areas: case of OSBAT pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO in the state of Sao Paulo; Complexidade do licenciamento ambiental em areas naturais protegidas: caso do duto OSBAT operado pela TRANSPETRO no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    It presents the environmental license process enforced to obtain the Implementation License (LI) of the OSBAT pipeway part substitution, in the Sao Sebastiao city, State of Sao Paulo, with the analyses centered on the several public power instances and on the many special legal protection aspects around the natural area scenarios of the project interference. The license process had the duration of seventeen months, since the LI protocol and its emission. The process had the involvement of several organisms, the main part from the Sistema Nacional de Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA, and represented an interesting experience that can contribute to the agility of other license process of infrastructure works on protected natural areas, which has the incidence of an extensive legislation and activities restriction. (author)

  7. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  8. Zn adsorption in soils of different morphogenesis from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Raul Henrique; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Mineral de Plantas]. E-mail: rsartori@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The zinc (Zn) adsorption by nine different morphogenetic soil from to Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were studied. Superficial samples of soils: Ferralsol, Feralsol, Vertisol, Acrisol, Cambisol, two Arenosol, Phaeozem and Gleysol were used. It was study the influence of soil characteristics on the parameters of adsorption of zinc, described by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich, as well as the free energies of the adsorption reaction. Soil samples (0.5 g) were put in plastic bottle and suspended in 10 mL of solution 0.01 mol L{sup -1} of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} containing zinc in concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L{sup -1}, as zinc nitrate and labeled with 1.11 kBq mL{sup -1} of {sup 65}Zn radionuclide. The pots were shaken during 24 hours. The Zn adsorption was calculated by counting the radioactivity in the solution, after centrifugation. The equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were efficient to describe the parameters of adsorption of Zn. The results showed that the different soils can be separated in three groups in agreement with the maximum adsorption of Zn: <500 mg kg{sup -1} (Ferralsol, Vertisol, Arenosol-1 and Arenosol-2); 500 to 1000 mg kg{sup -1} 20 (Ferralsol, Cambisol and Phaeozem) and > 1000 mg kg{sup -1} (Acrisol and Gleysol). The negative values of the free energy change ({partial_derivative}G) of the reaction of zinc adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the reaction in all studied concentrations and the metal binding affinity of soil, which decreased with the increase of the concentration of Zn in the solution. The adsorption values and free energy change value from the reaction were related to the chemical and physical soil characteristics. (author)

  9. Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

    2005-07-01

    This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns.

  10. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  11. Fiber intake, constipation, and overweight among adolescents living in Sao Paulo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Erica Bloes; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gama, Cíntia Mendes; Lopez, Fabio Ancona; Taddei, José Augusto C; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight. In total, 716 adolescents were included within the study, of whom 314 attended private school and 402 attended public school. Evaluation of fiber intake was based on a 24-h daily intake record and a frequency questionnaire. Data concerning bowel movements and height and weight measurements were also taken. Fiber consumption, below that recommended ("age + 5"), was found in 61.8% and 41.4% (P = 0.000) of girls attending private and public schools, respectively, and in 44.1% and 25.6% of boys (P = 0.001). Adolescents who did not eat beans on more than 4 d/wk presented a higher risk of fiber intake below that recommended (age + 5; P < 0.05), with odds ratios ranging from 10.4 to 14.2 according gender and private or public schooling. Dietary fiber intake below that recommended was associated with a greater risk (P < 0.05) toward overweight in students attending public schooling (odds ratios 2.84 and 2.95 for males and females, respectively). Low dietary fiber intake was not associated with constipation. Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.

  12. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail: fatoledo@ipen.br, E-mail: fbrancac@ipen.br, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  13. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  14. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  15. Feasibility studies of producing {sup 99} Mo by capture in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concilio, Roberta; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; amendon@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    Everyday the production of {sup 99} Mo for {sup 99m} Tc generators, becomes more necessary, whose properties are ideal for medical diagnosis. This works presents a description and an analysis of the production of {sup 99} Mo by radioactive capture at {sup 98} Mo using the research reactor IEA-R1 in 5 MW and operating 5 days a week, referring to the use of targets, separation methods, total and specific activity attained and its limitations. (author)

  16. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state; Metodologia para correlacao entre doses e detectabilidade em imagens mamograficas padroes: aplicacao no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia

    2005-07-01

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, A{sub g}, establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, A{sub g}, image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The A{sub g} presented a mean value of (10,42 {+-} 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation

  17. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  18. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  19. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  20. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Levantamento das condicoes de funcionamento de servicos de radiodiagnostico medico - programa de vigilancia das radiacoes ionizantes no Estado de Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima [Secretaria de Estado da Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Moraes, Anna Cristina Andrade de [Escola de Governo e Administracao Publica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fundacao do Desenvolvimento Administrativo (FUNDAP)

    1996-12-31

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an `inspection form` of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  2. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  3. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  4. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  5. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  6. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals t ransmit ted from comparatively lon g distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver pre viously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National L aboratories o ver many years. It uses surface acous tic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to e nable the efficient use of sma ll aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  7. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  8. Toxoplasma gondii isolates: multilocus RFLP-PCR genotyping from human patients in Sao Paulo State, Brazil identified distinct genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia Brandão; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Qu, Daofeng; Su, Chunlei; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  10. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  11. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  12. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  13. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  14. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  15. Application of nondestructive methods for qualification of high density fuels in the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio T.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Terremoto, Luis A.A., E-mail: jersilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP manufactures fuels to be used in its research reactor - the IEA-R1. To qualify those fuels, it is necessary to check if they have a good performance under irradiation. As Brazil still does not have nuclear research reactors with high neutron fluxes, or suitable hot cells for carrying out post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels, IPEN/CNEN-SP has conducted a fuel qualification program based on the use of uranium compounds (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed in Al matrix) internationally tested and qualified to be used in research reactors, and has attained experience in the technological development stages for the manufacturing of fuel plates, irradiation and non-destructive post-irradiation testing. Fuel elements containing low volume fractions of fuel in the dispersion were manufactured and irradiated successfully directly in the core of the IEA-R1. However, there are plans at IPEN/CNEN-SP to increase the uranium density of the fuels. Ten fuel miniplates (five containing U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and five containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al), with densities of 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} respectively, are being irradiated inside an irradiation device placed in a peripheral position of the IEA-R1 core. Non-destructive methods will be used to evaluate irradiation performance of the fuel miniplates after successive cycles of irradiation, by means: monitoring the reactor parameters during operation; periodic underwater visual inspection of fuel miniplates, eventual sipping test for fuel miniplates suspected of leakage and underwater measuring of the miniplate thickness for assessment of the fuel miniplate swelling. (author)

  16. Impact of uranium concentration reduction in side plates of the fuel elements of IEA-R1 reactor on neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses; Impacto da reducao na concentracao de uranio nas placas laterais dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1 nas analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka Antonia

    2013-09-01

    This master thesis presents a study to verify the impact of the uranium concentration reduction in the side plates of the reactor IEA-R1 fuel elements on the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. To develop such study, a previous IPEN-CNEN/SP research was reproduced by simulating the fuel elements burn-up, with side plate uranium density reduced to 50, 60 and 70% of the standard fuel element plates. This research begins with the neutronic analysis using the computer code HAMMER and the first step consists in the calculation of the cross section of all materials presented at the reactor core, with their initial concentration; the second step consists in the calculation of the fast and thermal neutron group fluxes and power densities for fuel elements using the computer code CITATION. HAMMER output data is used as input data. Once the neutronic analysis is finished and the most critical fuel elements with highest power density have been defined, the thermal-hydraulics analysis begins. This analysis uses MCTR-IEA-R1 thermal-hydraulics model, which equations are solved by commercial code EES. Thermalhydraulics analysis input is the power density data calculated by CITATION: it is considered the highest power density on each fuel element, where there is a higher energy release and, consequently, higher temperatures. This data is used on energy balance equations to calculate temperatures on critical fuel element regions. Reactor operation comparison for three different uranium densities on fuel side plates is presented. Uranium density reduction contributes to the cladding surface temperature to remain below the established limit, as reactor operation safety requirement and it does not affect significantly fuel element final burn-up nor reactor reactivity. The reduction of uranium in the side plates of the fuel elements of the IEA-R1 showed to be a viable option to avoid corrosion problems due to high temperatures. (author)

  17. Reactor power monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Naotaka; Igawa, Shinji; Kitazono, Hideaki

    1998-02-13

    The present invention provides a reactor power monitoring device capable of ensuring circumstance resistance, high reliability and high speed transmission even if an APRM is disposed in a reactor building (R/B). Namely, signal processing sections (APRM) for transmitting data to a central control chamber are distributed in the reactor building at an area at the lowest temperature among areas where the temperature control in an emergency state is regulated, and a transmission processing section (APRM-I/F) for transmitting data to the other systems is disposed to the central control chamber. An LPRM signal transmission processing section is constituted such that LPRM signals can be transmitted at a high speed by DMA. Set values relevant to reactor tripping (neutron flux high, thermal output high and sudden reduction of a reactor core flow rate) are stored in the APRM-I/F, and reactor tripping calculation is conducted in the APRM-I/F. With such procedure, a reactor power monitoring device having enhanced control function can be attained. (N.H.)

  18. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, H. [VTT (Finland); Meibom, P. [DTU Riso (Denmark); Orths, A. [Energinet.dk (Denmark); O' Malley, M. [Univ. College Dubline (Ireland); Ummels, B. C. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Tande, J. [SINTEF (Norway); Estanqueiro, A. [INETI (Portugal); Gomez, E. [Univ. Castilla la Mancha (Spain); Smith, J. C. [Utility Wind Integration Group (UWIG), Reston, VA (United States)

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  19. Safe reactor power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegus, R.L.; Ring, H.F.; Bernath, L.

    1956-05-15

    The upper limit on reactor operating power is established not only by safety considerations during steady-state operation but also by the requirement that during an accident no permanent damage be inflicted upon the reactor or the fuel charge. Two general categories of accidents are recognized; they are the ``nuclear runaway`` and the ``loss of coolant flow`` incidents. In this memorandum an incident of the latter type is analyzed. It is assumed that the safety rods function normally, and a method is defined for establishing the highest operating power that may be permitted if the postulated accident is to do no damage.

  20. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  1. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in Sao Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo

  2. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  3. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique; Estudo das propriedades opticas dos aerossois no Estado de Sao Paulo com a tecnica de LIDAR Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Facundes da

    2010-07-01

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  4. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  5. Public policies for energy substitution in bus: the case of city of Sao Paulo; Politicas publicas para a substituicao energetica em onibus: o caso da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Zisman, Sandra Francis [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has been on a leading position on fossil fuel substitution in light vehicles. In 2008 and 2009, ethanol contributed with more than 50% of the light vehicle fuel's consumption. A new energetic substitution program was launched in Sao Paulo, and it can be the turning point for the fossil fuel's substitution in the segment of collective transport. This program allows the development of new fuel and engine technologies, and creates opportunities for their deployment on the collective transport market. The economic consequence is a restructuring process that affects the already established markets. There are still big uncertainties about the program's execution, and also about what will be the winning solutions of this, already started, technological race. (author)

  6. {alpha}-{alpha} interaction reexamined in the context of the Sao Paulo potential: possible applications in astrophysics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasques, L.R.; Chamon, L.C.; Botero, D.F.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DFN/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Alves, L.F.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Rossi Junior, E.S. [Centro Universitario FIEO(UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We have analyzed a large set of {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering data for bombarding energies ranging from 0.6 to 29.5 MeV. The complete lack of open reaction channels at these somehow low energies results in a vanishing imaginary part for the optical interaction. This characteristic makes the {alpha}-{alpha} reaction particularly interesting as the corresponding elastic scattering cross sections and phase shifts become very sensitive to the real part of the interaction. The data were analyzed within the context of the velocity-dependent Sao Paulo potential, which is a successful theoretical model for the description of heavy-ion reactions from sub-barrier to intermediate energies. We have shown that, even in this low energy region, the velocity dependence of the Sao Paulo potential model is a necessary ingredient for describing the data. Despite the reasonable description obtained with the Sao Paulo potential, the analyses indicate the necessity of an additional weak dependence of the interaction on the angular momentum. These important characteristics open the possibility for studying reactions with astrophysical interested. In particular, predictions of the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction will be presented. The understanding of the reaction rate for the {alpha}-capture process by a {sup 12}C nucleus is a crucial ingredient for predicting the stellar helium burning and the subsequent fate of stars as this reaction determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen towards the end of the Red Giants phase. It is well known that low mass stars evolve to White Dwarfs and this ratio determines the final abundance composition in White Dwarf matter and sets the trigger conditions for type Ia supernova explosions. The carbon-oxygen ratio also dictates the subsequent sequence of burning processes during the final stages of stellar evolution for massive stars. Thus, it has a key role in the determination of the abundance composition in

  7. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  8. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  9. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  10. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  11. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  12. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  13. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  14. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  15. Meat Consumption in Sao Paulo – Brazil: Trend in the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Martins de Carvalho; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Regina Mara Fisberg; Dirce Maria Marchioni

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey ...

  16. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  17. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement – comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise...... or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus...

  18. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  19. Low enriched uranium UAl{sub X}-Al targets for the production of Molybdenum-99 in the IEA-R1 and RMB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nishiyama, Pedro J.B. de O., E-mail: pedro.julio@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP in Brazil is a pool type research reactor cooled and moderated by demineralized water and having Beryllium and Graphite as reflectors. In 1997 the reactor received the operating licensing for 5 MW. A new research reactor is being planned in Brazil to replace the IEA-R1 reactor. This new reactor, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned for 30 MW, is now in the conception design phase. Low enriched uranium (LEU) (<20% {sup 235}U) UAl{sub x} dispersed in Al targets are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed, respectively, to compare the production of {sup 99}Mo for these targets in IEA-R1 reactor and RMB and to determine the temperatures achieved in the UAl{sub x}-Al targets during irradiation. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION, CITATION and SCALE and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations was utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1. (author)

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  1. Sao Paulo city and London architectonic epigraphs: a comparison from an information design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lena Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on inscriptions containing the names of architects and builders found in the façades of building in the cities of São Paulo and London. For the study, 123 architectonic epigraphs found in São Paulo city historic centre were compared with 71 inscriptions of the same kind found in the regions of Westminster and Camden, in central London. The focus of the analysis is the informational aspects of the inscriptions, including its location, size, typographic configuration and content.

  2. Adulto ostomizado del municipio Sao Paulo: un estudio sobre el costo de los equipamientos especializados

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Paula, Cristina Amoroso Damiani de; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2008-01-01

    O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos tes...

  3. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Doses absorvidas pelos pacientes submetidos a radiografias toracicas em hospitais do municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-07-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 {mu}Gy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and

  4. Distribution of natural gas: introduction of the interruptible segment in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Distribuicao de gas natural canalizado: introducao do segmento interruptivel em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is the better knowledge and evaluation of the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation and one can guess that the inexistence of contracts for this service resembles only lack of conjunctural opportunities for this job applications. These difficulties appear both in the supply and distribution branches of the gas business, which prefer flat contracts. The final conclusion is interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  5. Impacts of large amounts of wind power on design and operation of power systems, results of IEA collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Meibom, Peter; Orths, Antje

    2011-01-01

    There are dozens of studies made and ongoing related to wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power collects and shares information on wind generation impacts on power systems, with ...... systems: it reduces the total operating costs and emissions as wind replaces fossil fuels and this should be highlighted more in future studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... on the amount of wind power that can be integrated have been identified. Large balancing areas and aggregation benefits of wide areas help in reducing the variability and forecast errors of wind power as well as help in pooling more cost effective balancing resources. System operation and functioning......There are dozens of studies made and ongoing related to wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power collects and shares information on wind generation impacts on power systems...

  6. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  7. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  8. Introduction and expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Rodas, Lilian A Colebrusco; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Oliveira, Agda Maria; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the spread of human American visceral leishmaniasis and identify the key municipalities for developing surveillance and control activities. The area of the study was composed of the 316 municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo belonging to the five health districts in which human American visceral leishmaniasis occurs, using data on autochthonous cases and deaths according to the reporting year and municipality in which the death occurred. The incidence, mortality and case fatality rates for each municipality and for the entire area were calculated. An empirical Bayes estimator was used to calculate the local Bayesian incidence and rates of mortality per municipality, and Kriging was used to visualize the spatial distribution of temperature and rainfall. A total of 73 municipalities with transmission of the disease were identified. Human American visceral leishmaniasis was first detected in areas with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, but it also spread in cooler and wetter areas. The expansion of human American visceral leishmaniasis occurred along a main axis of dissemination, from Northwest to Southeast, following the Marechal Rondon highway and the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, and along a secondary axis that was derived from the main axis, which runs both North and South, following the highway network. Rates of incidence according to health district exhibit a peak, followed by a fall, except the Sao Jose do Rio Preto region. Higher concentrations of municipalities with high incidence and mortality rates were observed in the Araçatuba, Presidente Prudente and Marília health districts. This study indicates possible determinants of the spread of disease, including the Marechal Rondon highway and the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. Climatic factors seemed to play no role in the spread. The use of spatial analysis techniques allowed the municipalities where cases and deaths are possibly underreported to be identified, which

  9. Coulthard, M. 1991. Linguagem e sexo. Sao Paulo: EditoraAtica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Buchweitz Garcez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discutir o sexo dos anjos podenio ser urn empreendimento tic intitil como sempre pareceu. Dessa forma, perguntar por que falamos de "Homens" quando nos referimos a toda a humanidade incluindo as mulheres ou perguntar por que afinal Deus 6 "ele", e nao "ela" ou "aquilo", significa refletir sobre as conseqiiencias para a sociedade da escolha (intencional? do genero masculino como o genero näo marcado. Significa, tambem, refletir sobre as linguagens faladas por homens e mulheres, se elas silo diferentes entre si e quais sic, as diferencas; e, uma vez constatadas as diferencas, refletir sobre como elas se manifestam, de onde vem e quais sao seas conseqUencias. Esse 6 objetivo de Malcolm Coulthard em Linguagem e Sexo: mostrar as diferencas lingufsticas relacionadas ao sexo do falante.

  10. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  11. Changes in the spatial distribution of ozone, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  12. Streptococcus pyogenes strains in Sao Paulo, Brazil: molecular characterization as a basis for StreptInCor coverage capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi de Barros, Samar; De Amicis, Karine Marafigo; Alencar, Raquel; Smeesters, Pierre Robert; Trunkel, Ariel; Postól, Edilberto; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega; Rossi, Flavia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Kalil, Jorge; Guilherme, Luiza

    2015-08-05

    Several human diseases are caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, ranging from common infections to autoimmunity. Characterization of the most prevalent strains worldwide is a useful tool for evaluating the coverage capacity of vaccines under development. In this study, a collection of S. pyogenes strains from Sao Paulo, Brazil, was analyzed to describe the diversity of strains and assess the vaccine coverage capacity of StreptInCor. Molecular epidemiology of S. pyogenes strains was performed by emm-genotyping the 229 isolates from different clinical sites, and PCR was used for superantigen profile analysis. The emm-pattern and tissue tropism for these M types were also predicted and compared based on the emm-cluster classification. The strains were fit into 12 different emm-clusters, revealing a diverse phylogenetic origin and, consequently, different mechanisms of infection and escape of the host immune system. Forty-eight emm-types were distinguished in 229 samples, and the 10 most frequently observed types accounted for 69 % of all isolates, indicating a diverse profile of circulating strains comparable to other countries under development. A similar proportion of E and A-C emm-patterns were observed, whereas pattern D was less frequent, indicating that the strains of this collection primarily had a tissue tropism for the throat. In silico analysis of the coverage capacity of StreptInCor, an M protein-conserved regionally based vaccine candidate developed by our group, had a range of 94.5 % to 59.7 %, with a mean of 71.0 % identity between the vaccine antigen and the predicted amino acid sequence of the emm-types included here. This is the first report of S. pyogenes strain characterization in Sao Paulo, one of the largest cities in the world; thus, the strain panel described here is a representative sample for vaccine coverage capacity analysis. Our results enabled evaluation of StreptInCor candidate vaccine coverage capacity against diverse M-types, indicating

  13. Commissioning of the STAR test section for experimental simulation of loss of coolant accident using the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Torres, Walmir M.; Prado, Adelk C.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Franca, Renato L.; Santos, Samuel C.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: emaprel@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: acprado@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: rlfranca@ipen.br, E-mail: samuelcs@ipen.br, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The three basic safety functions of Research Reactors (RR) are the safe shutdown of the reactor, the proper cooling of the decay heat of the fuel elements and the confinement of radioactive materials. Compared to Nuclear Power Reactors, RR power release is small, yet its three safety functions must be met to ensure the integrity of the reactor. During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in pool type RR, partial or complete loss of pool water may occur, with consequent partial or complete uncovering of the fuel assemblies. In such an accident, the decay heat removal safety function must not be compromised. The Test Section for Experimental Simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (STAR) is in commissioning phase. This test section will provide experimental data on partial and total uncovering of the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly (IFA) irradiated in the IEA-R1. Experimental results will be useful in validation of computer codes for RR safety analysis, particularly on heat removal efficiency aspects (safety function) in accident conditions. STAR comprises a base on which is installed the IFA, the cylindrical stainless steel hull, the compressed air system for the test section emptying and refilling, and the instrumentation for temperature and level measurements. The commissioning tests or pre-operational check, consist of several preliminary tests to verify experimental procedures, the difficulties during assembling of STAR in the pool, the difficulties in control the emptying and refilling velocities, as well as, the repeatability capacity, tests of equipment, valves and systems and tests of instrumentation and data acquisition system. Safety, accuracy and easiness of operation will be checked. (author)

  14. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city; Analise de liquens por ativacao neutronica para estudo da poluicao atmosferica da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alessandrafuga@yahoo.com.br; Marcelli, Marcelo P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia]. E-mail: mpmarcelli@superig.com.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at {mu}g g{sup -1} levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g{sup -1} levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  16. Implementation of the integrated planning process of energy resources in the administrative region of the Aracatuba in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Implementacao do processo de planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos na regiao administrativa de Aracatuba no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Novos Instrumentos para o Planejamento Energetico Regional Visando o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel' considers, through the Integrated energy Resources Planning - IRP -, to identify to the necessities and strategical expectations for the region and the elaboration of business-oriented plans in distributed resources, to evaluate the economic potential of these resources and to develop strategical projects aiming to reach the sustainable development of the west region of Sao Paulo state. Structuralized to get information organized and reliable in order to help the decision being aimed at the sustainable development and evidencing the benefits of an ample or holistic vision suggested by the IRP, the methodology of work consider phases as the consolidation of resources and technologies, research of field, determination of the potential, accomplishment of the IRP with the evaluation of the complete costs (economical, environmental, social and political respects). The study of the region points at energy resources, as much for expansion of offers as for substitution of the existing ones, considering its social, environmental respects as much as economical and political, placing them of form if to classify in space, through the geo-referring; and classifying them qualitatively, taking itself in account all characteristics previously raised. (author)

  17. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  18. Dose evaluation for periapical radiographs in the city of Limeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Avaliacao de dose para radiografias periapicais na cidade de Limeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Melquisedec O. da [Vigilancia Sanitaria de Limeira, SP (Brazil); Leite, Marina S.; Costa, Alessandro M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Ghillardi Netto, Thomaz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2009-07-01

    In this work a study of the entrance surface air kerma for periapical radiographs in the city of Limeira, Sao Paulo state, was carried out. Measurements were performed in ten X-ray equipment for periapical radiographs. The values obtained were compared with the diagnostic reference level recommended in national regulation and has suggested a local diagnostic reference level of 2.70 mGy. (author)

  19. Temporal evaluation of radiation detection system, used by the division of radiation protection of the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Acosta, Clarice de Freitas; Ikari, Andreza Iris R.; Ferreira, Marcio de Oliveira; Alves, Henrique da Silva; Duarte, Marcelo Antonio [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a temporal evaluation of the radiation detection system used by in division of radiation protection of the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. About fifty efficiencies results of the system were compiled over the last two years for this purpose. Less than 1% of the standard deviation was found for both portable and fixed detectors, which indicates a significant stability of the detection system used in CTMSP over the period analyzed. (author)

  20. Survival After Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Subway System: First Successful Targeted Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Vianna, Caio Brito; Monteiro Alves, Maurício; Timerman, Sergio; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Kern, Karl B

    2015-10-09

    Targeted automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have improved survival rates among patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in US airports, as well as European and Japanese railways. The Sao Paulo (Brazil) Metro subway carries 4.5 million people per day. A targeted AED program was begun in the Sao Paulo Metro with the objective to improve survival from cardiac arrest. A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of all cardiac arrests in the Sao Paulo Metro was performed from September 2006 through November 2012. This study focused on cardiac arrest by ventricular arrhythmias, and the primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with minimal neurological impairment. A total of 62 patients had an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Because no data on cardiac arrest treatment or outcomes existed before beginning this project, the first 16 months of the implementation was used as the initial experience and compared with the subsequent 5 years of full operation. Return of spontaneous circulation was not different between the initial 16 months and the subsequent 5 years (6 of 8 [75%] vs. 39 of 54 [72%]; P=0.88). However, survival to discharge was significantly different once the full program was instituted (0 of 8 vs. 23 of 54 [43%]; P=0.001). Implementation of a targeted AED program in the Sao Paulo Metro subway system saved lives. A short interval between arrest and defibrillation was key for good long-term, neurologically intact survival. These results support strategic expansion of targeted AED programs in other large Latin American cities. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-09-01

    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  2. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  3. Risk factors associated with hemoglobin levels and nutritional status among Brazilian children attending daycare centers in Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Mariana; Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-03-01

    Like many other developing countries, Brazil has been going a nutritional transition which presence both malnutrition and overweight. Stunting and overweight are the major public health problems in Brazilian children. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of stunting, overweight and anemia in preschool children and examine if those nutritional problems are related; also identify if these nutritional problems have the same risk factors. Data from the "Efficient Daycare Center Project" which include 270 children attending nurseries of eight daycare centers in Sao Paulo city, Brazil were used for this study. Data on height and weight were converted to z-scores using WHO anthro software. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were determined on finger-prick blood samples. The co-occurrence of stunting, overweight and anemia was investigated by contingency tables a log-linear model. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the association of HAZ, WAZ, WHZ and Hb levels with their risk factors. The results showed high prevalence of overweight (22.2%), risk of stunting (22.6%) and anemia (37%). Percent of daycare attendance, age, number of siblings under 5 years old and per capita income are associated with Hb levels. This study provides evidence that Brazil is going through a nutritional transition and suggest that the adoption of public policies to expand and improve services in daycare centers may help to prevent multi-nutritional problems in preschool children.

  4. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br, E-mail: isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  5. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-11-01

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  10. Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with Sao Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Camacho, A; Aguilera, E F; Martinez-Quiroz, E [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminenese, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L F, E-mail: arturo.gomez@inin.gob.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., cep 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles {sup 8}B, {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li on the target {sup 58}Ni and {sup 9}Be on {sup 27}Al is carried out by performing a {chi}{sup 2}-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding Sao Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

  11. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  12. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  13. Proposal of lead time reduction in the thermoelectric products line of a small company in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veríssimo Soulé

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM is a way manufacturing companies may increase their flexibility. Manufacturing flexibility is a key to differentiation and enhancement of competitiveness. There is few empirical research on the topic of how small and medium-sized enterprises (SME may benefit from QRM, what may impact the appropriation of this approach by these important actors of our economy. This article aims to present the results of a project which applied QRM to reduce the lead time of a small company located in the state of Sao Paulo. It was proposed to a balance the throughputs of slow operations, reducing 50% of production batches; b implement cellular manufacturing and improvements in the management of Work In Process, using the POLCA system and visual management; c implement an integrated sales and operations planning (S&OP and rules for prioritization of orders. It was identified that the proposal would generate a lead time reduction from 39 to 21.3 days and a decrease of at least 51% in the raw materials stock costs. During the research, the following conclusions could be drawn: a problems in management, investment capacity and relationship with suppliers are frequent in family-owned SMEs; b QRM approach can be adapted to work within this environment; c the knowledge developed in academia can be an important tool to help family-owned SMEs to supplant these obstacles.

  14. Coaching and Mentoring as a Tool for Internal Customer Focus: A Regional Study in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Oste Graziano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research had as objective identifies the dimensions involved in the implementation of Coaching, for the manager's performance as manager close to your team, in real situation of work; the study includes the same investigation in relation to Mentoring, taking as study people's that work area of São Paulo focus. The data collected in the research they were collected through a questionnaire with open and closed subjects. The research showed as results of the pertinent subjects to the coaching and the mentoring that the great majority, or almost all had some training type, that happened in group, with the managers' presence just in the beginning and adding 8 hours, could end like this with that subject that in the researched respondents the work of the coaching is accomplished inside of the retail organizations. Concerning the mentoring, it can be concluded that she is inside present of the organization and it is represented by the leader. 

  15. Considerations about decommissioning of the IEA-R1 research reactor and the future of its installations after shutdown; Consideracoes sobre o descomissionamento do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1 e futuro de suas instalacoes apos o seu desligamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor, in operation since 1957, in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), is one of the oldest research reactors in the world. However at some point in time in the future, as example of the other reactors, it will be shutdown definitively. Before that time actually arrives, the operational organization needs to plan the future of its installations and define the final destination of equipment and radioactive as well as non-radioactive material contained inside the installations. These and other questions should be addressed in the so called Preliminary decommissioning plan of the installation, which is the subject of this work. The work initially presents an over view about the theme and defines the general and specific objectives describing, in succession, the directions that the operating organization should consider for the formulation of a decommissioning plan. The present structure of the Brazilian nuclear sector emphasizing principally the norms utilized in the management of radioactive waste is also presented. A description of principle equipment of the IEA-R1 reactor which constitutes its inventory of radioactive and non-radioactive material is given. The work emphasizes the experience of the reactor technicians, acquired during several reforms and modifications of the reactor installations realized during its useful life time. This experience may be of great help for the decommissioning in the future. An experiment using the high resolution gamma spectrometric method and computer calculation using Monte Carlo theory were performed with the objective of obtaining an estimate of the radioactive waste produced from dismantling of the reactor pool walls. The cost of reactor decommissioning for different choices of strategies was determined using the CERREX code. Finally, a discussion about different strategies is presented. On the basis of these discussions it is concluded that the most advantageous

  16. Steps in the diagnosis of energy for the establishment of a rational use of energy in an agroprocessing of wood forest planting in the southwest of the state of Sao Paulo; Etapas do diagnostico energetico para a implantacao de um programa de uso racional de energia em um agroindustria de beneficiamento de madeira de florestas plantadas na regiao sudoeste do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima; Souza, Caroline Mazzini de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2010-07-01

    This work shows the steps for implementing a program of rational use of electricity in a pine sawmill processing through energy diagnosis and also provide an energy efficiency index, the reference consumption in Kw.h power and volume of timber in cubic meters. The study was conducted in a sawmill located at Itapeva, southwest of Sao Paulo. The region's economic potential is based on the processing of wood with the main export destination. Much of the lumber does not have advanced technology, because it may present with excessive spending power. The species used are Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda. We collected data on the electrical installation of the mill and the main parts of the installation as tables and distribution lines and equipment engines were studied. The diagnostic results show that while the industry had a good general appearance, electrical installations and equipment using electric power for its functioning need more care, both in maintenance and in use. An energy efficiency program, if effected, could reduce the cost of the process and provides environmental benefits by less need for electric power generation. (author)

  17. Evolucao dos precos relativos de grupos alimentares entre 1939 e 2010, em Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yuka Yuba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução dos preços relativos dos grupos de produtos alimentares e sua influência nas políticas públicas para uma alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do município de São Paulo de 1939 a 2010, a partir da aplicação de métodos de cálculo de números-índices. Foram utilizados dados do banco de preços e estruturas de ponderação da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (1939 a 1988 e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1989 a 2010. O banco de preços foi organizado, sua consistência foi testada e os preços foram deflacionados pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor. Os dados relativos a preços deflacionados foram calculados e agregados por categorias e grupos alimentares da pirâmide alimentar adaptada. Os índices de preços de cada grupo foram construídos aplicando a fórmula de Laspeyres modificada. O índice geral de preços da alimentação foi comparado com índices de cada grupo alimentar e respectiva categoria: alimentos in natura; alimentos industrializados; bebidas; carnes, leguminosas, leite e ovos; cereais e tubérculos; e refeições fora do domicílio. RESULTADOS: Os grupos alimentares de gorduras, óleos, condimentos, açúcares e alimentos processados (alimentos industrializados apresentaram tendência de redução de preços em termos relativos. O índice dos alimentos in natura, como frutas e verduras, apresentaram tendência de elevação de preços. Outros grupos alimentares, como cereais, farinhas e massas, carnes, leite e ovos, apresentaram estabilidade de preços relativos ao longo do tempo. CONCLUSÕES: A evolução dos preços relativos dos alimentos no município de São Paulo mostra tendência desfavorável à manutenção da alimentação saudável em nível domiciliar em longo prazo.

  18. Hydrobiological aspects of Paraibuna and Paraitinga dams. Sao Paulo, with emphasis on phytoplankton community; Aspectos hidrobiologicos do complexo de represas Paraibuna-Paraitinga, Sao Paulo, com enfase na comunidade fitoplanctonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Janara de Camargo

    2010-07-01

    The inland waters are less on the Earth's surface and are extremely important for the survival of living things, why the concern for quality increases daily. The dams Paraibuna and Paraitinga, located in Paraibuna city, state of Sao Paulo, totaling 224 km{sup 2} of extension of water surface, with the current function of generating electricity. In order to analyze the water quality of these dams, this paper presents a diagnostic physical, chemical, and biological, which was used in the phytoplankton community and calculation of quality indexes. Four samples were taken at nine sampling points distributed along the dams. The physical and chemical analysis of water showed low concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate (mean 0,42 {+-} 0,23 mg.L{sup -1} and phosphate (<0,05 mg.L{sup -1}). Most metals and trace elements analyzed were within the limit established by federal law. The element phosphorus (mean 0,0293 {+-} 0,0153 mg.L{sup -1}) is presented above the values established by CONAMA Resolution 357/05 (0,020 mg.L{sup -1}) on all sampling points in the month of May, but this fact did not seem to influence the phytoplankton amount. High levels of dissolved oxygen and transparency, low levels of turbidity, conductivity and dissolved solids, pH close to neutrality, together with high diversity and low dominance of phytoplankton, with a predominance of green algae, showed that the dams still retain features of aquatic environment preserved, which suffer little influence of anthropogenic factors. However, the presence, even at low densities, of cyanobacteria and the existence of plantations and livestock activities in the borders of these dams deserve special attention in terms of their correct management to not become harmful factors to the quality of those waters. (author)

  19. Self-organizing maps of Kohonen (SOM) applied to multidimensional monitoring data of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Gustavo S.; Pereira, Iraci M.; Mesquita, Roberto N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine I., E-mail: ebueno@ifsp.gov.b [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Multivariate statistics comprise a set of statistical methods used in situations where many variables are database space subsets. Initially applied to human, social and biological sciences, these methods are being applied to many other areas such as education, geology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and many others. This spectra expansion was possible due to recent technological development of computation hardware and software that allows high and complex databases to be treated iteratively enabling further analysis. Following this trend, the neural networks called Self-Organizing Maps are turning into a powerful tool on visualization of implicit and unknown correlations in big sized database sets. Originally created by Kohonen in 1981, it was applied to speech recognition tasks. The SOM is being used as a comparative parameter to evaluate the performance of new multidimensional analysis methodologies. Most of methods require good variable input selection criteria and SOM has contributed to clustering, classification and prediction of multidimensional engineering process variables. This work proposes a method of applying SOM to a set of 58 IEA-R1 operational variables at IPEN research reactor which are monitored by a Data Acquisition System (DAS). This data set includes variables as temperature, flow mass rate, coolant level, nuclear radiation, nuclear power and control bars position. DAS enables the creation and storage of historical data which are used to contribute to Failure Detection and Monitoring System development. Results show good agreement with previous studies using other methods as GMDH and other predictive methods. (author)

  20. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  1. Epidemiology of septic arthritis of the knee at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Partezani Helito

    Full Text Available Background: Septic arthritis is an infrequent disease although very important due to the possibility of disastrous outcomes if treatment is not adequately established. Adequate information concerning the epidemiology of septic arthritis is still lacking due to the uncommon nature of the disease as well as the struggle to establish a correct case-definition. Objective: To epidemiologically characterize the population seen at Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo with a diagnosis of septic arthritis between 2006 and 2011. Methods: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the knee between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics, the microorganisms that caused the infection and the patients' treatment and evolution were analyzed. Results: Septic arthritis of the knee was more common among men, with distribution across a variety of age ranges. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures. The most prevalent clinical comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the most commonly reported joint disease was osteoarthritis. Staphylococcus aureus was the prevailing pathogen. Fever was present in 36% of the cases. All patients presented elevation in inflammatory tests. Gram staining was positive in only 50.8% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented complications and unfavorable evolution of their condition. Conclusion: S. aureus is still the most common pathogen in acute knee infections in our environment. Gram staining, absence of fever and normal leukocyte count cannot be used to rule out septic arthritis.

  2. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotufo Paulo A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively. Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively. No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia.

  3. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  4. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  5. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP. This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii combustion of the fuel, and (iii heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  8. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  9. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  10. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  11. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  12. The first experiments with the Microtron injector of IF/USP - Inst. of Physics of the Sao Paulo University, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanin, Vito R.; Maidana, Nora L.; Lopez Pino, Neivy; Jahnke, Viktor [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fernandez-Varea, J.M. [Universid de Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, J. [Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The first accelerating structures of the Sao Paulo microtron accelerator presently deliver a CW 1.8 MeV electron beam, which can be used in atomic physics studies. A beam line with focalization quadrupole magnets, energy analysing dipole magnet with a collimator, irradiation chamber, movable target system, and Faraday cup was developed. A beam monitor based on optical transition radiation was developed and will be presented in another session in this conference; here, we will show the experimental results of the two experiments performed with the Microtron electron beam. One of the experiments consists in measuring the K-shell ionization cross-section by electron impact in a thin Au target. The cross-section can be deduced from the Au K X-Rays production rate, measured with a HPGe X-ray detector positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the beam direction. The electron current is integrated in a Keithley picoamperimeter, and the target surface mass-density measured by gravimetry. This target was chosen to check the experimental method, since the Au cross-section is well known. The other experiment is the measurement of the angular distribution of the Bremsstrahlung energy spectra, using a silver target. The energy spectra is obtained using a HPGe gamma-ray detector, for three different angles: 30, 60 and 90 degrees with respect to the beam direction. The obtained spectra are unfolded, using a response function obtained by simulation, with some parameters fitted to the experimental response function measured with a Cs-137 activity-calibrated radioactive source. (author)

  13. Study of socio environmental actions of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Over the years the evolution of environmental concept comes solidifying increasingly through programs, conferences and various activities taking place in Brazil and worldwide. As a result of this development, sustainability and social responsibility began to be seen as something present in day to day business and institutions. In particular, the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), state authority associated with University of Sao Paulo (USP) and managed by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), subordinate the Ministry of Science and Technology, which is the focus of this work, has the mission the commitment to society as regards: improving the quality of life of the population, producing scientific knowledge, developing technologies, generating products and services and training human resources in nuclear and related. Based on the mission of IPEN and in the lack of assessment tools of social actions, this paper aims to propose an instrument for assessing social responsibility and serve as a methodological option, strongly committed to the pursuit of improvements of IPEN. Through indicators and dimensions, built up a methodology that seeks to assess social responsibility and identify strengths, to be encouraged and weaknesses, which can be studied and improved. This methodology was applied to IPEN and the results that are presented in this work identified positives regarding their actions to their domestic audience and points to be improved in relation to their external audience. As an initial evaluation, the results were satisfactory; however, this work will continue in order to suggest the implementation of social and environmental actions feasible to be applied in IPEN. (author)

  14. Fluorose dentaria em criancas de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência de prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças de 12 anos em contexto de exposição a múltiplas fontes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise de tendência da prevalência de fluorose dentária no período de 1998 a 2010 na cidade de São Paulo, SP. As prevalências foram calculadas para diferentes anos (1998, 2002, 2008 e 2010, a partir de dados secundários obtidos em levantamentos epidemiológicos com amostras representativas da população de 12 anos de idade. A ocorrência de fluorose foi avaliada sob luz natural utilizando o índice de Dean, preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e categorizada em normal, questionável, muito leve, leve, moderada e severa. Em 1998 foram examinadas 125 crianças; 249 em 2002; 4.085 em 2008; e 231 em 2010. RESULTADOS: Em 1998 a prevalência de fluorose foi de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8, em 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8, de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8 em 2008 e de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5 em 2010. As categorias muito leve + leve registraram 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6 em 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2 em 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5 em 2008 e 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7 em 2010. Não se observou fluorose severa com significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças paulistanas pode ser classificada como estacionária no período de 1998 a 2010, tanto em geral quanto ao se considerarem apenas as categorias muito leve + leve.

  15. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  16. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  17. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  18. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  19. Proceedings of the IEA implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems. Annex 4 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS), established in 1993, is a collaborative effort of sponsoring countries to reduce costs of technology applications, increase awareness of potential value, and foster market deployment of PV. Task 4, the Modeling of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation in Support of the Electric Grid, is one of six project work areas established under the Implementing Agreement. The work under Task 4 has been assigned to Annex 4. Although Task 4 was framed in 1993, no progress had been made in implementation as of mid-1995. The Annex 4 Workshop, described herein, was a focused effort by the participants to redefine the issuer in light of today`s knowledge, and to gain interest among potential collaborators and participants. The purpose of the workshop was to determine the current status of methods for evaluating the benefits of and planning for grid-connected PV systems and to establish a plan for further action according to the needs and priorities of participants.

  20. Methodology of post-occupation energetic evaluation: case study of a building of the commercial and services sector of Sao Paulo city, Southeast Brazil; Metodologia de avaliacao pos-ocupacao energetica: caso de um edificio do setor de comercio e servicos da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Romero, Marcelo de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Pratini, Edison F. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for the post-occupational energetic evaluation and shows the application in a case study in Sao Paulo city. In this case study it was considered the building performance throughout its service life in what concerns physical aspects, as well as, functional aspects and users behaviour, as these are factors which combines result in the final energetic performance of the building. Recommendations for performance improvement were presented 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  1. The Rio de Janeiro - Sao Paulo pipeline: the interests onset in the emptiness of the energy and regional development federal politics; Oleoduto Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo: embate de interesses no vazio da politica federal de energia e de desenvolvimento regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS project in constructing a pipeline between the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo states originated a dispute of strategic interests between the PETROBRAS and the Rio de Janeiro state. However, the relevant dimension in this dispute is the absence of a Brazilian politics for the development of refining as an important thruster of regional development; this theme deserve to be inserted in the Brazilian energy politic agenda.

  2. Professor Ernst Bresslau, founder of the Zoology Departments at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo: lessons to learn from his life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2017-06-01

    In this article, the life history of the founding father of the departments of Zoology at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo, Prof. Ernst Bresslau, is described on occasion of the establishing of the "Ernst Bresslau Guest Professorship" at the University of Cologne. His main scientific achievements are discussed, in particular his research on the evolutionary origin of the mammary apparatus, in addition to his broad interest in biological topics. Among the many technical advancements that he introduced was the micro slow-motion camera developed together with the Zeiss Company which allowed to film ciliary beats at high speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Urbanización de asentamientos informales en Sao Paulo de 2005 a 2012. Participación comunitaria y resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane Lugli, Verónica Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    En la búsqueda de una ciudad deseable para vivir, una ciudad de todos y todas y para todos y todas, las pequeñas acciones constituyen un gran movimiento impulsor. En este estudio procuramos reconocer, definir y ponderar las aportaciones del vecindario de los barrios informales de Sao Paulo (la ciudad más poblada de Brasil) entre los años 2005 y 2012, a sus procesos de urbanización e identificar y cuantificar la importancia de la participación ciudadana para el éxito de la propuesta urbanístic...

  4. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the adoption level of practices associated with more sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices. Additionally, the motivations for and barriers to the adoption of these practices by farmers are investigated. Data were collected through...... closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...

  5. Comparação entre diferentes fontes de dados sobre homicídios no município de São Paulo Comparing distinct homicides database for Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kilsztajn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo compara dados de homicídios de residentes no município de São Paulo entre 1996 e 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim, Fundação Seade e Ministério da Saúde; e de homicídios por distrito de residência da vítima no município de São Paulo em 2000, divulgados pelo Pro-aim e pela Fundação Seade. Foram considerados homicídios os óbitos por agressão; intervenção legal e eventos de intenção não determinada causados por disparo de arma de fogo e por contato com objeto cortante/penetrante ou contundente. A diferença entre os números da Fundação Seade e do Ministério da Saúde é desprezível, mas a diferença entre os números do Pro-aim e da Fundação Seade para homicídios de residentes ocorridos na capital em 2000 é expressiva para muitos distritos do município de São Paulo. Além disso, o Pro-aim não registra óbitos de residentes na capital ocorridos em outro município. As análises da taxa de homicídio por distrito do município de São Paulo que utilizam dados do Pro-aim podem levar a resultados muito diferentes das que utilizam dados da Fundação Seade.The article compares city (Pro-aim, state (Fundação Seade and federal (Ministério da Saúde data for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city between 1996 and 2000; and Pro-aim and Fundação Seade data for homicides per district in Sao Paulo municipality, in 2000. As homicides were considered deaths caused by assault, legal intervention and events of undetermined intent caused by firearm discharge and contact with sharp or blunt objects. The difference between Fundação Seade and Ministério da Saúde data is worthless. But the difference between Pro-aim and Fundação Seade numbers for homicides of residents in Sao Paulo city in 2000 has statistical significance for a large number of districts. Furthermore, Pro-aim does not record deaths of residents in Sao Paulo city occurred in other cities. Analysis of homicide rates per district in Sao Paulo city that

  6. Guidelines for the development and environmental protection of the outcrop area in the Guarani aquifer system in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e protecao ambiental da area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquerque Filho, J. L.; Carvalho, A. M. de; Ikematsu, P.; Costa Barbosa, M.; Iritani, M.; Nogueira Pressinoti, M. M.; Rocha, G.; Pereira Militao da Silva, M.; Theodorovicz, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is an important public water source. The unconfined areas are those where the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination, justifying the creation of a Protection and Recovery Source Area (Area de Protecao e Recuperacao de Manancial - APRM), as established in Act 9.866/97 of Sao Paulo State. We present here the results of the project Environmental Diagnosis in Support of the Plan for the Development and Environmental Protection Plan of the Outcrop Area of the Guarani Aquifer System in Sao Paulo State (Plano de Desenvolvimento e Protecao Ambiental da Area de Afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no Estado de Sao Paulo PDPA-SAG) and describe the areas of intervention defined by this law. The characterization of the area studied focuses on the physical and socio-economic aspects of the region, in addition to the pertinent legislation. Partial results indicate that the condition of the aquifer is satisfactory, but territorial discipline continues to be of prime importance. (Author)

  7. Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Efeitos da estocagem de vinhaca e das aguas de lavagem da cana-de-acucar na qualidade dos recursos hidricos da regiao de Dobrada, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadia, Jose Antonio Beltrao; Reboucas, Aldo da Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km{sup 2}, Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration and percolation of vinasse and water used for washing cane sugar, through accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs, respectively, in areas of Bauru Aquifer (Cretaceous). The Bauru Aquifer, free and porous, occurs in a extended area of 104.000 km{sup 2} in Sao Paulo State, as a major exploitable aquifer (more than 15.000 wells), used for domestic and industrial water supplies. For the groundwater, the following measures were found in analyses exceeding drinking water standards (WHO; CONAMA/Brazil and Sao Paulo State): manganese (0,03 to 3,5 mg/l), iron (0.45 to 34 mg/l), aluminum (1 to 52 mg/l) and phosphate (0,03 to 0.38 mg/l). For superficial water, the following measures exceeded drinking water standards: total iron (3 mg/l) and phosphate (0,035 mg/l). The main purpose of this research is to improve the field methodology to characterize the impacts of vinasse and washing water of cane sugar infiltration/percolation., detaching the relationship between ground and surface water, with the major aim to supply the legislation to protect drinking water resources. (author) 11 refs.

  8. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  9. Cost of production of live attenuated dengue vaccines: a case study of the Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, R T; Francis, D P; Frazatti-Gallina, N M; Precioso, A R; Raw, I; Watler, P; Whitehead, P; Whitehead, S S

    2012-07-06

    A vaccine to prevent dengue disease is urgently needed. Fortunately, a few tetravalent candidate vaccines are in the later stages of development and show promise. But, if the cost of these candidates is too high, their beneficial potential will not be realized. The price of a vaccine is one of the most important factors affecting its ultimate application in developing countries. In recent years, new vaccines such as those for human papilloma virus and pneumococcal disease (conjugate vaccine) have been introduced with prices in developed countries exceeding $50 per dose. These prices are above the level affordable by developing countries. In contrast, other vaccines such as those against Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2 strain vaccine) and meningitis type A have prices in developing countries below one dollar per dose, and it is expected that their introduction and use will proceed more rapidly. Because dengue disease is caused by four related viruses, vaccines must be able to protect against all four. Although there are several live attenuated dengue vaccine candidates under clinical evaluation, there remains uncertainty about the cost of production of these tetravalent vaccines, and this uncertainty is an impediment to rapid progress in planning for the introduction and distribution of dengue vaccines once they are licensed. We have undertaken a detailed economic analysis, using standard industrial methodologies and applying generally accepted accounting practices, of the cost of production of a live attenuated vaccine, originally developed at the US National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), to be produced at the Instituto Butantan in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We determined direct costs of materials, direct costs of personnel and labor, indirect costs, and depreciation. These were analyzed assuming a steady-state production of 60 million doses per year. Although this study does not seek to compute the price of the final

  10. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  11. Designing a zero emissions power switch locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, J.; Hines, J. [National Instruments, Austin, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to providing electric power and drinking water in manned spacecraft, fuel cell power plants have provided safe, clean electric power to hospitals, universities and other facilities since the early 1990s. This paper described a zero emissions hydrogen and battery-powered hybrid switching locomotive designed for use in rail, port and military base applications. Designed in partnership with a consortium, the prototype hybrid switching locomotive is comprised of a number of proven commercial technologies and includes a control system developed by National Instruments. New applications for hydrogen fuel cell use in industrial vehicles were also discussed. The new design was scheduled for field testing at the end of 2008.

  12. [Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

    1990-05-01

    Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of the elimination of chronic diseases on disability-free life expectancy among elderly individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gonçalves Campolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to establish whether the elimination of certain chronic diseases is capable of leading to the compression of morbidity among elderly individuals in Sao Paulo (Brazil, 2010. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with official data for the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil in 2010 and data from the SABE (Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. A total of 907 elderly individuals were evaluated, 640 of whom were women (64.6%. Sullivan's method was used for the calculation of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE. Life tables for cause elimination were used to calculate the probabilities of death with the elimination of health conditions. In absolute terms, the gains in LE and DFLE were greater in the younger age group (60 to 74 years in both genders. In relative terms (%DFLE in LE, the gains were higher among women aged 75 years or older and among men aged 60 years. If eliminated, heart disease was the condition that would most lead to the compression of morbidity in both genders. The elimination of chronic diseases from the elderly population could lead to a compression of morbidity in men and women at both 60 years of age and 75 years of age or older.

  14. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  15. Wind power system for Sao Gabriel, Irece region, Bahia-Brazil; Sistema eolico de Sao Gabriel, regiao de Irece-Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Carlos D' Alexandria [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosbruni@cefetba.br; Camelier, Luiz Alberto A. [Companhia de Engenharia Rural da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: lcamelier@ig.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An electric power plant supplied by a wind-generator is the solution for supply drink water on a small community on Sao Gabriel, Irece - Bahia -Brazil. On behalf of the feasibility a wind power system is described in detail concerning it's technical specifications, it's operation, constraints and it's energy demand. Furthermore wind power system supply is described in detail. Simulations is shows how the system is designed to guarantee a reliability in pumping of drinking water powered by wind power system and it's expansion in the future. (author)

  16. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an artificial neural network for monitoring and diagnosis of sensor fault and detection in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN; Utilizacao de redes neurais artificiais na monitoracao e deteccao de falhas em sensores do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio

    2006-07-01

    The increasing demand on quality in production processes has encouraged the development of several studies on Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems in industrial plant, where the interruption of the production due to some unexpected change can bring risk to the operator's security besides provoking economic losses, increasing the costs to repair some damaged equipment. Because of these two points, the economic losses and the operator's security, it becomes necessary to implement Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems. In this work, a Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems was developed based on the Artificial Neural Networks methodology. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The development of this system was divided in three stages: the first was dedicated to monitoring, the second to the detection and the third to diagnosis of failures. In the first stage, several Artificial Neural Networks were trained to monitor the temperature variables, nuclear power and dose rate. Two databases were used: one with data generated by a theoretical model and another one with data to a typical week of operation of the IEA-R1 reactor. In the second stage, the neural networks used to monitor the variables was tested with a fault database. The faults were inserted artificially in the sensors signals. As the value of the maximum calibration error for special thermocouples is {+-}0,5 deg C, it had been inserted faults of {+-} 10 C in the sensors for the reading of the variables T3 and T4. In the third stage a Fuzzy System was developed to carry out the faults diagnosis, where were considered three conditions: a normal condition, a fault of {sub 1}0 C , and a fault of + 10 C . This system will indicate which thermocouple is faulty. (author)

  18. Isolamento do vírus da raiva em Artibeus fimbriatus no Estado de São Paulo Isolation of rabies virus in Artibeus fimbriatus bat in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice M Sequetin Cunha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se, pela primeira vez, o isolamento e a identificação do vírus da raiva em morcego frugívoro Artibeus fimbriatus no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. O vírus foi isolado de exemplar encontrado em área urbana, caído sob uma árvore e ainda vivo. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.This is the first report of the isolation and identification of the rabies virus in the frugivorous bat Artibeus fimbriatus in the city of Sao José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The virus was isolated from an animal found in an urban area. The animal was found on the ground under a tree, still alive. Diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation of mice.

  19. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  20. Avenues plan to the metropolitan road ring: notes for a discussion on the energy (un)sustainable use in Sao Paulo's metropolis; Do plano de avenidas ao rodoanel metropolitano: notas para uma discussao sobre o uso (in)sustentavel de energia na macrometropole de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondani, M.; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: devas@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The energy demand of any particular city depends, upon others, on its urbanization process as a direct function of the accessibility parameter. The 'heat islands' are directly related to deforestation and verticalization, being Sao Paulo a major example of a urban process leading to desertification of entire surrounding macro-metropolis, with climate changings and resulting increase in the end-uses energy demand. The interface between efficiency on transport system, energy end-uses efficiency and environmental sustainability provide guidelines to the deployment of a sustainable consumer demand pattern. (author)

  1. Development and implementation of a new pneumatic transfer system for materials irradiation at IEA-R1 reactor; Desenvolvimento e implementacao de um novo sistema pneumatico de transferencia para irradiacao de materiais no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Alberto de Jesus

    2011-07-01

    Pneumatic Transfer Systems (PTS) are classified as mechanical equipment largely operated all over the world for transport of a huge sort of objects, samples and materials located at nearly terminals or even at separated ones. System applicability is often recognized in many activities, such as medicine (hospital settings, clinical analysis labs), industry (steel, automobiles, mining, chemical, food, construction), trading (gas station, movies, supermarkets, banks, e-commerce) and federal agencies (post services, federal courts, public enterprises). In the nuclear settings, PTS shows also a vast array of applications, being a part of radioisotope production, as well as short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, including 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 18 F and 123 I-ultra pure. Besides, PTS are also used at radioactive waste management plants and research institutes that apply neutron activation analysis (NAA). This work was directed toward the design and operation of a new PTS for the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor settled at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for NAA application. With this aim, it was calculated the charge of reactor core grid plate and sample transport testing. Neutron flux at irradiating position was determined as 3,70 {+-} 0,26 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Concentration of metals adjacent to Tiete river border avenues; Concentracao de metais em solos adjacentes a Avenida Marginal do Rio Tiete, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia C. e; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Nammoura Neto, Georges M.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work analysed different 5 cm depth fragments soils, with distinct characteristic s, collected at 8 points of the Tiete river marginal avenue at the Sao Paulo metropolitan region. The technique used for the analysis was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Together with samples, metal concentration were measured in three reference materials BEN (IWG-GIT), GS-N (IWG-GIT) and Soil-7 (IAEA) for quality control of the results. These metals were analysed: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), antimony (Sb) e zinc (Zn); the obtained concentrations were compared with intervention limit values stipulated by the Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB). Those values indicate the soil quality for different use

  3. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  4. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  5. The program for rational using of energy and alternative sources - PUREFA from Sao Paulo University (USP) - Brazil; O programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas - PUREFA da USP: analise de resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Castello Branco, Paula Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br, gimenes@pea.usp.br, paulacastello@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the results of project PUREFA - Program of Rational Use of Energy and Alternative Sources of the University of Sao Paulo, as they arise from the measures pertaining to its 13 Physical Goals, as well as their respective impacts for the University. The project used resources from FINEP, totaling approximately R$ 2,2 million, involving several units of the USP, both in the capital and in the countryside. Concluded actions include: Enhancing the system of management of energy (integrating action comprehending all others); Adding new distributed generation capacity at USP, installing 9 kWp of photovoltaic generation and 15 kW of biogas fired generation; Setting up of a policy of permanent incentive to the efficient and rational use of energy; Creation of norms of energy efficiency in buildings; Substitution of public and internal lighting systems, as well as air-conditioners; Installation of Systems of Solar Heating at Sao Carlos, Piracicaba and Sao Paulo in substitution to the electric showers; Installation of Systems for Solar Water Heating at the Central Restaurant of the CUASO Campus in Sao Paulo. The results show the importance of destining resources for energy saving in the public sector, the fast payback of corresponding investments and the potential for synergies and multiplying effects of such joint actions when applied to the University. (author)

  6. Integrity assessment of research reactor fuel cladding and material testing using eddy current inspection; Avaliacao de integridade de revestimentos de combustiveis de reatores de pesquisa e teste de materiais utilizando o ensaio de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Donizete Anderson de

    2004-07-01

    A methodology to perform the integrity assessment of research reactors nuclear fuels cladding, such as those installed in IPR-Rl (TRIGA) and IEA-R1 (MTR), using nondestructive electromagnetic inspection (eddy current) is presented. This methodology is constituted by: the development of calibration reference standards, specific for each type of fuel; the development of special test probes; the recommendations for the inspection equipment calibration; the construction of voltage based evaluation curves and the inspection procedures developed for the characterization of detected flaws. The test probes development, specially those designed for the inspection of MTR fuels cladding, which present access difficulties due to the narrow gap between fuel plates (2,89 mm for IEAR-R1), constituted a challenge that demanded the introduction of unusual materials and constructive techniques. The operational performance of the developed resources, as well as the special operative characteristics of the test probes, such as their immunity to adjacent fuel plates interference and electrical resistivity changes of the fuels meat are experimentally demonstrated. The practical applicability of the developed methodology is verified in non radioactive environment, using a dummy MTR fuel element model, similar to an IEA-R1 reactor fuel element, produced and installed in IPEN, Sao Paulo. The efficacy of the proposed methodology was verified by the achieved results. (author)

  7. Nuclear reactor power monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarumi, Teruji; Oda, Naotaka; Goto, Yasushi; Ito, Toshiaki [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Mitsubori, Minehisa

    1997-07-11

    The present invention provides a nuclear power monitoring device which does not lose a safety protection function even upon occurrence of a single failure in an APRM system of a BWR type reactor. Namely, an APRM for inputting signals of local power region monitors (LPRM) has four channels. Each of the channels is constituted so as to be bypassed. With such a constitution, LPRM detector signals can be inputted one by one to each of the four channels of the APRM from each of the LPRM detector assembly. Accordingly, a common channel for LPRM detectors can be eliminated in a small-sized reactor. The number of signals of the LPRM detectors inputted to each of the channels of the APRM is increased in a large-scaled reactor. Since each of the APRM can be bypassed, even if a single failure of one APRM is caused during a predetermined maintenance, the monitoring can be conducted smoothly by bypassing other channel. As a result, a multiple safe-protection function can be ensured. (I.S.)

  8. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor; Otimizacao do feixe de irradiacao na instalacao para estudos em BNCT junto ao reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de

    2014-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  9. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  10. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  11. Power-Filled Lessons for Leadership Educators from Paulo Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaak, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to introduce readers to teacher-philosopher-practitioner, Paulo Freire and to illustrate the power of his educational ideals for the task of teaching leadership. Readers will encounter Freire, understand how one's definition of leadership needs to match one's approach to teaching leadership, review a proposed Freirean…

  12. Comportamento de compra de insumos agrícolas dos fornecedores de cana-de-açúcar no estado de São Paulo = Sao Paulo state sugarcane suppliers purchase behavior of agricultural inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Richard D´Aragone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicação apresenta análises sobre o comportamento de compra de insumos agrícolas pelos fornecedores de cana-de-açúcar do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados a partir da aplicação de questionários em encontros presenciais denominados “painéis”. Notou-se uma visão estratégica por parte dos fornecedores nos quesitos que abrangem o processo de compra. Para escolha dos produtos, o foco é claro em preço e qualidade, enquanto que para escolha dos locais de compra, o cerne é difundido em diversos atributos diferenciados, mostrando que neste aspecto os interesses de cada fornecedor não são tendenciais. = This publication presents the analysis of the purchase behavior of agricultural inputs by Sao Paulo sugarcane suppliers. Data were collected from questionnaires in presential meetings called "panels". It was noted a strategic vision by the suppliers in the categories covering the purchase process. Concerning products choice, the focus is clearly in price and quality, while the choice of stores, the focus is widespread in many different attributes, showing that in this aspect the interests of each supplier are not biased.

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to put photovoltaic power generation system into practical use by international cooperation project (Executive Committee meetings for treaty of executing IEA photovoltaic power generation system research cooperation program - IEA/PVPS); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei (shikko iinkai))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The 13th and 14th Executive Committee meetings were held. The resolutions adopted at the 13th Executive Committee meeting (Lausanne, Switzerland, May 3 through 5, 1999) were the approval of the Task VIII as a new IEA/PVPS task, the feasibility study on large scale photovoltaic power generation utilizing unused land such as desert (the operating agent country being Japan headed by Mr. Kando, chief researcher at NEDO and Professor Kurokawa) and the Task IX, proliferation of photovoltaic power generation under coordination with developing countries (the operating agent country being England headed by Mr. Bernard McNelis (IT Power) and that the task I operating agent country is substituted jointly by the three countries of Australia, Holland and Switzerland for six months. The resolutions adopted at the 14th Executive Committee meeting (Oslo, Norway, October 18 through 20, 1999) were appointing Australia as the Task I operating agent country headed by Mr. G. Watt, setting a web site of IEA/PVPS, issuing the annual report for fiscal 1998 in early 2000, and holding the Executive Committee meetings for fiscal 2000 in Canada (Quebec, April 17 through 19, 2000), and Italy (October 16 through 18, 2000). (NEDO)

  14. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  15. Methodology of technical analysis to reduce cost in the planning of the works of 'Energy for All' program in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Metodologia de analise tecnica para reducao de custo no planejamento das obras do programa 'Luz para Todos' em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betiol Junior, Genesio; Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto; Carmo, Jose R. do; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This article relates the development of a research about low cost for rural electrification projects, which have been used like a base to develop a technical analysis in whole projects of the program 'Luz para Todos'. This program was made in 2002 with the purpose to offer electricity for whole people in Brazilian rural area. This method was developed seeking in to achieve cost reduction in the planning made by electric companies in Sao Paulo state. At first, were analyzed the rural electric projects made by electricity companies in the program 'Luz da Terra', in front of to the commitment in achieving cost reduction in the rural electric projects. The program 'Luz da Terra' was made whit a social purpose and it was developed in the whole Sao Paulo state, during 1996 until 2004. One of the main demands to achieve reasonable costs and to allow the program's viability was the previous analyses of rural distribution projects, before them changing to work of electricity, checking out if they had well defined. social, technical and economics methods. For that, were chosen quantitative and non-quantitative indicators, agreement whit a comparative analysis of each company performance in the program 'Luz da Terra', in agreement whit historical series, based on the group of the final result of each distribution electricity project. In a second moment, the same methodology was adjusted to confront the plans data of each company's future works in the program 'Luz para Todos', using the results of the first program. The research allowed the identification of some planner's tendencies when developing from a more rigorous model of low cost, like was the program 'Luz da Terra', to the actual program 'Luz para Todos'. Applied to all companies in the Sao Paulo state, the study served as a support to renegotiate budgets, what provided savings of more than US$ 10,000.000 in a total of 42

  16. Implementation of the optimization for the methodology of the neutronic calculation and thermo-hydraulic in IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo de; Conti, Thadeu das Neves; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Maio, Mireia F., E-mail: gstefani@ipen.b, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.b, E-mail: g.fedorenko@ipen.b, E-mail: vcastro@ipen.b, E-mail: mfmaio@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Thiago Augusto dos, E-mail: tsantos@ipen.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    This work objective was to create a manager program that would automate the programs and computer codes in use for neutronic calculation and thermo-hydraulic in IEA-R1 reactor thus making the process for calculation of safety parameters and for configuration change up to 98% faster than that used in the reactor today. This process was tested in combination with the reactor operators and is being implemented by the quality department. The main codes and programs involved in the calculations of configuration change are Leopard, Hammier-Technion, Twodb, Citation and Cobra. Calculations of delayed neutron and criticality coefficients given in the process of safety parameters calculation are given by the Hammer-Technion and Citation in a process that involves about eleven repetitions so that it meets all the necessary conditions (such different temperatures of the moderator and fuel). The results are entirely consistent with the expected and absolutely the same as those given by manual process. Thus the work shows its reliability as well the advantage of saving time, once a process that could take up to four hours was turned in one that takes around five minutes when done in a home computer. Much of this advantage is due to the fact that were created subprograms to treat the output of each program used and transform them into the input of the other programs, removing from it the intermediate essential data for this to occur, thus avoiding also a possible human error by handling the various data supplied. (author)

  17. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Final Summary Report, IEA WIND Task 25, Phase Three 2012-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Forcione, Alain; Milligan, Michael; Smith, Charles J.; Dillon, Jody; Dobschinski, Jan; van Roon, Serafin; Cutululis, Nicolaos; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Carlini, Enrico Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Bessa, Ricardo; Soder, Lennart; Farahmand, Hossein; Torres, Jose Rueda; Jianhua, Bai; Kondoh, Junji; Pineda, Ivan; Strbac, Goran

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes recent findings on wind integration from the 16 countries participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind collaboration research Task 25 in 2012-2014. Both real experience and studies are reported. The national case studies address several impacts of wind power on electric power systems. In this report, they are grouped under long-term planning issues and short-term operational impacts. Long-term planning issues include grid planning and capacity adequacy. Short-term operational impacts include reliability, stability, reserves, and maximizing the value in operational timescales (balancing related issues). The first section presents variability and uncertainty of power system-wide wind power, and the last section presents recent wind integration studies for higher shares of wind power. Appendix 1 provides a summary of ongoing research in the national projects contributing to Task 25 in 2015-2017.

  19. Surface and borehole investigations at the shallow geo physic controlled site of IAG-USP-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Investigacoes geofisicas de superficie e de poco no sitio controlado de geofisica rasa do IAG-USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsani, Jorge Luis [IAG-USP - Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: porsani@iag.usp.br; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues [Pos-Graduacao em Geofisica - IAG/USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: welitom@iag.usp.br; Elis, Vagner Roberto; Diogo, Liliana Alcazar; Hiodo, Francisco Yukio [IAG-USP - Dept. de Geofisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: vagnelis@iag.usp.br, liliana@iag.usp.br; Marrano, Antonio [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amarrano@ipt.br; Birelli, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A-IPT, Divisao de Geologia, Laboratorio de Geofisica Aplicada, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: birelli@ipt.br

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents the results obtained from surface and borehole geophysical investigations carried out at the Shallow Geophysical Test Site of IAG-USP. The main objective was to characterize the sediments and the top of basement. The area is constituted by sandy-clay sediments of Sao Paulo Basin (Sao Paulo and Resend Formations) on the granite-gneiss basement with different degrees of weathering. In the area of studies, three boreholes were drilled for geological and geophysical research purposes (pioneer in Brazil). These boreholes were used to verify the stratigraphy, to collect the sample for laboratory measurements, to calibrate the results of surface geophysics and to carry out well logging. The surface methods used were: seismic (reflection and refraction), electric-resistivity (profiling and vertical electric sounding) and GPR-Ground Penetrating Radar. The integration of results show excellent agreement and allow constructing a geological-geophysical model for the site which is at the border of Sao Paulo sedimentary basin. Moreover, the various geophysics methods, commonly used in geological, geotechnical and environmental researches, have been tested under controlled conditions. (author)

  20. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  1. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  2. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  3. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  4. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  5. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  6. Quality of life and physical activity associated to lower prevalence of depression in community-dwelling elderly subjects from Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos-Ferreira, Ricardo; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Steffens, David C; Bottino, Cassio M C

    2013-09-05

    Studies investigating major depression and associated factors in older people from developing countries are scarce. Cross-sectional study of a community-based sample of 1563 elderly subjects aged 60 years or older from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of major depression (MD) and the relationship with sociodemographic factors, cognitive and functional impairment (CFI), clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) and clinical diseases were analyzed. A brief instrument for screening of depressive symptoms in elderly people, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, and a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were applied to the subjects. Major depression was diagnosed in 60 patients (3.8%). A higher odds ratio of MD was associated with female gender, being widowed, previous depressive episode, hypertension, use of psychotropic medication, (CFI), and alcohol use. A lower odds ratio of depression diagnosis was associated with physical activity and going to cinema. The cross-sectional design of the study; our sample was restricted only to community residents, excluding persons in hospitals or nursing homes. Our study shows significant association between depression and potentially modifiable factors, reinforcing the benefit of probable preventive measures, to incentive healthy lifestyle, leisure activities and the practice of physical exercise, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of CSDS, especially in primary care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from < 0.3 to 9.3 × 10 most probable number per gram and the most frequent serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  8. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  9. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  10. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  11. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  12. Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Izildinha [Secretaria da Saude do Municipio de Sao Paulo, Supervisao de Saude de Vila Prudente, Praca Centenario de Vila Prudente, 108, 03132-050 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: maria-izildinha@uol.com.br; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, Heliana de A [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas, Rodovia Pocos de Caldas, Km. 13, 37701-970 Pocos de Caldas (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Laboratorio de Poluicao Atmosferica Experimental, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Assuncao, Joao V. de [Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Saude Ambiental, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002-August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice a month in the morning, in order to estimate the frequency of mutations in stamen hairs. Results were compared to air pollution and climatic data measured next to the exposure site. KU-20 showed stamen-hair mutations greater than BNL 4430. Greatest mutation rates in KU-20 were observed in condition of high monthly mean of NO{sub 2} and average peak concentrations of NO during the day, indicating that mutagenic effects originated from vehicular pollution. Clone KU-20 revealed to be more appropriate for biomonitoring purposes at the Park. - Clone KU-20 showed to be more appropriate than clone BNL 4430 to indicate vehicular pollution mutagenic risks in Trad-SHM assay.

  13. Fibrilação atrial e demência: resultados do São Paulo ageing & health study Atrial fibrillation and dementia: results from the Sao Paulo ageing & health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andrea Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A fibrilação atrial é um fator de risco controverso para demência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a associação entre fibrilação atrial e demência em participantes do São Paulo Ageing & Health. MÉTODOS: O São Paulo Ageing & Health é um estudo transversal, de base populacional, de idosos residentes em um uma região de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Diagnóstico de demência foi realizado de acordo com o protocolo do grupo 10/66, com base em critérios do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais (DSM-IV. O diagnóstico de fibrilação atrial foi feito por eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, avaliado por dois cardiologistas. Dados demográficos e de fatores de risco cardiovasculares também foram obtidos. RESULTADOS: A demência foi diagnosticada em 66 (4,3% e fibrilação atrial em 36 (2,4% de 1.524 participantes com um eletrocardiograma válido. A razão de chances bruta para demência em participantes com fibrilação atrial foi 2,8 (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,0-8,1; p = 0,06 em comparação com indivíduos sem fibrilação atrial. Relação positiva foi encontrada em mulheres (RC 4,2; IC 95%: 1,2-15,1; p = 0,03. Após ajuste para idade, no entanto, essa associação tornou-se não significativa (RC 2,2, IC 95%: 0,6-8,9; p = 0,26. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação independente entre a fibrilação atrial e demência nessa amostra. A prevalência da fibrilação atrial pode ser baixa nesta população em virtude da mortalidade cardiovascular prematura.BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a controversial risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between AF and dementia in the "Sao Paulo Ageing & Health" (SPAH study participants. METHODS: SPAH is a cross-sectional, population-based study of elderly people living in a deprived neighborhood in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dementia diagnosis was performed according to

  14. [Microbiological study of dental clinic air at the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo Dental School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, M C; de Campos, A C; Tommasi, D; dos Santos, M A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the environmental microbiote and to verify its occurrence in different areas. During 3 months, from April to June 1986, several air samples of working areas of the Dental Clinic of Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo were analised. The study consisted of 10 exposures in strategically selected points during 10 minutes each, blood-agar plates and Sabouraud-agar plates. It was done the identification in genera and in some cases at species, according to the conventional methods. The plates were incubated, and the colonies isolated and identified. It was done the statistical analysis (Z test) and it was observed bigger incidence of bacteria than fungi and more diversity of the fungi than bacteria. From the Odontological health point of view, the isolated microorganisms (ubiquitous in the air) do not reveal patogenicity however the determinants of the local hygiene.

  15. SEROPREVALENCE OF CHAGASIC INFECTION IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS IN A BLOOD CENTER IN THE STATE OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study aimed at estimating the number of cases of non-negative serological reactions to Chagas disease in blood donors at the Blood Center of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010 and at relating them to their cities of origin. Five hundred and seventy-four non-negative results for Chagas disease were evaluated. Of these, 371 (64.8% were reagent, and 203 (35.4% were inconclusive. The prevalence of Chagas disease in blood donors was 0.05%. There were, on average, 72 cases/year, and a prevalence of males was observed (64.8%. Forty-three (7.49% individuals were 18 to 30 years old; 92 (16.02% were 31 to 40; 147 (25.61% 41 to 50, and 292 (50.87% were older than 50 years. It was observed that 29.3% of females with reagent serology were at their fertile age (18 and 45 years. The majority of donors were originally from cities in the southwestern and central regions of São Paulo, but individuals from other states contributed with 20%. The provenance of most donors was the city of Botucatu/SP, followed by the city of Taquarituba/SP. Therefore, the profile of donors at this blood center favors the occurrence of a larger number of non-negative serological reactions. Although there has been a significant reduction in the number of new cases/year for this disease, it is still a public-health problem, and results suggest the need for new epidemiological assessments in the studied region.

  16. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marianna Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p = 0.042, attending public school (p = 0.000, lower average family income (p = 0.002, overcrowded dwellings (p = 0.000 and presence of pain (p = 0.000. Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk.

  17. Rationalization of the electric power consumption by recycling of residential solid wastes from the formal and informal collection at the Campinas city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Racionalizacao do consumo de energia eletrica com a reciclagem dos residuos solidos domiciliares provenientes da coleta formal e informal no municipio de Campinas - SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, Cleci Schalemberger; Piunti, Regina Celia; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Barbosa, Sonia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: streb@fem.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper evaluates the potential of residues collection in Campinas, SP, Brazil, taking into account the data of informal collection. The paper also estimates the role played by paper, glass, plastic and aluminium recycling, in terms of electric power use avoiding or saving.

  18. Consumo de alcool e risco para doenca coronariana na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo: uma analise do Projeto GENACIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a associação entre consumo de álcool e risco para doença coronariana em amostra populacional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, conduzido de janeiro/2006 a junho/2007, na região metropolitana de São Paulo, como parte do estudo internacional (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. Os sujeitos (1.501, sendo 609 homens e 892 mulheres eram residentes da região metropolitana de São Paulo, tinham 30 anos ou mais de idade e foram selecionados aleatoriamente, a partir de amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Todos os indivíduos consentiram em participar da pesquisa. A variável dependente foi risco cardíaco avaliado através do WHO Rose Angina Questionnaire. A análise multivariada consistiu em regressão logística, tendo sido realizado ajuste para uso de tabaco e índice de massa corpórea. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi 75%. Ser mulher, ter mais idade, ser negro, fumante e ter um índice de massa corpórea elevado, foram associados a maior risco para doença coronariana. Indivíduos que nunca beberam na vida (OR = 2,22 e ex-bebedores (OR = 2,42 tiveram maior risco de doença cardíaca do que aqueles que informaram beber até 19 g de álcool por dia, sem episódios de beber excessivo. Entre os que tiveram episódios de embriaguês observou-se uma tendência a maior risco (OR = 3,95, p = 0,09. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem um menor risco para doença coronariana entre os bebedores moderados. Destaca-se que os estudos que avaliam o impacto do álcool sobre doença cardíaca precisam identificar o padrão de uso de álcool dos sujeitos, visto que este aspecto pode modificar o risco. Políticas públicas são necessárias para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool e a morbidade a ele relacionada no país.

  19. Portugueses e experiências políticas: a luta e o pão: São Paulo 1870-1945 The Portuguese and political experiences: the struggle and the bread: Sao Paulo 1870-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izilda Santos de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição para o estudo das experiências cotidianas de imigrantes na cidade de São Paulo, no período entre 1870 e 1945. A análise procurará recuperar a teia de relações cotidianas na sua dimensão da experiência no mundo dos negócios e do trabalho, recobrando as atividades de produção e comercialização do pão, observando a trama das conexões e tensões que se estabeleciam entre proprietários e trabalhadores nas padarias, na sua maioria de origem portuguesa. Privilegiando a documentação do DEOPS (Departamento Estadual de Ordem Política e Social , particularmente os prontuários, a proposta recupera enfrentamentos, formas de resistência, luta e greves que atingiram o setor da panificação.This article is intended to be a contribution to the study of the everyday experiences of immigrants in the city of Sao Paulo during the period between 1870 and 1945. The analysis will seek to recapture the web of relationships in their everyday life and experience with respect to business and labor, relating aspects of their activities in the production and marketing of bread, and observing the interchange of communication and tensions that were prevalent between the owners and workers of the bakeries of which most of them were of Portuguese origin. Focusing mainly on documents from DEOPS (State Department of Political and Social Order, particularly the charts, the article retrieves information concerning confrontations, forms of resistance, struggles and strikes that plagued the bakery sector.

  20. Primary Cicatricial Alopecias: A Review of Histopathologic Findings in 38 Patients from a Clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, Emanuella Rosyane Duarte; Romiti, Ricardo; Machado, Maria Cecília da Matta Rivitti; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17), lichen planus pilaris (4), pseudopelade of Brocq (12), folliculitis decalvans (3), dissecting folliculitis (1), and non-specific scarring alopecia (1). In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3%) previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias. PMID:19060995

  1. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  3. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianni Palmeira Wanderley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  4. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill-Sao Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-11

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population's health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André's landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  5. Prevalence, incidence density, and genotype distribution of GB virus C infection in a cohort of recently HIV-1-infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa M Giret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29 in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year.

  6. Prevalence, Incidence Density, and Genotype Distribution of GB Virus C Infection in a Cohort of Recently HIV-1-Infected Subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Maria Teresa M.; Miraglia, João Luiz; Sucupira, Maria Cecília Araripe; Nishiya, Anna; Levi, José Eduardo; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. Methodology/Principal Findings The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29) in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. Conclusion/Significance GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year. PMID:21483671

  7. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  8. Preventing nipple trauma in lactating women in the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Gilcéria Tochika; Soares, Alda Valeria Neves; Aragaki, Ilva Marico Mizumoto; McArthur, Alexa

    2015-03-12

    Nipple trauma in lactating women is an important issue in facilitating successful breastfeeding. Evidence suggests that early postnatal education on the positioning and attachment technique, early observation of mothers and correcting breastfeeding techniques at an early stage may reduce nipple trauma. The aim of this project was to improve breastfeeding practice and thereby reduce nipple trauma in lactating women in a public hospital in Sao Paulo. More specifically the objectives of this project were: firstly, to assess the current practice in nurses' assistance concerning the prevention of nipple trauma; secondly, to adapt and trial a Breastfeeding Assessment Form to observe and educate the lactating mother during the early post-natal period; and thirdly, to assess the impact of introducing the assessment strategy on breastfeeding and nipple trauma rates. The Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System online tool was utilized for this project. A clinical audit was conducted to assess compliance with best practice in nursing assistance concerning the prevention of nipple trauma. The project concluded with a second audit, which assessed the change in practice following the implementation of strategies to improve practice. The project was successful in that there was an improvement across all of the audit criteria following the introduction of the strategy to promote best practice. Criterion 1, concerning nursing staff knowledge, improved in compliance by 73%. Criterion 2 and 4, concerning women's knowledge about prevention and management of nipple trauma, improved by 53% and 55% respectively. Breastfeeding assessment improved by 26% from baseline to follow-up audit. Moreover, an improvement in women's satisfaction and exclusive breastfeeding rates was observed; however, nipple trauma rates did not decrease. This implementation project had great impact on both nursing staff as well as lactating women's knowledge of preventing and

  9. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus evaluation among asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects in a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil in the period of 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luciana Peniche; Watanabe, Aripuana Sakurada Aranha; Camargo, Clarice Neves; Melchior, Thais Boim; Granato, Celso; Bellei, Nancy

    2017-10-27

    RSV is recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Immunocompromised patients, health care workers (HCW) and children contacts are at increased risk of acquiring the infection. However, the impact of asymptomatic infection in transmission has not been well studied. This study evaluated the frequency and viral load (VL) of RSV in nasal swab samples of individuals with different risk factors for acquiring infection in a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We included 196 symptomatic children and their 192 asymptomatic caregivers, 70 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic HCW, 43 samples from symptomatic HIV positive outpatients and 100 samples of asymptomatic HIV patients in the period of 2009 to 2013. RSV infection was detected in 10.1% (70/696) of samples, 4.4% (17/387) of asymptomatic patients and 17.1% (53/309) from symptomatic patients. (p< 0.0001). The VL of symptomatic patients (4.7 log copies/mL) was significantly higher compared to asymptomatic patients (2.3 log copies/mL). RSV detection among asymptomatic caregivers (6.8%; 13/192) was significantly higher compared to other asymptomatic adults, HIV and HCWS (2.0%; 4/195; p = 0.0252). A close contact with an infected child at home was an important risk to RSV acquisition [OR 22.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 106.7)]. Children who possibly transmitted the virus to their asymptomatic contacts had significantly higher viral load than children who probably did not transmit (p < 0.0001). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The Cognitive and Functional Profile of the elderly that frequent the Community Center for the Elderly in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Barros de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing population must be accompanied by the promotion of healthy aging and maintain maximum functional capacity. Objective: To understand the cognitive and functional profile of the elderly who take part in the Community Center for the Elderly in Santos, Sao Paulo state. Method: Ninety elderly people were evaluated in this study. The following instruments were used: Social-demographic profile Questionnaire, Socialeconomic Questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMC-Q, Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz Scale, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton & Brody. Results: The average age of the elderly was 72.5 years old and the predominant gender was female (95.5%. There was a preponderance of participants from 1 to 4 years of education, and Class C was the predominant economic class. In the MMSE scores, 63.33% of the participants were below of the cutoff established for education, and in the SMC-Q, 71.11% of the elderly presented subjective dysfunction of memory. In the performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL, 84.44% of the participants are independent. As for the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, only 33.33% of the participants are independent. In the statistical analyses between cognitive profile and functional performance, associations were found between MMSE and SMC-Q, MMSE and Lawton & Brody Scale, and SMC-Q and Lawton & Brody Scale. Conclusions: A significant portion of the elderly patrons of the Community Center presents functional decline and cognitive decline.

  12. What is the impact of interventions that prevent fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; da Silva, Zilda Pereira; Santos, Patrícia Carla; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Moura, Barbara Laisa Alves; de Almeida, Marcia Furquim; do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2015-07-23

    There is a global growing trend of preterm births and a decline trend of fetal deaths. Is there an impact of the decline of fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil? The time trends were evaluated by gestational age through exponential regression analysis. Data analyzed included the fetal mortality ratio, proportion of preterm live births, fertility rate of women 35 years and over, prenatal care, mother's education, multiple births and cesarean section deliveries. A survival analysis was carried out for 2000 and 2010. Preterm births showed the highest annual increase (3.2%) in the less than 28 weeks of gestation group and fetal mortality ratio decreased (7.4%) in the same gestational age group. There was an increase of cesarean section births and it was higher in the education (8.8%) and an increased trend in multiple births and fertility rates of women of 35 years and over. The variables were highly correlated to which other over time. In 2000, 8.2% of all pregnancies resulted in preterm births (0.9% in fetal deaths and 7.3% in live births). In 2010, the preterm birth increased to 9.4% (0.8% were preterm fetal deaths and 8.6% preterm live births). The results suggest that 45.2% could be the maximum contribution of successful interventions to prevent a fetal death on the increase in preterm live births. This increasing trend is also related to changes of the women reproductive profile with the change of the women reproductive profile and access to prenatal care.

  13. Estomizado adulto no município de São Paulo: um estudo sobre o custo de equipamentos especializados Adulto ostomizado del municipio Sao Paulo: un estudio sobre el costo de los equipamientos especializados Adult ostomy patients in the city of São Paulo: a study of specialized equipment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni e Spearman. A maioria dos indivíduos era do sexo feminino (51%, idade > 60anos, com colostomia provisória (64,5%. O custo individual mensal médio foi R$ 137,72, maior para os urostomizados, com estomas definitivos, com neoplasias de vias urinárias e atendidos no serviço que possui enfermeiro especialista. Houve correlação estatisticamente significativa e positiva entre o custo mensal e o tempo de estomia. Este estudo contribuiu para a avaliação do custo do estomizado no Estado de São Paulo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar el costo mensual del uso de dispositivos y adjuvantes por ostomizados. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, realizada en dos Consultorios externos de Especialidades, en Sao Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados en 635 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos ostomizados, atendidos en junio del 2005. Los valores de los dispositivos y adjuvantes fueron obtenidos en registros electrónicos y publicaciones oficiales de la Secretaría de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo y sus resultados fueron sometidos a los tests de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni y Spearman. La mayoría de los individuos era del sexo femenino (51%, edad >60 años, con colostomía provisional (64,5%. El costo individual mensual promedio fue de R$ 137,72, mayor para los urostomizados, con esto mas definitivos, con neoplasias de vías urinarias

  14. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  15. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  16. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  17. Introducao e expansao da Leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos no estado de Sao Paulo, 1999-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Furtado Mozini Cardim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a expansão da ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos e identificar localidades prioritárias para o desenvolvimento de ações de vigilância e controle. MÉTODOS : A área de estudo constituiu-se dos 316 municípios do estado de São Paulo pertencentes às cinco regiões de saúde com ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos, utilizando os casos autóctones e óbitos, com ano de notificação e município de ocorrência. Calcularam-se taxas de incidência e de mortalidade e letalidade por município, por região e para a área de estudo. Utilizaram-se o estimador bayesiano empírico para obtenção de taxas de incidência e de mortalidade bayesianas locais para cada município e a krigagem para visualização da distribuição espacial das temperaturas e das precipitações pluviométricas. RESULTADOS : Foram detectados 73 municípios com transmissão da doença. As primeiras ocorrências deram-se em áreas com maiores temperaturas e menores pluviosidades, mas sua disseminação também ocorreu em áreas menos quentes e mais úmidas. A expansão da leishmaniose visceral americana em humanos apresentou um eixo principal de disseminação no sentido noroeste para sudeste, acompanhando a rodovia Marechal Rondon e o gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil, e um eixo secundário, na direção norte-sul, acompanhando a malha rodoviária. As taxas de incidência, segundo regiões de saúde, apresentaram um pico seguido de queda, com exceção da região de São José do Rio Preto. Observou-se maior concentração de municípios com altas taxas de incidência e mortalidade nas regiões de saúde de Araçatuba, Presidente Prudente e Marília. CONCLUSÕES : Possíveis fatores determinantes da expansão da doença incluíram a rodovia Marechal Rondon e a construção do gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil. Fatores climáticos pareceram não ter papel determinante nessa expansão. O uso de técnicas de análise espacial

  18. Topology Zero: Advancing Theory and Experimentation for Power Electronics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchino, Federico

    For decades, power electronics education has been based on the fundamentals of three basic topologies: buck, boost, and buck-boost. This thesis presents the analytical framework for the Topology Zero, a general circuit topology that integrates the basic topologies and provides significant insight into the behaviour of converters. As demonstrated, many topologies are just particular cases of the Topology Zero, an important contribution towards the understanding, integration, and conceptualization of topologies. The investigation includes steady-state, small-signal, and frequency response analysis. The Topology Zero is physically implemented as an educational system. Experimental results are presented to show control applications and power losses analysis using the educational system. The steady-state and dynamic analyses of the Topology Zero provide profuse proof of its suitability as an integrative topology, and of its ability to be indirectly controlled. As well, the implementation of the Topology Zero within an experimentation system is explained and application examples are provided.

  19. The Implementation of Full-time Schools: The Situation in the Federal State of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo de Moura, Rogério

    2009-01-01

    During the past years, Brazil has been mentioned internationally as a one of the so-called BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China). These countries have been taking increasing space in the economical and political global scenarios in the XXI century. The facts that they possess a vast territory and stand among the highest populated countries increase their relevance within the United Nations. Besides, three of them constitute nuclear powers and two of them belong to the United Nations Securit...

  20. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  1. Plantas invasoras da cultura do arroz (Oryza sativa L. no Estado de São Paulo. 1. Dicotiledôneas Weeds occuring in rice crops (Oryza sativa L. in the State of Sao Paulo. 1. Dicotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aranha

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das plantas invasoras na cultura do arroz, concentrado nas regiões com maior área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo. Cada uma das espécies levantadas foi estudada em seu ciclo, porte, fenologia e modo ou modos de reprodução. O hábito de crescimento herbáceo, o ciclo anual, o florescimento e frutificação nos meses mais quentes do ano e a reprodução através de sementes foram evidentemente preponderantes. Cada gênero representado por mais de uma espécie mereceu a confecção de chave analítica auxiliar objetivando oferecer algum subsidio para a identificação da espécie em sua primeira fase de desenvolvimento. Foram levantadas as sinonímias científica e vulgar e, sempre que possível, localizada a etimologia do termo que se prestou à nomenclatura genérica ou especifica. De cada espécie é fornecida uma diagnose da plântula além da ilustração planificada, tornando, portanto, mais fá cil o re conhecimento da mesma. Das 15 famílias dicotiledôneas encontradas, num total de 31 espécies identificadas, quantitativamente merecem destaque as seguintes: Compositae, Malvaceae e Amaranthaceae.A survey of weeds growing in rice crops in the State of Sao Paulo was conducted. The life cycle, size, phenology and mode of reproduction of each of the collected species were studied. The herbaceous growth, annual life cycle, blooming and fructification during the warmest months of the year and dissemination by seeds were mainly predominant for the studied species. From the 15 dicotyledoneous families observed with a to tal of 31 identified species, three were quantitatively more important: Compositae, Malvaceae and Amaranthaceae. A toxonomical key was written for those genera with more than one species in an attempt to help identification in the first growth stage. All the scientific and common names and when possible, the etimology of the genera or species are included. In order to facilitate the keying and

  2. Valores Pessoais como Base para Segmentação Estratégica: um estudo com profissionais paulistasPersonal Values as Basis for Strategic Segmentation: a study with professionals from Sao PauloValores Personales como Base para la Segmentación Estratégica: un estudio con profesionales de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIRALDI, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2010-09-01

    with the survey method of data collection in a sample of executives from Sao Paulo who are considered to be potential buyers of high value and innovative goods. An exploratory factor analysis was employed in order to reduce the values scale used and a cluster analysis was performed to identify the groups of executives according to the importance attached to different personal values. Concluding, it was observed that there was a similarity among the three personal values dimensions, named as Civility (concerns about having a good conduct before society according to social rules of interaction, Self-Direction (intellectual aspects and practical orientation in their conducts and Conformity (restriction of actions, inclinations and impulses, that are likely to harm others and would violate expectations and the ones reported in the theory Rokeach’s theory about instrumental personal values. Furthermore, three groups of executives were identified (good conduct group, low restriction group and high restriction group. The differences observed in the importance of personal values here presented by the dimensions called Civility, Self-Direction and Conformity can lead to different buying behaviors and product preferences. From the results found in this study, the companies could adapt their current and new products offers, as well as their communication, in order to better serve these segments of executives from Sao Paulo.RESUMENUna importante base de segmentación para las empresas, como también los valores personales de los consumidores, son los temas investigados en el presente artículo. Para realizar el referido estudio se utilizó una investigación descriptiva con método transversal simple de recolección de datos en campo en una muestra de ejecutivos de Sao Paulo, considerados como potenciales compradores de productos del alto valor agregado y de innovaciones. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio para reducir la escala de valores utilizada y un an

  3. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  4. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni in spent ion-exchange resins from the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN-CNEN/SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Vicente, Roberto; Marumo, Julio T.; Terremoto, Luis A. Albiac, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Iron and nickel are used in a wide range of metallic alloys employed in reactor core structures and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low-level wastes and effluents. Both {sup 63} Ni and {sup 55} Fe are neutron activation products. {sup 63} Ni is produced by a neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 62} Ni and by a neutron-proton reaction of-{sup 63}Cu. Iron-55 is produced by neutron activation of two major stable iron isotopes: neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 54} Fe and neutron-to-neutron reaction of {sup 56}Fe. Nickel-63 is a pure beta emitter with maximum energy of 66.95 keV and half-life of 100.1 years, and {sup 55}Fe, with a half life of 2.7 years, decays via electron capture to stable {sup 55}Mn with the emission of Auger electrons and 5.89 keV X-rays. {sup 63} Ni is an important radionuclide in safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories and {sup 55} Fe is an important contributor to the radioactivity of nuclear waste in the first few years of storage. In this work, liquid scintillation counting was used for the determination of both radionuclides in spent ion-exchange resins taken from the water retreatment system of the IEA-R1 reactor and stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Since nuclear waste usually contains many beta emitters, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs, a highly efficient chemical separation method is required to isolate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from all other radionuclides. Hydroxide precipitation was used to separate {sup 55} Fe and {sup 63}Ni from the waste matrix and ion exchange chromatography was used to separate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from each other as well as from interfering radionuclides. The chemical yield was above 90% for {sup 63}Ni and above 60% for {sup 55}Fe. The results of activity measurements correlated well with the concentration of {sup 60}Co in this waste

  6. Advances in ICF power reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, W. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1985-04-01

    Fifteen ICF power reactor design studies published since 1980 are reviewed to illuminate the design trends they represent. There is a clear, continuing trend toward making ICF reactors inherently safer and environmentally benign. Since this trend accentuates inherent advantages of ICF reactors, it is expected to be further emphasized in the future. An emphasis on economic competitiveness appears to be a somewhat newer trend. Lower cost of electricity, smaller initial size (and capital cost), and more affordable development paths are three of the issues being addressed with new studies.

  7. Advances in Tandem Mirror fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, L.J.; Logan, B.G.

    1986-05-20

    The Tandem Mirror exhibits several distinctive features which make the reactor embodiment of the principle very attractive: Simple low-technology linear central cell; steady-state operation; high-..beta.. operation; no driven current or disruptions; divertorless operation; direction conversion of end-loss power; low-surface heat loads; and advanced fusion fuel capability. In this paper, we examine these features in connection with two tandem mirror reactor designs, MARS and MINIMARS, and several advanced reactor concepts including the wall-stabilized reactor and the field-reversed mirror. With a novel compact end plug scheme employing octopole stabilization, MINIMARS is expressly designed for short construction times, factory-built modules, and a small (600 MWe) but economic reactor size. We have also configured the design for low radioactive afterheat and inherent/passive safety under LOCA/LOFA conditions, thereby obviating the need for expensive engineered safety systems. In contrast to the complex and expensive double-quadrupole end-cell of the MARS reactor, the compact octopole end-cell of MINIMARS enables ignition to be achieved with much shorter central cell lengths and considerably improves the economy of scale for small (approx.250 to 600 MWe) tandem mirror reactors. Finally, we examine the prospects for realizing the ultimate potential of the tandem mirror with regard to both innovative configurations and novel neutron energy conversion schemes, and stress that advanced fuel applications could exploit its unique reactor features.

  8. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fidedignidade das informações sobre dados nutricionais declarados em rótulos de alimentos comercializados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por crianças e adolescentes, comercializados no município de São Paulo (SP entre os anos de 2001 e 2005. Os teores de nutrientes informados pelos rótulos foram confrontados com os resultados obtidos por métodos analíticos (físico-químicos oficiais, considerando a variabilidade de 20% tolerada pela legislação vigente, para aprovar ou condenar as amostras. Foram calculadas médias, desvios-padrão e intervalos com 95% de confiança para os nutrientes analisados, assim como a distribuição da freqüência percentual de amostras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos os produtos salgados analisados apresentaram inconformidades relativamente ao conteúdo de fibra alimentar, sódio ou de gorduras saturadas. Os produtos doces apresentaram variação de zero a 36% de condenação relativamente ao teor de fibra alimentar. Mais da metade (52% dos biscoitos recheados foram condenados quanto à quantidade de gorduras saturadas. Os nutrientes implicados com a obesidade e suas complicações para a saúde foram aqueles que apresentaram maiores proporções de inconformidade. A falta de fidedignidade das informações de rótulos nas amostras analisadas viola as disposições da Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada 360/03 da ANVISA e os direitos garantidos pela lei de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional e pelo Código de Defesa do Consumidor. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontrados altos índices de não conformidade dos dados nutricionais nos rótulos de alimentos destinados ao público adolescente e infantil, indicando a urgência de ações de fiscalização e de outras medidas de rotulagem nutricional.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la fidedignidad de las informaciones sobre datos nutricionales declarados en rótulos de alimentos comercializados. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron

  9. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Cammi, Antonio; Zanetti, Matteo; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the availabl...

  10. Magnet powering with zero downtime - a dream?

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of improvements already applied in the course of the year, the magnet powering system of the LHC still accounts for around 50% of the premature beam dumps. This number might even further increase when moving to higher beam energies in the next years. With mitigations of radiation effects and the prospects for beam induced magnet quenches being discussed elsewhere, we aim at identifying possible mid- and long-term improvements within the various equipment systems to further reduce the number of equipment failures leading to a loss of the particle beams. Amongst others, this includes the sensitivity of equipment to external causes such as electromagnetic perturbations or perturbations on the electrical network. To conclude, the gain of the identified mitigations will have to be balanced against the potential impact on schedule and cost.

  11. Contribution to the Chapter on Wind Power, in: Energy Technology Perspectives 2008, IEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    Over the last 5 years the growth rate in wind energy has been as high as 30% an on average nearly 25% in all continents, and a considerable number of countries have very ambitious goals concerning their wind energy development, therefore it could be likely to cover as much as 20% of the world’s...... electricity consumption by wind in 2030 and 35% in 2050, although on the shorter term growth is expected to take place mainly in Europe, USA and China. The market is maturing, therefore achieving more stable economies in the wind energy sector. As a result, better electrical grids suited for wind power...... are being developed and better planning tools as well as other frameworks, which benefit the market for installation of wind turbines, are being implemented across all wind energy countries. The cost of wind-generated electricity has fallen steadily for the last two decades, driven largely by technological...

  12. Contribution to the chapter on wind power in: Energy technology perspectives 2008, IEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Hjuler Jensen, P.

    2009-01-15

    Over the last 5 years the growth rate in wind energy has been as high as 30% an on average nearly 25% in all continents, and a considerable number of countries have very ambitious goals concerning their wind energy development, therefore it could be likely to cover as much as 20% of the world's electricity consumption by wind in 2030 and 35% in 2050, although on the shorter term growth is expected to take place mainly in Europe, USA and China. The market is maturing, therefore achieving more stable economies in the wind energy sector. As a result, better electrical grids suited for wind power are being developed and better planning tools as well as other frameworks, which benefit the market for installation of wind turbines, are being implemented across all wind energy countries. The cost of wind-generated electricity has fallen steadily for the last two decades, driven largely by technological advances, increased production levels and the use of larger turbines. Between 1985 and 2005, production costs energy from of wind turbines decreased by nearly 100% in 2006 prices. The price rises seen in last three years due to capacity problems in the industry are expected to stop, once supply system constraints are overcome. Onshore wind is considered commercial at sites with good wind resources and grid access. Cost reductions in both turbines and infrastructure are expected to bring investment costs to 0.88 mill. Euro/MW in 2030 and 0.8 mill. Euro/MW in 2050. On the other hand, offshore wind is in pre-commercial development phase. Considerable costs improvements are expected in all areas making costs go down to 1. 4 mill. Euro/MW in 2030 and 1.3 mill. Euro/MW in 2050. Priority RD and D areas to foster continued growth in wind power are to increase the value and reduce uncertainties. This will mean further cost reductions on longer terms, enabling large-scale use by improved grid integration and storage facilities and minimizing environmental impact. (au)

  13. FY 1998 Report on development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power systems. International co-operative project (IEA implementing agreement for a co-operative programme on photovoltaic power systems); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are outline of the International Energy Agency/Co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA/PVPS). Japan signed the IEA Implementing Agreement for a co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems in April 1993, and has been participating in the programme for research and development, demonstration, analysis, information exchange and introduction promotion, among others. This programme is managed by Executive Committee composed of the representatives, one nominated by each participating country, and each task is managed by each Operating Agency. There are 9 tasks (Tasks 1 to 9), and Executive Committee deliberates and approves the plans, and manages the progresses, budgetary plans and budgets for each task. IEA implementing agreement for a co-operative programme on PVPS, originally set effective for 5 years, has been extended for another 5 years to 2002, and the second phase activities have been started. The 9th to 11th Executive Committee meetings were held during the 1997-1998 period in Denmark, ROK, Spain, Austria and Australia, respectively. (NEDO)

  14. Reactor power system deployment and startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetch, J. R.; Nelin, C. J.; Britt, E. J.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses issues that should receive further examination in the near-term as concept selection for development of a U.S. space reactor power system is approached. The issues include: the economics, practicality and system reliability associated with transfer of nuclear spacecraft from low earth shuttle orbits to operational orbits, via chemical propulsion versus nuclear electric propulsion; possible astronaut supervised reactor and nuclear electric propulsion startup in low altitude Shuttle orbit; potential deployment methods for nuclear powered spacecraft from Shuttle; the general public safety of low altitude startup and nuclear safe and disposal orbits; the question of preferred reactor power level; and the question of frozen versus molten alkali metal coolant during launch and deployment. These issues must be considered now because they impact the SP-100 concept selection, power level selection, weight and size limits, use of deployable radiators, reliability requirements, and economics, as well as the degree of need for and the urgency of developing space reactor power systems.

  15. IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts

  16. The implementation and evaluation of physical protection system of the IEA-R1 reactor; Implementacao e avaliacao do sistema de protecao fisica do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Antonio Carlos Alves

    2016-11-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant on March 2011 and the recent attacks in Paris on November 2015 are examples of events that justify the efforts of the International Agency of Energy Atomic - IAEA to improve security at nuclear facility. The Brazilian government has been collaborating with this project and investing resources to improve the Physical Protection System - PPS of the nuclear research reactor system, technically is associated with the elements of detection, delay and response. The PPS is an integrated system of people, equipment and procedures used to protect nuclear facilities and radioactive sources against threat, theft or sabotage. The PPS works to avoid, to mitigate or to minimize the consequences caused by these actions. This study evaluates the PPS of the reactor, identifying the vulnerabilities and suggesting ways to improve the system effectiveness. The analyses were based on the methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories´ security experts in Albuquerque - USA, allowing the system evaluation through hypothetical and probabilistic analyzes; identifying threats, determining the targets and analyzing the possible adversaries paths. From the methodology adopted was obtained the value around 40% for PE indicator, which shows the need to improve the system to minimizing the vulnerabilities. (author)

  17. Estudo espacial e temporal da hanseníase no estado de São Paulo, 2004-2006 Estudio espacial y temporal de la hanseníasis en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2004-2006 Spatial and temporal study of leprosy in the state of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução temporal e espacial da endemia de hanseníase no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico-social utilizando o número de casos de hanseníase notificados ao Ministério da Saúde de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006. Foram geradas séries mensais em cada departamento regional de saúde, cujas seqüências foram ajustadas por um modelo markoviano para os coeficientes de detecção de hanseníase. O coeficiente de detecção com o número de casos acumulados no período em cada município foi usado para produzir a distribuição espacial da endemia; uma análise de correlação foi realizada com os coeficientes de detecção de hanseníase e os componentes do Índice de Paulista de Responsabilidade Social. RESULTADOS: Dos 645 municípios do estado de São Paulo, 22 não detectaram casos de hanseníase no período. Na maioria das regiões a tendência da endemia foi decrescente; as séries temporais apresentaram flutuação aleatória, em torno de valores esperados. O declínio foi influenciado por uma queda generalizada nos coeficientes de detecção ao final de 2005. Houve correlação positiva entre os coeficientes de detecção e os componentes "escolaridade" e "longevidade", e negativa com "riqueza" do Índice de Paulista de Responsabilidade Social. CONCLUSÕES: O resultado da análise das séries temporais sugere haver declínio da endemia para a maioria das regiões do estado de São Paulo, enquanto que para a análise espacial são altos os coeficientes ao norte do estado.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la evolución temporal y espacial de la endemia de hanseníasis en el estado de Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico-social utilizando el número de casos de hanseníasis notificados al Ministerio de la Salud de enero de 2004 a diciembre de 2006. Fueron generadas series mensuales en cada departamento regional de salud, cuyas secuencias fueron ajustadas por un modelo markoviano para los coeficientes de detecci

  18. Investigation of zero-release cycle using fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The task force was organized for the main purpose of offering quantitative basic data to the study group on nuclear fuel cycle in February, 1997. The effect of so-called frontier technologies such as the isotope separation by laser method, the FP annihilation with electron beam accelerators and so on in the FBR cycle based on MOX fuel and PUREX reprocessing method was expected. It is aimed at to recycle the total amount of minor actinides. The object of recycling is the nuclides which contribute largely to toxicity, namely 11 elements, 12 nuclides. The preconditions and the target to be attained of the investigation are explained. As the results of investigation, the amount of reloading MA and FP into a reactor, squeezing the recycling scenario, the effect of reducing toxicity and the subject of the countermeasures to the nuclides with long half-life which cannot be reloaded are reported. As the technical evaluation required for realizing the concept, the concept of the core which excludes recriticality, the advance of reprocessing technology, isotope separation, the fabrication into the optimal form for recycling and so on are discussed. The economical efficiency of the recycling based on MOX and PUREX and the proposal of the development scenario are described. (K.I.)

  19. Development and validation of methodology SPE-LC-MS/MS for pharmaceuticals and illicit drug determination in the waters of Guarapiranga Dam, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia SPE-LC-MS/MS para a determinacao de farmacos e droga de abuso nas aguas da represa Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihomatsu, Helena Miho

    2015-07-01

    This study presents the development of the methodology of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, SPE-LC-MS/MS, for the determination of 21 (twenty one) pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups, 1 (one) illicit drug and its major metabolite, in surface water samples. The chromatographic separation was optimized by studying the performance of different stationary and mobile phases. Quantitation of selected compounds was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) and the mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed using the parameters of selectivity, matrix effect, dynamic range, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The validation of methodology allowed to apply the methodology in the evaluation of the distribution of the 23 (twenty one) selected compounds, in Guarapiranga Dam waters, an of the major producer system of drinking water of the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP). The presence of these pollutants in aquatic environments is from the direct release of urban sewage from the homes of your surroundings, as a result of poor sanitation system. The waters of Guarapiranga dam were evaluated in 14 (fourteen) locations strategically chosen and sampled in 3 (three) campaigns of sample collection (August 2011, September 2012 and April 2013). In these samples were quantified acetaminophen (9.6 - 254 ng L{sup -1}), atenolol (8.5 - 177 ng L{sup -1}), benzoylecgonine (7.9 - 139 ng L{sup -1}), caffeine (27 - 27386 ng L{sup -1}) carbamazepine (12 - 358 ng L{sup -1}), chlorthalidone (9.4 - 35 ng L{sup -1}), cocaine (12.8 - 2560 ng L{sup -1}), diclofenac (8 - 36 ng L{sup -1}), enalapril (20 ng L{sup -1}), losartan (6.7 - 114 ng L{sup -1}) and valsartan (9.7 - 47 ng L{sup -1}). The sample siting GU103-12 (23°41'88.5”S 46°44'67.3”W) was the

  20. Validação de dados termopluviométricos obtidos via sensoriamento remoto para o Estado de São Paulo Validation of temperature and rainfall data obtained by remote sensing for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila B. Camparotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados termopluviométricos são utilizados em diversos estudos. Contudo, a escassez de dados resultante da baixa densidade de estações meteorológicas é um problema frequentemente encontrado. Com isto, a utilização de dados estimados por satélites tem-se mostrado importante para regiões nas quais eles são escassos. Neste trabalho foram realizadas comparações entre dados mensais de precipitação pluvial estimados pelo satélite TRMM e de temperatura, estimados pelo satélite Aqua/MODIS aos dados observados por estações de superfície, para diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, no período de 2003 a 2010. Os resultados demonstraram que para os dados de precipitação pluvial os menores erros foram observados nos meses de inverno e os maiores nos meses de verão. Em relação aos dados de temperatura observou-se que, com a inclusão de um fator de correção, os dados do satélite Aqua apresentaram boa exatidão em todos os meses. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos indicam que os satélites TRMM e Aqua são alternativas eficientes na aquisição de informações em locais onde há falhas ou escassez dos mesmos podendo ser também utilizados na análise da consistência de dados coletados por meio de redes meteorológicas.Temperature and rainfall data are used in several scientific studies. However, the paucity of data resulting from the low density of weather stations is a problem frequently encountered in these studies. Thus, the use of estimated data from satellites has become an important tool in regions where they are scarce. In this study comparisons were made between monthly rainfall data estimated by TRMM satellite and temperature data estimated by the satellite Aqua/MODIS data observed by surface stations, for different locations in the State of Sao Paulo during the period 2003 to 2010. The results showed that for the rainfall data, smaller errors were observed during the winter and higher during the summer

  1. Perda dentária precoce em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade: estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Early tooth loss in adults aged 35 - 44: State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados secundários de condições de saúde bucal em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade foram analisados a fim de estimar a prevalência da perda dentária precoce e do ataque de cárie dentária. Uma amostra não probabilística, de exames epidemiológicos provenientes de 5.777 professores e funcionários de escolas públicas e particulares, aleatoriamente selecionadas em 131 cidades do estado de São Paulo foi utilizada. Os critérios de observação do ataque de cárie recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997 foram empregados. O índice CPOD, correspondendo ao número de dentes permanentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados, e a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais foram analisados de acordo com o sexo, a idade, o grupo étnico, acesso à água de abastecimento fluoretada, tipo de escola: rural e urbana e o tamanho da população da cidade. O censo de 1991 - na época a mais recente fonte disponível - ofereceu informação de base municipal do perfil sócio-econômico. Análise espacial foi empregada para avaliar associação entre o perfil de saúde bucal e os indicadores sócio-econômicos. O ataque de cárie na amostra de adultos foi 22,39 (6,24. Perda dentária foi responsável pela metade do valor do ataque. Taxas crescentes de perda dentária precoce foram observadas para adultos mais velhos, negros, que trabalhavam em escolas rurais, em cidades pequenas e áreas não fluoretadas. Indicadores sócio-econômicos municipais mostraram correlação com a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais. Estes resultados podem auxiliar na formulação de políticas públicas dirigidas à promoção da saúde bucal.Secondary data on the oral health status of adults aged 35 - 44 were analysed in order to estimate the prevalence of caries and early tooth loss. A non-probabilistic sample of 5,777 teachers and workers of public and private schools randomly selected in 131 cities of the State of Sao Paulo

  2. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  3. A built-in zero valent iron anaerobic reactor to enhance treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Jing, Yanwen; Quan, Xie; Liu, Yiwen; Onu, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Waste scrap iron was packed into an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to form a zero valent iron (ZVI) - UASB reactor system for treatment of azo dye wastewater. The ZVI acted as a reductant to decrease ORP in the reactor by more than 40 mv and functioned as an acid buffer to increase the pH in the reactor from 5.44 to 6.29, both of which improved the performance of the anaerobic reactor. As a result, the removal of color and COD in this reactor was 91.7% and 53%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of a reference UASB reactor without ZVI. The UV-visible spectrum demonstrated that absorption bands of the azo dye from the ZVI-UASB reactor were substantially reduced. The ZVI promoted methanogenesis, which was confirmed by an increase in CH(4) content in the biogas from 47.9% to 64.8%. The ZVI bed was protected well from rusting, which allowed it to function stably. The effluent could be further purified only by pH adjustment because the Fe(2+) released from ZVI served as a flocculent.

  4. 78 FR 73898 - Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Standards for Power Reactors.'' DATES: Submit comments by February 7, 2014. Comments received after this... of New Reactors; or Timothy Kolb, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  5. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita"…

  6. Gestão dos Riscos Urbanos em São Paulo: as áreas contaminadas Urban Risk Management in Sao Paulo: contaminated sites Gestion des risques dans São Paulo: Les zones contaminées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Zilda dos Santos Ramires

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a problemática relacionada às áreas contaminadas. Esta questão ambiental passou a ser de conhecimento público a partir da década de 1980, por meio do processo de desconcentração industrial verificado na mais densa área urbana do Brasil. Na primeira parte, será analisado como este fenômeno, somado a mudança do uso do solo urbano resultou no surgimento das áreas de risco, uma vez que as áreas contaminadas estão sendo utilizadas ou receberam novos usos, como residenciais ou serviços, sem que fossem realizados estudos ambientais específicos com posterior recuperação e/ou remediação. Com o objetivo de auxiliar no entendimento, abrangência e magnitude da questão, será apresentado um mapeamento, por distrito, das indústrias existentes na mancha urbana paulista; o qual expressa à distribuição dos riscos e perigos construídos ao longo de décadas no território do município de São Paulo. Na segunda parte, aborda-se como o poder público trata o tema; suas dificuldades e acertos. Por fim, estão as conclusões, que indicam que a aplicação efetiva da legislação específica para a gestão de áreas contaminadas, com a exigência da realização dos estudos ambientais, além da disponibilização das informações à sociedade, com aumento da visibilidade do problema, pode ser o caminho para solucioná-los, ainda que hoje a participação popular, incipiente nesse caso, seja fundamental nesse processo.La problématique de ce travail s´inscrit autour des zones contaminées. La question de l´environnement est devenue publique à partir des années 1980 à cause du processus de déconcentration industrielle qui s´est opéré dans les aires urbaines les plus denses du Brésil. Dans la première partie on analyse comment ce phénomène a contribué à l´apparition de nouvelles zones de risque, suite au changement de l´usage du sol urbain. En effet, des habitations et des services ont

  7. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  8. Controle da hanseníase no Estado de São Paulo: análise histórica Control de la hanseníasis en el Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil: análisis histórico Hansen's disease control in the State of São Paulo: a historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Araujo Opromolla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Para controle da hanseníase, doença infectocontagiosa conhecida desde os tempos bíblicos, são mostradas as intrincadas convergências de histórias nacionais, de políticas médicas, governamentais e internacionais. O estudo descreve a história e as ações de controle da hanseníase, a partir do começo do século XIX, no estado de São Paulo, e sua conexão com o desenvolvimento da saúde pública, utilizando análises bibliográficas e documentais.Para control de la hanseníasis, enfermedad infectocontagiosa conocida desde los tiempos bíblicos, se muestran las intrincadas convergencias de historias brasileñas, de políticas médicas, gubernamentales e internacionales. El estudio describe la historia y las acciones de control de la hanseníasis, a partir del comienzo del siglo XIX, en el estado de Sao Paulo, y su conexión con el desarrollo de la salud pública, utilizando análisis bibliográficas y documentales.Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis.

  9. IEA PVPS Task 5 'Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems'; IEA PVPS Task 5 'Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D. [Enecolo AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Taiano, S. [Elektrizitaetswerk der Stadt Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the Task 5 project, a task originally set up by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 1993 to study the effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems that are interconnected via the electricity grid. The task's subtasks are described that reviewed existing PV interconnection guidelines, grid structures and experience made with previously installed PV, studied theoretical aspects of grid interconnection and which carried out experimental tests in various test facilities. The report discusses the results of a further subtask that studied issues concerning the interconnection of highly concentrated PV systems and the problem of islanding. The effectiveness of co-operation between the task's international participators from inverter manufacturers, electricity utilities, engineering companies and testing institutes is emphasised. The authors are of the opinion that the IEA Task 5 has made a significant contribution to a better understanding of the islanding problem and will help enable the widespread deployment of solar energy.

  10. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Items of information were collected on development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use, the international cooperation projects, and the IEA photovoltaic power generation program. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the activities of IEA/REWP/PVPS in the current fiscal year, the 13th and 14th Executive Committee meetings, and the 3rd Executive Conference were held. The Task 1 has performed such activities as ISR, NSR, Newsletters, and opening the Internet homepage. The Task 2 activities included structuring about 260 databases for the operation characteristics of photovoltaic power generation systems, and completing the internal material handbooks on measurement and monitoring. A new work plan was prepared for the Task 3 regarding an independent photovoltaic power generation plant for use in an island. For the building integrated photovoltaic power generation system in the Task 7, survey activities were executed by utilizing expertise conferences on building designs, system technologies, and non-technical impediments. In the feasibility survey and research on large-scale photovoltaic power generation utilizing unused land such as desert for the Task 8, the programs were established. (NEDO)

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use (International cooperation project - collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development, verification, analysis and information exchange have been performed based on the 'Treaty to Execute the Research and Cooperation Program on Photovoltaic Power Generation System'. The IEA/REWP/PVPS activities in fiscal 1999 include the participation to the two executive committee meetings (Valencia and Sydney), and the subcommittee activities. The subcommittee activities are as follows: Task I: information exchange on and proliferation of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task II: operation performance and design of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task III: design and operation of the independent type and the island use power plants, Task VII: Building integrated photovoltaic power generation systems, Task VI, Sub-task 5: investigations and researches on possibility for photovoltaic power generation systems utilizing unutilized lands including deserts, and Task IX: technical cooperation to expand photovoltaic power generation system markets. (NEDO)

  12. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC... decommissioning process for nuclear power reactors. The revision takes advantage of the 13 years of...

  13. 77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI96 Non-Power Reactor License Renewal AGENCY... renewal requirements for non-power reactors. This contemplated rulemaking would also make conforming changes to address technical issues in existing non-power reactor regulations. The NRC is seeking input...

  14. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  15. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  16. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  17. Determination of total and organic mercury and evaluation of methylation and demethylation processes in sediments of the Rio Grande Reservoir, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Determinacao de mercurio total e organico e avaliacao dos processos de metilacao e desmetilacao em sedimentos do Reservatorio Rio Grande, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson Leocadio

    2010-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is a very important water supply for this region. In the present study bottom waters and sediment samples collected in this reservoir, in four sampling points, in four campaigns, from September 2008 to January 2010, were analyzed. Firstly total Hg was determined in sediment and bottom waters by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). Following, the analytical methodology for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. The validation of this methodology, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by means of IAEA 405 and BCR-CRM 580 reference materials analyses. For methylation and demethylation processes evaluation in this environment, the following physical and chemical parameters were assessed, in situ: pH, water temperature, redox potential (EH), transparency and depth. For the sediment samples, granulometry, total organic carbon, sulphate-reducing bacteria, total N and P, besides the metals Co, Cu, Fe and Mn were evaluated. The selection of these parameters was related to the factors that influence the behavior of MeHg in the sediments and its transition zone. Total Hg ranging from 1.0 to 71.0 mg kg'-{sup 1} and organic mercury from <10.0 to 47.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in sediments and methylation rates from 0.06 to 1.4% were found, along the reservoir. Different methylation conditions along the reservoir and its influences were also discussed. As supplementary study the concentration of some metals and trace elements in the sediments by neutron activation analysis technique was determined. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm and Yb were determined. The enrichment factor in relation to earth crust values using Sc as normalizer element reached values

  18. Power reactor noise studies and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, V

    2002-03-01

    The present thesis deals with the neutron noise arising in power reactor systems. Generally, it can be divided into two major parts: first, neutron noise diagnostics, or more specifically, novel methods and algorithms to monitor nuclear industrial reactors; and second, contributions to neutron noise theory as applied to power reactor systems. Neutron noise diagnostics is presented by two topics. The first one is a theoretical study on the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) for the localisation of anomalies. The second topic concerns various methods to detect guide tube impacting in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The significance of these problems comes from the operational experience. The thesis describes a novel method to localise vibrating control rods in a PWR by using only one C/F detector. Another novel method, based on wavelet analysis, is put forward to detect impacting guide tubes in a BWR. Neutron noise theory is developed for both Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and traditional reactors. By design the accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and methods that have been developed for traditional reactors and also it poses a number of new problems. As for the latter, the thesis investigates the space-dependent neutron noise caused by a fluctuating source. It is shown that the frequency-dependent spatial behaviour exhibits some new properties that are different from those known in traditional critical systems. On the other hand, various reactor physics approximations (point kinetic, adiabatic etc.) have not been defined yet for the subcritical systems. In this respect the thesis presents a systematic formulation of the above mentioned approximations as well as investigations of their properties. Another important problem in neutron noise theory is the treatment of moving boundaries. In this case one

  19. Doenças respiratórias e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, 2008-2009 Enfermedades respiratorias y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Respiratory diseases and associated factors: population-based study in São Paulo, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de bronquite aguda, rinite e sinusite em crianças e adolescentes e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar com 1.185 crianças e adolescentes de São Paulo, SP, de 2008 a 2009. Os participantes foram selecionados a partir de amostragem probabilística, estratificada por sexo e idade e por conglomerados em dois estágios. Para análise ajustada foi realizada regressão múltipla de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 7,3% referiram bronquite aguda, 22,6% rinite e 15,3% sinusite. Após análise ajustada, associaram-se à bronquite aguda auto-referida: idade de zero a quatro anos (RP = 17,86; IC95%: 3,65;90,91, cinco a nove anos (RP = 37,04; IC95%: 8,13;166,67, dez a 14 anos (RP = 20,83; IC95%: 4,93;90,91, referir ter alergia (RP = 3,12; IC95%: 1,70;5,73, cor da pele preta/parda (RP = 2,29; IC95%: 1,21;4,35 e morar em domicílio com um a três cômodos (RP = 1,85; IC95%: 1,17;2,94; à rinite auto-referida: idade dez a 14 anos (RP = 2,77; IC95%: 1,60;4,78, 15 a 19 anos (RP = 2,58; IC95%: 1,52;4,39, referir ter alergia (RP = 4,32; IC95%: 2,79;6,70, referir ter asma (RP = 2,30; IC95%: 1,30;4,10 e morar em apartamento (RP = 1,70; IC95%: 1,06;2,73; à sinusite auto-referida: idade cinco a nove anos (RP = 2,44; IC95%: 1,09;5,43, dez a 14 anos (RP = 2,99; IC95%: 1,36;6,58, 15 a 19 anos (RP = 3,62; IC95%: 1,68;7,81, referir ter alergia (RP = 2,23; IC95%: 1,41;3,52 e apresentar obesidade (RP = 4,42; IC95%: 1,56;12,50. CONCLUSÕES: As doenças respiratórias foram mais prevalentes em grupos populacionais com características definidas, como grupo etário, doenças auto-referidas, tipo de moradia e obesidade.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de bronquitis aguda, rinitis y sinusitis en niños y adolescentes e identificar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, de base poblacional. Se realizó pesquisa domiciliar con 1.185 niños y

  20. Novel concepts for near-zero emissions IGCC power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaras Emmanouil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims in examining and evaluating the state-of-the-art in technological concepts towards zero-emission coal-fired power plants. The discussion is based on the evaluation of a novel concept dealing with the carbonation-calcination process of lime for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants, compared to the integration of CO2 capture in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant. Results from thermodynamic simulations dealing with the most important features for CO2 reduction are presented. Preliminary economic considerations are made, taking into account investment and operating costs, in order to assess the electricity cost related to the two different technological approaches. The cycle calculations were performed with the thermodynamic cycle calculation software ENBIPRO (ENergie-BIllanz-PROgram, a powerful tool for heat and mass balance solving of complex thermodynamic circuits, calculation of efficiency, exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis of power plants. The software code models all pieces of equipment that usually appear in power plant installations and can accurately calculate all thermodynamic properties at each node of the thermodynamic circuit, power consumption of each component, flue gas composition etc. [1]. The code has proven its validity by accurately simulating a large number of power plants and through comparison of the results with other commercial software. .

  1. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  2. Uso de medicamentos por pessoas com deficiências em áreas do estado de São Paulo Uso de medicamentos por personas con deficiencias en áreas del Estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamyr Sulyvan Castro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de medicamentos e os principais grupos terapêuticos consumidos por pessoas com deficiências físicas, auditivas ou visuais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em que foram analisados dados do Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP em 2002 e do Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado em 2003. Os entrevistados que referiram deficiências foram estudados segundo as variáveis que compõem o banco de dados: área, sexo, renda, faixa etária, raça, consumo de medicamentos e tipos de medicamentos consumidos. RESULTADOS: A percentagem de consumo entre as pessoas com deficiência foi de: 62,8% entre os visuais; 60,2% entre os auditivos e 70,1% entre os físicos. As pessoas com deficiência física consumiram 20% mais medicamentos que os não-deficientes. Entre as pessoas com deficiência visual, os medicamentos mais consumidos foram os diuréticos, agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina e analgésicos. Pessoas com deficiência auditiva utilizaram mais analgésicos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre indivíduos com deficiência física, analgésicos, antitrombóticos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina foram os medicamentos mais consumidos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior consumo de medicamentos entre as pessoas com deficiências quando comparados com os não-deficientes, sendo os indivíduos com deficiência física os que mais consumiram fármacos, seguidos de deficientes visuais e auditivos.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de medicamentos y los principales grupos terapéuticos consumidos por personas con deficiencias físicas, auditivas o visuales. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en que fueron analizados datos de la Pesquisa Multicentrica de Salud en el Estado de Sao Paulo (ISA-SP en 2002 y de la Pesquisa de Salud en el Municipio de Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado en 2003. Los entrevistados que refirieron deficiencias fueron estudiados según las variables

  3. Analysis of UF6 breeder reactor power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous UF6 fueled breeder reactor design and technical applications of such concepts are summarized. Special attention was given to application in nuclear power plants and to reactor efficiency and safety factors.

  4. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  5. Mundial FIFA 2014 en San Paulo y sus impactos: estádio arena Corinthians como equipamiento de ocio/FIFA World Cup 2014 in Sao Paulo and its impacts: arena Corinthians arena as leisure equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline Lopes de Paula; Ricardo Ricci Uvinha

    2016-01-01

    .... Twelve host cities were chosen for the event, including São Paulo. "Having such picture in mind, the real impacts to leisure and tourism segments after holding the FIFA World Cup 2014 in the City of...

  6. Light-Actuated Micromechanical Relays for Zero-Power Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Light-Actuated Micromechanical Relays for Zero-Power Infrared Detection Zhenyun Qian, Sungho Kang, Vageeswar Rajaram, Cristian Cassella, Nicol E...near-zero power infrared (IR) detection. Differently from any existing switching element, the proposed LMR relies on a plasmonically-enhanced...zero-power sensor; infrared detector; micromechanical relay; switch; plasmonic absorber. Introduction Due to the fast development of the Internet

  7. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  8. Urban stormwater flood management in the Cordeiro watershed, Sao Paulo, Brazil: does the interaction between socio-political and technical aspects create an opportunity to attain community resilience?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borba, M.L.; Warner, J.F.; Porto, M.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the urban Cordeiro watershed, São Paulo, Brazil, the impervious surface has reduced stormwater infiltration and the drainage system has become insufficient. Engineering firms have been contracted, under government supervision, to implement the construction of six water reservoirs in order to

  9. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [Department of Energy Systems, SINTEF, Trondheim Norway; Farahmand, Hossein [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway; Holttinen, Hannele [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Kiviluoma, Juha [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Rinne, Erkka [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm Sweden; Milligan, Michael [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Martínez, Sergio Martín [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Estanqueiro, Ana [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Rodrigues, Luis [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Carr, Luis [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; van Roon, Serafin [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; Orths, Antje Gesa [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Eriksen, Peter Børre [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Forcione, Alain [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada; Menemenlis, Nickie [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  10. Fully Passive Microelectromechanical Near Zero Power Wake Up Receiver for Ultra Low Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Fully Passive Microelectromechanical Near Zero Power Wake Up Receiver for Ultra Low Power Applications Cristian Cassella, Tao Wu, Guofeng Chen...William Zhu, Gwendolyn Hummel, Nicol McGruer and Matteo Rinaldi Northeastern University, Boston, USA INTRODUCTION Low- power wireless sensing...transmitted when requested by other interrogating nodes in the network. One of the main sources of energy loss in conventional WSNs is the power

  11. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  12. Análise espacial e sazonal da leptospirose no município de São Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Análisis espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis en el municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Spinelli Martins Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial e sazonal da leptospirose, identificando possíveis componentes ecológicos e sociais para a sua transmissão. MÉTODOS: Foram georreferenciados 2.490 casos em cada distrito do município de São Paulo, SP, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Foram realizados mapas temáticos com as variáveis taxa de incidência, letalidade, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Para identificar o padrão espacial (disperso, em aglomerado ou randômico, foram analisadas pelo Índice de Moran global e local. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para testar associações entre as variáveis com padrão espacial em aglomerados. RESULTADOS: O padrão espacial em aglomerados foi observado nas variáveis taxa de incidência de leptospirose, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicílio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Foram notificados 773 casos no período seco e 1.717 no úmido. A incidência e a letalidade estão correlacionadas com as condições socioeconômicas da população, independentemente do período. CONCLUSÕES: A leptospirose está distribuída por todo o município de São Paulo e sua incidência aumenta no período das chuvas. No período seco, os locais de aparecimento dos casos coincidem com as áreas de piores condições de moradia e, durante o período úmido, também aumenta em outros distritos, provavelmente devido à proximidade de rios e córregos.OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis, identificando posibles componentes ecológicos y sociales para su transmisión. MÉTODOS: Fueron georeferenciados 2.490 casos en cada distrito del municipio de Sao Paulo, en sureste de Brasil, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Los datos fueron obtenidos del Sistema

  13. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  14. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  15. The concept of the innovative power reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima accident reveals the vulnerability of existing active nuclear power plant (NPP design against prolonged loss of external electricity events. The passive safety system is considered an attractive alternative to cope with this kind of disaster. Also, the passive safety system enhances both the safety and the economics of NPPs. The adoption of a passive safety system reduces the number of active components and can minimize the construction cost of NPPs. In this paper, reflecting on the experience during the development of the APR+ design in Korea, we propose the concept of an innovative Power Reactor (iPower, which is a kind of passive NPP, to enhance safety in a revolutionary manner. The ultimate goal of iPower is to confirm the feasibility of practically eliminating radioactive material release to the environment in all accident conditions. The representative safety grade passive system includes a passive emergency core cooling system, a passive containment cooling system, and a passive auxiliary feedwater system. Preliminary analysis results show that these concepts are feasible with respect to preventing and/or mitigating the consequences of design base accidents and severe accidents.

  16. Comportamento socioambiental do consumidor: um estudo com universitários do interior paulista Consumer socio-environmental behavior: a study with college students in the countryside of the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenita Rodrigues da Silva Tamashiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Responsabilidade Social Corporativa vem se consolidando cada vez mais, dentro de um cenário de mercado muito competitivo e de consumidores mais exigentes e seletivos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se as ações de responsabilidade socioambiental influenciam no processo de decisão de compra dos consumidores. Para tanto, foram aplicados 100 questionários a alunos de um curso de administração de uma universidade no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que, 68 questionários foram validados e analisados, aplicando-se a estatística descritiva. Os resultados demonstraram que: i as ações socioambientais não afetam o processo de compra desses consumidores; ii que as empresas devem informar aos seus públicos em quais ações sociais e ambientais estão envolvidas e quais são os impactos positivos que suas ações têm gerado à biodiversidade e à sociedade.Corporate Social Responsibility is increasingly being consolidated within a very competitive market scenario comprising more selective and demanding consumers. Thus, the purpose of this research was to verify whether socio-environmental actions influence consumer purchase decision. To this end, 100 questionnaires were applied to undergraduate students from a business administration course at a university in the State of Sao Paulo; 68 questionnaires were validated and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results showed that: i socio-environmental actions do notaffect the purchase process of these consumers; ii companies should inform consumers which social and environmental actions they are involved in and which positive impacts their actions have generated to biodiversity and society.

  17. Descriptions of two new species of Eunice Cuvier, 1817 (Polychaeta: Eunicidae from coastal islands of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.M. Nogueira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Eunice from coastal islands of the state of São Paulo are described, both of them living in colonies of the coral Mussismilia hispida. One species was also collected from a sandy beach. Eunice insularis has short palps and antennae in a horseshoe, without articulations; most of the specimens studied are abranchiate, but some have one branchial filament in a few parapodia. Eunice marconii also has palps and antennae without articulations, in a horseshoe, and 1-3 long slender branchial filaments from the anterior to posteriormost chaetigers. These new species are compared with the morphologically closest congeners.

  18. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  19. A influência francesa na estruturação da escola de educação física da Força Pública de São Paulo, Brasil (1906-1914 = The French Influence in the Structuring of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1906-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barsottini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la influencia cultural francesa en el campo de la Educación Física en el contexto de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo a principios de década de los años 20 del pasado siglo, al tiempo que analizar las demandas políticas del gobierno del estado en la organización de esta escuela. En cuanto a los procedimientos metodológicos, hubo una investigación documental, que se caracterizó por la recogida de datos para la investigación sobre la estructura de la Escuela de Educación Física de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo (1906-1914, desarrollada a través de libros, folletos, cartas, diarios y resúmenes que se recogieron en el Museo de la Policía Militar de São Paulo. Llegando a la conclusión de que la formación de esta escuela, fue un objetivo secundario de una misión militar francesa, puesto que el objetivo principal fue la modernización de la policía en materia de capacitación y equipo, de las demandas políticas y económicas del contexto de la época. También se observa que esta influencia ha creado una tradición representada por una cultura en la gimnasia, artes marciales, esgrima y danza.-----------------------------------------------------------------O objetivo deste estudo reside na descrição da influência cultural francesa no campo da Educação Física no contexto da Força Pública de São Paulo no início do século XX, mas também analisa as demandas políticas do governo paulista na organização desta escola. Em relação aos procedimentos metodológicos, realizamos uma pesquisa documental sobre o tema, que se caracteriza pelo levantamento de fontes primárias sobre a estruturação da Escola de Educação Física da Força Pública de São Paulo (1906-1914. Tais documentos, compostos por livros, tratados, cartas, revistas e resumos foram coletados no Museu da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo. Concluímos que a formação desta escola dá-se como objetivo secund

  20. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  1. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information on the photovoltaic power system was made, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task I: Exchange of the information on the photovoltaic power system and the spread, the final report on 'the study on added values of PV system' was made. In Task II: Operational performance and design of the photovoltaic power system and subsystem, specifications for new database were determined, and the existing data were checked/revised/added. In Task III: Design and operation of the stand-alone type and remote island use photovoltaic power plant, survey was conducted of the present situation of technical standards and quality guarantee. In Task 7: Photovoltaic power system integrated with construction materials, work was done for making a book of installation samples of the PV system integrated with construction materials in each country. In Task 8: Investigative study of possibilities of the large-scale photovoltaic power generation using the unused land such as desert, a report making of the secondary survey was started. (NEDO)

  3. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  4. Ambiente atmosférico urbano e admissão hospitalar de crianças, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Urban atmospheric environment and hospital admission for children in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil Ambiente atmosférico urbano e ingresos hospitalarios de niños en la ciudad de Sâo Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelci Nunes da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações climáticas constituem risco para a saúde pública. Contudo, poucos estudos têm procurado identificar como a dinâmica do clima afeta a saúde, a fim de se obter dados que alimentem modelos de previsão de riscos para a saúde. Nas cidades tropicais esses estudos são particularmente escassos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar como as condições atmosféricas intraurbanas afetam a saúde respiratória das crianças menores de cinco anos no setor Sul/Sudeste, da cidade de São Paulo, associando as variáveis atmosféricas e o índice bioclimático PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature com as admissões hospitalares. Analisaram-se 12.269 casos de internamento por doenças respiratórias em crianças – CID 10, Capítulo 10 - Doenças Respiratórias (J00-J32; J40-J47; J80-J99. Os dados diários de temperaturas média, mínima e máxima do ar (ºC, humidade relativa média do ar (% e velocidade média do vento (m/s foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do aeroporto de Congonhas e o índice de qualidade do ar, como controle, na CETESB/CONGONHAS. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e modelo de regressão. Os resultados apontaram associação estatística entre as variáveis atmosféricas, a poluição e os internamentos hospitalares. Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o grupo de crianças com doenças respiratórias, menores de cinco anos residentes em distritos com diferentes condições socioambientais.Climatic changes pose public health risks. However, few studies have tried to identify how climate dynamics affect health, in order to obtain evidence-based data for risk-prediction models. Moreover, such studies are particularly scarce for tropical cities. This study aimed to verify how intra-urban atmospheric conditions affect the respiratory health of children under five in the South- eastern part of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by associating atmospheric variables and the

  5. Analysis of knowledge in astronomy of the students of technology in industrial automation at the Federal Institute Sao Paulo at the campus Cubatao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Capasso Moraes, Ataliba

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education in its final stages. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão. In the first step, the students’ lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. Correcting these deficiencies found, external to the program content, a Basic Course in Astronomy, containing dialogued or expository lectures with the aid of audiovisual resources and access to textbooks. Analyzed the responses of this second step, it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  6. Spontaneous reporting of adverse events following pandemic influenza A (H1N1 immunization in a reference center in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danise Senna Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper describes adverse events (AEs temporally associated to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine observed in a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, during a 2010 mass vaccination campaign. Methods A retrospective study involving persons who sought medical care for AEs following influenza vaccination. Data were retrieved from medical records, vaccine AE notification forms, and a computerized system for immunobiological registration. Results Sixty-six vaccinees sought medical care for AEs after immunization. The most frequent AEs were fever, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Few vaccinees spontaneously reported AEs to influenza A (H1N1 vaccine at this center.

  7. Liquid metal cooled reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Van Hoomissen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology basis for evaluation of liquid metal cooled space reactors is summarized. Requirements for space nuclear power which are relevant to selection of the reactor subsystem are then reviewed. The attributes of liquid metal cooled reactors are considered in relation to these requirements in the areas of liquid metal properties, neutron spectrum characteristics, and fuel form. Key features of typical reactor designs are illustrated. It is concluded that liquid metal cooled fast spectrum reactors provide a high confidence, flexible option for meeting requirements for SP-100 and beyond.

  8. Cause-specific mortality and income inequality in São Paulo, Brazil Mortalidad según causas básicas y desigualdad de renta en el Municipio de Sao Paulo, Brasil Mortalidade segundo causas básicas e desigualdade de renda no Município de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze cause-specific mortality rates according to the relative income hypothesis. METHODS: All 96 administrative areas of the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, were divided into two groups based on the Gini coefficient of income inequality: high (>0.25 and low (OBJETIVO: Analizar causas básicas de óbito según la teoría de renta relativa. MÉTODOS: Los 96 distritos del Municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil fueron divididos en dos grupos según desigualdad de renta, con base en el índice de Gini (alta ? 0,25 y baja OBJETIVO: Analisar causas básicas de óbito segundo a teoria de renda relativa. MÉTODOS: Os 96 distritos do Município de São Paulo, SP, foram divididos em dois grupos segundo desigualdade de renda, com base no índice de Gini (alta > 0,25 e baixa <0,25. Foi aplicada a metodologia propensity score matching para controlar por fatores de confusão referentes às diferenças socioeconômicas e demográficas entre os distritos. RESULTADOS: A diferença entre a mortalidade de distritos desiguais e mais igualitários foi estatisticamente significativa para homicídios (8,57 por 10.000 residentes [IC95% 2,60; 14,53], doença isquêmica do coração (5,47 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,76; 10,17], aids (3,58 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,58; 6,57] e doenças respiratórias (3,56 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,18; 6,94]. As dez causas básicas mais frequentes foram responsáveis por 72,3% do total da diferença. A mortalidade infantil também foi estatisticamente maior para distritos mais desiguais (2,80 por 10.000 [IC95% 0,86; 4,74], assim como mortalidade masculina (27,37 por 10.000 [IC95% 6,19; 48,55] e feminina (15,07 por 10.000 [IC95% 3,65; 26,48]. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados estão de acordo com o esperado pela teoria da renda relativa. A mortalidade por todas as causas básicas analisadas foi maior em distritos mais desiguais depois do uso da metodologia do propensity score matching. Estudos sobre a desigualdade de renda realizados

  9. Fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens pobres na cidade de São Paulo, 2007 Factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes pobres en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, 2007 Factors associated with induced abortion among poor youth in the city of São Paulo, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo investiga fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens residentes numa comunidade pobre da cidade de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por 102 homens e 99 mulheres de 14 a 25 anos de idade que já haviam iniciado suas vidas sexuais. Usou-se o modelo hierárquico de regressão logística. As variáveis não ter companheiro sexual no momento da entrevista, sexo do entrevistado, idade no momento da entrevista, priorizar morar só e número de gestações compuseram o modelo final. Dar muita importância a morar só quadruplica a chance de ocorrer um aborto. Jovens mais velhos foram menos propensos a se deparar com um aborto, dado que a chance de se optar pelo aborto se reduz 17% para cada incremento de um ano na idade dos jovens. Isso é indicativo de que as gestações ocorreram de forma inesperada, intempestiva, como é praxe nas condutas adolescentes, sendo as maiores candidatas a terminarem em aborto provocado. Evidencia-se, portanto, a necessidade de serem investidos recursos financeiros para obtenção de métodos contraceptivos eficazes e inócuos, destinados ao início da vida sexual.Este artículo investiga factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes residentes en una comunidad pobre de la ciudad de Sao Paulo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 102 hombres y 99 mujeres de 14 a 25 años de edad que ya habían dado inicio a sus vidas sexuales. Se usó el modelo jerárquico de regresión logística. Las variables: no tener compañero sexual en el momento de la entrevista, sexo del entrevistado, edad en el momento de la entrevista, priorizar vivir solo, y número de gestaciones, compusieron el modelo final. Dar mucha importancia a vivir solo cuadruplica la posibilidad de que se produzca un aborto. Jóvenes de mayor edad fueron menos propensos a encontrarse con un aborto, dado que la posibilidad de optar por un aborto se reduce un 17%, respectoa cada incremento de un año en la edad de los jóvenes. Eso es indicativo de

  10. Coinfecção de Tb/HIV em um distrito administrativo do município de São Paulo Coinfección de TB/VIH en un distrito administrativo del municipio de Sao Paulo Coinfection of Tuberculosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus in an administrative district in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil sóciodemográfico e epidemiológico de pessoas com co-infecção Tb/HIV, residentes no distrito administrativo Capão Redondo do Município de São Paulo no período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De um total de 1.612 casos de tuberculose, 162 casos foram positivos para o HIV. Houve predomínio da faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% e a forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas 47,5% dos casos evoluíram para a cura, 13% abandonaram o tratamento e 32,2% foram a óbito. RESULTADOS: Ressalta-se a necessidade do conhecimento da situação da co-infecção Tb/HIV no sentido de oferecer uma assistência adequada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas as enfermidades não podem ser discutidas isoladamente. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os casos de associação Tb/HIV contribuem para a não adesão ao tratamento e aumento da taxa de mortalidade.OBJETIVO: caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico y epidemiológico de personas con coinfección TB/VIH, residentes en el distrito administrativo Capão Redondo del Municipio de Sao Paulo en el período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De un total de 1.612 casos de tuberculosis, 162 casos fueron positivos para el VIH. Hubo predominio del grupo etáreo de 30 a 39 años (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% y la forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas el 47,5% de los casos evolucionaron para la cura, 13% abandonaron el tratamiento y 32,2% fueron a óbito. RESULTADOS: Se resalta la necesidad de conocimiento de la situación de la coinfección TB/VIH en el sentido de ofrecer una asistencia adecuada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas enfermedades no pueden ser discutidas aisladamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Se concluye que los casos de asociación TB/VIH contribuyen para la no adhesión al tratamiento y aumento de la tasa de mortalidad.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and epidemiological

  11. Perfil dos usuários de serviços de Saúde Mental do município de Lorena - São Paulo Perfil de los usuarios de servicios de Salud Mental del municipio de Lorena - Sao Paulo Profile of users of mental health services in the city of Lorena - São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do Ambulatório de Saúde Mental e do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial de Lorena - São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório descritivo com dados coletados em 5.830 prontuários dos usuários desses dois serviços de Saúde Mental. RESULTADOS:Foram analisados 5.490 prontuários no Ambulatório e 340 no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. No Ambulatório 68% dos usuários eram mulheres e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, 61% eram homens. Os diagnósticos que prevaleceram no Ambulatório foram: transtornos neuróticos, relacionados ao estresse e os somatoformes, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, foram os transtornos decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. O grupo de medicamentos mais prescritos no Ambulatório foi o de antidepressivos, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, os antipsicóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os serviços de Saúde Mental atuam de forma desarticulada com a Atenção Básica de Saúde e faz-se necessário implantar o apoio matricial nesse município.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el perfil de los usuarios del Consultorio Externo de Salud Mental y del Centro de Atención Psicosocial de Lorena - Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo cuyos datos fueron recolecatos en 5.830 historias clínicas de los usuarios de esos dos servicios de Salud Mental. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 5.490 historias clínicas em el Consultorio Externo y 340 en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial. En el Consultorio externo el 68% de los usuarios eran mujeres y en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial, el 61% eran hombres. Los diagnósticos que prevalecieron en el Consultorio Externo fueron: trastornos neuróticos, relacionados al estrés y los somatoformes, y en el centro de Atención Psicosocial, fueron los trastornos generados por el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. El grupo de medicamentos más prescritos en el Consultorio Externo fue el de los antidepresivos, y en el Centro de Atenci

  12. The coal carbon and the soil organic matter isotopes in the studies of vegetation and climate change in the Quaternary and the soil formation tax from the Sao Paulo State, Southeastern region, Brazil; Isotopos do carbono dos carvoes e da materia organica do solo em estudos de mudanca de vegetacao e clima no quaternario e da taxa de formacao de solos do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Boulet, R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. ORSTOM; Aravena, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Scheel-Ybert, R. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Inst. de Botanique

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the Jaguariuna and Botucatu regions (state of Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, based on {sigma}{sup 13} C values of soil organic matter (SOM), {sup 14} C dating and analysis of charcoal present in the soil profiles. Sampling sites were located under natural vegetation (cerradao), along the slopes of small hills. charcoal was found predominantly between 50 and 150 cm deep, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in this area, between 3000 and 6000 years BP. The presence of charcoal on tops of the hills suggests that sedimentation could not be the major process responsible for burying the charcoal within the soil. Biological activity (termites, ants, earthworms) played an important role in this process. For Jaguariuna site, more enriched values of {sigma}{sup 13} C of SOM were observed from the late Pleistocene until mid Holocene, indicating drier climate when compared with present-day conditions. For Botucatu site, the {sigma}{sup 13} C profile suggests predominance of C{sub 3} vegetation during the entire Holocene. (author)

  13. Qualidade das informações registradas nas declarações de óbito fetal em São Paulo, SP Calidad de las informaciones registradas en las declaraciones de óbito fetal en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Quality of information registered on fetal deaths certificates in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-10-01

    acesso às informações hospitalares.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la calidad de la información registrada en las declaraciones de óbito fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudio documental con 710 óbitos fetales en hospitales de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en el primer semestre de 2008, registrados en la base unificada de óbitos de la Fundación Sistema Estatal de Análisis de Datos y de la Secretaria de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo. Se analizó la completitud de las variables de las declaraciones de óbito fetal emitidas por hospitales y Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos. Los registros de las declaraciones de óbito de una muestra de 212 óbitos fetales de hospitales del Sistema Único de Salud (público fueron comparados con los dados de los prontuarios y del registro del Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos. RESULTADOS: Entre as declaraciones de óbito, 75% fueron emitidas por el Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos, más frecuente en los hospitales públicos (78%. La completitud de las variables de las declaraciones de óbito emitidas por los hospitales fue más elevada y fue mayor en los hospitales no-públicos. Hubo mayor completitud, concordancia y sensibilidad en las declaraciones de óbito emitidas por los hospitales. Hubo baja concordancia y elevada especificidad para las variables relativas a las características maternas. Mayor registro de las variables sexo, peso al nacer y duración de la gestación fue observada en las declaraciones emitidas en el Servicio de Verificación de Óbito. La autopsia no resultó en mejoramiento de la indicación de las causas de muerte: la muerte fetal no especificada representó 65,7% y la hipoxia intrauterina, 24,3%, mientras que en las declaraciones emitidas por los hospitales fue de 18,1% y 41,7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario mejorar la completitud y la indicación de las causas de muerte de los óbitos fetales. La elevada proporción de autopsias no mejoró la calidad de la información y la indicación de las causas de

  14. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  15. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehia, Ashraf, E-mail: yehia30161@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Arab Republic of Egypt and Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies at Alkharj, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 83, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  16. FY 1998 Report on development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power systems. International co-operative project (IEA implementing agreement for a co-operative programme on photovoltaic power systems, 11th and 12th executive committee meetings); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei dai 12 kai dai 11 kai shikko iinkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are outline of the International Energy Agency/Co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems (IEA/PVPS), and minutes of the 11th and 12th executive committee meetings. Japan signed the IEA Implementing Agreement for a co-operative programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems in April 1993, and has been participating in the programme for research and development, demonstration, analysis, information exchange and introduction promotion, among others. Presented to the 11th executive committee meeting are progresses in each task, review of the PVPS programme by an independent reviewer, strategy for the next term of the PVPS agreement, and marketing of PV in the IEA member countries. The meeting also has confirmed the action plans and partial responsibilities. In the 12th executive committee meeting, the progresses of the tasks, e.g., objects, activities and problems, are reported, and reviewed by the participants. Discussed in the task 1, information exchange, are new communication methods, publication frequency and contents of Internal Survey Report, and opening of the internet home page, among others. (NEDO)

  17. Crystal Power: Piezo Coupling to the Quantum Zero Point

    CERN Document Server

    November, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    We consider electro-optical constructions in which the Casimir force is modulated in opposition to piezo-crystal elasticity, as in a stack of alternating tunably conductive and piezo layers. Adjacent tunably conducting layers tuned to conduct, attract by the Casimir force compressing the intermediate piezo, but when subsequently detuned to insulate, sandwiched piezo layers expand elastically to restore their original dimension. In each cycle some electrical energy is made available from the quantum zero point (zp). We estimate that the maximum power that could be derived at semiconductor THz modulation rates is megawatts/cm3. Similarly a permittivity wave generated by a THz acoustic wave in a single crystal by the acousto-optic effect produces multiple coherent Casimir wave mode overtones and a bulk mode. We model the Casimir effect in a sinusoidally graded medium finding it to be very enhanced over what is found in a multilayer stack for the equivalent permittivity contrast, and more slowly decreasing with s...

  18. Recalculating the steady state conditions of the V-1000 zero-power facility at Kurchatov Institute using Monte Carlo and nodal diffusion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlberg, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, VTT (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    Continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent 2 was used to model the critical steady state conditions measured in V-1000 zero-power critical facility at Kurchatov Institute (KI), Moscow in 1990-1992. The Serpent 2 results were compared to measurements and Serpent 2 was used to generate group constants for reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN. The results of a HEXTRAN calculation of the steady state were compared to Serpent 2. The relative power density distribution of the SERPENT2 calculations compared with the measurements was within the statistical accuracy. The comparison of HEXTRAN and Serpent 2 node-wise relative power density distributions showed an accuracy of ±10%.

  19. Cross-sectoral assessment of public policies in health and the environment: Scenario of the municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Marina Kolland; Oliveira, Lilian Ribeiro de; Ferolla, Luna Marquez; Paschoalotto, Marco Antônio Catussi; Lopes, José Eduardo Ferreira; Passador, João Luiz; Passador, Claudia Souza

    2017-12-01

    From the identification of the current and rising demand for integrated solutions by government players, especially at the stage of evaluation of public policies, this paper carried out an cross-sectoral outcome assessment of local government cost-effectiveness in the fields of health and environment. The analysis is based on the amount of resources allocated by each of the 645 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, to each field, involving consolidated evaluation indicators (IDSUS and IAA, respectively). This study required the prior distribution of municipalities in clusters within homogeneous groups previously proposed in IDSUS calculation methodology. The results suggest that the addressed areas are intimately connected, indicating that larger (and better) environmental investments can produce promising outcomes toward health performance. Therefore, there is a demand for integrated public policies in the context of environmental health. Also, there is the indication that the resource management and the proper allocation thereof may be more relevant than the total amount spent; and that lower cost-effectiveness values do not necessarily demonstrate high scores in the assessed performance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  1. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  2. Human coronavirus ocurrence in different populations of Sao Paulo: a comprehensive nine-year study using a pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane K. Cabeça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoVs are considered one of the most common respiratory viruses associated with respiratory tract illnesses. An emergent human coronavirus was identified as the causal agent of an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS during 2002-2003. The severity of the disease combined with its rapid spread requires the continuous surveillance of coronaviruses in worldwide populations. Epidemiological and clinical data of HCoVs infectious in the Brazilian population are scarce and restricted to one or two groups of patients. Our study aimed to investigate retrospectively the presence of HCoVs in different populations of São Paulo presenting acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs during the years of 2001-2010. A pancoronavirus RT-PCR was performed in this study. Coronaviruses were detected in 126 (11.5% of 1,087 specimens. Peaks detection frequency was observed during 2002-2004 and 2008-2009, with the highest detection in 2008. The prevalence of HCoVs was higher among children with heart diseases (24.6%, patients under stem cell transplantation program (24.3% and renal transplanted patients (20.2%. Coryza, cough and fever were the most common symptoms at presentation of positive cases and wheezing, a lower respiratory tract infection symptom was reported by 12% of the total, and 27% of high at-risk patients. HCoVs may have an important role among patients with underlying conditions and transplanted ones.

  3. Nutritional and clinical status, and dietary patterns of people living with HIV/AIDS in ambulatory care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erika Ferrari Rafael; Lewi, David Salomão; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Garcia, Vânia Regina Salles; Tenore, Simone Barros; Bassichetto, Katia Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Nutrition currently plays a key role in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), especially in the case of metabolic alterations due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which could be related to cardiovascular diseases (CD). to describe the nutritional and clinical status, and the quality of diet of PLHA. It is a cross-sectional study involving a network of ambulatory care facilities for PLHA in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients, in use of HAART or not, were selected from December 2004 to may 2006, through routine clinic visits. We collected: socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric measures and dietary data. Diet quality was evaluated according to a "protecting" or "non-protecting" pattern of consumption scores for CD. The sample had 238 patients on HAART and 76 without treatment. Mean serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were higher in the HAART group (p nutritional and metabolic conditions among patients on HAART associated with CD. It is necessary to manage health intervention programs for PLHA in order to control cardiovascular risk factors before final outcomes.

  4. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Toshinsky; Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  5. Plasma heating systems planned for the Argonne experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, P.; Brooks, J.; Fasolo, J.; Mills, F.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.

    1976-01-01

    A scoping study and conceptual design of a tokamak experimental power reactor (TEPR) have been completed. The design objectives of the TEPR are to operate for ten years at or near electrical power breakeven conditions with a duty factor of greater than or equal to 50 percent and to demonstrate the feasibility of tokamak fusion power reactor techniques. These objectives can be met by a design which has a major radius of 6.25 m and a plasma radius of 2.1 m. Parameters for this reactor are listed, and a diagram is given. This paper will describe TEPR plasma heating systems. Neutral beam heating and rf heating are described.

  6. Power coefficient of reactivity in CANDU 6 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adams, R.; Boyle, S.; Connolly, A.; Kastanya, D.; Khaial, A.; Lau, V. [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR) measures the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power and is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between the inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity in all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU reactor design takes advantage of the inherent nuclear characteristics of small reactivity coefficient, minimal excess reactivity and very long prompt neutron lifetime to mitigate the magnitude of the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with its design characteristics, such that the overall design of the reactor does not depend on the sign of the PCR. This is a contrast to other reactor design concepts which are dependent on a PCR which is both large and negative in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during a Loss of Regulation Control (LORC) event, the impact of having a positive power coefficient, or of hypothesizing a PCR larger than that estimated for CANDU, has no significant impact on the reactor safety. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, its role in the operation or safety of the reactor is not significant.

  7. Status report on nuclear reactors for space electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is studying reactor power plants for space applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. The study is concentrating on high-temperature, compact, fast reactors that can be coupled with various radiation shielding systems and thermoelectric, dynamic, or thermionic electric power conversion systems, depending on the mission. Increased questions have been raised about safety since the COSMOS 954 incident. High orbits (above 400 to 500 nautical miles) have sufficient lifetimes to allow radioactive elements to decay to safe levels. The major proposed applications for satellites with reactors in Earth orbit are in geosynchronous orbit (19,400 nautical miles). In missions at geosynchronous orbit where orbital lifetimes are practically indefinite, the safety considerations are negligible. The potential missions, why reactors are being considered as a prime power candidate, reactor features, and safety considerations are discussed.

  8. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de um solo sob videira em Vitória Brasil (SP Spatial variability of soil characteristics under grapevine in Vitoria Brasil (State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Carvalho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de uma associação de solos cultivada sob videira (Vitis vinifera-L, do município de Vitória Brasil, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar a dependência espacial de tais atributos, assim como caracterizar as respectivas variabilidades, distribuições de freqüência e números mínimos de subamostras do solo para a cultura da videira. Para isso, coletaram-se dados do solo, dispostos segundo uma malha com 156 pontos amostrais, sendo analisados por meio da geoestatística. As maiores variabilidades foram verificadas para a macroporosidade (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB e CTC, ao passo que as menores foram para a densidade do solo (DS, pH e V. O número mínimo de subamostras, necessário para formar uma amostra composta e representativa, variou de 1 (pH e V a 241 (Mg, tendo seu valor médio de 64 subamostras. Quanto à dependência espacial, o P e o V apresentaram, respectivamente, forte e fraca dependência, enquanto o restante dos atributos apresentou moderada dependência. Desta forma, o alcance dos atributos físicos variou de 2,56 a 4,32 m, enquanto o dos químicos variou de 1,82 a 5,64 m.The spatial variability of some physical and chemical characteristics of a compound of soils under grapevine (Vitis vinifera-L cultivation was studied in the county Vitória Brasil, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Main objective was research into the spatial dependence of these soil characteristics and their variability, frequency distribution and minimum number of soil subsamples for grapevine crop. Soil data were collected in grid sampling at 156 points, using geoestatistics for the data analysis. Highest variability was found for macroporosity (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB, and CTC, and the smallest for bulk density (BD, pH, and V. The minimum number of soil subsamples to form a compound and representative sample varied between 1 (pH and V and 241 (Mg, with a mean of 64

  9. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  10. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  11. Cafeteria e sua Influência no Consumo do Café na Cidade de São PauloThe Coffee Shop Influence on Coffee Consumption in the City of Sao PauloCafetería y su Influencia en el Consumo de Café en la Ciudad de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAZANINI, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    based on descriptive and deductive positions, also on its own information. The perceived characteristics can be intrinsic such as the taste, aroma, color, appearance and consistency or extrinsic which refers to the outer part that surrounds the product such as the environment, packaging, brand and also the country of origin. This study is aimed at examining whether intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of coffee drink stimulate the consumer to attend coffee shops (specialized environment for consuming coffee. For such, an exploratory survey was made, using field and bibliographical researches whose results were dealt by the content analysis. One of the instruments to collect data was a program of interviews with 87 people, who regularly attend coffee shops. The specific places are located in Sao Paulo (two of them at a mall in the Higienópolis neighborhood and the other one is at an University campus in the center of the city. The results show that the interviewees considered first the coffee taste, and then the coffee aroma as the most significant intrinsic characteristics. Nevertheless, they recognized value in a pleasant, comfortable and refined environment. Both characteristics have been complementary and the quoted factors were Coffee is a product of high national demand and has been present in the consumer habits indicating a great search for distinguished and quality coffees. The evaluations of this product are based on descriptive and deductive positions, also on its own information. The perceived characteristics can be intrinsic such as the taste, aroma, color, appearance and consistency or extrinsic which refers to the outer part that surrounds the product such as the environment, packaging, brand and also the country of origin. This study is aimed at examining whether intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of coffee drink stimulate the consumer to attend coffee shops (specialized environment for consuming coffee. For such, an exploratory survey was made

  12. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on Task 9 in IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program task IX ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports activities performed by the Task 9 in the execution treaty of the IEA photovoltaic power generation system program. The Task 9 calls for the 'proliferation of photovoltaic power generation technologies under coordination with developing countries{sup .} It is intended to compile the recommendation guides, hold workshops in the model developing countries, and coordinate with assisting organizations on technological and economical issues that may occur when introducing photovoltaic power generation systems into developing countries. The current fiscal year is the first year of the five-year plan, whereas, with structuring the basic plan placed in the center, such activities were carried out as verification of the 12 member countries and two organizations, establishment of the basic programs for the work plan, selection of work divisions, the sharing thereof, and the subjected developing countries, and the way the coordination should be with the related tasks and the assisting organizations. Two expertise conferences were held in Holland and America, and three working group meetings in Japan to have discussed the activity targets in the first fiscal year. (NEDO)

  13. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, L.L. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on /sup 233/U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born /sup 233/U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of /sup 233/U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors.

  14. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  15. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ivo Serinolli

    Full Text Available Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6, at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7% were male, and 228 (56.3% were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis.Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain. In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain. Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain. Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain.This study has provided novel insights into the effects of

  16. Situacao dos municipios do estado de Sao Paulo com relacao a compra direta de produtos da agricultura familiar para o Programa Nacional de Alimentacao Escolar (PNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzabeth Slater Villar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCAO: Em 2009, foi aprovada a Lei 11.947, a qual dispõe sobre o atendimento da alimentação escolar e consolida a vinculação da agricultura familiar com o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE, ao estipular que no mínimo 30% do total dos recursos financeiros repassados pelo Governo Federal aos estados e municípios deverão ser utilizados na aquisição de gêneros alimentícios diretamente da agricultura familiar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação dos municípios do estado de São Paulo com relação à compra de produtos diretamente da agricultura familiar após a aprovação da Lei 11.947. METODO: O diagnostico foi realizado nos meses de junho a agosto de 2011 por instituições vinculadas à Comissão Estadual Intersetorial da Alimentação Escolar (CEIA. Para o levantamento foi utilizado questionário e realizada entrevista telefônica com os representantes dos 645 municípios. RESULTADOS: Em um total de 613 municípios foi possível obter as seguintes informações: 47% (288 já haviam realizado as compras locais pelo menos uma vez, em todas as suas etapas. Dos 325 municípios que não efetivaram o processo em todas as fases, 57% não haviam publicado a chamada pública; 37% publicaram, mas não assinaram o contrato de aquisição; 2% publicaram, assinaram o contrato, mas não haviam recebido os produtos; e 4% publicaram, receberam os produtos mas ainda não haviam pago os agricultores. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos revelam que aproximadamente 50% dos municípios avaliados estão em situação positiva com relação às compras locais para o PNAE. Entretanto, o número de municípios que não publicou a chamada ou que não assinou o contrato é ainda importante, merecendo atenção dos setores envolvidos.

  17. Uranium ARC Fission Reactor for Space Power and Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Combining the proven technology of solid core reactors with uranium arc confinement and non-equilibrium dissociation and ionization by fission fragments can lead to an attractive power and propulsion system...

  18. Decay Power Calculation for Safety Analysis of Innovative Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we verified the decay heat calculation capabilities of BGCore computer code system developed recently at Ben-Gurion University. Decay power was calculated for a typical UO{sub 2} fuel in Pressurized Water Reactor environment using BGCore code and using procedure prescribed by the ANS/ANSI-2005 standard. Very good agreement between the two methods was obtained. Once BGCore calculation capabilities were verified, we calculated decay power as a function of time after shutdown for various reactors with innovative fuels, for which no standard procedure is currently available. Notable differences were observed for decay power of the advanced reactors as compared with conventional UO{sub 2} LWR. The observed differences suggest that the design of new reactors safety systems must be based on corresponding decay power curves for each individual case in order to assure the desired performance of such systems. (authors)

  19. Electrolysers as a load management mechanism for power systems with wind power and zero-carbon thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso, E. [School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Newborough, M. [ITM Power Research Ltd., Mill House, Royston Road, Wendens Ambo, Saffron Walden CB11 4JX (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    For an isolated power system the deployment of a large stock of electrolysers is investigated as a means for increasing the penetrations of wind power plant and zero-carbon thermal power plant. Consideration is given to the sizing and utilization of an electrolyser stock for three electrolyser implementation cases and three operational strategies, installed capacity ranges of 20-100% for wind power and 10-35% for zero-carbon thermal power plant (as proportions of the power system's maximum electrical demand) were investigated. Relative to wind-hydrogen alone, hydrogen yields are substantially increased especially on low-wind days. The average load placed on fossil-fuelled power plant is substantially decreased (while achieving a virtually flat load profile) and the carbon intensity of electricity can be reduced to values of <0.1 kg CO{sub 2}/kWh{sub e}. The trade-offs between the carbon intensity of the electricity delivered, the carbon intensity of the hydrogen produced and the daily hydrogen yield are explored. For example (on the variable wind day for Strategy C with respective wind power and zero-carbon thermal power penetrations of 100% and 35%), if the carbon intensity of hydrogen is relaxed from 0 to 3 kg CO{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}, the hydrogen yield can be increased from 435 tonnes to 1115 tonnes (which is the energy equivalent of 120% of consumer demand for electricity on that day). The findings suggest that the deployment of electrolysers on both the supply and demand-side of the power system can contribute nationally-significant amounts of zero or low-carbon hydrogen without exceeding the power system's current maximum system demand. (author)

  20. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  1. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions.

  2. A method of reactor power decrease by 2DOF control system during BWR power oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Occurrence of power oscillation events caused by void feedback effects in BWRs operated at low-flow and high-power condition has been reported. After thoroughly examining these events, BWRs have been equipped with the SRI (Selected Rod Insertion) system to avoid the power oscillation by decreasing the power under such reactor condition. This report presents a power control method for decreasing the reactor power stably by a two degree of freedom (2DOF) control. Performing a numerical simulation by utilizing a simple reactor dynamics model, it is found that the control system designed attains a satisfactory control performance of power decrease from a viewpoint of setting time and oscillation. (author)

  3. Structural evaluation of IEA-R1 primary system pump nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainer, Gerson; Faloppa, Altair A.; Oliveira, Carlos A. de; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: gfainer@ipen.br, E-mail: afaloppa@ipen.br, E-mail: calberto@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The IEA-R1 pumps of the primary coolant system may be required to withstand design and operational conditions. IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor is an open pool type reactor operated by IPEN since 1957. The reactor can be operated up to 5MW heating power since it was upgraded in a modernization program conducted by IPEN. The primary coolant system is composed by the piping system, decay tank, two heat pumps and two heat exchangers. In the latest arrangement upgrade of the primary system, conducted in 2014 as part of an aging management program, a partial replacement of the coolant piping and total replacement of piping and pump supports were done. As consequence, reviewed loads in the pump nozzles were obtained demanding a new evaluation of them. The aim of this report is to present the structural evaluation of the pump nozzles, considering the new loads coming from the new piping layout, according to: API 610 code verification, Supplier loads and structural analysis applying finite element method, by using the ANSYS computer program, regarding ASME VIII Div 1 & 2 recommendations. (author)

  4. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor; Determinacao de fatores de escala para estimativa do inventario de radionuclideos em rejeitos de media e baixa atividades do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-07-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  5. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  6. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  7. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  8. Optimization of parameters for large power fast sodium cooled reactor core with MOX-fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, V.A.; Malysheva, I.V.; Matveev, V.I.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Tsiboulia, A.M. [SSC RF IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    At present the commercial fast sodium cooled reactor (BNK) is under development in Russia. Initially electric power output of this reactor was chosen 1800 MW(e). However, further power output was decreased down to 1200 MW(e) to provide transportation of the main equipment by rail. The main concept of the core for this reactor was taken from BN-1800 reactor: low core specific power, internal self-protection (close to zero sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) value, decreased reactivity margin for fuel burn-up). This paper presents the results of theoretical and calculation studies on choosing and optimizing physics parameters of BNK-1800 type reactor core and BNK-1200 type reactor core more detail. There is a set of possibilities for improving the core for BNK-1200 type reactor, staying within limits of new design. These possibilities are to improve flattening of the core power field, to provide close to zero value of reactivity margin for fuel burn-up and other. Unique enrichment of fuel and flattening of the power field by steel absorbers was optimal solution for BNK-1800 core with diameter of above 6 m, but for BNK-1200 core of smaller dimensions flattening of power field by two enrichments allows an essential decrease (down to 10%) of maximum specific power and maximum fuel burn-up (at the same average fuel burn-up). In 2008 in Russia Nuclear Safety Rules (PBya RU AS) had been changed. The requirement of negative reactivity coefficient on coolant density was removed. Concerning SVRE, new Rules state the following: the interval of allowable positive SVRE values should be defined in the design of Reactor Installation. It allows to extend the area of optimal values of the core parameters and, in particular, to increase the core height up to 100 cm. It is possible to realize it at the expense of decreasing sodium plenum dimension. Increase of the core height (with corresponding decrease of its radial dimension) leads to essential increase in efficiency of CSS rods

  9. Mortalidade por Aids e indicadores sociais no Município de São Paulo, 1994 a 2002 AIDS mortality and socioeconomic indexes in the city of Sao Paulo, 1994-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Farias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as correlações entre os coeficientes de mortalidade por Aids e os índices de inclusão/exclusão social, em homens e mulheres de 25 a 49 anos. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em 96 distritos administrativos do Município de São Paulo, no período de 1994 a 2002. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos do programa de aprimoramento das informações de mortalidade do Município e estimativas populacionais dos censos de 1991 e 2000 da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Seade e Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento. Os índices foram obtidos do Mapa da Exclusão para a Cidade (1996 e 2000. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Pearson (alfa=0,05. RESULTADOS: Entre os homens, observou-se correlação positiva significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between AIDS mortality rates and social inclusion/exclusion indexes among male and female populations aged between 25 to 49 years. METHODS: The study was carried out in 96 administrative districts of the municipality of São Paulo in the period 1994-2002. Mortality data were collected from the Program for Improving Local Mortality Data and from population estimates based on the 1991 and 2000 census of the State System Data Analysis (SEADE Institute and the Municipal Department of Planning. The indicators were obtained from the city's map of exclusion (1996 and 2000. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation test (at 5% level. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was seen among men between AIDS mortality and the district life quality index from 1994 to 1998 (p<0.05. Among women, a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 was seen for the whole study period between AIDS mortality and the equity index, which measures the proportion of illiterate women who are family heads. From 2000, it was also observed a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 among women between AIDS mortality and the global

  10. Gestão escolar e avaliação externa: Experiências de escolas da Rede Municipal de São Paulo. School management and external evaluation: Experiences of schools from Sao Paulo Municipal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Cristiane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The centrality acquired by external evaluation in recent decades did emerge questions about its implications for everyday school life, some of which are intended to be demonstrated in this paper, based on an ongoing master's degree research conducted in four public schools from São Paulo. The aim is to explore and analyze possible ways of appropriation of these assessments’ results by school management teams. Initially, we seek to indentify elements to conceptualize school management assignments and understand the trajectory of external assessment in basic education, and provide information on the methodology used. After that, we present data collected in field interviews and describe experiences, conceptions and reluctance from management teams over external evaluations. We then conclude that, inside the schools, from the management team’s perspective, there is concern and tension between the potentials and limits of external evaluations’ contribution on quality improvement of teaching. A centralidade adquirida pela avaliação externa nas últimas décadas fez emergir questionamentos sobre suas implicações para o cotidiano escolar, algumas das quais se pretende evidenciar neste trabalho que tem origem em pesquisa de mestrado em andamento realizada em quatro escolas Rede Municipal de Ensino de São Paulo. Objetiva-se explorar e analisar as possíveis formas de apropriação dos resultados gerados por essas avaliações pelas equipes gestoras nas escolas. Inicialmente, busca-se pontuar elementos para conceituar as atribuições da gestão escolar e compreender a trajetória da avaliação externa na educação básica e fornecer informações sobre a metodologia utilizada. Em seguida, apresenta os dados coletados nas entrevistas realizadas em campo e descreve experiências, concepções e resistências das equipes gestoras sobre avaliações externas. Conclui que, dentro das escolas, da perspectiva das equipes gestoras, há um

  11. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  12. Capabilities of computer materials science and irradiation experiments for irradiation materials database and design methodology development (based on discussions at the {sup I}EA symposium on fusion reactor materials development)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsukawa, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kaburaki, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Wiffen, F.W.; Stoller, R. [ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., AK TN (United States); Sharafat, S. [UCLA, Los Angeles, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., AK CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation by high-energy fusion neutrons of th